A dopaminergic neurotoxic compound which produces irreversible clinical, chemical, and pathological alterations that mimic those found in Parkinson disease.
A condition caused by the neurotoxin MPTP which causes selective destruction of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Clinical features include irreversible parkinsonian signs including rigidity and bradykinesia (PARKINSON DISEASE, SECONDARY). MPTP toxicity is also used as an animal model for the study of PARKINSON DISEASE. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1072; Neurology 1986 Feb;36(2):250-8)
A group of disorders which feature impaired motor control characterized by bradykinesia, MUSCLE RIGIDITY; TREMOR; and postural instability. Parkinsonian diseases are generally divided into primary parkinsonism (see PARKINSON DISEASE), secondary parkinsonism (see PARKINSON DISEASE, SECONDARY) and inherited forms. These conditions are associated with dysfunction of dopaminergic or closely related motor integration neuronal pathways in the BASAL GANGLIA.
Conditions which feature clinical manifestations resembling primary Parkinson disease that are caused by a known or suspected condition. Examples include parkinsonism caused by vascular injury, drugs, trauma, toxin exposure, neoplasms, infections and degenerative or hereditary conditions. Clinical features may include bradykinesia, rigidity, parkinsonian gait, and masked facies. In general, tremor is less prominent in secondary parkinsonism than in the primary form. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch38, pp39-42)
An active neurotoxic metabolite of 1-METHYL-4-PHENYL-1,2,3,6-TETRAHYDROPYRIDINE. The compound reduces dopamine levels, inhibits the biosynthesis of catecholamines, depletes cardiac norepinephrine and inactivates tyrosine hydroxylase. These and other toxic effects lead to cessation of oxidative phosphorylation, ATP depletion, and cell death. The compound, which is related to PARAQUAT, has also been used as an herbicide.
The black substance in the ventral midbrain or the nucleus of cells containing the black substance. These cells produce DOPAMINE, an important neurotransmitter in regulation of the sensorimotor system and mood. The dark colored MELANIN is a by-product of dopamine synthesis.
Any drugs that are used for their effects on dopamine receptors, on the life cycle of dopamine, or on the survival of dopaminergic neurons.
Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.
Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is DOPAMINE.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC 1.14.16.2.
A sporadic neurodegenerative disease with onset in middle-age characterized clinically by Parkinsonian features (e.g., MUSCLE RIGIDITY; HYPOKINESIA; stooped posture) and HYPOTENSION. This condition is considered a clinical variant of MULTIPLE SYSTEM ATROPHY. Pathologic features include a prominent loss of neurons in the zona compacta of the SUBSTANTIA NIGRA and PUTAMEN. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1075-6)
A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. It is a flavin-containing enzyme that is localized in mitochondrial membranes, whether in nerve terminals, the liver, or other organs. Monoamine oxidase is important in regulating the metabolic degradation of catecholamines and serotonin in neural or target tissues. Hepatic monoamine oxidase has a crucial defensive role in inactivating circulating monoamines or those, such as tyramine, that originate in the gut and are absorbed into the portal circulation. (From Goodman and Gilman's, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p415) EC 1.4.3.4.
A deaminated metabolite of LEVODOPA.
The naturally occurring form of DIHYDROXYPHENYLALANINE and the immediate precursor of DOPAMINE. Unlike dopamine itself, it can be taken orally and crosses the blood-brain barrier. It is rapidly taken up by dopaminergic neurons and converted to DOPAMINE. It is used for the treatment of PARKINSONIAN DISORDERS and is usually given with agents that inhibit its conversion to dopamine outside of the central nervous system.
A selective, irreversible inhibitor of Type B monoamine oxidase. It is used in newly diagnosed patients with Parkinson's disease. It may slow progression of the clinical disease and delay the requirement for levodopa therapy. It also may be given with levodopa upon onset of disability. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p385) The compound without isomeric designation is Deprenyl.
Agents used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. The most commonly used drugs act on the dopaminergic system in the striatum and basal ganglia or are centrally acting muscarinic antagonists.
Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The representation of the phylogenetically oldest part of the corpus striatum called the paleostriatum. It forms the smaller, more medial part of the lentiform nucleus.
A genus of the family CEBIDAE consisting of four species: S. boliviensis, S. orstedii (red-backed squirrel monkey), S. sciureus (common squirrel monkey), and S. ustus. They inhabit tropical rain forests in Central and South America. S. sciureus is used extensively in research studies.
The phylogenetically newer part of the CORPUS STRIATUM consisting of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and PUTAMEN. It is often called simply the striatum.
Tricyclic anorexigenic agent unrelated to and less toxic than AMPHETAMINE, but with some similar side effects. It inhibits uptake of catecholamines and blocks the binding of cocaine to the dopamine uptake transporter.
A chemically heterogeneous group of drugs that have in common the ability to block oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. (From Gilman, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p414)
Abnormal involuntary movements which primarily affect the extremities, trunk, or jaw that occur as a manifestation of an underlying disease process. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent episodes of dyskinesia as a primary manifestation of disease may be referred to as dyskinesia syndromes (see MOVEMENT DISORDERS). Dyskinesias are also a relatively common manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES.
Sulfur compounds in which the sulfur atom is attached to three organic radicals and an electronegative element or radical.
Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of dopaminergic neurons. They remove DOPAMINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS and are the target of DOPAMINE UPTAKE INHIBITORS.
Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.
A plant genus of the family OROBANCHACEAE. Members contain phenylethanoid glycosides.
Abnormal movements, including HYPERKINESIS; HYPOKINESIA; TREMOR; and DYSTONIA, associated with the use of certain medications or drugs. Muscles of the face, trunk, neck, and extremities are most commonly affected. Tardive dyskinesia refers to abnormal hyperkinetic movements of the muscles of the face, tongue, and neck associated with the use of neuroleptic agents (see ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1199)
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
The largest and most lateral of the BASAL GANGLIA lying between the lateral medullary lamina of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and the EXTERNAL CAPSULE. It is part of the neostriatum and forms part of the LENTIFORM NUCLEUS along with the GLOBUS PALLIDUS.
A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.
An antidepressive agent and monoamine oxidase inhibitor related to PARGYLINE.
The middle of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain. Without further subdivision, midbrain develops into a short, constricted portion connecting the PONS and the DIENCEPHALON. Midbrain contains two major parts, the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI and the ventral TEGMENTUM MESENCEPHALI, housing components of auditory, visual, and other sensorimoter systems.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.
A family of vesicular amine transporter proteins that catalyze the transport and storage of CATECHOLAMINES and indolamines into SECRETORY VESICLES.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A genus of the subfamily CALLITRICHINAE occurring in forests of Brazil and Bolivia and containing seventeen species.
Integral membrane proteins of the LIPID BILAYER of SECRETORY VESICLES that catalyze transport and storage of biogenic amine NEUROTRANSMITTERS such as ACETYLCHOLINE; SEROTONIN; MELATONIN; HISTAMINE; and CATECHOLAMINES. The transporters exchange vesicular protons for cytoplasmic neurotransmitters.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.
The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.
Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.
Drugs that bind to and activate dopamine receptors.
A subtype of dopamine D2 receptors that are highly expressed in the LIMBIC SYSTEM of the brain.
A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.
Peptide neurotoxins from the marine fish-hunting snails of the genus CONUS. They contain 13 to 29 amino acids which are strongly basic and are highly cross-linked by disulfide bonds. There are three types of conotoxins, omega-, alpha-, and mu-. OMEGA-CONOTOXINS inhibit voltage-activated entry of calcium into the presynaptic membrane and therefore the release of ACETYLCHOLINE. Alpha-conotoxins inhibit the postsynaptic acetylcholine receptor. Mu-conotoxins prevent the generation of muscle action potentials. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The founding member of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family. It was originally characterized as a NERVE GROWTH FACTOR promoting the survival of MIDBRAIN dopaminergic NEURONS, and it has been studied as a potential treatment for PARKINSON DISEASE.
A botanical insecticide that is an inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The methyl homolog of parathion. An effective, but highly toxic, organothiophosphate insecticide and cholinesterase inhibitor.
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Ethers that are linked to a benzene ring structure.
Lens-shaped structure on the inner aspect of the INTERNAL CAPSULE. The SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS and pathways traversing this region are concerned with the integration of somatic motor function.
A synuclein that is a major component of LEWY BODIES that plays a role in neurodegeneration and neuroprotection.
A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D2-class receptor genes contain INTRONS, and the receptors inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
Therapy for MOVEMENT DISORDERS, especially PARKINSON DISEASE, that applies electricity via stereotactic implantation of ELECTRODES in specific areas of the BRAIN such as the THALAMUS. The electrodes are attached to a neurostimulator placed subcutaneously.
A CELL LINE derived from a PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA of the rat ADRENAL MEDULLA. PC12 cells stop dividing and undergo terminal differentiation when treated with NERVE GROWTH FACTOR, making the line a useful model system for NERVE CELL differentiation.
A neurotransmitter analogue that depletes noradrenergic stores in nerve endings and induces a reduction of dopamine levels in the brain. Its mechanism of action is related to the production of cytolytic free-radicals.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
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Replacing the α-methyl with a cyclopropyl dramatically reduces affinity for the noradrenaline transporter and 5-HT2A receptor ... This research was a continuation of earlier work from the same team which showed that replacing the α-methyl group of MDMA with ... MBDB Methyl-K (UWA-091) UWA-001 RTI-83 - another drug which selectively increases dopamine and serotonin levels without ... the only difference being the replacement of the α-methyl group with an α-cyclopropyl group. MDMA has been found in animal ...
Like GLP-1, it also slows gastric emptying. Lixisenatixe is a peptide made of 44 amino acids, with an amide group on its C ... GLP-1 is a hormone that helps pancreatic beta cells to secrete insulin in response to high blood sugar. Because it works like ... 495 (1): 1034-1040. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2017.11.114. PMID 29175324. Liu W, Jalewa J, Sharma M, Li G, Li L, Hölscher C (September ... 3 h post-injection. Lixisenatide also enhanced neurogenesis in the brain. Liraglutide crossed the BBB at 25 and 250 nmol/kg ip ...
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The initial velocity is defined as V 0 = d [ P ] / d t = k 2 [ ES ] {\displaystyle V_{0}=d[{\ce {P}}]/dt=k_{2}[{\ce {ES}}]} , ... In the simplest case of a single-substrate enzyme obeying Michaelis-Menten kinetics, the typical scheme E + S ⇌ k − 1 k 1 ES → ... K m app {\displaystyle K_{m}^{\text{app}}} , the substrate concentration that is needed to reach V max / 2 {\displaystyle V_{\ ... Cells in the central nervous system (astrocytes) include MAO-B that oxidizes MPTP to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+), which ...
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... methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine), the precursor to MPP+, was found and linked to Parkinson's disease in the 1980s. ... 4, pages 125-129. See also: S. Hoogewerf and W.A. van Dorp (1886) "Sur quelques dérivés de l'isoquinoléine" (On some ... ISBN 978-0-85404-182-4. Brown, H.C., et al., in Baude, E.A. and Nachod, F.C., Determination of Organic Structures by Physical ... 3-23. doi:10.1007/978-1-4612-2000-8_1. ISBN 978-1-4612-7375-2. "Quinoline" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 22 (11th ed.). 1911. pp. ...
... selective destruction of dopaminergic neurons in the pars compacta of the substantia nigra by N-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6- ... tetrahydropyridine". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 80 (14): 4546-4550. ... Kopin died on August 1, 2017. His funeral service was held at Congregation Beth El in Bethesda, Maryland. NINDS and NIMH held a ...
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The molecular formula C12H15N (molar mass: 173.25 g/mol) may refer to: Benzomorphan Bicifadine (DOV-220,075) Julolidine MPTP (1 ... methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) This set index page lists chemical structure articles associated with the same ...
306 (1): 401-6. doi:10.1124/jpet.103.051912. PMID 12721323. v t e. ... 2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-Treated Monkeys". Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. ... SIB-1553A Improves Both Attention and Memory Components of a Spatial Working Memory Task in Chronic Low Dose 1-Methyl-4-phenyl- ...
Phenylethylamine Amphetamine MDMA N-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+)(very potent inhibitors of VMAT2 mediated serotonin ... doi:10.1007/3-540-29784-7_15. ISBN 978-3-540-29783-3. PMID 16722242. Höltje M.; Winter S.; et al. (May 2003). "The vesicular ... 31 (4): 483-19. doi:10.1002/med.20187. PMC 3019297. PMID 20135628. Liu Y, Peter D, Rogahani A, Schuldiner S, Prive GG, ... 34 (2-3): 360-372. doi:10.1016/j.mam.2012.07.005. PMC 3727660. PMID 23506877. Sager, J.J. & Torres, G.E., 2011. Proteins ...
Structural analogs of desmethylprodine with different N-substituents than a methyl group on the piperidine have been ... 13 (4): 367-74. doi:10.1016/0376-8716(84)90004-8. PMID 6148225. Davis GC, Williams AC, Markey SP, Ebert MH, Caine ED, Reichert ... Desmethylprodine or 1-methyl-4-phenyl-4-propionoxypiperidine (MPPP, Ro 2-0718) is an opioid analgesic drug developed in the ... It was later found that his development of Parkinson's was due to a common impurity in the synthesis of MPPP called MPTP (1- ...
It is related to the drug MPPP, with an N-phenethyl group in place of the N-methyl substitution and an acetate ester rather ... It is unlikely that the tetrahydropyridine byproducts that may be formed during the synthesis of PEPAP are neurotoxic in the ... It appears that the N-methyl group of MPTP is required for neurotoxic activity. In animal experiments, only MPTP analogues that ... Most structural changes, including replacing the N-methyl group with other substituents, abolished neurotoxicity.[3] ...
... phenyl)-, methyl ester MeSH D03.383.725.547.950 - xanthinol niacinate MeSH D03.383.725.565 - nicotinyl alcohol MeSH D03.383. ... phenyl)-, methyl ester MeSH D03.383.725.210 - dimethindene MeSH D03.383.725.220 - 2,2'-dipyridyl MeSH D03.383.725.227 - ... phenyl)-1h-pyrazol-3-amine MeSH D03.383.129.539.200 - epirizole MeSH D03.383.129.539.487 - indazoles MeSH D03.383.129.539. ... 2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-8-chloro-3-methyl-5-phenyl-1h-3-benzazepin-7-ol MeSH D03.438.079.800 - 2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-7,8-dihydroxy-1- ...
306 (1): 401-6. PMID 12721323. doi:10.1124/jpet.103.051912.. ,access-date=. захтева ,url=. (помоћ) ... Agonisti: 77-LH-28-1 • AC-42 • AC-260,584 • Aceklidin • Acetilholin • AF30 • AF150(S) • AF267B • AFDX-384 • Alvamelin • AQRA- ... Antagonisti: 3-Hinuklidinil Benzilat • 4-DAMP • Aklidinijum bromid • Anisodamin • Anisodin • Atropin • Atropin metonitrat • ... SIB-1553A je agonist nikotinskih acetilholinskih receptora koji je selektivan za receptore sa β4 podjedinicom. Administriranje ...
Agonisti: 77-LH-28-1 • AC-42 • AC-260,584 • Aceklidin • Acetilholin • AF30 • AF150(S) • AF267B • AFDX-384 • Alvamelin • AQRA- ... Antagonisti: 3-Hinuklidinil Benzilat • 4-DAMP • Aklidinijum bromid • Anisodamin • Anisodin • Atropin • Atropin metonitrat • ... 1-(-Benzoiletil)piridinijum • 2-(α-Naftoil)etiltrimetilamonijum • 3-Hloro-4-stilbazol • 4-(1-Naftilvinil)piridin • Acetilseko ... SIB-1553A je agonist nikotinskih acetilholinskih receptora koji je selektivan za receptore sa β4 podjedinicom. Administriranje ...
A tetrahydropyridine that is 1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine substituted by a methyl group at position 1 and a phenyl group at ... CHEBI:17963 - 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models ... 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine N-oxide (CHEBI:17472) has functional parent 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6- ... 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (CHEBI:17963) has role neurotoxin (CHEBI:50910) 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6- ...
Several individuals were identified who developed parkinsonism after self-injection of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6- ... tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). These patients developed bradykinesia, rigidity, and tremor,... more ... 2C6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) cause Parkinson disease (PD)?) and Does 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) cause ... 6] MPP+ accumulates in mitochondria and interferes with the function of complex I of the respiratory chain. A chemical ...
Samuela Cataldi,1 Michela Codini,1 Stéphane Hunot,2 François-Pierre Légeron,2 Ivana Ferri,3 Paola Siccu,3 Angelo Sidoni,3 ... 1-8, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar. *Samuela Cataldi, Cataldo Arcuri, Stéphane Hunot, Carmen Mecca, Michela ... 2Inserm U 1127, CNRS UMR 7225, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Université Paris 06 UMR S 1127, Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle ... 3Institute of Pathologic Anatomy and Histology, University of Perugia, 06100 Perugia, Italy. 4Department of Clinical and ...
Reinhard JF Jr1, Daniels AJ, Viveros OH.. Author information. 1. Department of Medicinal Biochemistry, Wellcome Research ... Neurosci Lett. 1988 Aug 1;90(3):349-53.. Potentiation by reserpine and tetrabenazine of brain catecholamine depletions by MPTP ... These results are compatible with our hypothesis that sequestration of the toxic MPTP metabolite MPP+ (1-methyl-4- ... Administration to mice of the neurotoxicant MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) decreased striatal dopamine and ...
phenyl-. 3-. cyclohexen-. 1-. yl)methyl)pyridine 1,2,3,6-. tetrahydro-. 4-. phenyl-. 1-. ((3-. phenyl-. 3-. cyclohexen-. 1-. yl ... methyl-. 4-. phenyl-. 1,2,3,6-. tetrahydro-. 3-. pyridinol 1-. methyl-. 4-. phenyl-. 1,2,3,6-. (tetrahydropyridine)-. N-. oxide ... methyl)pyridine 1,2,3,6-. tetrahydro-. 4-. (p-. hydroxyphenyl)-. 1-. ((3-. (p-. hydroxyphenyl)-. 3-. cyclohexen-. 1-. yl)methyl ... 3-. trifluoro-. N-. methyl-. 4-. phenyl-. 1,2,3,6-. tetrahydropyridine 4-. (4-. methoxy-. 1,2,5-. thiadiazol-. 3-. yl)-. 1- ...
... and N-methyl-β-carbolinium-βC+-) by MAO and heme peroxidases and the rate of inactivation (i.e., N-demethylation, aromatic ... MAO catalyzed the oxidation of MPTP to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-2,3-dihydropyridinium cation (MPDP+), whereas heme peroxidases ... Metabolic enzymes are involved in the activation/deactivation of the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyiridine (MPTP) ... and of 2-methyltetrahydro-β-carboline to 2-methyl-3,4-dihydro-β-carbolinium cation (2-Me-3,4-DHβC+). These substances were ...
3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). The concentration-dependency of H2 showed that H2 as low as 0.08 ppm had almost the same effect ... 4-HNE), a marker of lipid peroxidation were significantly decreased in the nigro-striatal dopaminergic pathway in mice drinking ... reduced the loss of dopaminergic neurons in PD model mice using both acute and chronic administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2, ... as saturated H2 water (1.5 ppm). MPTP-induced accumulation of cellular 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG), a marker of DNA damage, and 4- ...
Male C57BL/6J mice, young (2-month-old) and mature (10-month-old), were used. Two different dosage schedules of MPTP, i.e., 4 ... Long-term effect of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) on striatal dopamine content in young and mature mice J ... Male C57BL/6J mice, young (2-month-old) and mature (10-month-old), were used. Two different dosage schedules of MPTP, i.e., 4 ... MPTP produced a marked reduction (-75% to -80%) of striatal DA content in both young and mature mice 1 week after the last ...
2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and L-DOPA treatment. The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) shows parkinsonian motor d … ... of patients with Parkinsons disease chronically treated with L-DOPA and also occur in several nonhuman primate species after 1 ... phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-treated common marmoset (Callithrix Jacchus) Mov Disord. 1995 Nov;10(6):731-40. doi: 10.1002/ ... R K Pearce 1 , M Jackson, L Smith, P Jenner, C D Marsden ... Chronic L-DOPA administration induces dyskinesias in the 1- ...
2.Department of Medicine, Infectious Diseases DivisionIcahn School of Medicine at Mount SinaiNew YorkUSA ... Dickens AM, Yoo SW, Chin AC, Xu J, Johnson TP, Trout AL, Hauser KF, Haughey NJ (2017) Chronic low-level expression of HIV-1 tat ... Lu SM, Tremblay ME, King IL, Qi J, Reynolds HM, Marker DF, Varrone JJ, Majewska AK, Dewhurst S, Gelbard HA (2011) HIV-1 tat- ... Zauli G, Secchiero P, Rodella L, Gibellini D, Mirandola P, Mazzoni M, Milani D, Dowd DR, Capitani S, Vitale M (2000) HIV-1 tat- ...
2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced oxidative stress in the striatum of mice, The Journal of Physiological Sciences" on DeepDyve, ... Male C57BL/6 mice were administered 30 mg/kg of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) intraperitoneally once a ... Male C57BL/6 mice were administered 30 mg/kg of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) intraperitoneally once a ... Lee, Y., Choi, G., Jeon, H., Kim, D., Ryu, S., Koo, S., Ha, K., & Kim, S. (2017). Acupuncture stimulation at GB34 suppresses 1- ...
Cagen SZ, Janoff AS, Bus JS, Gibson JE 1976 Effect of paraquat (methyl viologen) on liver function in mice J Pharmacol Exp Ther ... di methyl-4,4′-bipyridium dichloride (paraquat, PQ) (Catalog #36541 Sigma-St. Louis, MO) was dissolved in sterile saline to a ... di methyl-4,4′-bipyridium dichloride (paraquat, PQ). PQ is a commonly used non-selective herbicide that has been ... 1: p≤0.05, C57BL/6J PQ+no heat vs C57BL/6J PQ+Heat. 2: p≤0.05, C57BL/6J PQ+no heat vs C57BL/6J saline+no heat. 3: p≤0.05, C57BL ...
3. Variation in formation rates of PTP (A), MPDP+ (B), MPTP N-oxide (C), and MPP+ (D) from MPTP by liver and brain microsomes ... 4. Effects of chemical inhibitors on the formation rates of PTP (A), MPDP+ (B), MPTP N-oxide (C), and MPP+ (D) from MPTP in ... 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. P450. cytochrome P450. PCR. polymerase chain reaction. PTP. 4-phenyl-1,2,3,6- ... tetrahydropyridine. RT. reverse transcription. *Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental ...
Methyl4Phenyl1,2,3,6Tetrahydropyridine in Mouse Brain, Journal of Neurochemistry" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental ... Energy‐dependent uptake of N‐methyl4‐phenylpyridinium, the neurotoxic metabolite of 1methyl4phenyl1,2,3,6‐ ... Methyl4Phenyl1,2,3,6Tetrahydropyridine in Mouse Brain. Chan, Piu; DeLanney, Louis E.; Irwin, Ian; Langston, J. William; ... Tetrahydropyridine in Mouse Brain. Rapid ATP Loss Caused by 1Methyl4Phenyl1,2,3,6Tetrahydropyridine in Mouse Brain Chan, ...
Addition of 10 microM 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) to the culture medium for 4 to 7 days resulted in ... Selective decrease of immunoreactive tyrosine hydroxylase in nigrostriatum of adult male rats after N-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6- ... tetrahydropyridine treatment. *Dr. Linda L. Vacca-Galloway, Ryoichi Ikeda, Shirley Y. Coleman ... 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine destroys dopamine neurons in explants of rat embryo mesencephalon.. @article{ ...
Y1 - 2016/10/1. N2 - Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are the most common causes of late onset autosomal ... AB - Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are the most common causes of late onset autosomal dominant form of ... Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are the most common causes of late onset autosomal dominant form of Parkinson ... abstract = "Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are the most common causes of late onset autosomal dominant form ...
SAM is the endogenous methyl donor for DA [17]. And it caused the depletion of striatal DA [18] and the loss of TH and DA cells ... phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) Administration," Neuroscience, Vol. 169, No. 3, 2010, pp. 1085-1093. doi:10.1016/j. ... Figure 2. The effects of postnatal doses of 0 (PBS), 10, 20 and 30 mg/kg of MPTP on midbrain DA, DOPAC, HVA and 3-MT in C57BL/ ... Table 2. The effects of postnatal-MPTP of 10, 20 and 30 mg/kg or PBS on midbrain DA, DOPAC, 3-MT and HVA in offspring exposed ...
Administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) is a very well known method to induce the symptoms of ... Full text: Available Index: WPRIM (Western Pacific) Main subject: Parkinson Disease / Mass Spectrometry / Tyrosine 3- ... Full text: Available Index: WPRIM (Western Pacific) Main subject: Parkinson Disease / Mass Spectrometry / Tyrosine 3- ... 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine , Animals , Biopterin , Brain , Dopamine , Dopaminergic Neurons , Hippocampus , ...
A late (days 6-11) increase in striatal dopamine oxidative metabolism, ascorbic acid oxidative status, and catabolites of high- ... The Neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine induces apoptosis in mouse nigrostriatal glia. Relevance to nigral ... Swiss mice were given 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), 25 mg/kg/day, for 5 consecutive days and killed at ... Decreases in striatal tyrosine hydroxylase activity and levels of dopamine and its metabolites were observed 1 day after MPTP ...
1, 01.2019, p. 31-40.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article › peer-review ... Y1 - 2019/1. N2 - Parkinsons disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by slow and progressive ... Recent in vitro study showed the increase in the phosphorylation levels of Collapsin Response Mediator Protein 2 (CRMP2) is ... Recent in vitro study showed the increase in the phosphorylation levels of Collapsin Response Mediator Protein 2 (CRMP2) is ...
... tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity is thought to be associated with the formation of free radicals. ... tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity is thought to be associated with the formation of free radicals. ... tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity is thought to be associated with the formation of free radicals. ... tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity is thought to be associated with the formation of free radicals. ...
In 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) intoxicated mice, GM-CSF given prior to MPTP protected nigral ... In 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) intoxicated mice, GM-CSF given prior to MPTP protected nigral ... In 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) intoxicated mice, GM-CSF given prior to MPTP protected nigral ... In 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) intoxicated mice, GM-CSF given prior to MPTP protected nigral ...
To adequately quantify TH-positive neurons, we used the nuclear counterstain methyl green (Vector Laboratories) and the ... 4 A and B), but does so quite effectively in the presence of glia (Fig. 4 C and D), we argue that the neurotoxicity of MPTP/MPP ... 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine;. MPP+,. 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium;. SNpc,. substantia nigra pars compacta;. CGN ... 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid;. HVA,. homovanilic acid;. MAPK,. mitogenactivated protein kinase;. TH,. tyrosine hydroxylase;. ...
... an update on the acute and chronic manifestations of methyl mercury poisoning. J Neurol Sci 262:131-144PubMedCrossRefGoogle ... 3.Department of Radiology and Nuclear MedicineGhent UniversityGhentBelgium. *4.Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific ... 1.Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular ImagingUniversity Medical Center Groningen, University of GroningenGroningenThe ... 2.Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular ImagingUniversity of Groningen, University Medical Center GroningenGroningenThe ...
Involvement of the Fc{gamma} Receptor in a Chronic N-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine Mouse Model of Dopaminergic ... Activated microglia are critical for N-methyl-d-aspartate-induced neurodegeneration in slice cultures (28). β-Amyloid in ... 4. TLR4 is necessary for LPS-induced neuronal injury in vitro. Mixed CNS cultures prepared from BALB/cJ and lpsd mouse ... 3C).. Microglia bind Alexa-tagged LPS in vitro, whereas oligodendrocytes and astrocytes do not (16). Thus, we next asked ...
PREFACE xi. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xiii. INTRODUCTION 1. SPECIFIC METHODS FOR THE DESTRUCTION OF HAZARDOUS CHEMICALS IN THE LABORATORY 17. Acetonitrile 19. Acid Halides and Anhydrides 23. Aflatoxins 29. Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals 37. Alkali Metal Alkoxides 41. Anatoxin-A 43. Aromatic Amines 47. Arsenic 57. Azides 61. Azo and Azoxy Compounds and Tetrazenes 69. Boron Trifluoride and Inorganic Fluorides 77. Botulinum Toxins 81. Brevetoxins 85. Butyllithium 89. Calcium Carbide 93. Carbamic Acid Esters 95. Carbofuran 99. Chloromethylsilanes and Silicon Tetrachloride 101. N-Chlorosuccinimide and Chloramine-T 103. Chlorosulfonic Acid 105. Chromium(VI) 107. Citrinin 113. Complex Metal Hydrides 121. Cyanides and Cyanogen Bromide 129. Cylindrospermopsin 137. Diisopropyl Fluorophosphate 141. Dimethyl Sulfate and Related Compounds 151. Dyes and Biological Stains 163. Ethidium Bromide 201. Haloethers 211. Halogenated Compounds 217. Halogens 229. Heavy Metals 233. Hexamethylphosphoramide 241. Hydrazines ...
Hepad 1 and 2 remarkably alleviated the enhanced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin ... Therefore, our results suggest that Hepad 1 and 2 are useful for treating PD and other disorders associated with neuro- ... The present study demonstrated that the herbal medicines Hepad 1 and 2 protected against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6- ... tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity in C57BL/6 mice and SH-SY5Y cells. ...
1 Doris-Eva Bamiou is a member of the Standing Committee, but was unable to participate directly in the authoring of this ... Emerging Infectious Diseases 8(2):145-153.. Nikkari, S., F. A. Lopez, P. W. Lepp, P. R. Cieslak, S. Ladd-Wilson, D. Passaro, R ... 1DORIS-EVA BAMIOU, Professor of Neuroaudiology, Ear Institute, University College of London ... The committee faced a variety of challenges in responding to these requests (see Section 2). In particular, much of the detail ...
6-Tetrahydropyridine. Peter Klivenyi, Ole A. Andreassen, Robert J. Ferrante, Alpaslan Dedeoglu, Gerald Mueller, Eric Lancelot, ... 6-Tetrahydropyridine. Peter Klivenyi, Ole A. Andreassen, Robert J. Ferrante, Alpaslan Dedeoglu, Gerald Mueller, Eric Lancelot, ... 4Department of Neurology and Neuroscience, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York 10021. ... 2Departments of Neurology, Pathology, and Psychiatry, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, and the ...
2B). The normalized peak time and amplitude were calculated for each neuron for the early (Fig. 2C) and late (Fig. 2D) ... 2A), where GPe neurons tended to fire 3.5 ± 0.13 ms (mean ± SEM) after the stimulus, and GPi neurons tended to fire at a ... 2E), indicating a decay of the time-locked response over time. Of the neurons that showed an evolving time-locked response to ... Figure 2. Time-locked response changes during stimulation. A, Population PSTH of all GPe (blue) and GPi (red) neurons during ...
  • Does 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) cause Parkinson disease (PD)? (medscape.com)
  • Several individuals were identified who developed parkinsonism after self-injection of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). (medscape.com)
  • MPTP crosses the blood-brain barrier and is oxidized to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) by monoamine oxidase (MAO)-B. (medscape.com)
  • Permanent human parkinsonism due to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP): seven cases. (medscape.com)
  • Administration to mice of the neurotoxicant MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) decreased striatal dopamine and, to a lesser extent, hippocampal noradrenaline levels when measured 2 weeks after the last dose of MPTP. (nih.gov)
  • These results are compatible with our hypothesis that sequestration of the toxic MPTP metabolite MPP+ (1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium) in the catecholamine storage vesicle retards the catecholaminergic toxicity of MPTP. (nih.gov)
  • Metabolic enzymes are involved in the activation/deactivation of the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyiridine (MPTP) neurotoxin and its naturally occurring analogs 2-methyltetrahydro- β -carbolines. (hindawi.com)
  • Two different dosage schedules of MPTP, i.e., 4 doses subcutaneous injections of 20 mg/kg each, and 4 doses subcutaneous injections of 40 mg/kg each, were given to both young and mature mice at 12-h intervals. (nih.gov)
  • Assays of striatal DA and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) content were performed 1 week, 1 month, 2 months, and 3 months after the last injection of MPTP. (nih.gov)
  • MPTP produced a marked reduction (-75% to -80%) of striatal DA content in both young and mature mice 1 week after the last injection of MPTP. (nih.gov)
  • Dyskinesias occur in the majority of patients with Parkinson's disease chronically treated with L-DOPA and also occur in several nonhuman primate species after 1-methyl-4phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and L-DOPA treatment. (nih.gov)
  • Marmosets rendered chronically parkinsonian after MPTP administration were treated orally with L-DOPA plus carbidopa for 3 weeks. (nih.gov)
  • Male C57BL/6 mice were administered 30 mg/kg of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) intraperitoneally once a day for 5 days and given acupuncture stimulation at SI3 or GB34 (Yanglingquan) was for 12 consecutive days. (deepdyve.com)
  • MPTP administration also suppressed DJ-1 expression and SOD and CAT activities in the ST, which were restored by acupuncture stimulation at GB34. (deepdyve.com)
  • In this study, we examine the effects of MPTP (4×20 mg/kg, 2 hours apart) and paraquat (2×10 mg/kg/week for 3 weeks) on core temperature of C57BL/6J mice. (iospress.com)
  • In both heated and non-heated conditions, mice treated with MPTP showed a significant depletion of ATP within 2 hours of administration in both striatum and SN that started to recover 2 hours after MPTP administration was complete. (iospress.com)
  • Striatal DA and DOPAC are significantly reduced starting 4-6 hours after MPTP. (iospress.com)
  • In terms of exogenous models, the most widely used compound for induction of dopamine insufficiency to mimic that seen in PD is the systemic administration of the tertiary amine, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). (iospress.com)
  • The potential proneurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) induces Parkinson-like syndromes in common marmosets, other primates, and humans. (aspetjournals.org)
  • MPTP is metabolically activated to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-2,3-dihydropyridinium and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ions (MPDP + and MPP + , respectively) by desaturation reactions. (aspetjournals.org)
  • MPTP is deactivated to 4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (PTP) by N -demethylation and is also deactivated to MPTP N -oxide. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Monte, Donate 1991-07-01 00:00:00 Abstract: The effects of 1‐methyl‐4‐phenyl‐1,2,3,6‐tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) on ATP levels in different areas of mouse brain were studied after rapid fixation of cerebral tissue in situ by microwave irradiation. (deepdyve.com)
  • Abstract: The effects of 1‐methyl‐4‐phenyl‐1,2,3,6‐tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) on ATP levels in different areas of mouse brain were studied after rapid fixation of cerebral tissue in situ by microwave irradiation. (deepdyve.com)
  • Addition of 10 microM 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) to the culture medium for 4 to 7 days resulted in loss of dopamine cell bodies and fiber outgrowths, as observed by fluorescence histochemistry. (semanticscholar.org)
  • To identify whether the genetic mutations in LRRK2 increase the susceptibility to environmental toxins in PD models, we exposed transgenic mice expressing human G2019S mutant or wild type (WT) LRRK2 to the environmental toxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). (elsevier.com)
  • We examined changes in the midbrain dopamine system following 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), to test the hypothesis that a predisposing/sensitization stage and a inducing/precipitating stage underlie PD. (scirp.org)
  • Administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine ( MPTP ) is a very well known method to induce the symptoms of Parkinson's disease in mice . (bvsalud.org)
  • Here, we tested three different mouse strains (C57BL/6, Balb-C, and ICR) as a Parkinsonian model by repeated MPTP injections . (bvsalud.org)
  • However, susceptibilities of the mice to MPTP were differed based on the degree of behavioral change, dopamine concentration in brain regions, and expression levels of tyrosine hydroxylase , with C57BL/6 and Balb-C mice being more sensitive to the dopaminergic neuronal toxicity of MPTP than ICR mice . (bvsalud.org)
  • Swiss mice were given 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), 25 mg/kg/day, for 5 consecutive days and killed at different days after MPTP discontinuance. (uniss.it)
  • Decreases in striatal tyrosine hydroxylase activity and levels of dopamine and its metabolites were observed 1 day after MPTP discontinuance. (uniss.it)
  • Neurochemical parameters of dopaminergic activity showed a trend toward recovery 3 days after MPTP discontinuance. (uniss.it)
  • In the present study, we report elevation of CRMP2 phosphorylation in dopaminergic neurons in SNc after challenge with the dopaminergic neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), a common model for PD. (elsevier.com)
  • Methamphetamine (METH)- and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6- tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity is thought to be associated with the formation of free radicals. (elsevier.com)
  • The administration of METH (5 mg kg -1 x 3) or MPTP (20 mg kg -1 x 3) to Swiss Webster mice resulted in 45-57% depletion in the content of striatal dopamine and its metabolites, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and homovanillic acid, and 57-59% depletion in dopamine transporter binding sites. (elsevier.com)
  • In 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) intoxicated mice, GM-CSF given prior to MPTP protected nigral dopaminergic neurons coincident with altered microglial morphologies and regulatory T cell (Treg) induction. (elsevier.com)
  • We now report that minocycline, a semisynthetic tetracycline, recently shown to have neuroprotective effects in animal models of stroke/ischemic injury and Huntington's disease, prevents nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurodegeneration in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of Parkinson's disease. (pnas.org)
  • Several neurotoxins induce Parkinson's-like neuropathology in animals, including the neurotoxins 6-hydroxydopamine and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • MPTP selectively destroys dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra, resulting in a Parkinson's-like syndrome in many species, including humans, monkeys, and mice ( 4 , 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • After parenteral administration, MPTP readily enters the brain and is metabolized by astroglia to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP + ) ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • 7 ) demonstrated in vivo that microglial inducible nitric oxide synthase plays a crucial role in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration in the MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease. (pnas.org)
  • The present study demonstrated that the herbal medicines Hepad 1 and 2 protected against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity in C57BL/6 mice and SH-SY5Y cells. (mdpi.com)
  • Additionally, Hepad reduced MPTP-induced oxidative damage by increasing the expression of anti-oxidant defense enzymes (superoxide dismutase and glutathione S-transferase) and downregulating the levels of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 4. (mdpi.com)
  • Furthermore, oral administration of Hepad 1 and 2 attenuated the death of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive substantia nigra neurons that was induced by 20 mg/kg MPTP. (mdpi.com)
  • To explore the effects of HFS on synaptic transmission, we studied the dynamic changes in neuronal activity in vivo , using multielectrode recordings during stimulation in the globus pallidus of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated primates. (jneurosci.org)
  • We sought to determine the neurorescue effects of EGCG and the role of iron in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced PD. (bireme.br)
  • We evaluated the neurorescue effect of EGCG (25 mg/kg, 7 d, oral administration) against MPTP-induced (20 mg/kg, 3 d, intraperitoneal injection) neurodegeneration in C57 male black mice. (bireme.br)
  • Thirty mice weighing ∼25 g were divided into 3 groups: control, MPTP, and MPTP + EGCG. (bireme.br)
  • Emerging evidence points to reactive glia as a pivotal factor in Parkinson's disease (PD) and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-lesioned mouse model of basal ganglia injury, but whether astrocytes and microglia activation may exacerbate dopaminergic (DAergic) neuron demise and/or contribute to DAergic repair is presently the subject of much debate. (wingsforlife.com)
  • Wnt signaling components (including Frizzled-1 [Fzd-1] and β-catenin) were dynamically regulated during MPTP-induced DAergic degeneration and reactive glial activation. (wingsforlife.com)
  • To observe the effects of extracts of Ginkgo biloba leaves (EGb) on the Parkinson disease (PD) models induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and its ion 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+). (chinaphar.com)
  • d-1) was pretreated consecutively for 19 d before MPTP administered and 1 d after MPTP administered. (chinaphar.com)
  • 1-Methyl-4-Phenyl-1,2,3,6-Tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-Induced Damage of Striatal Dopaminergic Fibers Attenuates Subsequent Astrocyte Response to MPTP. (epa.gov)
  • Brain-specific microRNA-124 (miR-124) expression is significantly downregulated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated BV2 cells and in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) model of PD. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) is a neurotoxin that causes dopaminergic neurodegeneration and a mitochondrial deficit reminiscent of PD. (jci.org)
  • A separate group of mice was administered 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) ip as a positive control. (rti.org)
  • A neurotoxin known as MPTP ( 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine), previously found in contaminated heroin , also causes a form of toxin-induced parkinsonism. (britannica.com)
  • MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine), when converted to the active toxin MPP(+) by monoamine oxidase B, can induce parkinsonism in primates. (biologists.org)
  • It is unlikely that the tetrahydropyridine byproducts that may be formed during the synthesis of PEPAP are neurotoxic in the same way as the MPPP byproduct MPTP . (wikipedia.org)
  • It appears that the N -methyl group of MPTP is required for neurotoxic activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • In animal experiments, only MPTP analogues that preserved the N -methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine structure were active as dopaminergic neurotoxins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Structure-activity study of the mechanism of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced neurotoxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • We examined the effects of perindopril on the dopaminergic system in mice after 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) treatment. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The mice received four intraperitoneal injections of MPTP at 1-h intervals. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Administration of perindopril showed dose-dependent neuroprotective effects against striatal dopamine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) depletion 3 days after MPTP treatment. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • We also studied genetic differences among 10 BXD recombinant inbred mouse strains to MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine), a proneurotoxicant (the active agent is the metabolite, MPP+ produced in astrocytes) used to model the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease. (cdc.gov)
  • Here we examine the role of CD95 in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridin (MPTP)-induced neurodegeneration using tissue-specific deletion of CD95 or CD95L. (rupress.org)
  • Accordingly, environmental exposure to neurotoxic pesticides increases the risk of developing PD, and indeed, intoxication with the dopaminergic toxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridin (MPTP) elicits PD in humans, primates, and rodents and represents a well-characterized toxin-based mouse model for PD ( Dauer and Przedborski, 2003 ). (rupress.org)
  • Studies with Macaca fascicularis were performed in control and 1-methyl 4-phenyl 1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) treated animals. (cun.es)
  • The quality of PET images and the decrease of uptake in 6-OHDA and MPTP lesions show that (11)C-(+)DTBZ is an adequate radiotracer for the study of dopaminergic innervation in these animal models. (cun.es)
  • Lesion of the subthalamic nucleus for the alleviation of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced parkinsonism in the primate. (thejns.org)
  • 288 - 292 , 1991 Aziz TZ, Peggs D, Sambrook MA, et al: Lesion of the subthalamic nucleus for the alleviation of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced parkinsonism in the primate. (thejns.org)
  • Recordings were performed in two vervet monkeys before and after the induction of tremulous parkin-sonism by systemic injection of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine hydrochloride (MPTP). (psu.edu)
  • After MPTP treatment, 42.8% (83/194) of the cross-correlograms displayed significant peaks or troughs, or both, and 58.8 % (114/194) displayed significant 3-19 Hz periodic oscillations. (psu.edu)
  • 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) is a neurotoxin that induces a Parkinsonian-type syndrome in animals which. (nel.edu)
  • We recently reported on neurotoxicity of 1-methyl- 4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) in male BXD recombinant inbred mice. (cdc.gov)
  • Male C57BL/6J mice, young (2-month-old) and mature (10-month-old), were used. (nih.gov)
  • ATP levels in the striatum, ventral mesencephalon, and cerebellum of untreated C57BL/6 mice killed by microwave irradiation were 2‐3 times greater than values measured in the brains of animals killed by cervical dislocation. (deepdyve.com)
  • When compared with GFP expression in monocytes in C57BL/6-Tg(CD68-EGFP)1Drg/J mice (Stock No. 026827 ) using a sterile zymosan peritonitis model, CD68-GFP monocytes retain high-level GFP expression as they differentiate to become mature macrophages, while, CX 3 CR1 GFP monocytes downregulate GFP expression on differentiation into macrophages. (jax.org)
  • The donating investigator reported that resulting chimeric animals were backcrossed to C57BL/6 (see SNP note below) for ten generations before being made homozygous. (jax.org)
  • During the backcross, mice were likely bred to a B6.CD45.1 congenic strain (harboring the CD45.1 (Ly5.1 or Ptprc a ) allele rather than the CD45.2 (Ly5.2 or Ptprc b ) allele normally present in C57BL/6 mice). (jax.org)
  • These mice, however, were bred such that they still harbor the expected CD45.2 (Ly5.2 or Ptprc b ) allele normally present in C57BL/6 mice. (jax.org)
  • While the 27 markers throughout the genome suggested a C57BL/6 genetic background, 2 of 5 markers that determine C57BL/6J from C57BL/6N were found to be segregating. (jax.org)
  • In 2013, the same SNP panel analysis showed 4 of 5 markers that determine C57BL/6J from C57BL/6N were segregating. (jax.org)
  • We now demonstrate an additive effect of EcoHIV on dopaminergic neuronal loss and neuroinflammation induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine intoxication. (springer.com)
  • Dopaminergic neuronal survival in the nigrostriatal pathway and DJ-1 expression in the ST was evaluated by immunostaining, and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in the ST was by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (deepdyve.com)
  • Recent in vitro study showed the increase in the phosphorylation levels of Collapsin Response Mediator Protein 2 (CRMP2) is involved in dopaminergic axon degeneration. (elsevier.com)
  • The loss of dopaminergic afferents from the substantia nigra to the striatum and putamen results in extrapyramidal motor dysfunction, including tremor, rigidity, and bradykinesia ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • In parkinsonian monkeys, loss of dopamine leads to the up-regulation of several GRKs ( 2 ), which may temper dopaminergic signaling on initial l -dopa administration and ensure a therapeutic response to the drug. (sciencemag.org)
  • The 2 major neuropathologic findings in Parkinson disease are loss of pigmented dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta and the presence of Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites. (medscape.com)
  • Figure 3: Processes followed and outcomes recorded when taking different 'dopaminergic' cell sources from the laboratory to clinical trials. (nature.com)
  • 1991) Epidermal growth factor enhances striatal dopaminergic parameters in the 1- methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-treated mouse. (scirp.org)
  • parkin flies do not show an age-dependent dopaminergic neuron loss in the brain, even after aging adults for 3 weeks. (biologists.org)
  • 3. A method of increasing the number of dopaminergic neurons in a patient suffering from Parkinson's disease or Parkinsonian disorders comprising the step of infusing the central nervous system of said patient with an amount of PDGF-BB of between 0.5 ng/kg/day to 500 ng/kg/day to increase the number of dopaminergic neurons. (google.com)
  • In contrast, no apparent recovery occurred in mature mice until as long as 3 months after the last injection. (nih.gov)
  • HIV-1-infected humanized mice failed to recapitulate these EcoHIV results suggesting species-specific neural signaling. (springer.com)
  • In the set of behavioral experiments, we found that the administration of 1 mg kg -1 METH to Swiss Webster mice for 5 days resulted in marked locomotor sensitization to a subsequent challenge injection of METH, as well as context-dependent sensitization (conditioning). (elsevier.com)
  • Our results demonstrate that administration of Csn-B to naive mice leads to a modest production of type 1 IFN. (bireme.br)
  • Most homozygous mice given daily injections of cadmium die within 4 days, with most of the males dying within 2 days. (jax.org)
  • use of this technology in aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family member L1 (ALDH1L1) bacTRAP mice can identify genes selectively expressed in astrocytes. (cdc.gov)
  • With unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesions, th-fgfr1 ( tk- ) mice exhibited extensive unilateral nigrostriatal damage with robust spontaneous (non-drug induced) asymmetrical turning and a decreased latency to remain on the accelerating rotarod. (scirp.org)
  • We produced and analyzed mice deficient for Na/Ca exchanger 3 (NCX3), a protein that mediates cellular Ca2+ efflux (forward mode) or Ca2+ influx (reverse mode) and thus controls intracellular Ca2+ concentration. (jci.org)
  • Here we demonstrate that optogenetic interventions that dissociate the activity of two neuronal populations in the GPe, elevating the activity of parvalbumin (PV)-expressing GPe neurons over that of Lim homeobox 6 (Lhx6)-expressing GPe neurons, restores movement in dopamine-depleted mice and attenuates pathological activity of basal ganglia output neurons for hours beyond stimulation. (nature.com)
  • Role of alpha-synuclein in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetra-hydropyridine-induced parkinsonism in mice. (mpg.de)
  • 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine destroys dopamine neurons in explants of rat embryo mesencephalon. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Parkinson's disease (PD) is an age-associated disorder caused by the death of dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia-nigra (SN) and DA and tyrosine-hydroxylase depletion in the striatum [1]. (scirp.org)
  • In vitro studies using primary cultures of mesencephalic and cerebellar granule neurons (CGN) and/or glia demonstrate that minocycline inhibits both 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP + )-mediated iNOS expression and NO-induced neurotoxicity, but MPP + -induced neurotoxicity is inhibited only in the presence of glia. (pnas.org)
  • MPP + is a substrate of the dopamine transporter and is concentrated in nigral dopamine neurons where it inhibits complex I of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, resulting in ATP depletion and subsequent cell death ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • A somewhat more specialized view for the role of NE came to light when it was shown that NE and LC activation can modulate the response properties of sensory neurons following stimulation in a dose-dependent manner [1, 2, 57]. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Programmed cell death pathways have been implicated in the mechanism by which neurons die following brief and prolonged seizures, but the significance of proapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins in the process remains poorly defined. (jci.org)
  • 1 The primary pathology is degeneration of the caudate and putamen 2 with the principal cell loss being of medium spiny GABAergic projection neurons. (bmj.com)
  • Quantification of dopamine neurons, total neurons, phosphorylated α-syn (pS129) aggregates, major histocompatibility complex-II (MHC-II) antigen-presenting microglia, and ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule-1 (Iba-1) immunoreactive microglial soma size was performed in the substantia nigra. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Intrastriatal injection of α-syn PFFs to rats resulted in widespread accumulation of phosphorylated α-syn inclusions in several areas that innervate the striatum followed by significant loss (~ 35%) of substantia nigra pars compacta dopamine neurons within 5-6 months. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In fetal monkey brains, apoptosis in midbrain DA neurons was identified histologically by chromatin clumping in tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cells, and confirmed by TUNEL and active caspase-3 staining. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The nNOS constitutes the principal source of NO in distinct populations of neurons and synaptic spines in the brain and the peripheral nervous system while eNOS can occur in some neurons and iNOS may exist in microglia and astrocytes but usually not in neurons [ 6 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • Activation of microglia, bone marrow-derived macrophage-like cells that function as the resident immune defense system of the brain ( 1 ), is a characteristic feature of most neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, AIDS dementia complex, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis as well as ischemia and posttraumatic brain injury ( 2 - 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • Rather than unveiling their physiological properties and functions in normal brain tissue, the synucleins are mostly exploited as biomarkers for neurodegenerative diseases since the discovery of their involvement in proteinaceous aggregation in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) [ 1 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • These inclusions, subsequently termed Lewy bodies, were distinct both in their morphology and location from inclusions found in other neurodegenerative diseases, e.g. extracellular amyloid plaques of Alzheimer's and intranuclear inclusions of Huntington's disease [ 2 ]. (biochemj.org)
  • 4 5 6 Although there is abundant epidemiological evidence of a protective role for NSAIDs in the development of Alzheimer's disease, there have been relatively few observational studies of NSAID use and the risk of Parkinson's disease. (bmj.com)
  • For example, early sensory deficits that occur in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases that precede major cognitive decline and motor deficits might be related to deficits in noradrenergic signaling [43, 44, 56] due to its facilitatory role in sensory signal discrimination [1, 51, 57-59]. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Substantial evidence now demonstrates that microglia-mediated inflammatory processes play an important role in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD), 3 Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, and the AIDS dementia complex ( 1 , 2 , 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Absorption, excretion and metabolite profiling of methyl-, glucuronyl-, glucosyl- and sulpho-conjugates of quercetin in human plasma and urine after ingestion of onions. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Reactive astrocytes and Wnt/β-catenin signaling link nigrostriatal injury to repair in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine model of Parkinson's disease. (wingsforlife.com)
  • 2009) Effects of GDNF pretreatment on function and survival of transplanted fetal ventral mesencephalic cells in the 6-OHDA rat model of Parkinson's disease. (scirp.org)
  • Neurotoxicity induced by β-amyloid or HIV proteins in mixed CNS cultures depends on the presence and activation of microglia ( 5 , 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • Taken together, our results show that TGF-β1 exerted potent anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties, either through the prevention of the direct activation of microglia by LPS, or indirectly through the inhibition of reactive microgliosis elicited by 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium. (jimmunol.org)
  • Although activation of microglia serves an important protective function in immune surveillance by removing foreign microorganisms ( 4 ), overactivation of microglia followed by overproduction of proinflammatory factors has been shown to result in neuronal death in the brain ( 5 , 6 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • 1. Mechanisms of dual targeting of cytochrome P450 and related proteins to ER and mitochondria and mechanisms of activation of the chimeric N-terminal signal by cAMP and other physiological factors. (upenn.edu)
  • 3. Regulation of cytochrome oxidase gene expression, and modulation of enzyme assembly/activity under chemical and oxidative stress conditions. (upenn.edu)
  • Metabolism of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine by mitochondrion-targeted cytochrome P450 2D6: implications in Parkinson disease. (upenn.edu)
  • AP4A suppressed terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated biotinylated UTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) induced by hypoxia/reperfusion in primary cortical cultures, and reduced both ischemia-induced translocation of mitochondrial cytochrome c and the increase in cytoplasmic caspase-3 activity in vivo. (jove.com)
  • A late (days 6-11) increase in striatal dopamine oxidative metabolism, ascorbic acid oxidative status, and catabolites of high-energy phosphates were observed concomitant with nigral neuron and nigrostriatal glial cell apoptotic death, as revealed by TUNEL, acridine orange, and Hoechst staining, and transmission electron microscopy. (uniss.it)
  • Therefore, our results suggest that Hepad 1 and 2 are useful for treating PD and other disorders associated with neuro-inflammatory, neuro-apoptotic, and neuro-oxidative damage. (mdpi.com)
  • 4. Role of mitochondrial stress signaling in Embryonic Stem Cell function/differentiation, and mammalian mitochondrial transcription under chemical and oxidative stress in ES cells. (upenn.edu)
  • The peak magnitudes of α-syn inclusion formation, MHC-II expression, and reactive microglial morphology were all observed in the SN 2 months following injection and 3 months prior to nigral dopamine neuron loss. (biomedcentral.com)
  • PQ is a commonly used non-selective herbicide that has been epidemiological linked to Parkinson's disease [ 3, 4 ]. (iospress.com)
  • The signs and symptoms of Parkinson's disease can be treated with drugs that increase or enhance dopamine function, but these drugs fail to alter disease progression and most produce undesirable side effects, like motor fluctuations and dyskinesias ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • It seems realistic that such data will soon be used as complementary information for treatment decisions in diseases associated with movement deficits, such as Parkinson's disease (PD) ( 6 ) and restless legs syndrome (RLS). (frontiersin.org)
  • In that North American multicenter Phase 2 trial, 80 people newly diagnosed with Parkinson's disease received one of three daily doses (300, 600, or 1200 mg) of CoQ10 or a placebo. (alzforum.org)
  • Approximately a century ago, Friedrich Lewy made a key discovery towards the understanding of Parkinson's disease (PD) by identifying and describing large cytoplasmic proteinacious inclusions in brains of patients who had died with the disease [ 1 ]. (biochemj.org)
  • 1 Microglial reaction 2 and upregulation of inflammatory mediators 3 are evident in the brains of patients with Parkinson's disease, and a variety of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) provide neuroprotection in animal models. (bmj.com)
  • In this study, using the well-established LPS and the 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium-mediated models of Parkinson's disease, we demonstrate that TGF-β1 exerts significant neuroprotection in both models via its anti-inflammatory properties. (jimmunol.org)
  • 1. A method of treating a patient with Parkinson's disease or Parkinsonian disorders comprising administering PDGF-BB in vivo directly to the central nervous system of said patient, wherein the PDGF-BB is administered in an amount of between 0.5 ng/kg/day to 500 ng/kg/day. (google.com)
  • The neuroprotective effect of minocycline is associated with marked reductions in inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and caspase 1 expression. (pnas.org)
  • Hepad 1 and 2 remarkably alleviated the enhanced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, macrophage-1, and phosphorylated iκB-α) and apoptotic signals (Bcl-2-associated X protein, caspase-3, and poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase-1). (mdpi.com)
  • 1 Neurodegenerative Diseases Research Centre, King's College London, England. (nih.gov)
  • α-Synucleinopathies are severe neurodegenerative disorders caused by abnormal accumulation and subsequent aggregation of insoluble α-Syn, a small and intrinsically unfolded cytosolic protein localized at synaptic terminals, in structures called Lewy bodies (LBs) in neuronal or glial cells [ 2 , 3 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • Furthermore, we will consider how both the LC proper and forebrain noradrenergic transmission are known to change in some disease states characterized by disordered cognition and how behavioral deficits in a multitude of neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases might allude to dysfunction of the noradrenergic system (Table 1). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The administration of melatonin (10 mg kg -1 ) before each of the three injections of the neurotoxic agents (on day 1), and thereafter for two additional days, afforded a full protection against METH-induced depletion of dopamine and its metabolites and dopamine transporter binding sites. (elsevier.com)
  • Dopamine depletion does not protect against acute 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine toxicity in vivo. (wustl.edu)
  • Healthy control animals (n = 10) and the effect of 6-hydroxidopamine (6-OHDA) neurotoxic were studied in rats. (cun.es)
  • Chai Q, Jovasevic V, Malikov V, Sabo Y, Morham S, Walsh D, Naghavi MH (2017) HIV-1 counteracts an innate restriction by amyloid precursor protein resulting in neurodegeneration. (springer.com)
  • Toxicol Lett ;279 Suppl 1:54-74, 2017 Oct 20. (bireme.br)
  • 2017 Jun 1;546(7656):107-112. (nih.gov)
  • Blots of striatal homogenates probed with phosphorylation-state specific antibodies, demonstrated significant changes in activated forms ERK 1/2, JNK, MEK1/2, p70 S6 kinase, CREB, and Stat3 as early as one hour after insult, with the largest activation at time points (6 and 12h) preceding the peak induction of GFAP (48h post treatment). (cdc.gov)
  • The results, published March 24 in JAMA Neurology, come on the heels of a promising Phase 2 study, but also amid negative outcomes from other small trials of this compound. (alzforum.org)
  • Olson, L. & Seiger, A. Brain tissue transplanted to the anterior chamber of the eye: 2. (nature.com)
  • Diadenosine Tetraphosphate Protects Against Injuries Induced by Ischemia and 6-hydroxydopamine in Rat Brain The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. (jove.com)
  • Brain Research Reviews, 27, 1-39. (scirp.org)
  • Two types of TH mRNA corresponding to type 1 and type 2 were detected in adrenal gland and brain of two species of primate. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Identification of differentiation-associated brain-specific phosphate transporter as a second vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT 2). (mpg.de)
  • The leukemic oncogene tal-2 is expressed in the developing mouse brain. (mpg.de)
  • 2. Characterization of a novel mitochondria-to-nucleus stress signaling in cells subjected to mitochondrial specific genetic, and or, metabolic stress, which operates through altered [Ca2+]c, and the role of mitochondrial stress signaling in tumor progression and metastasis. (upenn.edu)
  • Airas L, Paavilainen T, Marttila RJ, Rinne J (2008) Methanol intoxication-induced nigrostriatal dysfunction detected using 6-[ 18 F]fluoro-L-dopa PET. (springer.com)
  • Genes to Cells , 24 (1), 31-40. (elsevier.com)
  • The discovery of mutations in the α-synuclein gene, which encodes the main protein misfolded in PD aggregates, together with mutations in genes encoding ubiquitin regulatory molecules, including PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1), Parkin, and FBX07, has provided an opportunity to dissect out the molecular basis of ubiquitin signalling disruption in PD, and this knowledge will be critical for developing novel therapeutic strategies in PD that target the ubiquitin system. (biochemj.org)
  • The 5'-flanking of the genes of human TH, DBH and PNMT contain … More possible transcription regulatory elements such as cyclic AMP responsive element (CRE) (TH, DBH, PNMT), glucocorticoid responsive element (GRE) (DBH, PNMT), and Sp 1 (TH, PNMT) binding site. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Another compound that has been used to induce experimental parkinsonism is 1,1 ′ di methyl-4,4 ′ -bipyridium dichloride (paraquat, PQ). (iospress.com)
  • Blocking of FKHR/FKHRL-1 dephosphorylation after seizures improved hippocampal neuronal survival in vivo, and Bim antisense oligonucleotides were neuroprotective against seizures in vitro. (jci.org)
  • After discovery of nitric oxide as a biological mediator many researchers have focused on the importance of nitric oxide in the physiology of the nervous system [ 1 - 3 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • To respond efficiently to LPS, TLR4 requires an accessory protein, MD-2, that binds to the extracellular domain of TLR4 and enhances its surface expression ( 13 ). (pnas.org)
  • BV2 cells were activated by exposure to LPS, and the expression levels of miR-124, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 3 (MEKK3), and the nuclear factor of kappaB (NF-κB) p-p65 were analysed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A targeting vector containing an Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (EGFP, Clontech) cDNA sequence, loxP -flanked neomycin resistance gene, herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene, and SV40 polyadenylation site sequence was used to disrupt the first 390 bp of exon 2. (jax.org)
  • Analysis of fractalkine receptor CX(3)CR1 function by targeted deletion and green fluorescent protein reporter gene insertion. (jax.org)
  • 3 Neither the function of the normal protein product, huntingtin, nor the process whereby an expanded polyglutamine repeat leads to selective neuronal pathology, is yet understood. (bmj.com)
  • The effect of electroaucpuncture for 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced proteomic changes in the mouse striatum. (abcam.com)
  • It is related to the drug MPPP , with an N -phenethyl group in place of the N - methyl substitution and an acetate ester rather than propionate . (wikipedia.org)
  • There is evidence that the clandestine manufacturers who produced MPPP in the 1970s, including the tainted batch, went on to produce PEPAP [4] in an attempt to avoid using watched precursors or drug intermediates that were illegal. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2. A. Moran, I. Bar-Gad / Journal of Neuroscience Methods 186 (2010) 116-129 117 ern multi-electrode equipment (Bartho et al. (slideshare.net)
  • 2018 Apr;1864(4 Pt A):1060-1071. (nih.gov)
  • The Neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine induces apoptosis in mouse nigrostriatal glia. (uniss.it)
  • 2, 3 Although some studies of chronically treated rodents with nigrostriatal lesions support the notion that long term treatment causes these changes in response to levodopa, 4 other observations indicate that severity of disease is an additional factor. (bmj.com)
  • Supersensitivity of the D1 ( 5 ) and D2 ( 6 , 7 ) dopamine receptors is thought to be among the molecular mechanisms underlying LID. (sciencemag.org)
  • Molecular cloning and functional characterization of human vesicular glutamate transporter 3. (mpg.de)
  • [1] As a result, many sources state that this is the defining feature of competitive inhibitors. (wikipedia.org)
  • [1] For example, allosteric inhibitors may display competitive, non-competitive , or uncompetitive inhibition. (wikipedia.org)
  • [2] Both cocaine and methadone are also CYP2D6 inhibitors and could, in theory, potentiate the effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genetic defect involves an expansion of CAG repeats in exon 1 of a previously unknown gene, htt , located on the short arm of chromosome 4. (bmj.com)
  • N -methylpyridinium-MPP + and MPDP + - and N -methyl- β -carbolinium- β C + -) by MAO and heme peroxidases and the rate of inactivation (i.e. (hindawi.com)
  • Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are the most common causes of late onset autosomal dominant form of Parkinson disease (PD). (elsevier.com)
  • Parkinson disease (PD) is one of the most common neurologic disorders, affecting approximately 1% of individuals older than 60 years and causing progressive disability that can be slowed, but not halted, by treatment. (medscape.com)
  • Parkinson disease is recognized as one of the most common neurologic disorders, affecting approximately 1% of individuals older than 60 years. (medscape.com)
  • Figure 4: Timeline of stem cell discoveries and their application to Parkinson disease. (nature.com)
  • [1] Parkinson J. An essay on the shaking palsy. (bmj.com)
  • [1] This is accomplished by blocking the binding site of the substrate - the active site - by some means. (wikipedia.org)
  • [3] When the substrate is of higher concentration than that of the competitive inhibitor, it is more likely that the substrate will come into contact with the enzyme's active site than the inhibitor. (wikipedia.org)
  • [10] Competitive substrates, such as 4-substituted benzaldehydes for mushrooms, compete with the substrate lowering the amount of the monophenols that bind. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1 However, as the disease progresses and long term treatment continues, the behavioural response to levodopa changes. (bmj.com)
  • In vivo absorption and metabolism of leptosperin and methyl syringate, abundantly present in manuka honey. (semanticscholar.org)