Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Cause of Death: Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.Mice, Inbred BALB CCross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Antibody Affinity: A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.Caspases: A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.Death: Irreversible cessation of all bodily functions, manifested by absence of spontaneous breathing and total loss of cardiovascular and cerebral functions.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Epitope Mapping: Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments: Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Antibodies, Neoplasm: Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Necrosis: The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Caspase 3: A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized: Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2: Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.DNA Fragmentation: Splitting the DNA into shorter pieces by endonucleolytic DNA CLEAVAGE at multiple sites. It includes the internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, which along with chromatin condensation, are considered to be the hallmarks of APOPTOSIS.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.HIV Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Autophagy: The segregation and degradation of damaged or unwanted cytoplasmic constituents by autophagic vacuoles (cytolysosomes) composed of LYSOSOMES containing cellular components in the process of digestion; it plays an important role in BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS of amphibians, in the removal of bone by osteoclasts, and in the degradation of normal cell components in nutritional deficiency states.Mice, Inbred C57BLRabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.In Situ Nick-End Labeling: An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Caspase Inhibitors: Endogenous and exogenous compounds and that either inhibit CASPASES or prevent their activation.Death, Sudden, Cardiac: Unexpected rapid natural death due to cardiovascular collapse within one hour of initial symptoms. It is usually caused by the worsening of existing heart diseases. The sudden onset of symptoms, such as CHEST PAIN and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS, particularly VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA, can lead to the loss of consciousness and cardiac arrest followed by biological death. (from Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, 7th ed., 2005)Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Antinuclear: Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.bcl-2-Associated X Protein: A member of the Bcl-2 protein family and homologous partner of C-BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN. It regulates the release of CYTOCHROME C and APOPTOSIS INDUCING FACTOR from the MITOCHONDRIA. Several isoforms of BCL2-associated X protein occur due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the mRNA for this protein.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Immunosorbent Techniques: Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antibodies, Fungal: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Brain Death: A state of prolonged irreversible cessation of all brain activity, including lower brain stem function with the complete absence of voluntary movements, responses to stimuli, brain stem reflexes, and spontaneous respirations. Reversible conditions which mimic this clinical state (e.g., sedative overdose, hypothermia, etc.) are excluded prior to making the determination of brain death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp348-9)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Immunologic Techniques: Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Fas Ligand Protein: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that was originally discovered on cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage, including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS. It plays an important role in immune homeostasis and cell-mediated toxicity by binding to the FAS RECEPTOR and triggering APOPTOSIS.Amino Acid Chloromethyl Ketones: Inhibitors of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES and sulfhydryl group-containing enzymes. They act as alkylating agents and are known to interfere in the translation process.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins: A large group of proteins that control APOPTOSIS. This family of proteins includes many ONCOGENE PROTEINS as well as a wide variety of classes of INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS such as CASPASES.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Radioimmunodetection: Use of radiolabeled antibodies for diagnostic imaging of neoplasms. Antitumor antibodies are labeled with diverse radionuclides including iodine-131, iodine-123, indium-111, or technetium-99m and injected into the patient. Images are obtained by a scintillation camera.Radioimmunotherapy: Radiotherapy where cytotoxic radionuclides are linked to antibodies in order to deliver toxins directly to tumor targets. Therapy with targeted radiation rather than antibody-targeted toxins (IMMUNOTOXINS) has the advantage that adjacent tumor cells, which lack the appropriate antigenic determinants, can be destroyed by radiation cross-fire. Radioimmunotherapy is sometimes called targeted radiotherapy, but this latter term can also refer to radionuclides linked to non-immune molecules (see RADIOTHERAPY).Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Antibodies, Blocking: Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Immunotoxins: Semisynthetic conjugates of various toxic molecules, including RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES and bacterial or plant toxins, with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; and ANTIGENS. The antitumor or antiviral immune substance carries the toxin to the tumor or infected cell where the toxin exerts its poisonous effect.Caspase 8: A long pro-domain caspase that contains a death effector domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 8 plays a role in APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES. Activation of this enzyme can occur via the interaction of its N-terminal death effector domain with DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTOR SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Fetal Death: Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of multiple ADP-RIBOSE groups from nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) onto protein targets, thus building up a linear or branched homopolymer of repeating ADP-ribose units i.e., POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Caspase 9: A long pro-domain caspase that contains a caspase recruitment domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 9 is activated during cell stress by mitochondria-derived proapoptotic factors and by CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as APOPTOTIC PROTEASE-ACTIVATING FACTOR 1. It activates APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES.Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors: Exogenous and endogenous compounds which inhibit CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Cytochromes c: Cytochromes of the c type that are found in eukaryotic MITOCHONDRIA. They serve as redox intermediates that accept electrons from MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III and transfer them to MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX IV.Immunoglobulin Idiotypes: Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Single-Chain Antibodies: A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Antibodies, Bispecific: Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity: The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IMMUNOGLOBULIN G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a "killer" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Immunoglobulin Fragments: Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Immunoglobulin Variable Region: That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.bcl-X Protein: A member of the bcl-2 protein family that plays a role in the regulation of APOPTOSIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the BCL2L1 mRNA and are referred to as Bcl-XS and Bcl-XL.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Attitude to Death: Conceptual response of the person to the various aspects of death, which are based on individual psychosocial and cultural experience.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Hydrogen Peroxide: A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.Immunochemistry: Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Jurkat Cells: A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial: The voltage difference, normally maintained at approximately -180mV, across the INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE, by a net movement of positive charge across the membrane. It is a major component of the PROTON MOTIVE FORCE in MITOCHONDRIA used to drive the synthesis of ATP.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Indium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of indium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. In atoms with atomic weights 106-112, 113m, 114, and 116-124 are radioactive indium isotopes.Antibodies, Heterophile: Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Peptide Library: A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Receptors, Death Domain: A family of cell surface receptors that signal via a conserved domain that extends into the cell CYTOPLASM. The conserved domain is referred to as a death domain due to the fact that many of these receptors are involved in signaling APOPTOSIS. Several DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTOR SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS can bind to the death domains of the activated receptors and through a complex series of interactions activate apoptotic mediators such as CASPASES.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Apoptosis Inducing Factor: A flavoprotein that functions as a powerful antioxidant in the MITOCHONDRIA and promotes APOPTOSIS when released from the mitochondria. In mammalian cells AIF is released in response to pro-apoptotic protein members of the bcl-2 protein family. It translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS and binds DNA to stimulate CASPASE-independent CHROMATIN condensation.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).Immunoglobulin Light Chains: Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Annexin A5: A protein of the annexin family isolated from human PLACENTA and other tissues. It inhibits cytosolic PHOSPHOLIPASE A2, and displays anticoagulant activity.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
T-cell exhaustion is mediated by several inhibitory receptors including programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1), TIM3, and ... an Anti-TIM-3 Monoclonal Antibody, in Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors" at ClinicalTrials.gov Jin HT, Anderson AC, Tan WG, ... and innate immune cells (DCs, NK cells, monocytes). HAVCR2 belongs to TIM family cell surface receptor proteins. These proteins ... The activation leads to programmed cell death, apoptosis. In addition to galectin-9, a couple other ligands have been ...
Programmed cell death protein 1
... and anti-PD1 (nivolumab) in October 2015. The molecular factors and receptors necessary making a tumor receptive to anti-PD1 ... Monoclonal antibodies targeting PD-1 that boost the immune system are being developed for the treatment of cancer. Many tumor ... programmed cell death) in antigen-specific T-cells in lymph nodes while simultaneously reducing apoptosis in regulatory T cells ... Programmed cell death protein 1, also known as PD-1 and CD279 (cluster of differentiation 279), is a cell surface receptor that ...
... engineered monoclonal antibody of IgG1 isotype against the protein programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1). In 2015, it was in ... Inhibition of PD-L1 by atezolizumab can remove this inhibitor effect and thereby engender an anti-tumor response. It is one of ... and CD80 receptors (B7-1Rs). PD-L1 can be highly expressed on certain tumors, which is thought to lead to reduced activation of ... Atezolizumab blocks the interaction of PD-L1 with programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) ...
... monoclonal antibody that blocks the interaction of programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) with the PD-1 and CD80 (B7.1) ... the T-cell receptor binding to an antigen-MHC complex and T-cell surface receptor CD28 binding to CD80 or CD86 proteins. CTLA4 ... The disadvantage is frequently impaired function of the transferred cells. Anti-CD47 antibodies, which block the protein CD47 ... The complement system includes blood proteins that can cause cell death after an antibody binds to the cell surface (the ...
... is a whole monoclonal antibody of isotype IgG1 that binds to the programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) and therefore ... originally for the treatment of non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Avelumab targets the protein programmed death-ligand 1 ( ... inhibits binding to its receptor programmed cell death 1 (PD-1). Formation of a PD-1/PD-L1 receptor/ligand complex leads to ... anti-PD-1) in melanoma". New England Journal of Medicine. 369 (2): 134-44. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1305133. PMC 4126516 . PMID ...
... agonistic anti-CD27 monoclonal antibody which in animal models has been shown to be effective in the context of T cell receptor ... short for Programmed Death 1 (PD-1) receptor, has two ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2. This checkpoint is the target of Merck & Co.'s ... protein) - Short for V-domain Ig suppressor of T cell activation, VISTA is primarily expressed on hematopoietic cells so that ... CD137-mediated signaling is also known to protect T cells, and in particular, CD8+ T cells from activation-induced cell death. ...
... contributes to tumor growth and protects cells from anoikis, a form of programmed cell death induced when contact- ... condition in various cell types and is the target of Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. The encoded protein is a ... Monoclonal antibodies targeting the nANGPTL4 and cANGPTL4 have been developed to distinguish their functions. ANGPTL4 plays an ... The treatment of infected mice with neutralizing anti-ANGPTL4 antibodies significantly accelerated pulmonary recovery and ...
Apoptosis is the highly organised process of programmed cell death in which the cell degrades the nuclear DNA and signals for ... Occasionally the monoclonal proteins produced by myeloma patients can be anti-dsDNA. Also, some patients with type 1 autoimmune ... toll-like receptor 9, found highly expressed in PDCs and B cells. The T helper cells then activate B cells, which are also in ... Anti-dsDNA antibodies might also be created secondary to the production of antibodies to other proteins within the nucleosome. ...
Integrin, beta 5
... function and distribution of beta 5 integrins using novel anti-beta 5 monoclonal antibodies". J. Cell Sci. 105 (1): 101-11. ... "Alpha v beta 5 integrin-dependent programmed cell death triggered by a peptide mimic of annexin V". Mol. Cell. United States. ... Liliental J, Chang DD (1998). "Rack1, a receptor for activated protein kinase C, interacts with integrin beta subunit". J. Biol ... 1999). "Urokinase receptor interacts with alpha(v)beta5 vitronectin receptor, promoting urokinase-dependent cell migration in ...
... programmed cell death protein 1 located on lymphocytes. This receptor is generally responsible for preventing the immune system ... 2 March 2015). "Trial Watch: Immunomodulatory monoclonal antibodies for oncological indications". OncoImmunology. 4 (4): ... "FDA Approves Anti-PD-1 Drug for Advanced Melanoma". cancernetwork.com. Pollack, Andrew (May 29, 2015). "New Class of Drugs ... receptor of lymphocytes. The FDA initially approved it to treat metastatic melanoma. In 2017 the FDA approved it for any ...
Targeted molecular therapy for neuroblastoma
These monoclonal antibodies are used to block GD2 expression, and are thus referred to as anti-GD2 agents. They can be used for ... This will cause the tumor to undergo apoptosis, which is programmed cell death. ALK inhibitors can also be used to treat ... This protein can play a role in cancer development. It is expressed in stem cells and can promote the formation of tumors. For ... AP26113 is a dual inhibitor of ALK and epidermal growth factor receptor. It is going through phase I/II clinical trials for ...
The drug is a monoclonal antibody that inhibits the recruitment of white blood cells to the site of inflammation. During ... In October 2003, Icos partnered with Protein Design Labs to manufacture their M200 antibody. After Icos's experimental drugs ... Becker K (August 2002). "Anti-leukocyte antibodies: LeukArrest (Hu23F2G) and Enlimomab (R6.5) in acute stroke". Current Medical ... The research program focused on the underlying causes of inflammation rather than specific disorders. The compounds developed ...
Nerve growth factor
Alternatively, programmed cell death occurs when TRAF6 and neurotrophin receptor interacting factor (NRIF) are both recruited ... Monoclonal antibodies against NGF have been used in clinical trials to modulate pain. One of these is tanezumab, another is ... Phosphorylated CREB translocates into the nucleus and mediates increased expression of anti-apoptotic proteins, thus ... neurotrophin TRK receptor signaling pathway. • activation of MAPKK activity. • cell-cell signaling. • negative regulation of ...
OPN prevents non-programmed cell death in inflammatory colitis. The fact that OPN interacts with multiple cell surface ... OPN is a vital protein for stromal cell proliferation and differentiation as well as it binds to the receptor αvβ3 to assist ... Seiffge D (December 1996). "Protective effects of monoclonal antibody to VLA-4 on leukocyte adhesion and course of disease in ... OPN is an important anti-apoptotic factor in many circumstances. OPN blocks the activation-induced cell death of macrophages ...
Adenosine A2A receptor
Flow cytometry studies with anti-A2A receptor monoclonal antibodies". Molecular Pharmacology. 55 (3): 614-24. PMID 10051547. ... In this role, A2AR functions similarly to programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and cytotoxic t-lymphocyte associated protein-4 (CTLA- ... The activity of the encoded protein, a G protein-coupled receptor family member, is mediated by G proteins which activate ... This protein is a member of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family which possess seven transmembrane alpha helices. The ...
Germinal center B-cell like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma
Bcl-2 proteins prevent the activation of the caspases that lead to programmed cell death (apoptosis). Activation of the nuclear ... "Monoclonal Antibodies", accessed 2/4/2011 Davis, TA; Czerwinski, DK; Levy, R (1999). "Therapy of B-cell lymphoma with anti-CD20 ... MicroRNAs (miRNAs) participate in pathways fundamental to B cell development like B cell receptor (BCR) signalling, B cell ... B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) family members create a balance between pro and anti-apoptotic proteins. Pro-apoptotic proteins ...
... orientation and dynamics of cell surface carbohydrate receptors and protein folding, diabetes, anti-malarials and anti-cancer ... reveal role of water release in epitope recognition by a monoclonal antibody against the human guanylyl cyclase C receptor". ... Rai A, Surolia A; Panda D (2012). "An antitubulin agent BCFMT inhibits proliferation of cancer cells and induces cell death by ... "India joins Human Frontier Science Program Organisation". www.docstoc.com. DOCSTOC. Retrieved 27 March 2014. "National ...
Cambridge Antibody Technology
... therapeutic proteins CAT used extensive data sets from ribosome display to patent protect their anti-IL-13 monoclonal antibody ... Early work by CAT and HGS scientists showed that HGS-ETR1 induces cell death in certain tumour types. Following this data, HGS ... a human monoclonal igG4 antibody to the alpha chain of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF Receptor). In ... A second candidate was the subject of a continuing research program funded by Amgen and conducted by CAT and was to be ...
... a single antibody or TCR (T cell receptor) can be activated by even a few[clarification needed Maybe just a few?] crucial ... though others are beginning to think that many autoimmune diseases are due to mutations governing programmed cell death, or to ... myelin protein) and the Epstein-Barr virus mimicking anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (contributes to a ring of myelin ... Assuming five to six amino acid residues are used to induce a monoclonal antibody response, the probability of 20 amino acids ...
... which can cause programmed cell death. CypD is a protein within the MPTP that acts as a gate; binding by CsA ... In T-cells, activation of the T-cell receptor normally increases intracellular calcium, which acts via calmodulin to activate ... "In Merluzzi VJ, Adams J. The search for anti-inflammatory drugs case histories from concept to clinic. Boston: Birkhäuser. pp. ... Antibodies. Monoclonal. Serum target. (noncellular). *Complement component 5 *Eculizumab. *TNF *Adalimumab. *Afelimomab ...
The first is for a multi-DARPin® that inhibits the programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1, a validated immune checkpoint target ... Researchers at the University of Zurich, Switzerland formed Molecular Partners AG in 2004 while studying monoclonal antibodies ... responsible for diverse functions such as cell signaling and receptor binding. DARPins constitute a new class of potent, ... In preclinical studies, MP0274, a proprietary multi-DARPin with broad anti-HER2 activity, has shown promising data in model of ...
These changes affect the normal functions of the cell, including cell proliferation, programmed cell death (apoptosis) and DNA ... Denosumab is a monoclonal antibody directed against receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand. It may be useful in ... implicated stem cells include club cells and neuroepithelial cells that express club cell secretory protein. Small-cell lung ... Azim, HA; Ganti AK (March 2007). "Treatment options for relapsed small-cell lung cancer". Anti-Cancer Drugs. 18 (3): 255-261. ...
Regulatory T cell
... were discovered in 2008 and consist of linear sequences of amino acids contained within monoclonal antibodies and ... cells at the DN (double-negative) stage, where an individual cell will rearrange its T cell receptor genes to form a unique, ... a T cell that receives very strong signals will undergo apoptotic death; a cell that receives a weak signal will survive and be ... "The surface protein TIGIT suppresses T cell activation by promoting the generation of mature immunoregulatory dendritic cells ...
T lymphocytes augments lymphokine-induced B cell Ig isotype switch recombination and rescues B cells from programmed cell death ... Randolph Noelle at Dartmouth Medical School generated an antibody that bound a 39 kDa protein on murine T cells and inhibited ... Seth Lederman at Columbia University generated a murine monoclonal antibody, 5c8 that inhibited contact-dependent T cell helper ... which binds CD40 on the macrophage cell surface. As a result, the macrophage expresses more CD40 and TNF receptors on its ...
"Down-modulation of an oncogene protein product and reversion of the transformed phenotype by monoclonal antibodies". Cell. 41 ( ... Apatinib is a selective VEGF Receptor 2 inhibitor which has shown encouraging anti-tumor activity in a broad range of ... is an apoptosis-inducing proteasome inhibitor drug that causes cancer cells to undergo cell death by interfering with proteins ... the National Cancer Institute's Molecular Targets Development Program (MTDP) aims to identify and evaluate molecular targets ...
Several monoclonal antibodies target cytokines, the molecules that cells use to send inflammatory signals to each other. TNF-α ... a biologic drug that is a fusion protein composed of two TNF-α receptors. The lack of neutralizing antibodies against ... disease severity generally decreases in people with celiac disease and those with anti-gliadin antibodies. Most people with ... There is no strong evidence to suggest that psoriasis is associated with an increased risk of death from cardiovascular events ...
Furthermore, NK cells release cytotoxic molecules, which lyse tumor cells. DN30 is monoclonal anti-MET antibody that recognizes ... c-Met, also called tyrosine-protein kinase Met or hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR), is a protein that in humans is ... Since tumor invasion and metastasis are the main cause of death in cancer patients, interfering with MET signaling appears to ... The Notch pathway, through transcriptional activation of Delta ligand (see DLL3). MET mediates a complex program known as ...
Tumor necrosis factor alpha
"Anti-cachectin/TNF monoclonal antibodies prevent septic shock during lethal bacteraemia". Nature. 330 (6149): 662-64. Bibcode: ... This dissociation enables the adaptor protein TRADD to bind to the death domain, serving as a platform for subsequent protein ... Cell Biol. 6 (2): 97-105. doi:10.1038/ncb1086. PMID 14743216. Micheau O, Tschopp J (July 2003). "Induction of TNF receptor I- ... "Programmed death-1-induced interleukin-10 production by monocytes impairs CD4+ T cell activation during HIV infection". Nat. ...
... the IL-2 receptor α chain; it blocks the interaction of IL-2 with the IL-2 receptor and prevents activation of T cells. Anti- ... Daclizumab (trade name Zinbryta, by Biogen) is a therapeutic humanized monoclonal antibody used for the treatment of adults ... and his colleagues then approached Protein Design Labs to humanize the antibody. PDL and the NIH scientists then approached ... In clinical trials for MS, there were no treatment-related deaths or increased risk of cancer; side effects that occurred more ...
Those that produce the desired antibody are then selected and cultured to produce the monoclonal antibody. Hybridoma cells can ... Cells infected with the virus therefore produce highly toxic triphosphates that lead to cell death. Human thymidine kinase, in ... enzyme is not set free from cells undergoing normal division where the cells have a special mechanism to degrade the proteins ... EORTC Receptor Study Group Report". European Journal of Cancer. 30A (14): 2163-5. PMID 7857717. Arnér ES, Spasokoukotskaja T, ...
IJMS | Free Full-Text | Bispecific Antibodies as a Development Platform for New Concepts and Treatment Strategies | HTML
The single-chain-based bispecific antibodies usually bridge tumor cells with immune cells and form an immunological synapse ... Bispecific antibodies in the IgG format include asymmetric bispecific antibodies and homodimerized bispecific antibodies, all ... new applications were established for bispecific antibodies. Bispecific antibodies that can simultaneously bind to cell surface ... Bispecific antibodies can also be used to treat hemophilia A by mimicking the function of factor VIII. Bispecific antibodies ...
Safety and activity of anti-PD-L1 antibody in patients with advanced cancer
... including non-small-cell lung cancer, melanoma, and renal-cell cancer. (Funded by Bris … ... Antibody-mediated blockade of PD-L1 induced durable tumor regression (objective response rate of 6 to 17%) and prolonged ... Antibodies, Monoclonal * Antineoplastic Agents * PDCD1 protein, human * Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor ... protein, a T-cell coinhibitory receptor, and one of its ligands, PD-L1, play a pivotal role in the ability of tumor cells to ...
Safety, activity, and immune correlates of anti-PD-1 antibody in cancer
... or renal-cell cancer; the adverse-event profile does not appear to preclude its use. Preliminary data suggest a relationship ... Anti-PD-1 antibody produced objective responses in approximately one in four to one in five patients with non-small-cell lung ... Antibodies, Monoclonal * Antineoplastic Agents * Ligands * PDCD1 protein, human * Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor ... an inhibitory receptor expressed by T cells, can overcome immune resistance. We assessed the antitumor activity and safety of ...
Levels of sBTLA proteins as potential marker of overall survival of liver cancer patients | EurekAlert! Science News
Their data suggest that a high amount of sBTLA proteins may be a marker of overall survival in patients with HCC. ... and measured the amount of 16 circulating soluble immune checkpoint proteins. ... including monoclonal antibodies that target inhibitory immune receptors such as programmed cell death-1 (PD-1), programmed ... indicating that anti-angiogenic agents might enhance anti-tumor immunity through multiple mechanisms. However, the ...
Community Academic Profiles - Faculty & Researchers - Stanford Medicine
Cancer cells are capable of evading clearance by macrophages through the overexpression of anti-phagocytic surface proteins ... Monoclonal antibodies that antagonize the interaction of dont eat me signals with their macrophage-expressed receptors have ... programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1)2 and the beta-2 microglobulin subunit of the major histocompatibility class I complex ( ... Antibody-based therapies, immune checkpoint blockade, cancer vaccines, and chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells have ...
Venkatesh Krishnan | Stanford Medicine Profiles
Cancer cells are capable of evading clearance by macrophages through the overexpression of anti-phagocytic surface proteins ... Monoclonal antibodies that antagonize the interaction of dont eat me signals with their macrophage-expressed receptors have ... programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1)2 and the beta-2 microglobulin subunit of the major histocompatibility class I complex ( ... Antibody-based therapies, immune checkpoint blockade, cancer vaccines, and chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells have ...
List of Anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibodies (Anti-programme cell death protein 1 monoclonal antibodies) - Drugs.com
Anti-programme cell death protein 1 monoclonal antibodies). View important safety information, ratings, user reviews, ... Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) is an inhibitory receptor that is expressed on some tumor cells and causes down ... Other names: Anti-programme cell death protein 1 monoclonal antibodies. What are Anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibodies?. ... Ajovy Ajovy (fremanezumab) is a fully-humanized monoclonal antibody targeting the calcitonin gene-related... ...
First Patient Dosed in Sintilimab and Anti-VEGF Monoclonal Antibody IBI305 with Chemotherapy in Patients with EGFR-mutant Non...
generic name: sintilimab injection), a fully human anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (anti-PD-1) monoclonal antibody co- ... An anti-VEGF antibody binds VEGF selectively with high affinity and blocks its binding to VEGF receptors on the surface of ... First Patient Dosed in Sintilimab and Anti-VEGF Monoclonal Antibody IBI305 with Chemotherapy in Patients with EGFR-mutant Non- ... IBI305 is a biosimilar product candidate of bevacizumab and a recombinant humanized anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody for injection ...
Definition of anti-PD1 monoclonal antibody ABBV-181 - NCI Drug Dictionary - National Cancer Institute
... programmed cell death-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1), and preventing the activation of PD-1/PD-L1 downstream signaling pathways. ... Upon administration, anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody ABBV-181 targets and binds to PD-1, thereby blocking its binding to the PD-1 ... A monoclonal antibody directed against the negative immunoregulatory human cell surface receptor programmed cell death 1 (PD-1 ... PCD-1; PDCD1), with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. ...
First-Line Pembrolizumab Plus Axitinib for Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma - The ASCO Post
Binding of PD-L1 and PD-L2 to the programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) receptor found on T cells inhibits T-cell ... Pembrolizumab is an anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody that binds to the PD-1 receptor and blocks its interaction with PD-L1 and PD- ... or PD-L1-blocking antibody in combination with a thalidomide analog plus dexamethasone is not recommended outside of controlled ... Patients were enrolled irrespective of programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) tumor expression status. Patients with active ...
Pembrolizumab for Advanced Cervical Cancer - The ASCO Post
Binding of PD-L1 and PD-L2 to the programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) receptor found on T cells inhibits T-cell ... Pembrolizumab is an anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody that binds to the PD-1 receptor and blocks its interaction with PD-L1 and PD- ... or PD-L1-blocking antibody in combination with a thalidomide analog plus dexamethasone is not recommended outside of controlled ... cervical cancer with disease progression on or after chemotherapy whose tumors express programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1; ...
Pembrolizumab in Advanced Urothelial Carcinoma - The ASCO Post
... and PD-L2 to the programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) receptor found on T cells inhibits T-cell proliferation and cytokine ... Pembrolizumab is an anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody that binds to the PD-1 receptor and blocks its interaction with PD-L1 and PD- ... BINDING OF PROGRAMMED cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) ... Frederick L. Locke, MD, on Innovative CAR-T Cell Therapies: The ... and signaling through this pathway can contribute to inhibition of active T-cell tumor immune surveillance. In syngeneic mouse ...
Immunochemistry showed 0% expression of programmed cell death receptor 1 (PD1) and negativity for B-Raf proto-oncogene (BRAF- ... The patient was started on single-agent monoclonal antibody to PD1 (pembrolizumab). Three-month follow-up visit revealed ... She was evaluated by a stem cell transplant center and was planned to be treated with cyclosporine and anti-thymocyte globulin ... Biopsy of liver mass revealed tumor cells positive for S100 calcium binding protein and melan-A consistent with metastatic ...
Targeting CXCL12 from FAP-expressing carcinoma-associated fibroblasts synergizes with anti-PD-L1 immunotherapy in pancreatic...
... anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (α-CTLA-4) and α-programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (α-PD-L1). Immune control of ... on overcoming T-cell immunological checkpoints with blocking monoclonal antibodies to cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated protein ... cells among PDA cells were CD34− (SI Appendix, Fig. S3B) and αSMA+ (Fig. 2B). All FAP+ cells were PDGF receptor-α+ (SI Appendix ... were stained with antibodies for FAP, CD45, and CD11b. FAP+ cells, CD11b+ cells, and PDA/PanIN cells (FAP−CD45−CD11b−) were ...
Greil R[author] AND A phase 1 dose-escalation study on the safety, tol - PubMed - NCBI
Modern immunotherapy with immunomodulating antibodies, dubbed immune checkpoint inhibitors, such as anti-programmed cell death ... evaluating different anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies (cetuximab, panitumumab, and zalutumumab, respectively) demonstrated ... is a fully human MAB that acts as a potent anti-resorptive by inhibiting activation of osteoclasts by inhibiting the receptor ... protein-1 (anti-PD-1) inhibitors nivolumab and pembrolizumab, showed unprecedented activity in one first-line (KEYNOTE-048) and ...
PD-L2 Expression in Human Tumors: Relevance to Anti-PD-1 Therapy in Cancer | Clinical Cancer Research
Antibodies to human programmed death receptor PD-1. United States patent US8354509 B2. 2013 Jan 15. ... IHC staining of PD-L2 protein in tumor samples with 3G2 anti-PD-L2 monoclonal antibody. A, Distribution patterns. 3G2 anti-PD- ... Immune checkpoint therapies targeting the programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) axis have resulted in groundbreaking ... Anti-programmed-death-receptor-1 treatment with pembrolizumab in ipilimumab-refractory advanced melanoma: a randomised dose- ...
Programmed Death Ligand-1 (PD-L1) Expression in the Programmed Death Receptor-1 (PD-1)/PD-L1 Blockade: A Key Player Against...
Expression in the Programmed Death Receptor-1 (PD-1)/PD-L1 Blockade: A Key Player Against Various Cancers.(Report) by Archives ... monoclonal antibody;N-A, not applicable;NSCLC, non-small cell lung cancer;TCs, tumor cells; TIIC, tumor-infiltrating immune ... L1-targeted therapy occurs with less frequency than the toxicity associated with anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein ... cells 2+) + 3 x (% cells [3.sup.+])]. (92) Table 2. Anti-Programmed Death Receptor-1 (Anti-PD-1) and Anti-Programmed Death ...
Anti-PD-L1 hIgG1 N298A antibody | Atezolizumab-based
... monoclonal antibody that targets the programmed cell death l ... is a monoclonal antibody that features the constant region of a ... PD-L1 binds to programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) on cytotoxic T cells, inhibiting the antitumor immune response . ... The mutation N298A eliminates its ability to bind to human Fcγ receptors. FDA has granted atezolizumab priority review for ... monoclonal antibody that targets the programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1), a transmembrane protein over-expressed on tumor ...
In vivo imaging reveals a tumor-associated macrophage-mediated resistance pathway in anti-PD-1 therapy | Science Translational...
Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting the immune checkpoint anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (aPD-1) have demonstrated ... Comparison of intravenous gamma globulin and a monoclonal anti-Fc receptor antibody as inhibitors of immune clearance in vivo ... Currently approved immune checkpoint blockers are monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that target the programmed cell death protein 1 ... MC38 tumor cells (labeled with H2B-mApple), T cells [labeled with green fluorescent protein (GFP) or yellow fluorescent protein ...
Definition of nivolumab - NCI Drug Dictionary - National Cancer Institute
... an Ig superfamily transmembrane protein, by its ligands programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1), overexpressed on certain cancer ... cells, and programmed cell death ligand 2 (PD-L2), which is primarily expressed on APCs. ... Nivolumab binds to and blocks the activation of PD-1, ... A fully human immunoglobulin (Ig) G4 monoclonal antibody ... G4 monoclonal antibody directed against the negative immunoregulatory human cell surface receptor programmed death-1 (PD-1,PCD- ...
Pesquisa | Portal Regional da BVS
Programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) is inhibitory receptor and immune checkpoint protein. Blocking the interaction of PD-1 and its ... Monoclonal antibody-based drugs targeting PD-1 pathway have exhibited great promise in cancer therapy. Here we show that MW11- ... but didnt affect peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR-α) protein. The miR-19b levels were significantly down- ... All patients received atomization inhalation therapy in addition to anti-infection and spasmolysis. By using self-made carbon ...
Safety and Efficacy Study of Pembrolizumab (MK-3475) as Monotherapy in the Adjuvant Treatment of Renal Cell Carcinoma Post...
Has received prior therapy with an anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (anti-PD-1), anti-programmed cell death-ligand 1 (anti- ... Has received prior anticancer therapy, monoclonal antibody, chemotherapy, or an investigational agent or device within 4 weeks ... PD-L1), or anti-PD-L2 agent or with an agent directed to another co-inhibitory T-cell receptor (i.e., cytotoxic T-lymphocyte- ... DFS According to Participant Programmed Cell Death-Ligand 1 (PD-L1) Expression Status (Positive, Negative) as Assessed by the ...
Cureus | Dosage Adjustments for Chemotherapy and Targeted Therapies in Colorectal and Pancreatic Cancer Patients with Hepatic...
Anti-program cell death protein (PD) 1 human monoclonal antibody -Mismatch repair deficient (dMMR) and microsatellite ... Monoclonal antibody that binds to vascular endothelin growth factor receptor (VEGFR) 2 -Antiangiogenic -Used in combination ... Anti-program cell death protein (PD) 1 human monoclonal antibody -Mismatch repair deficient (dMMR) and microsatellite ... Anti-program cell death protein (PD) 1 human monoclonal antibody -Mismatch repair deficient (dMMR) and microsatellite ...
Frontiers | Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells Hinder the Anti-Cancer Activity of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors | Immunology
... namely cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4), programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and programmed cell death- ... were shown to boost the existing anti-tumor immune response by preventing the inhibition of T cells by tumor cells. Antibodies ... namely cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4), programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and programmed cell death- ... of immature myeloid cells can strongly inhibit anti-tumor activities of T and NK cells and stimulate regulatory T cells (Treg ...
... programmed cell-death protein 1) on CTLs. Recent studies show that the use of anti-CTLA-4 antibodies (e.g., ipilimumab or ... there is also much interest in using monoclonal antibody-based systemic therapies that target coinhibitory receptors such as ... Inhibition of tumorigenicity of cervical cancer cells in nude mice by HPV E6-E7 anti-sense RNA. Int J Cancer 1992;51:831-4. ... which is expressed not only in T cells but other immune cells such as B cells, macrophages, and even NK-cells. Importantly, PD- ...
Pembrolizumab in Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma - The ASCO Post
... and PD-L2 to the programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) receptor found on T cells inhibits T-cell proliferation and cytokine ... Pembrolizumab is an anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody that binds to the PD-1 receptor and blocks its interaction with PD-L1 and PD- ... ASH 2019: Early Data Signal Important Potential for Bispecific Antibody in Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma. View More ... BINDING OF PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH LIGAND 1 (PD-L1) ... Pembrolizumab is an anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody that binds to ...
anti-PD1 antibody [SPM597] | GeneTex
... programmed cell death 1) for IHC-P. Anti-PD1 mAb (GTX34967) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance. ... This gene encodes a cell surface membrane protein of the immunoglobulin superfamily. This protein is expressed in pro-B-cells ... Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human Tonsil stained with PD1 (CD279) Monoclonal Antibody (SPM597).. Top ... is a type I transmembrane receptor and a member of the immunoglobin gene superfamily. It is expressed on activated T-cells, B- ...
Frontiers | Intratumoral FoxP3+Helios+ Regulatory T Cells Upregulating Immunosuppressive Molecules Are Expanded in Human...
... can be anti-tumorigenic or pro-tumorigenic in colorectal cancer (CRC) depending on the presence of different Treg subsets with ... In this preliminary study, we report that the majority of CD3+ T cells in the TME are CD4+ cells with high co-expression of PD- ... In this preliminary study, we report that the majority of CD3+ T cells in the TME are CD4+ cells with high co-expression of PD- ... infiltrating immune cells in CRC but limited studies have focused on the co-expression of suppressive molecules on immune cells ...
HAVCR2 - Wikipedia
T-cell exhaustion is mediated by several inhibitory receptors including programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1), TIM3, and ... an Anti-TIM-3 Monoclonal Antibody, in Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors" at ClinicalTrials.gov Jin HT, Anderson AC, Tan WG, ... and innate immune cells (DCs, NK cells, monocytes). HAVCR2 belongs to TIM family cell surface receptor proteins. These proteins ... The activation leads to programmed cell death, apoptosis. In addition to galectin-9, a couple other ligands have been ...
PubMed Journals Articles About 'Carboplatin And Etoposide Plus LBH589 For Small Cell Lung Cancer'
Carboplatin And Etoposide Plus LBH589 For Small Cell Lung Cancer PubMed Journal Articles published on BioPortfolio , ... Nivolumab, an anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) monoclonal antibody, has been shown to yield a durable response and ... Activation of the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) family through fusion with various partners has been described in ... Circulating endothelial cells and microparticles as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in small-cell lung cancer. ...
Checkpoint blockade cancer immunotherapy targets tumour-specific mutant antigens. - PubMed - NCBI
... two immunomodulatory receptors expressed on T cells. Monoclonal-antibody-based therapies targeting CTLA-4 and/or PD-1 ( ... to identify tumour-specific mutant proteins as a major class of T-cell rejection antigens following anti-PD-1 and/or anti-CTLA- ... In many individuals, immunosuppression is mediated by cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death ... Cells were gated on live CD45+ and CD8α+ tumour infiltrating lymphocytes. Detection of mLama4- or mAlg8-specific T cells was ...
BindsLigandIpilimumabIsotypePembrolizumabMAbsAbstractAntigen receptorPDCD1InhibitionAntitumorImmunoglobulinFlow cytometrySuperfamilyTransmembraneInhibitory receptorsClinicalTyrosine kinaseTherapiesInhibitsTargetsTherapeuticImmunotherapiesMouse Monoclonal AntibodyCytotoxicityVivoPeptidesLymphocytesNegativelyInteractionEffector T celChemotherapyAffinityMetastaticCD28Renal cell carcTherapeuticsCD279CloneBindEpidermalAssays
- Tyvyt (sintilimab injection) is a type of immunoglobulin G4 monoclonal antibody, which binds to PD-1 molecules on the surface of T-cells, blocks the PD-1/ PD-1 Ligand-1 (PD-L1) pathway and reactivates T-cells to kill cancer cells. (medindia.net)
- An anti-VEGF antibody binds VEGF selectively with high affinity and blocks its binding to VEGF receptors on the surface of vascular endothelial cells, thereby inhibiting signaling pathways such as PI3K-Akt/PKB and Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK. (medindia.net)
- Upon administration, anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody ABBV-181 targets and binds to PD-1, thereby blocking its binding to the PD-1 ligand, programmed cell death-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1), and preventing the activation of PD-1/PD-L1 downstream signaling pathways. (cancer.gov)
- Pembrolizumab is an anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody that binds to the PD-1 receptor and blocks its interaction with PD-L1 and PD-L2, thereby releasing PD-1 pathway-mediated inhibition of the immune response, including antitumor immune response. (ascopost.com)
- PD-L1 binds to programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) on cytotoxic T cells, inhibiting the antitumor immune response . (invivogen.com)
- Nivolumab binds to and blocks the activation of PD-1, an Ig superfamily transmembrane protein, by its ligands programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1), overexpressed on certain cancer cells, and programmed cell death ligand 2 (PD-L2), which is primarily expressed on APCs. (cancer.gov)
- PD-1 binds two ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2. (wikipedia.org)
- Under pathological conditions, cancer cells produce PD-L1 (programmed cell death 1 ligand 1), the agonist that binds and activates PD-1. (invivogen.com)
- Nivolumab binds and blocks the activation of the PD-1 receptor, thereby resulting in the activation of T cells and cell-mediated immune responses [2, (invivogen.com)
- Merck Serono, the biopharmaceutical division of Merck, today announced the initiation of an international Phase II study designed to assess the efficacy and safety of MSB0010718C, an investigational fully human IgG1 monoclonal antibody that binds to programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1). (presseportal.de)
- MSB0010718C is an investigational fully human IgG1 monoclonal antibody that binds to the PD-L1 (programmed death-ligand 1) protein, which is present at high levels in many cancer types. (presseportal.de)
- PD-1 (programmed cell death protein 1) is a receptor on the surface of T cells (the white blood cells that are part of the immune system), while PD-L1 (programmed death-ligand 1) is a molecule that binds to PD-1 and is often over-expressed on the surface of cancer cells, enabling them to evade the immune system and allow cancer to grow and spread. (eurekalert.org)
- CD44 (also called H-CAM) is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein receptor that binds hyaluronic acid ( 3 - 5 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
- It binds to the PD-1 receptor found on the surface of immune cells called T-cells to suppress them. (immuno-oncologynews.com)
- CTLA-4 is a receptor exclusively expressed on T cells that binds to CD80 (B7.1) and CD86 (B7.2) on antigen-presenting cells [ 11 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Durvalumab binds to a protein called PD-L1 to prevent it from binding its target (PD-1). (nihr.ac.uk)
- Tremelimumab binds a protein called CTLA4 on T-cells, activating them and allowing them to kill cancer cells. (nihr.ac.uk)
- In an AlphaLISA assay, a biotinylated PD-1 binds to the Streptavidin-coated Alpha Donor beads, while His tagged PD-L1 is captured by Anti-His AlphaLISA Acceptor beads. (perkinelmer.com)
- PD-L1 binds to its receptor, PD-1, found on activated T cells, B cells, and myeloid cells, to modulate activation or inhibition. (perkinelmer.com)
- Keytruda is developed by Merck and marketed in the United States which is a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to the programmed cell death- 1 (PD-1) receptor and blocks its interaction with PD-L1 and PD-L2, releasing PD-1 pathway-mediated inhibition of the immune response, including anti- tumor immune response. (northernindiaherald.in)
- After the sgRNA binds to the target site of genomic DNA, the Cas9 protein creates a DSB around the PAM site. (nature.com)
- When PD-L1, which is a protein on the surface of some tumor cells, binds to PD-1 on T cells that recognize antigens on these tumor cells, this results in the blockage of the ability of the T cells to carry out an anti-tumor immune response. (biopharmconsortium.com)
- Anti-PD-1 MAb binds to PD-1 on T cells, thus preventing PD-L1 on tumor cells from binding to the PD-1 and initiating an inhibitory signal. (biopharmconsortium.com)
- Avelumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody that binds to programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) to selectively prevent the interaction between the programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and B7.1 receptors, while still allowing interaction between PD-L2 and PD-1 (Kaufman 2016). (medicine.com)
- In addition, the product of PDCD6IP binds to the product of the PDCD6 gene, a protein required for apoptosis, in a calcium-dependent manner. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
- PDCD6IP product also binds to endophilins, proteins that regulate membrane shape during endocytosis. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
- To assess the role of intratumoral PD-1 ligand (PD-L1) expression in the modulation of the PD-1-PD-L1 pathway, immunohistochemical analysis was performed on pretreatment tumor specimens obtained from 42 patients. (nih.gov)
- Immune checkpoint inhibitors, including monoclonal antibodies that target inhibitory immune receptors such as programmed cell death-1 (PD-1), programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4), have emerged as promising treatments for many types of cancer. (eurekalert.org)
- Cancer cells are capable of evading clearance by macrophages through the overexpression of anti-phagocytic surface proteins called 'don't eat me' signals-including CD471, programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1)2 and the beta-2 microglobulin subunit of the major histocompatibility class I complex (B2M)3. (stanford.edu)
- Patients were enrolled irrespective of programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) tumor expression status. (ascopost.com)
- The prevalence of PD-L2, the other known ligand of PD-1, and its relationship to response to anti-PD-1 therapy were evaluated. (aacrjournals.org)
- Immune therapies targeting the PD-1 axis include monoclonal antibodies directed at PD-1 (nivolumab, pembrolizumab), blocking receptor interaction with both PD-L1 and PD-L2 ( 11-13 ), as well as antibodies which bind PD-L1 (atezolizumab), blocking ligand interaction with PD-1 ( 14 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Programmed Death Ligand-1 (PD-L1) Expression in the Programmed Death Receptor-1 (PD-1)/PD-L1 Blockade: A Key Player Against Various Cancers. (thefreelibrary.com)
- Recently, it has become well known that immune checkpoint pathways, including the programmed death receptor-1/programmed death ligand-1 (PD-1/PD-L1) signaling pathway, (2) which are important in mediating self-tolerance and controlling self-damage, can sometimes be manipulated by cancer cells to evade immune surveillance (as illustrated in Figure 1). (thefreelibrary.com)
- Atezolizumab (also known as MPDL3280A) is a fully humanized IgG1 (N298A) monoclonal antibody that targets the programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1), a transmembrane protein over-expressed on tumor cells and tumor infiltrating immune cells, such as macrophages. (invivogen.com)
- Antibodies targeting two negative immune checkpoint pathways, namely cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4), programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), and programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), have been approved first for patients with melanoma, squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and renal cell carcinoma. (frontiersin.org)
- MPDL3280A) for the treatment of people with locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) whose disease expresses the protein PD-L1 (programmed death ligand-1), as determined by an FDA-approved test, and who have progressed on or after platinum-containing chemotherapy. (roche.com)
- anti-PDL1) is an investigational monoclonal antibody designed to bind with a protein called programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1). (roche.com)
- In the case of atezolizumab, PCI begins with the PD-L1 (programmed death ligand-1) IHC assay based on the SP142 antibody developed by Roche Tissue Diagnostics. (roche.com)
- The study will also assess whether pembrolizumab improves RFS versus placebo in the subgroup of participants with programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1)-positive tumor expression. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- This is consistent with binding of SHP-1 and SHP-2 phosphatases to the cytoplasmic tail of PD-1 upon ligand binding. (wikipedia.org)
- Triggering PD-1, expressed on monocytes and up-regulated upon monocytes activation, by its ligand PD-L1 induces IL-10 production which inhibits CD4 T-cell function. (wikipedia.org)
- The receptors targeted by CPIs are cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death 1 pathway (PD-1/PD-Ligand-1), which function as negative immunologic regulators . (deepdyve.com)
- Among them, programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) protein was identified as a potent predicting biomarker in DLBCL. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that chemotherapy agent docetaxel could increase AR that transcriptionally regulated the expression of NK inhibitory ligand LLT1 on CRPC cells. (bvsalud.org)
- The tissue distribution of APO-1 and of the APO-1 ligand suggests that the APO-1 receptor/ligand system plays an important role in various aspects of mammalian development and especially in the homeostasis of the immune system. (ibl-international.com)
- It is a monoclonal antibody directed against a protein called programmed cell death-1 ligand 1 ( PD-L1 ). (immuno-oncologynews.com)
- Anti-PD-L1 antibodies target programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1). (cnbc.com)
- One mechanism used by tolerogenic DCs involves the expression of immune inhibitory factors such as interleukin-10 (IL-10), indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), and programmed death ligand-1 [ 8 , 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Antibodies that block the negative signals between PD1-Ligand on tumor cells and PD-1 on T cells are effective therapies against several types of cancer. (pnas.org)
- Evidence suggests that inflammation caused by immune infiltration can induce immune escape mechanisms, including interferon (IFN)-gamma-mediated upregulation of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) in the TME and increased numbers of regulatory T cells (Tregs) [ 8 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- One key interaction between cancer cells and the immune system is mediated by programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) and programmed death 1 (PD-1) signaling. (plos.org)
- Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1), also known as "cluster of differentiation 274" (CD274) or B7 homolog1 (B7-H1) belongs to the growing B7 family of immune proteins and is expressed in tumor cells. (perkinelmer.com)
- Upon PD-1 interaction, ligand-positive antigen-presenting immune or tumor cells elicited significantly lower eGFP and granzyme B expression, which could be restored by anti-PD-(L)1 blocking antibodies. (jpt.com)
- Programmed death receptor ligand 1 on melanoma cells negatively regulates T-cell function by binding to the programmed death-1 (PD-1) receptor on T cells. (pianolarge.ml)
- In our June 2012 article, we focused on experimental monoclonal antibody (MAb) drugs that target the cell surface receptors programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and programmed cell death-1 ligand (PD-L1). (biopharmconsortium.com)
- Thirty-four patients were treated with anti-programmed cell death 1 (PD-1)/programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) therapies, and survival analyses based on TMB score were performed. (cdc.gov)
- AstraZeneca's investigational anti-PD-L1 immune checkpoint inhibitor, durvalumab, targets the programmed cell death ligand PD-L1, which helps tumors go undetected by the immune system. (bioprocessintl.com)
- This includes two proteins called programmed death-1 (PD-1), which is expressed on the surface of immune cells, and programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1), which is expressed on cancer cells. (nephronpower.com)
- Another protein involved in the pathway and also expressed by cells in the immune system, programmed death ligand -2 (PD-L2). (nephronpower.com)
- They prevent the engagement of PD-1 to its ligand on the tumor cells (PD-L1 and PD-L2) thereby asserting its antitumor activity. (nephronpower.com)
- 1 ICIs target molecules such as cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4, programmed cell death protein (PD1), and PD1 ligand that are expressed on activated immune cells (T cells, B cells, natural killer cells, and some myeloid cells) and regulate inflammatory and autoimmune responses through a negative feedback mechanism. (neurology.org)
- The most well-known checkpoint targets are cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4), programmed cell death 1 (PD-1), and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1). (patentdocs.org)
- The PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitor avelumab, a monoclonal antibody developed by Merck KGaA and approved in 2017 by the FDA, targets the programmed death-ligand 1 protein (PD-L1), commonly expressed on a wide range of cancer cells. (biospace.com)
- describe in two clinical trials the importance of tumor mutational burden as an independent predictive marker for outcomes with combination nivolumab plus ipilimumab as first-line therapy in metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer and in relapsed small-cell lung cancer. (bioportfolio.com)
- Examples of monoclonal antibody therapeutics interacting with T cell signaling receptors include Ipilimumab (αCTLA4, or cytotoxic T-lymphocyte 4) as well as Nivolumab and Pembrolizumab (αPD-1, or programmed cell death protein 1). (criver.com)
- Ipilimumab, a monoclonal antibody (mAb) targeting CTLA-4 (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4), a negative signal transducer on T cells, was the first checkpoint-blocking antibody to be approved by the US FDA for the treatment of cancer. (pnas.org)
- Ipilimumab targets the cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) receptor. (biomedcentral.com)
- Nivolumab and pembrolizumab target programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) receptors and have proven to be superior to ipilimumab alone. (biomedcentral.com)
- Like CTLA4, the target of ipilimumab, PD-1 is a negative regulator of T-cell receptor signals. (biopharmconsortium.com)
- 4 described a 71-year-old woman who developed anti-Hu-associated paraneoplastic encephalitis after the use of 2 ICIs (ipilimumab and nivolumab) to treat her metastatic small cell lung cancer (SCLC). (neurology.org)
- On April 19, 2019 , pembrolizumab was approved for use in combination with the small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor axitinib for the first-line treatment of patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma. (ascopost.com)
- Pembrolizumab carries warnings/precautions for immune-mediated adverse reactions, infusion-related reactions, complications of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and embryofetal toxicity. (ascopost.com)
- In renal cell carcinoma , the recommended dose of pembrolizumab is 200 mg via intravenous infusion over 30 minutes every 3 weeks in combination with 5 mg of oral axitinib twice daily until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, or for pembrolizumab, up to 24 months in patients without disease progression. (ascopost.com)
- Pembrolizumab infusion should be interrupted or slowed for grade 1 or 2 infusion-related reactions and permanently discontinued for grade 3 or 4 reactions. (ascopost.com)
- 1,2 Pembrolizumab was also granted accelerated approval for treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma who are not eligible for cisplatin-containing chemotherapy. (ascopost.com)
- In addition, relationships between clinical response and PD-L2 status were evaluated in tumor tissues from patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) with recurrent or metastatic disease, treated with pembrolizumab. (aacrjournals.org)
- Both PD-L1 and PD-L2 positivity significantly predicted clinical response to pembrolizumab on combined tumor, stromal and immune cells, with PD-L2 predictive independent of PD-L1. (aacrjournals.org)
- Clinical response to pembrolizumab in patients with HNSCC may be related partly to blockade of PD-1/PD-L2 interactions. (aacrjournals.org)
- Moreover, PD-L2 expression was independently associated with clinical response in pembrolizumab-treated patients, indicating that presence or absence of PD-L2 expression may also play a role in response to PD-1 axis targeted therapies. (aacrjournals.org)
- Phase II study of maintenance pembrolizumab in patients with extensive-stage small cell lung cancer (SCLC). (bioportfolio.com)
- To assess the efficacy of maintenance pembrolizumab in extensive-stage small cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients, after treatment with platinum/etoposide. (bioportfolio.com)
- Pembrolizumab works by binding to PD-1 and blocking the interaction between PD-1 and its ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2, thereby activating T lymphocyte cells which may affect both tumour cells and healthy cells. (eurekalert.org)
- Pembrolizumab (MK-3475) is another monoclonal antibody (MAb) therapy designed to directly block the interaction between PD-1 and its ligands, without antibody dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) or complement dependent cytotoxicity (CDC). (nephronpower.com)
- We report the structure of the human full-length IgG4 S228P anti-PD1 antibody pembrolizumab, solved to 2.3-Å resolution. (biologicmodels.com)
- Novel Human Anti-PD-L1 mAbs Inhibit Immune-Independent Tumor Cell Growth and PD-L1 Associated Intracellular Signalling. (invivogen.com)
- Weak and ineffective antitumor cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses can be rescued by immunomodulatory mAbs targeting PD-1 or CD137. (aacrjournals.org)
- Using Batf3 −/− mice, which are defective for cross-presentation of cell-associated antigens, we show that BATF3-dependent dendritic cells (DC) are essential for the response to therapy with anti-CD137 or anti-PD-1 mAbs. (aacrjournals.org)
- We show that cross-priming of tumor antigens by BATF3-dependent DCs is a key limiting factor that can be exploited to enhance the antitumor efficacy of anti-PD-1 and anti-CD137 immunostimulatory mAbs. (aacrjournals.org)
- Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are now the biological agents of choice for cancer therapy. (prweb.com)
- Those developing immunotherapies based on monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) will experience fewer such issues thanks to platform manufacturing technologies, but even they are likely to be priced to perfection. (bioprocessintl.com)
- Yescarta Yescarta (axicabtagene ciloleucel) is a chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR T) therapy for the. (drugs.com)
- Programmed cell death 1, also known as PDCD1, is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein, and is an immunoreceptor belonging to the CD28/CTLA-4 family negatively regulates antigen receptor signaling by recruiting protein tyrosine phosphatase, SHP-2 upon interacting with either of two ligands, PD-L1 or PD-L2. (sinobiological.com)
- Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-engineered T cells have demonstrated promising clinical efficacy in patients with B cell lymphoma. (biomedcentral.com)
- Transmembrane signal transduction initiated by the B cell antigen receptor (BCR) is essential for various B cell activities, including cell activation, proliferation, anergy and deletion. (nii.ac.jp)
- 3) The death signals from B cell antigen receptor target mitochondria, activating necrotic and apoptotic death cascade in a murine B-cell line, WEHI-23I cell. (nii.ac.jp)
- Publications] T.Doi, T.watanabe, et al: 'The death signals from B cell antigen receptor target mitochondria, activating necrotic and apoptotic death cascades in murine B-cell line, WEHI-231' J.Immunol. (nii.ac.jp)
- Publications] Y.Banu and T.Watanabe: 'Augumentation of antigen receptor-mediated responses by histamine H1 receptor signaling. (nii.ac.jp)
- PD-1, a cell surface protein belonging to the CD28 family, is encoded by PDCD1 gene located in chromosome 2q37.2 PD-1 is expressed on activated T cells, with particularly high expression by tumor-infiltrating T lymphocytes. (thefreelibrary.com)
- The PD-1 protein in humans is encoded by the PDCD1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
- As a cell surface molecule, PDCD1 regulates the adaptive immune response. (sinobiological.com)
- The PD1/PDCD1 pdcd1 (Catalog # MBS2543962 ) is an Antibody produced from Rabbit and is intended for research purposes only. (mybiosource.com)
- The Rabbit anti Human PD1/PDCD1 Monoclonal Antibody reacts with Human and may cross-react with other species as described in the data sheet. (mybiosource.com)
- Available antibodies recognizing PD1/PDCD1 are readily searchable from our website. (mybiosource.com)
- Different antibodies against the same target such as PD1/PDCD1 may be optimized or tested for different applications and species. (mybiosource.com)
- Full length human recombit protein of human PDCD1 produced in HEK293T cell. (fishersci.com)
- In syngeneic mouse models, inhibition of PD-1 activity resulted in decreased tumor growth. (ascopost.com)
- The researchers also identified a potential way to overcome this problem, showing that inhibition of Fcγ receptors prevented removal of anti-PD-1 and prolonged its effects in vivo. (sciencemag.org)
- The cytotoxicity analysis indicates that most of the obtained palladium(II) complexes show promising growth inhibition in three human cancer cell lines. (bvsalud.org)
- TIM-3 is mainly expressed on activated CD8+ T cells and suppresses macrophage activation following PD-1 inhibition. (wikipedia.org)
- Experiments using PD-L1 transfected DCs and PD-1 expressing transgenic (Tg) CD4+ and CD8+ T cells suggest that CD8+ T cells are more susceptible to inhibition by PD-L1, although this could be dependent on the strength of TCR signaling. (wikipedia.org)
- IL-10-induced immunosuppression is mediated by the inhibition of DC maturation and T-cell and NK-cell functions [ 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
- T cell inhibition via this receptor occurs through multiple mechanisms. (biomedcentral.com)
- This study elucidated the involvement of CB 2 in the in vitro inhibition of RCC cells, and future applications of CB 2 agonists in the prevention and management of RCC are discussed. (biomedcentral.com)
- The role of proteasome inhibition and immunomodulatory therapy are well established, here we focus on novel agents recently identified as having a role in the treatment of mantle cell lymphoma. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Blockade of interactions between PD-1 and PD-L1 enhances immune function in vitro and mediates antitumor activity in preclinical models. (nih.gov)
- We assessed the antitumor activity and safety of BMS-936558, an antibody that specifically blocks PD-1. (nih.gov)
- These results suggest synergistic associations between PD-1/CTLA-4 and PD-1/CD39 in dampening T-cell activation and function along with suppressing tumor-specific immune responses, suggesting that dual blockade of these molecules could be a more effective strategy for inducing antitumor immune responses in CRC. (frontiersin.org)
- However, under pathophysiological conditions such as cancer, their suppressive functions promote the growth and progress of disease by hindering antitumor immune responses ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
- Modulation of GITR with agonistic antibodies has been shown to amplify the antitumor immune responses in animal models via multiple mechanisms. (cnbc.com)
- We hypothesize that concomitant PD-1 blockade and GITR triggering would synergistically improve the effector functions of tumor-infiltrating T cells and increase the antitumor immunity. (biomedcentral.com)
- In present study, we evaluated the antitumor effects and mechanisms of combined PD-1 blockade and GITR triggering in a clinically highly relevant murine ID8 ovarian cancer model. (biomedcentral.com)
- Combined anti-PD-1/GITR mAb treatment remarkably inhibited peritoneal ID8 tumor growth with 20% of mice tumor free 90 days after tumor challenge while treatment with either anti-PD-1 or anti-GITR mAb alone exhibited little antitumor effect. (biomedcentral.com)
- The durable antitumor effect was associated with a memory immune response and conferred by CD4 + cells and CD8 + T cells. (biomedcentral.com)
- More importantly, combined treatment of anti-PD-1/GITR mAb and chemotherapeutic drugs (cisplatin or paclitaxel) further increased the antitumor efficacy with 80% of mice obtaining tumor-free long-term survival in murine ID8 ovarian cancer and 4 T1 breast cancer models. (biomedcentral.com)
- Combined anti-PD-1/GITR mAb treatment induces a potent antitumor immunity, which can be further promoted by chemotherapeutic drugs. (biomedcentral.com)
- Monoclonal antibodies can block cellular interactions that negatively regulate T-cell immune responses, such as CD80/CTLA-4 and PD-1/PD1-L, amplifying preexisting immunity and thereby evoking antitumor immune responses. (pnas.org)
- Interestingly this drug also inhibits ITK, an essential enzyme in Th2 T cells and by doing so it can shift the balance between Th1 and Th2 T cells and potentially enhance antitumor immune responses. (pnas.org)
- The enhanced therapeutic activity of PD-L1 blockade by ibrutinib was accompanied by enhanced antitumor T-cell immune responses. (pnas.org)
- Finally, VISTA overexpression on tumor cells interferes with protective antitumor immunity in vivo in mice. (rupress.org)
- These antagonist monoclonal antibodies are capable of unleashing dormant or exhausted antitumor immunity, which has led to durable complete and partial responses in a large number of patients. (biomedcentral.com)
- A fully human immunoglobulin (Ig) G4 monoclonal antibody directed against the negative immunoregulatory human cell surface receptor programmed death-1 (PD-1,PCD-1,) with immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. (cancer.gov)
- This gene encodes a cell surface membrane protein of the immunoglobulin superfamily. (genetex.com)
- Hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 2 (HAVCR2), also known as T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin-domain containing-3 (TIM-3), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HAVCR2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
- These proteins share a similar structure, in which the extracellular region consists of membrane distal single variable immunoglobulin domain (IgV) and a glycosylated mucin domain of variable length located closer to the membrane. (wikipedia.org)
- PD-1 is a cell surface receptor that belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily and is expressed on T cells and pro-B cells. (wikipedia.org)
- The immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily consists of many critical immune regulators, including the B7 family ligands and receptors. (rupress.org)
- 1) We established Lyn-kinase-deficient mice with immunoglobulin genes encoding an autoantibody against mouse RBC.We demonstrated by using this system a crucial role of Lyn kinase in regulating peripheral B cell tolerance and in preventing autoantibody production. (nii.ac.jp)
- Immunoglobulin G4 antibodies exhibit unusual properties with important biological consequences. (biologicmodels.com)
- Flow cytometry analysis shows complex 3e could promote intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and lead cancer cell death. (bvsalud.org)
- Abgent's experienced staff custom validates more than 1,000 antibodies each month in Western Blot (WB), Immunofluorescence (IF), Immunohistochemistry (IHC), Flow Cytometry (FC) and additional applications. (abgent.com)
- Based on flow cytometry and various approaches, including two established murine anti-PD-1 antibody clones, CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing and confocal imaging, we describe a staining pattern assigned to a nuclear antigen cross-reacting with anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibodies. (uni-muenchen.de)
- Binding of Anti-hPD1-Ni-hIgG4 (S228P) to human PD-1 has been tested using flow cytometry. (invivogen.com)
- the phenotype and function of tumor-associated immune cells in peritoneal cavity of treated mice was analyzed by flow cytometry, and systemic antigen-specific immune response was evaluated by ELISA and cytotoxicity assay. (biomedcentral.com)
- Pools of overlapping peptides from antigenic proteins for T-cell stimulation, T-cell expansion in T-cell assays such as ELISPOT, ICS or Flow Cytometry, e.g. for immune monitoring. (jpt.com)
- PDCD-1 (programmed cell death-1 protein), also designated CD279, is a type I transmembrane receptor and a member of the immunoglobin gene superfamily. (genetex.com)
- APO-1/Fas (CD95), a member of the TNF/NGF receptor superfamily, is a glycosylated 48kD surface protein containing a single transmembrane region. (ibl-international.com)
- Purification and molecular cloning of the APO-1 cell surface antigen, a member of the tumor necrosis factor/nerve growth factor receptor superfamily. (uni-regensburg.de)
- The deduced amino acid sequence of APO-1 showed sequence identity with the Fas antigen, a cysteine-rich transmembrane protein of 335 amino acids with significant similarity to the members of the tumor necrosis factor/nerve growth factor receptor superfamily. (uni-regensburg.de)
- PD-1 is a member of the CD28 superfamily and is expressed on the surface of activated T-cells and B-cells [ 3 , 4 ]. (plos.org)
- The RuvC domain belongs to the retroviral integrase superfamily of proteins and it cleaves the non-target DNA strand whereas the HNH domain cuts the targeted strand of the specific DNA. (nature.com)
- T-cell exhaustion is mediated by several inhibitory receptors including programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1), TIM3, and lymphocyte activation gene 3 protein (LAG3). (wikipedia.org)
- The CPIs are monoclonal antibodies to the inhibitory receptors on T cells and other immune cells. (deepdyve.com)
- NK cell function is determined by a delicate balance between signals received via activating and inhibitory receptors. (bvsalud.org)
- However, the immunomodulatory effects of anti-angiogenic agents in HCC had yet to be elucidated in a clinical setting. (eurekalert.org)
- However, PD-L1-negative patients may also respond to PD-1 checkpoint blockade, suggesting that other PD-1 ligands may be relevant to the clinical activity of these therapies. (aacrjournals.org)
- Therapy targeting both PD-1 ligands may provide clinical benefit in these patients. (aacrjournals.org)
- Immune checkpoint therapies targeting the programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) axis have resulted in groundbreaking improvements in clinical response in multiple human cancers ( 1-9 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- 3,4) The fact that PD-1 is highly upregulated in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, as well as the correlation between PD-L1 expression and clinical outcome of patients in many types of solid cancers, has resulted in some seminal clinical trials. (thefreelibrary.com)
- 6) The importance of the PD-1/PD-L1 axis in cancer immunity has been demonstrated extensively in both animal models and clinical studies. (thefreelibrary.com)
- Other medications were not studied in patients with hepatic impairment in clinical trials and therefore recommendations for adjustments are not made (Table 1 ). (cureus.com)
- Clinical trials are ongoing to verify the efficiency of these antibodies for other cancer types and to evaluate strategies to block other checkpoint molecules. (frontiersin.org)
- We have published hundreds of Carboplatin And Etoposide Plus LBH589 For Small Cell Lung Cancer news stories on BioPortfolio along with dozens of Carboplatin And Etoposide Plus LBH589 For Small Cell Lung Cancer Clinical Trials and PubMed Articles about Carboplatin And Etoposide Plus LBH589 For Small Cell Lung Cancer for you to read. (bioportfolio.com)
- In addition to the medical data, news and clinical trials, BioPortfolio also has a large collection of Carboplatin And Etoposide Plus LBH589 For Small Cell Lung Cancer Companies in our database. (bioportfolio.com)
- A pooled analysis of individual patient data from National Clinical Trials Network clinical trials of concurrent chemoradiotherapy for limited-stage small cell lung cancer in elderly patients versus younger patients. (bioportfolio.com)
- Monoclonal-antibody-based therapies targeting CTLA-4 and/or PD-1 (checkpoint blockade) have yielded significant clinical benefits-including durable responses--to patients with different malignancies. (nih.gov)
- In fact, a clinical trial is currently being conducted to evaluate the use of such antibodies for the treatment of advanced solid tumor cancers. (scienceboard.net)
- MATERIALS AND METHODS Search strategy A systematic search of the published literature was done for clinical trials indexed in MEDLINE (1946-April 2017), EMBASE (1988-April 2017), the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2005-April 2017) and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (from database inception through April 2017) using the search strategy described in Supplementary data 1, Item S1. (deepdyve.com)
- 2007) PD-1 and PD-1 ligands: from discovery to clinical application. (sinobiological.com)
- Twenty years ago in Clinical Chemistry , cardiac troponin I (cTnI) 3 autoantibodies to the stable portion of cTnI near the carboxyterminal end of the molecule were first identified as an etiology for false-negative cTnI results ( 1 ). (aaccjnls.org)
- This issue of Clinical Chemistry contains an article in which the authors have evaluated the impact of such antibodies for the various cardiac troponin fragments and complexes in a series of carefully done studies ( 4 ). (aaccjnls.org)
- While existing anti-CD25 antibodies were observed to deplete Treg cells in the periphery, upregulation of the inhibitory Fc gamma receptor (FcγR) IIb at the tumor site prevented intra-tumoral Treg cell depletion, which may underlie the lack of anti-tumor activity previously observed in pre-clinical models. (icr.ac.uk)
- However, a high number of patients still fail to have a clinical response from anti-PD-1 therapy, and in addition patients experienced, sometimes, serious treatment-related side effects. (biomedcentral.com)
- Both programs are currently in pre-clinical development and are anticipated to enter the clinic in 2016. (cnbc.com)
- Osimertinib is in clinical development as an adjuvant treatment for resectable, early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). (nihr.ac.uk)
- Protransduzin™ the highly efficient transduction enhancer increases viral gene transfer in pre-clinical and clinical applications, such as ex vivo gene therapy and CAR-T cell development. (jpt.com)
- Successful clinical trials using monoclonal antibodies targeting PD-1 signaling have boosted preclinical research, encouraging development of novel therapeutics. (jpt.com)
- To examine clinical predictors of tumor mutational burden (TMB), to explore the association between TMB and DNA repair mutations, and to analyze TMB as a biomarker for response to immune checkpoint blockade in non-small-cell lung cancer. (cdc.gov)
- Moreover, the strategy of using natalizumab or similar drugs for T cell-mediated paraneoplastic disorders deserves further investigation with prospective clinical trials. (neurology.org)
- Also, Opdivo® recently fell short to make its endpoint in a clinical trial as a single agent for frontline non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) therapy. (patentdocs.org)
- CULVER CITY, Calif.--( BUSINESS WIRE )-- NantKwest Inc . ( Nasdaq:NK ), a leading, clinical-stage, natural killer cell based therapeutics company, today announced the launch of a novel triple combination, phase II clinical trial in Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). (biospace.com)
- In preclinical and human clinical studies conducted by NantKwest, the combination of haNK cells with a number of different therapeutic antibodies, including avelumab, led to enhanced tumor cell killing when compared to the use of the antibody alone. (biospace.com)
- Still, fewer than a quarter to half of patients, even in highly selected cohorts, have experienced a clinical benefit while on anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1 therapies. (springer.com)
- Clone REA430 recognizes the human TrkA antigen, a single-pass type I membrane protein which is also known as neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 1 (NTRK1). (miltenyibiotec.com)
- 2 ) Once activated through association with B cell linker protein (BLNK), SYK facilitates downstream activation of Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) and subsequently phospholipase Cγ2 (PLC-γ2), in addition to activating phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Tumor-associated PD-L1 expression has been shown to be a predictive marker for response to anti-PD-1 axis targeted therapies. (aacrjournals.org)
- n = 175) and had received a median of four prior systemic therapies (range = 1-12). (ascopost.com)
- TSR-022, Tesaro, Inc.) in combination with anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1 therapies are ongoing. (wikipedia.org)
- Despite all of the recent advancements in RCC diagnosis and treatment, the current therapies are unable to completely eliminate RCC cells, which persist after treatment. (biomedcentral.com)
- Cancer still accounts for 25% of US deaths despite an enormous investment in novel therapies. (prweb.com)
- GigaGen is a biopharmaceutical company developing novel antibody and T cell therapies derived from immune repertoires. (prweb.com)
- The goal of combining these therapies is to synergistically maximize the killing of cancer cells while attempting to spare patients from chemotherapy and its associated adverse side effects. (biospace.com)
- Despite impressive treatment outcomes in a subset of patients who receive these immune therapies, many patients with NSCLC fail to respond to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 and the identification of a biomarker to select these patients remains highly sought after. (springer.com)
- Through these mechanisms, PD-1 inhibits the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
- Consistent with a role in negatively regulating CD8+ T cell responses, using an LCMV viral vector model of chronic infection, Rafi Ahmed's group showed that the PD-1-PD-L1 interaction inhibits activation, expansion and acquisition of effector functions of virus specific CD8+ T cells, which can be reversed by blocking the PD-1-PD-L1 interaction. (wikipedia.org)
- Expression of PD-L1 on tumor cells inhibits anti-tumor activity through engagement of PD-1 on effector T cells. (wikipedia.org)
- 2013) B and T lymphocyte attenuator inhibits LPS-induced endotoxic shock by suppressing Toll-like receptor 4 signaling in innate immune cells. (miltenyibiotec.com)
- PD-1 (Programmed Cell Death Protein 1, PCDP-1, CD279) is a cell surface receptor approximately 273-290 amino acids in length that inhibits cell-mediated immune responses initiated by T lymphocytes. (fishersci.com)
- Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) expression in dendritic cells (DCs) inhibits T-cell activation and promotes T-cell differentiation into regulatory T-cells. (hindawi.com)
- In contrast, CTLA-4 is induced upon T cell activation and inhibits T cell activation by binding to B7.1/B7.2, impairing CD28-mediated co-stimulation. (rupress.org)
- Two potential targets are somatostatin receptors (SST), which are overexpressed in well-differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasms, and the chemokine receptor CXCR4, which is present mainly in highly proliferative and advanced tumours. (bioportfolio.com)
- We provide tools for path-breaking research by developing antibodies that detect a comprehensive library of novel and established targets. (abgent.com)
- For established targets we seek to add antibodies that recognize new epitopes, including post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation and methylation. (abgent.com)
- For new targets we consult with leading experts to accelerate development of antibodies that will propel state-of-the-art research in cellular health and disease. (abgent.com)
- Our hypothesis is that high expression of the immunotherapeutic targets (CD20, PD-L1) on exosomes derived from aggressive or resistant B-NHL may allow tumor cells to escape therapeutic antibodies, and thus contribute in vivo to therapeutic resistance. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Strategies to mitigate the effects of cTnI autoantibodies on assays include the use of multiple capture antibodies with only one that targets the midfragment ( 7 ). (aaccjnls.org)
- More recently, other monoclonal antibodies have been developed, to inhibit immune checkpoints within the tumor microenvironment that limit immune suppression, or to enhance some immune functions with immune adjuvants through different targets such as Toll-receptor agonists. (biomedcentral.com)
- Monoclonal antibodies that antagonize the interaction of 'don't eat me' signals with their macrophage-expressed receptors have demonstrated therapeutic potential in several cancers4,5. (stanford.edu)
- Combination with anti-programmed cell death protein-1 antibodies promoted complete tumor rejection, demonstrating the relevance of CD25 as a therapeutic target and promising substrate for future combination approaches in immune-oncology. (icr.ac.uk)
- It is believed that these two antibodies can work synergistically together and we believe that adding them to the already marked activity we are seeing with our proprietary combination of TG-1101 and TGR-1202 across CLL and NHL could greatly enhance the therapeutic benefit to patients with hematological malignancies. (cnbc.com)
- Producing cell-based treatments entails substantial hands-on manipulation and perfecting the logistics of harvesting and expanding therapeutic cells and delivering them to patients. (bioprocessintl.com)
- However, a vast majority of patients do not respond to immunotherapies due to primary or acquired resistance to T-cell-mediated anti-tumor immunity. (scienceboard.net)
- Given the handling requirements and high cost of goods (CoG) for cell-based immunotherapies, reimbursement considerations will force developers to demonstrate indisputable value. (bioprocessintl.com)
Mouse Monoclonal Antibody1
- This mAb contains a modified Fc region designed to limit antibody-dependent cytotoxicity (ADCC) and complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) [2, (invivogen.com)
- And the suppression of ROS accumulation and the rescue of cell viability in HeLa cells by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) suggest the possible link between the increase in ROS generation and cytotoxicity of complex 3e. (bvsalud.org)
- Cytotoxicity can occur at any stage of the cell cycle, but the cell is most vulnerable to action of these drugs in the G1 and S phase. (medscape.com)
- The aim of this study is to explore whether the potential docetaxel-resistant mechanism is associated with impaired NK cell cytotoxicity toward CRPC cells. (bvsalud.org)
- METHODS: By performing MTT assay, we explored the role of docetaxel in regulating NK cells' cytotoxicity. (bvsalud.org)
- Lack of PD-1 expression was further underlined by the analysis of PD-1 expression from B16-F10-derived 3D cultures and ex vivo tumours. (uni-muenchen.de)
- We performed in vivo mouse xenotransplantation analyses of CD44s and CD44v cells and found that CD44v cells exhibited relatively increased tumorigenicity. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Agents required to differentiate monocytes into DCs ex vivo, such as prostaglandin E2 and Toll-like receptor ligands (e.g. (hindawi.com)
- The anti-tumor properties of cannabinoids have been investigated in many in vitro and in vivo studies. (biomedcentral.com)
- Check out links to articles that cite our custom service antibodies, peptides, and proteins in major peer-reviewed journals, organized by research category. (abgent.com)
- Endoproteinase-cleaved peptides of the APO-1 protein were subjected to amino acid sequencing, and corresponding oligonucleotides were used to identify a full-length APO-1 cDNA clone from an SKW6.4 cDNA library. (uni-regensburg.de)
- Antigen peptides represent specific epitopes for stimulation of T cells in T cell assays such as ELISPOT. (jpt.com)
- MHC Multimers for reproducible detection, enumeration and isolation of antigen-specific T cells with disease specific peptides. (jpt.com)
- Earlier identified as CD4 + CD25 + T lymphocytes ( 2 ), the majority of Tregs were later characterized by expression of Forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3), a master regulatory transcriptional factor ( 3 ), which is critical for the development and suppressive functions of Tregs ( 4 ). (frontiersin.org)
- CD4-positive T helper lymphocytes can be divided into several types (including types 1 (Th1) and 2 (Th2)) on the basis of their cytokine secretion patterns. (wikipedia.org)
- Defective T lymphocytes are responsible for abnormal B-cell function, autoantibody production as well as synovial joint arthropathy in lupus. (eurekaselect.com)
- But ibrutinib also inactivates ITK, an enzyme required for certain subsets of T lymphocytes (Th2 T cells). (pnas.org)
- Analysis for molecular and cellular mechanism regulating differentiation, activation and programmed cell death of B lymphocytes. (nii.ac.jp)
- Anti-PD-1 agents are humanized monoclonal antibodies that bind the PD-1 receptor, which are present on tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and Tregs. (nephronpower.com)
- Activated PD-1 negatively regulates T-cell activation and and plays a key role in in tumor evasion from host immunity. (cancer.gov)
- It contains five conserved tyrosine residues that interact with multiple components of T-cell receptor (TCR) complex and negatively regulates its function HAVCR2 is primarily activated by galectin-9. (wikipedia.org)
- The intracellular tail contains two phosphorylation sites located in an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif and an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based switch motif, which suggests that PD-1 negatively regulates T-cell receptor TCR signals. (wikipedia.org)
- Under normal physiological conditions, PD-1 negatively regulates T cell activation thereby preventing autoimmunity . (invivogen.com)
- We demonstrate a role for tumour-expressed CD24 in promoting immune evasion through its interaction with the inhibitory receptor sialic-acid-binding Ig-like lectin 10 (Siglec-10), which is expressed by tumour-associated macrophages. (stanford.edu)
- Atezolizumab blocks the interaction of PD-L1 with PD-1 and induces anti-tumor immune reactivation. (invivogen.com)
- The authors provide an overview of the diversity of tumor endothelial cells (TECs) and discuss the interaction between TECs and tumor cells in the tumor microenvironment. (endothelialcellnews.com)
- Antibodies to CTLA-4 have been shown to block the interaction between CTLA-4 and its ligands, restoring the function of T cells in the antigen-presenting compartment [ 13 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- PD-1 antibodies inhibit the interaction between PD-1 and its ligands on tumor cells to promote immune-mediated destruction. (plos.org)
- This assay can facilitate the design and development of therapeutics which competitively inhibit PD-1/PD-L1 interaction. (perkinelmer.com)
Effector T cel6
- Because other types of effector T cells also express CD4 and CD25, Tregs have been notoriously difficult to study and differentiate from other T cells. (scienceboard.net)
- These active TGF-β1 exert short-distance immunosuppressive effects on immune cells including effector T cells. (scienceboard.net)
- Anti-GITR antibodies target glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor related protein (GITR), which is regularly expressed on the surface of regulatory T-cells (Tregs) and is expressed on the surface of effector T-cells after their activation. (cnbc.com)
- At the same time, ligation of GITR on surface of Tregs could abrogate suppressive function of these cells on tumor specific effector T-cells thus further augmenting T-cell immune response. (cnbc.com)
- It is believed the effects of anti-PD-L1 intervention can be enhanced by utilizing a co-stimulatory antibody, like one targeting GITR, that can turn on tumor specific effector T-cells. (cnbc.com)
- The treatment of anti-PD-1/GITR mAb increased the frequencies of interferon-γ-producing effector T cells and decreased immunosuppressive regulatory T cells and myeloid-derived suppressor cells, shifting an immunosuppressive tumor milieu to an immunostimulatory state in peritoneal cavity. (biomedcentral.com)
- Monoclonal anti-CD20 antibody, rituximab, in combination of CHOP chemotherapy (R-CHOP) is widely used with favourable results. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- This multicenter, single-arm, open-label study is being conducted in patients with metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma (mMCC), a rare and aggressive type of skin tumor,, who have previously received one line of chemotherapy. (presseportal.de)
- As we've said previously, we will continue to build our portfolio to optimize our combination approach to provide the best possible outcomes to patients with B-cell malignancies without the need to use harsh chemotherapy, ideally pushing toward a cure. (cnbc.com)
- It has been produced in CHO cells and purified by affinity chromatography with protein G. (invivogen.com)
- Each antibody is crafted with care according to rigorous protocols for immunogen design and preparation, presentation to host animal, and high-affinity purification against the antigen. (abgent.com)
- TrkA is the high affinity catalytic receptor for the nerve growth factor (NGF). (miltenyibiotec.com)
- The monoclonal antibody was purified from tissue culture supernatant or ascites by affinity chromatography. (antibodies-online.com)
- GigaGen has the only technology that enables massively parallel antibody screening, engineering, and development by capturing millions to billions of antibody-encoding DNA sequences from a sample, and then expressing the DNA sequences as antibodies for affinity screening and antigen discovery. (prweb.com)
- 38% ≥ 65 years), 73% were male, 79% were white and 16% Asian, 19% and 80% of patients had a baseline Karnofsky performance score of 70 to 80 and 90 to 100, and patient distribution by International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium risk categories was 31% favorable, 56% intermediate, and 13% poor. (ascopost.com)
- and 35% had 1 and 65% had at least 2 prior lines of therapy in the recurrent or metastatic setting. (ascopost.com)
- It has been approved for the treatment of adults with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. (medscape.com)
- Treatment of metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) in adults and children ≥12 years of age. (medicine.com)
- PD-1 is a member of the extended CD28/CTLA-4 family of T cell regulators. (wikipedia.org)
- CD28 is expressed by naive and activated T cells and is critical for optimal T cell activation. (rupress.org)
- Accordingly, additional CD28 family receptors have been identified. (rupress.org)
- By outcompeting CD28 for binding to B7.1 and B7.2, CTLA-4 can prevent the co-stimulation necessary to generate and maintain T cell activation. (biomedcentral.com)
- T cell priming and activation occur when the MHC-peptide complex interacts with the T cell receptor (TCR), followed by the engagement of CD28 to B7.1 (CD80) or B7.2 (CD86) coreceptors. (jci.org)
Renal cell carc6
- The goals of pharmacotherapy in renal cell carcinoma are to induce remission, reduce morbidity, and prevent complications. (medscape.com)
- Renal cell carcinoma is an immunogenic tumor, and spontaneous regressions have been documented. (medscape.com)
- Few options are available for the systemic therapy of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), and no hormonal or chemotherapeutic regimen is accepted as a standard of care to treat this disease. (medscape.com)
- In this study, we investigated the ECS based on CB 1 and CB 2 receptor gene and protein expression in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cell lines. (biomedcentral.com)
- Clearance: In patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma, avelumab clearance was 15% higher in those who tested positive for treatment-emergent anti-drug antibodies (ADA) compared to those who tested negative for treatment-emergent ADA. (medicine.com)
- First-line treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma (in combination with axitinib). (medicine.com)
- 1] ISA Therapeutics B.V., 2333 CH Leiden, The Netherlands Department of Immunohematology and Blood Transfusion, Leiden University Medical Center, 2333ZA Leiden, The Netherlands. (nih.gov)
- TG Therapeutics is a biopharmaceutical company focused on the acquisition, development and commercialization of novel treatments for B-cell malignancies and autoimmune diseases. (cnbc.com)
- These findings and the novel anti-PD-1 antibody will facilitate better understanding of the mechanisms of the molecular recognition of PD-1 receptor by anti-PD-1 mAb and, thereby, enable the development of new therapeutics with an expanded spectrum of efficacy for unmet medical needs. (rcsb.org)
- Anti-PD-L1 therapeutics bind to PD-L1 on tumor cells. (biopharmconsortium.com)
- Abgent offers single-use antibody panel for cost- and time-efficient screening assays. (abgent.com)
- As with all such assays, antibody interference can occur. (aaccjnls.org)
- Most commercial cTnI assays use antibodies to the stable midfragment of cTnI and thus are susceptible to troponin autoantibodies ( 7 ). (aaccjnls.org)
- CD44s cells exhibited increased chemotaxis and invasiveness compared with CD44v cells in in vitro cell migration and invasion assays. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Immunohistochemical assays using antibodies against ganglioside GD2 were performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens. (biomedcentral.com)
- Standards and controls for reproducible T-cell assays such as ELISPOT and multimer assays. (jpt.com)