1-Naphthylisothiocyanate: A tool for the study of liver damage which causes bile stasis and hyperbilirubinemia acutely and bile duct hyperplasia and biliary cirrhosis chronically, with changes in hepatocyte function. It may cause skin and kidney damage.Fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate: Fluorescent probe capable of being conjugated to tissue and proteins. It is used as a label in fluorescent antibody staining procedures as well as protein- and amino acid-binding techniques.Isothiocyanates: Organic compounds with the general formula R-NCS.Naphthalenesulfonates: A class of organic compounds that contains a naphthalene moiety linked to a sulfonic acid salt or ester.Naphthalenes: Two-ring crystalline hydrocarbons isolated from coal tar. They are used as intermediates in chemical synthesis, as insect repellents, fungicides, lubricants, preservatives, and, formerly, as topical antiseptics.Thiocyanates: Organic derivatives of thiocyanic acid which contain the general formula R-SCN.Naphthols: Naphthalene derivatives carrying one or more hydroxyl (-OH) groups at any ring position. They are often used in dyes and pigments, as antioxidants for rubber, fats, and oils, as insecticides, in pharmaceuticals, and in numerous other applications.Musculoskeletal Diseases: Diseases of the muscles and their associated ligaments and other connective tissue and of the bones and cartilage viewed collectively.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Folklore: The common orally transmitted traditions, myths, festivals, songs, superstitions, and stories of all peoples.Phonetics: The science or study of speech sounds and their production, transmission, and reception, and their analysis, classification, and transcription. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Imagery (Psychotherapy): The use of mental images produced by the imagination as a form of psychotherapy. It can be classified by the modality of its content: visual, verbal, auditory, olfactory, tactile, gustatory, or kinesthetic. Common themes derive from nature imagery (e.g., forests and mountains), water imagery (e.g., brooks and oceans), travel imagery, etc. Imagery is used in the treatment of mental disorders and in helping patients cope with other diseases. Imagery often forms a part of HYPNOSIS, of AUTOGENIC TRAINING, of RELAXATION TECHNIQUES, and of BEHAVIOR THERAPY. (From Encyclopedia of Human Behavior, vol. 4, pp29-30, 1994)Aflatoxin B1: A potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic mycotoxin produced by the Aspergillus flavus group of fungi. It is also mutagenic, teratogenic, and causes immunosuppression in animals. It is found as a contaminant in peanuts, cottonseed meal, corn, and other grains. The mycotoxin requires epoxidation to aflatoxin B1 2,3-oxide for activation. Microsomal monooxygenases biotransform the toxin to the less toxic metabolites aflatoxin M1 and Q1.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Aflatoxins: Furano-furano-benzopyrans that are produced by ASPERGILLUS from STERIGMATOCYSTIN. They are structurally related to COUMARINS and easily oxidized to an epoxide form to become ALKYLATING AGENTS. Members of the group include AFLATOXIN B1; aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1, aflatoxin G2; AFLATOXIN M1; and aflatoxin M2.Quantitative Trait Loci: Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.Antirheumatic Agents: Drugs that are used to treat RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.Neurogenesis: Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.Oryzias: The only genus in the family Oryziinae, order BELONIFORMES. Oryzias are egg-layers; other fish of the same order are livebearers. Oryzias are used extensively in testing carcinogens.Camallanina: A suborder of nematodes characterized by larvae lacking cephalic hooks and a tail that is generally long and pointed.Hermaphroditic Organisms: Animals and plants which have, as their normal mode of reproduction, both male and female sex organs in the same individual.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Feminization: Development of female secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS in the MALE. It is due to the effects of estrogenic metabolites of precursors from endogenous or exogenous sources, such as ADRENAL GLANDS or therapeutic drugs.Fish Proteins: Proteins obtained from species of fish (FISHES).Oligochaeta: A class of annelid worms with few setae per segment. It includes the earthworms such as Lumbricus and Eisenia.Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Bilirubin: A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.Comb and Wattles: Fleshy and reddish outgrowth of skin tissue found on top of the head, attached to the sides of the head, and hanging from the mandible of birds such as turkeys and chickens.Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.Glycocholic Acid: The glycine conjugate of CHOLIC ACID. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed.Drainage: The removal of fluids or discharges from the body, such as from a wound, sore, or cavity.Bile Ducts: The channels that collect and transport the bile secretion from the BILE CANALICULI, the smallest branch of the BILIARY TRACT in the LIVER, through the bile ductules, the bile ducts out the liver, and to the GALLBLADDER for storage.Carthamus tinctorius: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Oil from the seed (SAFFLOWER OIL) is an important food oil of commerce.Swertia: A plant genus of the family GENTIANACEAE. It is a source of swertiapuniside and IRIDOID GLYCOSIDES.Medicine, Tibetan Traditional: A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the Tibetan culture.Gentianaceae: A plant family of the order Gentianales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida.Tibet: An autonomous region located in central Asia, within China.Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.Carthamus: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE.Piperonyl Butoxide: An insecticide synergist, especially for pyrethroids and ROTENONE.Phenytoin: An anticonvulsant that is used to treat a wide variety of seizures. It is also an anti-arrhythmic and a muscle relaxant. The mechanism of therapeutic action is not clear, although several cellular actions have been described including effects on ion channels, active transport, and general membrane stabilization. The mechanism of its muscle relaxant effect appears to involve a reduction in the sensitivity of muscle spindles to stretch. Phenytoin has been proposed for several other therapeutic uses, but its use has been limited by its many adverse effects and interactions with other drugs.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Butylated Hydroxytoluene: A di-tert-butyl PHENOL with antioxidant properties.Buthionine Sulfoximine: A synthetic amino acid that depletes glutathione by irreversibly inhibiting gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase. Inhibition of this enzyme is a critical step in glutathione biosynthesis. It has been shown to inhibit the proliferative response in human T-lymphocytes and inhibit macrophage activation. (J Biol Chem 1995;270(33):1945-7)Glutathione Transferase: A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.Sulfotransferases: Enzymes which transfer sulfate groups to various acceptor molecules. They are involved in posttranslational sulfation of proteins and sulfate conjugation of exogenous chemicals and bile acids. EC 2.8.2.2-Acetylaminofluorene: A hepatic carcinogen whose mechanism of activation involves N-hydroxylation to the aryl hydroxamic acid followed by enzymatic sulfonation to sulfoxyfluorenylacetamide. It is used to study the carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of aromatic amines.Dicarbethoxydihydrocollidine: 1,4-Dihydro-2,4,6-trimethyl-3,5-pyridinedicarboxylic acid diethyl ester.Arylsulfotransferase: A sulfotransferase that catalyzes the sulfation of a phenol in the presence of 3'-phosphoadenylylsulfate as sulfate donor to yield an aryl sulfate and adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate. A number of aromatic compounds can act as acceptors; however, organic hydroxylamines are not substrates. Sulfate conjugation by this enzyme is a major pathway for the biotransformation of phenolic and catechol drugs as well as neurotransmitters. EC 2.8.2.1.Ketocholesterols: Cholesterol substituted in any position by a keto moiety. The 7-keto isomer inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity and inhibits cholesterol uptake in the coronary arteries and aorta in vitro.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Hydroxycholesterols: Cholesterol which is substituted by a hydroxy group in any position.

Bile duct epithelial cells exposed to alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate produce a factor that causes neutrophil-dependent hepatocellular injury in vitro. (1/67)

The acute hepatotoxicity induced by alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT) in rats is manifested as neutrophil-dependent necrosis of bile duct epithelial cells (BDECs) and hepatic parenchymal cells. This hepatotoxicity mirrors that of drug-induced cholangiolitic hepatitis in humans. Since BDECs are primary targets of ANIT-induced toxicity, we hypothesized that after exposure to ANIT, BDECs produce a factor(s) that causes neutrophil chemotaxis and neutrophil-dependent hepatocellular injury. To test this hypothesis BDECs were isolated from male Sprague Dawley rats and incubated with ANIT (6.25, 12.5, 25, or 50 microM) or vehicle for 24 h. The conditioned medium (CM) was collected and placed in the bottom chamber of a two-chambered chemotaxis system, while isolated neutrophils were placed in the top chamber. Chemotaxis was indicated by neutrophil migration through a membrane to the bottom chamber. CM from BDECs exposed to each concentration of ANIT was chemotactic, whereas CM from vehicle-treated BDECs was not. ANIT alone caused a modest degree of chemotaxis at 50 microM. The conditioned media were added to isolated hepatocytes or to hepatocyte-neutrophil cocultures and incubated for 24 h. Hepatocyte toxicity was indicated by alanine aminotransferase release into the culture medium. CM from vehicle-treated BDECs did not cause hepatocyte killing in either hepatocyte-neutrophil cocultures or hepatocyte cultures. In contrast, the addition of CM from ANIT-treated BDECs (CM-BDEC-A) to hepatocyte-neutrophil cocultures resulted in hepatocyte killing. The same CM was not cytotoxic to hepatocyte cultures devoid of neutrophils. The hepatocyte killing could not be explained by residual ANIT in the CM, which was below the limit of detection (< or = 0.5 microM). The addition of antiproteases afforded protection against neutrophil-dependent hepatocellular injury induced by CM-BDEC-A. These results indicate that ANIT causes BDECs to release a factor(s) that attracts neutrophils and stimulates them to injure hepatocytes in vitro.  (+info)

ANIT-induced disruption of biliary function in rat hepatocyte couplets. (2/67)

alpha-Naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT) induces intrahepatic cholestasis in rats, involving damage to biliary epithelial cells; our study aims to investigate whether disruption of biliary function in hepatocytes can contribute to early stages of ANIT-induced intrahepatic cholestasis. Isolated rat hepatocyte couplets were used to investigate biliary function in vitro by canalicular vacuolar accumulation (cVA) of a fluorescent bile acid analogue, cholyl-lysyl-fluorescein (CLF), within the canalicular vacuole between the two cells. After a 2-h exposure to ANIT, there was a concentration-dependent inhibition of cVA (cVA-IC50; 25 microM), but no cytotoxicity (LDH leakage or [ATP] decline) within this ANIT concentration range. There was no loss of cellular [GSH] at low ANIT concentrations, but, at 50 microM ANIT, a small but significant loss of [GSH] had occurred. Diethylmaleate (DEM) partially depleted cellular [GSH], but addition of 10 microM ANIT had no further effect on GSH depletion. Reduction in cVA was seen in DEM-treated cells; addition of ANIT to these cells reduced cVA further, but the magnitude of this further reduction was no greater than that caused by ANIT alone, indicating that glutathione depletion does not enhance the effect of ANIT. F-actin distribution (by phalloidin-FITC staining) showed an increased frequency of morphological change in the canalicular vacuoles but only a small, non-significant (0.05 < p < 0.1) increase in proportion of the F-actin in the region of the pericanalicular web. The results are in accord with a disruption of hepatocyte canalicular secretion within two h in vitro, at low, non-cytotoxic concentrations of ANIT, and the possible involvement of a thiocabamoyl-GSH conjugate of ANIT (GS-ANIT) in this effect.  (+info)

High plasma cholesterol in drug-induced cholestasis is associated with enhanced hepatic cholesterol synthesis. (3/67)

In alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate-treated mice, plasma phospholipid (PL) levels were elevated 10- and 13-fold at 48 and 168 h, respectively, whereas free cholesterol (FC) levels increased between 48 h (17-fold) and 168 h (39-fold). Nearly all of these lipids were localized to lipoprotein X-like particles in the low-density lipoprotein density range. The PL fatty acyl composition was indicative of biliary origin. Liver cholesterol and PL content were near normal at all time points. Hepatic hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA reductase activity was increased sixfold at 48 h, and cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase activity was decreased by approximately 70% between 24 and 72 h. These findings suggest a metabolic basis for the appearance of abnormal plasma lipoproteins during cholestasis. Initially, PL and bile acids appear in plasma where they serve to promote the efflux of cholesterol from hepatic cell membranes. Hepatic cholesterol synthesis is then likely stimulated in the response to the depletion of hepatic cell membranes of cholesterol. We speculate that the enhanced synthesis of cholesterol and impaired conversion to bile acids, particularly during the early phase of drug response, contribute to the accumulation of FC in the plasma.  (+info)

Characterization of inducible nature of MRP3 in rat liver. (4/67)

We found previously that expression of multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) 3 is induced in a mutant rat strain (Eisai hyperbilirubinemic rats) whose canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter (cMOAT/MRP2) function is hereditarily defective and in normal Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats after ligation of the common bile duct. In the present study, the inducible nature of MRP3 was examined, using Northern and Western blot analyses, in comparison with that of other secondary active [Na(+)-taurocholic acid cotransporting polypeptide (Ntcp), organic anion transporting polypeptide 1 (oatp1), and organic cation transporter (OCT1)] and primary active [P-glycoprotein (P-gp), cMOAT/MRP2, and MRP6] transporters. alpha-Naphthylisothiocyanate treatment and common bile duct ligation induced expression of P-gp and MRP3, whereas expression of Ntcp, oatp1, and OCT1 was reduced by the same treatment. Although expression of MRP3 was also induced by administration of phenobarbital, that of cMOAT/MRP2, MRP1, and MRP6 was not affected by any of these treatments. Moreover, the mRNA level of MRP3, but not that of P-gp, was increased in SD rats after administration of bilirubin and in Gunn rats whose hepatic bilirubin concentration is elevated because of a defect in the expression of UDP-glucuronosyl transferase. However, the MRP3 protein level was not affected by bilirubin administration. Although the increased MRP3 mRNA level was associated with the increased concentration of bilirubin and/or its glucuronides in mutant rats and in SD rats that had undergone common bile duct ligation or alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate treatment, we must assume that factor(s) other than these physiological substances are also involved in the increased protein level of MRP3.  (+info)

Hydroxyprolylserine derivatives JBP923 and JBP485 exhibit the antihepatitis activities after gastrointestinal absorption in rats. (5/67)

It has been a desire to develop orally effective therapeutic agents that restore the liver function in chronic injury. Here we demonstrated that trans-4-L-hydroxyprolyl-L-serine (JBP923) and cyclo-trans-4-L-hydroxyprolyl-L-serine (JBP485), which was previously isolated from hydrolysate of human placenta, exhibit potent antihepatitis activity after their oral administration. The increase in bilirubin concentration and activities of liver cytosolic enzymes in serum caused by alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate intoxication in rats were significantly countered both after i.v. and oral administration of these dipeptides, whereas glycyrrhizin, which has been used in the treatment of chronic hepatitis, is active only after its i.v. administration. Antihepatitis activity of dipeptides results, at least partially, from their direct effect on hepatocytes because glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase and lactate dehydrogenase activities in the medium of hepatotoxin-exposed primary cultured hepatocytes were reduced by these compounds. When comparing the plasma concentration-time profile of JBP923 after its i.v., oral, and portal vein injection, it is suggested that JBP923 is almost completely absorbed from gastrointestinal lumen, and hepatic first-pass removal is minor. JBP923 inhibited the proton-dependent transport of glycylsarcosine in brush-border membrane vesicles, suggesting that peptide transport system(s) may recognize JBP923. Thus, these dipeptides are potent antihepatitis reagents that are still active after oral administration and may be useful for clinical applications.  (+info)

Metabonomics: evaluation of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and pattern recognition technology for rapid in vivo screening of liver and kidney toxicants. (6/67)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of metabonomics technology for developing a rapid-throughput toxicity screen using 2 known hepatotoxicants: carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) and alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT) and 2 known nephrotoxicants: 2-bromoethylamine (BEA) and 4-aminophenol (PAP). In addition, the diuretic furosemide (FURO) was also studied. Single doses of CCl(4) (0.1 and 0.5 ml/kg), ANIT (10 and 100 mg/kg), BEA (15 and 150 mg/kg), PAP (15 and 150 mg/kg) and FURO (1 and 5 mg) were administered as single IP or oral doses to groups of 4 male Wistar rats/dose. Twenty-four-h urine samples were collected pretest, daily through Day 4, and on Day 10 (high dose CCl(4) and BEA only). Blood samples were taken on Days 1, 2, and 4 or 1, 4, and 10 for clinical chemistry assessment, and the appropriate target organ was examined microscopically. NMR spectra of urine were acquired and the data processed and subjected to principal component analyses (PCA). The results demonstrated that the metabonomic approach could readily distinguish the onset and reversal of toxicity with good agreement between clinical chemistry and PCA data. In at least 2 instances (ANIT and BEA), PCA analysis suggested effects at low doses, which were not as evident by clinical chemistry or microscopic analysis. Furosemide, which had no effect at the doses employed, did not produce any changes in PCA patterns. These data support the contention that the metabonomic approach represents a promising new technology for the development of a rapid throughput in vivo toxicity screen.  (+info)

Accumulation of cholestatic lipoproteins in ANIT-treated human apolipoprotein A-I transgenic rats is diminished through dose-dependent apolipoprotein A-I activation of LCAT. (7/67)

Administration of alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT) to rats induces changes to plasma lipids consistent with cholestasis. We have previously shown (J. Lipid Res. 37 (1996) 1086) that animals treated with ANIT accumulate large amounts of free cholesterol (FC) and phospholipid (PL)-rich cholestatic lipoproteins in the LDL density range by 48 h. This lipid was cleared by 120 h through apparent movement into HDL with concomitant cholesteryl ester (CE) production. It was hypothesised that the clearance was mediated through the movement of the PL and FC into apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) containing lipoproteins followed by LCAT esterification to form CE. To test this hypothesis, rats overexpressing various amounts of human apo A-I (TgR[HuAI] rats) were treated with ANIT (100 mg/kg) and the effect of plasma apo A-I concentration on plasma lipids and lipoprotein distribution was examined. In untreated TgR[HuAI] rats, human apo A-I levels were strongly correlated to plasma PL (r(2)=0. 94), FC (r(2)=0.93) and CE (r(2)=0.90), whereas in ANIT-treated TgR[HuAI] rats, human apo A-I levels were most strongly correlated to CE levels (r(2)=0.80) and an increased CE/FC ratio (r(2)=0.62) and the movement of cholestatic lipid in the LDL to HDL. Since LCAT activity was not affected by ANIT treatment, these results demonstrate that the ability of LCAT to esterify the plasma FC present in cholestatic liver disease is limited by in vivo apo A-I activation of the cholestatic lipid and not by the catalytic capacity of LCAT.  (+info)

Quantitative assessment of the rat intrahepatic biliary system by three-dimensional reconstruction. (8/67)

The anatomical details of the biliary tree architecture of normal rats and rats in whom selective proliferation was induced by feeding alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT) were reconstructed in three dimension using a microscopic-computed tomography scanner. The intrahepatic biliary tree was filled with a silicone polymer through the common bile duct and each liver lobe embedded in Bioplastic; specimens were then scanned by a microscopic-computed tomography scanner and modified Feldkamp cone beam backprojection algorithm applied to generate three-dimensional images. Quantitative analysis of bile duct geometry was performed using a customized software program. The diameter of the bile duct segments of normal and ANIT-fed rats progressively decreased with increasing length of the biliary tree. Diameter of bile ducts from ANIT-fed rats (range, 21 to 264 microm) was similar to that of normal rats (22 to 279 microm). In contrast, the number of bile duct segments along the major branch reproducibly doubled, the length of the bile duct segments decreased twofold, and the length of the biliary tree remained unchanged after ANIT feeding. Moreover, the total volume of the biliary tree of ANIT-fed rats was significantly greater (855 microl) than in normal rats (47 microl). Compared with normal rats, the total surface area of the biliary tree increased 26 times after ANIT-induced bile duct proliferation. Taken together, these observations quantitate the anatomical remodeling after selective cholangiocyte proliferation and strongly suggest that the proliferative process involves sprouting of new side branches. Our results may be relevant to the mechanisms by which ducts proliferate in response to hepatic injury and to the hypercholeresis that occurs after experimentally induced bile duct proliferation.  (+info)

  • Western blot analysis and colorimetric assays also displayed that ANIT caused a time-dependent increase in cytosolic cytochrome c , pro-caspase-9, Apaf-1, AIF, Endo G and the stimulated caspase-9 and -3 activity. (banglajol.info)
  • The rats were pre-treated orally for 48hr (one dose / 24hr) with Ech (1, 5 and 10 mg/kg body weight ) or ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) 80 mg/kg body weight drug then, injected with ANIT. (bvsalud.org)
  • Os ratos foram pré- tratados oralmente durante 48 horas (uma dose / 24 horas) com cada (1, 5 e 10 mg / kg de peso corporal ) e ácido ursodeoxicólico (UDCA) 80 mg / kg de peso corporal , em seguida, injetado com ANIT. (bvsalud.org)
  • To elucidate the mechanism underlying suppression by alpha-naphthyl isothiocyanate (ANIT) of mammary carcinogenesis induced by 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), we evaluated hepatic levels of cytochrome P-450 (CYP) enzymes, mutagenic activation of environmental carcinogens and UDP-glucuronyltransferase (UDPGT) activities in female Sprague-Dawley rats fed a high fat diet. (mysciencework.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the pharmacological effects of salvianolic acid B (SA-B) on α-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT)-induced cholestatic liver injury with the focus on bile acid homeostasis and anti-inflammatory pathways. (springer.com)
  • RNA samples from the livers of rats treated for 5 days with five tool hepatotoxicants (α-naphthylisothiocyanate/ANIT, carbon tetrachloride/CCl 4 , methylenedianiline/MDA, acetaminophen/APAP, and diclofenac/DCLF) were analyzed with both gene expression platforms (RNA-Seq and microarray). (nih.gov)
  • Consistent with the mechanisms of toxicity of ANIT, APAP, MDA and CCl 4 , both platforms identified dysregulation of liver relevant pathways such as Nrf2, cholesterol biosynthesis, eiF2, hepatic cholestasis, glutathione and LPS/IL-1 mediated RXR inhibition. (nih.gov)
  • Objective: To explore the development of cholestatic fibrosis induced by α-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT) and the inflammation pathways. (bvsalud.org)
  • Here, we showed that the expression of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1) was down-regulated by α-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT) in vivo and in vitro. (bvsalud.org)
  • Persistent effects of interleukin-1 on smooth muscle preparations from adrenalectomized rats: implications for increased phospholipase-A2 activity via stimulation of 5-lipoxygenase. (aspetjournals.org)
  • chronic experimental fibrosis and cirrhosis induction in rats were investigated using (1)H NMR spectroscopy of liver extracts and serum combined with pattern recognition techniques. (labome.org)
  • 2015) Resveratrol Attenuates Intermittent Hypoxia-Induced Insulin Resistance in Rats: Involvement of Sirtuin 1 and the Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-Bisphosphate 3-Kinase/AKT Pathway. (hanspub.org)
  • 1. The metabolism of [1,2-(14)C]-ethylene glycol and [1,2-(14)C]-glycolic acid was studied in vitro using precision-cut tissue slices prepared from the livers of female Sprague-Dawley rats, New Zealand white rabbits and humans. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Journal Article] An animal model for the rapid induction of tongue neoplasms in human c-Ha-ras proto-oncogene transgenic rats by 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide : its potential use for preclinical chemoprevention studies. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The metabolic profiles of the rats after hydrocortisone injection deviated from the pre-dose metabolic state at different time points, ranging from day 1 to day 10, whereas the metabolic profiles of the rats treated with both hydrocortisone and water extract of Herba Cistanches returned to the pre-dose state on day 10. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 1. We have applied the concept of using MBIs to produce CYP-Silensomes to quantify the contribution of the major CYPs to drug metabolism (fmCYP). (biopredic.com)
  • Upon challenge with a hepatotoxic diet containing 0.1 % 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC), SULT2B1 −/− mice presented alleviated liver injury and less HOC proliferation compared with wild-type (WT) mice, and these findings were verified by serum analysis, histopathology, immunofluorescence staining, RNA-seq, and Western blotting. (springer.com)
  • We identified a PPI network module associated with liver fibrosis that includes known liver fibrosis-relevant genes, such as tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, galectin-3, connective tissue growth factor, and lipocalin-2. (nih.gov)
  • 1. The biliary excretion of total bilirubin and bile acids, and the fate of tracer doses of radioactive sulphated and non-sulphated bile acids, were studied in patients with percutaneous transhepatic bile drainage. (portlandpress.com)
  • The biliary excretion of radioactive labelled sulphated bile acids is low for at least 1 week after biliary drainage, but later becomes the predominant route for excretion in the anicteric patient. (portlandpress.com)
  • At the infusion rate of 1.4 nmol·min -1 ·kg -1 , glucagon increased bile flow from 206.6 ± 14.3 to 302.6 ± 35.0 μl·min -1 ·kg -1 and bicarbonate biliary concentration from 63.7 ± 4.2 to 75.5 ± 5.9 meq/l. (elsevier.com)
  • Measurements of bile acid excretion in bile, the biliary tree volume, and of the hormone choleretic effect in guinea pigs with proliferated bile ductules/ducts induced by α-naphthylisothiocyanate feeding indicated that glucagon, unlike secretin, stimulated canalicular bile flow. (elsevier.com)
  • The genes encoding the coat protein (CP) and triple gene block protein 1 (TGBp1) of Potato virus M (PVM) were cloned into expression vector pET-45b(+) (N-terminal 6xHis tag) and expressed in E. coli Rosetta gami-2(DE3). (vegfr-1inhibitor.com)
  • It has also been recently discovered that ADPKD is a result of mutations in PKD1 or PKD2, genes encoding polycystin-1 (PC-1), a cell surface receptor, and polycystin-2 (PC-2), a Ca 2+ channel, two integral membrane proteins normally localized to primary cilia. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 05). The expression levels of fibrotic factor tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) and collagen protein I (Collagen I) were higher than those of control group (Pï¼ 0. (bvsalud.org)
  • The transforming growth factor-β, connective tissue growth factor, α-smooth muscle actin, collagen 1, and interleukin-10 proteins and mRNAs were measured by Western blot and polymerase chain reaction, respectively. (nih.gov)
  • Western blot assays showed decreased expression levels of transforming growth factor-β, connective tissue growth factor, α-smooth muscle actin, and collagen 1 in the coffee- and caffeine-treated BDL groups. (nih.gov)
  • High-resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) (1)H NMR spectroscopy is ideal for monitoring the metabolic environment within tissues, particularly when spectra are weighted by physical properties such as T(1) and T(2) relaxation times and apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Isothiocyanic acid-1-naphthyl ester (CAS NO.551-06-4) is used as analytical reagents and organic synthesis intermediates. (lookchem.com)
  • 1. Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) Toxicokinetics and Toxicodynamics. (buffalo.edu)
  • rOatp1a4 shares 77% amino acid sequence identity with the earlier identified rOatp1a1 [1, 5- and it was renamed from Oatp2 upon introduction of the new nomenclature in 2004 . (solvobiotech.com)
  • Journal Article] Suppressive effect of 1,4-phenylene diisothiocyanate on N-butyl N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine-induced urinary bladder carcinogenesis in male ICR mice. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Expression of Programmed Death Ligand 1 Is Associated with the Prognosis of Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma. (amedeo.com)
  • Rat liver 10-formyltetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase, carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1 and betaine homocysteine S-methytransferase were co-purified on Kunitz-type soybean trypsin inhibitor-coupled sepharose CL-4B. (labome.org)
  • Allen K, Kim ND, Moon JO et al (2010) Upregulation of early growth response factor-1 by bile acids requires mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. (springer.com)
  • NMR mobile lipid intensity and cholesterol in two human tumor multidrug resistant cell lines (MCF-7 and LoVo)," Biochimica et Biophysica Acta , vol. 1531, no. 1-2, pp. 111-131, 2001. (hindawi.com)
  • A review of the dose-response induction of DNA adducts by aflatoxin B 1 and its implications in quantitative cancer risk. (ac.ir)
  • In addition, dioscin markedly inhibited PI3K/Akt pathway and up-regulated the levels of Nrf2, GCLc, GCLm, NQO1 and HO-1 against oxidative stress (OS) caused by bile acids. (frontiersin.org)
  • Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis by indomethacin administration (5 mg·kg -1 ·h -1 ) did not modify the choleretic effect of glucagon, and infusion of a glucagon analogue (TH-glucagon, 1.4 nmol·min -1 ·kg -1 ), which did not increase hepatic formation of adenosine 3'5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP), failed to stimulate bile flow. (elsevier.com)
  • The incidence of hyperploidy was significantly increased in oocytes cultured with 0.6 μg/mL or higher concentration of MBC, while the incidence of diploidy was significantly increased in oocytes cultured with 1 or 3 μg/mL of GF. (go.jp)
  • Changes in liver function were monitored by the levels of liver enzymes [alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST)] and bilirubins [total bilirubin (TBIL), direct bilirubin (DBIL)], the concentration of 6,7-dimethoxycoumarin in plasma were measured by UPLC, and the pharmaceutical parameters were calculated with DAS2.1.1 software. (bvsalud.org)
  • 1 More recently, the presence of leukocytes accumulating at the sites of vessel injury has been described. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Furthermore, a collection of 34 sorghum genotypes including commercial IWR-1 cost cultivars and germplasm lines was evaluated for disease reaction to the newly described race and the three known races of the pathogen. (vegfr-1inhibitor.com)