A dopaminergic neurotoxic compound which produces irreversible clinical, chemical, and pathological alterations that mimic those found in Parkinson disease.
A condition caused by the neurotoxin MPTP which causes selective destruction of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Clinical features include irreversible parkinsonian signs including rigidity and bradykinesia (PARKINSON DISEASE, SECONDARY). MPTP toxicity is also used as an animal model for the study of PARKINSON DISEASE. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1072; Neurology 1986 Feb;36(2):250-8)
A group of disorders which feature impaired motor control characterized by bradykinesia, MUSCLE RIGIDITY; TREMOR; and postural instability. Parkinsonian diseases are generally divided into primary parkinsonism (see PARKINSON DISEASE), secondary parkinsonism (see PARKINSON DISEASE, SECONDARY) and inherited forms. These conditions are associated with dysfunction of dopaminergic or closely related motor integration neuronal pathways in the BASAL GANGLIA.
Conditions which feature clinical manifestations resembling primary Parkinson disease that are caused by a known or suspected condition. Examples include parkinsonism caused by vascular injury, drugs, trauma, toxin exposure, neoplasms, infections and degenerative or hereditary conditions. Clinical features may include bradykinesia, rigidity, parkinsonian gait, and masked facies. In general, tremor is less prominent in secondary parkinsonism than in the primary form. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch38, pp39-42)
An active neurotoxic metabolite of 1-METHYL-4-PHENYL-1,2,3,6-TETRAHYDROPYRIDINE. The compound reduces dopamine levels, inhibits the biosynthesis of catecholamines, depletes cardiac norepinephrine and inactivates tyrosine hydroxylase. These and other toxic effects lead to cessation of oxidative phosphorylation, ATP depletion, and cell death. The compound, which is related to PARAQUAT, has also been used as an herbicide.
The black substance in the ventral midbrain or the nucleus of cells containing the black substance. These cells produce DOPAMINE, an important neurotransmitter in regulation of the sensorimotor system and mood. The dark colored MELANIN is a by-product of dopamine synthesis.
Any drugs that are used for their effects on dopamine receptors, on the life cycle of dopamine, or on the survival of dopaminergic neurons.
Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.
Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is DOPAMINE.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC
A sporadic neurodegenerative disease with onset in middle-age characterized clinically by Parkinsonian features (e.g., MUSCLE RIGIDITY; HYPOKINESIA; stooped posture) and HYPOTENSION. This condition is considered a clinical variant of MULTIPLE SYSTEM ATROPHY. Pathologic features include a prominent loss of neurons in the zona compacta of the SUBSTANTIA NIGRA and PUTAMEN. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1075-6)
A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. It is a flavin-containing enzyme that is localized in mitochondrial membranes, whether in nerve terminals, the liver, or other organs. Monoamine oxidase is important in regulating the metabolic degradation of catecholamines and serotonin in neural or target tissues. Hepatic monoamine oxidase has a crucial defensive role in inactivating circulating monoamines or those, such as tyramine, that originate in the gut and are absorbed into the portal circulation. (From Goodman and Gilman's, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p415) EC
A deaminated metabolite of LEVODOPA.
The naturally occurring form of DIHYDROXYPHENYLALANINE and the immediate precursor of DOPAMINE. Unlike dopamine itself, it can be taken orally and crosses the blood-brain barrier. It is rapidly taken up by dopaminergic neurons and converted to DOPAMINE. It is used for the treatment of PARKINSONIAN DISORDERS and is usually given with agents that inhibit its conversion to dopamine outside of the central nervous system.
A selective, irreversible inhibitor of Type B monoamine oxidase. It is used in newly diagnosed patients with Parkinson's disease. It may slow progression of the clinical disease and delay the requirement for levodopa therapy. It also may be given with levodopa upon onset of disability. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p385) The compound without isomeric designation is Deprenyl.
Agents used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. The most commonly used drugs act on the dopaminergic system in the striatum and basal ganglia or are centrally acting muscarinic antagonists.
Pyridinium compounds are organic salts formed when pyridine, a basic heterocyclic organic compound, reacts with acids, resulting in a positively charged nitrogen atom surrounded by aromatic rings.
Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Homovanillic acid (HVA) is a major metabolite of dopamine, formed in the body through the catabolic breakdown of this neurotransmitter by the enzyme catechol-O-methyltransferase and then further metabolized in the liver before excretion in urine.
The representation of the phylogenetically oldest part of the corpus striatum called the paleostriatum. It forms the smaller, more medial part of the lentiform nucleus.
A genus of the family CEBIDAE consisting of four species: S. boliviensis, S. orstedii (red-backed squirrel monkey), S. sciureus (common squirrel monkey), and S. ustus. They inhabit tropical rain forests in Central and South America. S. sciureus is used extensively in research studies.
The phylogenetically newer part of the CORPUS STRIATUM consisting of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and PUTAMEN. It is often called simply the striatum.
Inbred C57BL mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, resulting in a high degree of genetic uniformity and homozygosity, making them widely used for biomedical research, including studies on genetics, immunology, cancer, and neuroscience.
Tricyclic anorexigenic agent unrelated to and less toxic than AMPHETAMINE, but with some similar side effects. It inhibits uptake of catecholamines and blocks the binding of cocaine to the dopamine uptake transporter.
A chemically heterogeneous group of drugs that have in common the ability to block oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. (From Gilman, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p414)
Abnormal involuntary movements which primarily affect the extremities, trunk, or jaw that occur as a manifestation of an underlying disease process. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent episodes of dyskinesia as a primary manifestation of disease may be referred to as dyskinesia syndromes (see MOVEMENT DISORDERS). Dyskinesias are also a relatively common manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES.
Sulfur compounds in which the sulfur atom is attached to three organic radicals and an electronegative element or radical.
Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of dopaminergic neurons. They remove DOPAMINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS and are the target of DOPAMINE UPTAKE INHIBITORS.
Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.
Noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressants (NaSSAs), often referred to as "nortropanes," are a class of drugs that function by selectively binding to and partially blocking the α2-adrenergic receptors and 5-HT2 receptors, thereby increasing the concentration of norepinephrine and serotonin in the synaptic cleft, which helps alleviate symptoms of depression.
A plant genus of the family OROBANCHACEAE. Members contain phenylethanoid glycosides.
Abnormal movements, including HYPERKINESIS; HYPOKINESIA; TREMOR; and DYSTONIA, associated with the use of certain medications or drugs. Muscles of the face, trunk, neck, and extremities are most commonly affected. Tardive dyskinesia refers to abnormal hyperkinetic movements of the muscles of the face, tongue, and neck associated with the use of neuroleptic agents (see ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1199)
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
The largest and most lateral of the BASAL GANGLIA lying between the lateral medullary lamina of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and the EXTERNAL CAPSULE. It is part of the neostriatum and forms part of the LENTIFORM NUCLEUS along with the GLOBUS PALLIDUS.
A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.
An antidepressive agent and monoamine oxidase inhibitor related to PARGYLINE.
The middle of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain. Without further subdivision, midbrain develops into a short, constricted portion connecting the PONS and the DIENCEPHALON. Midbrain contains two major parts, the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI and the ventral TEGMENTUM MESENCEPHALI, housing components of auditory, visual, and other sensorimoter systems.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.
A family of vesicular amine transporter proteins that catalyze the transport and storage of CATECHOLAMINES and indolamines into SECRETORY VESICLES.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A genus of the subfamily CALLITRICHINAE occurring in forests of Brazil and Bolivia and containing seventeen species.
Integral membrane proteins of the LIPID BILAYER of SECRETORY VESICLES that catalyze transport and storage of biogenic amine NEUROTRANSMITTERS such as ACETYLCHOLINE; SEROTONIN; MELATONIN; HISTAMINE; and CATECHOLAMINES. The transporters exchange vesicular protons for cytoplasmic neurotransmitters.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.
The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.
Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.
Drugs that bind to and activate dopamine receptors.
A subtype of dopamine D2 receptors that are highly expressed in the LIMBIC SYSTEM of the brain.
A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.
Peptide neurotoxins from the marine fish-hunting snails of the genus CONUS. They contain 13 to 29 amino acids which are strongly basic and are highly cross-linked by disulfide bonds. There are three types of conotoxins, omega-, alpha-, and mu-. OMEGA-CONOTOXINS inhibit voltage-activated entry of calcium into the presynaptic membrane and therefore the release of ACETYLCHOLINE. Alpha-conotoxins inhibit the postsynaptic acetylcholine receptor. Mu-conotoxins prevent the generation of muscle action potentials. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The founding member of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family. It was originally characterized as a NERVE GROWTH FACTOR promoting the survival of MIDBRAIN dopaminergic NEURONS, and it has been studied as a potential treatment for PARKINSON DISEASE.
A botanical insecticide that is an inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The methyl homolog of parathion. An effective, but highly toxic, organothiophosphate insecticide and cholinesterase inhibitor.
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Ethers that are linked to a benzene ring structure.
Lens-shaped structure on the inner aspect of the INTERNAL CAPSULE. The SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS and pathways traversing this region are concerned with the integration of somatic motor function.
A synuclein that is a major component of LEWY BODIES that plays a role in neurodegeneration and neuroprotection.
A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D2-class receptor genes contain INTRONS, and the receptors inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
Therapy for MOVEMENT DISORDERS, especially PARKINSON DISEASE, that applies electricity via stereotactic implantation of ELECTRODES in specific areas of the BRAIN such as the THALAMUS. The electrodes are attached to a neurostimulator placed subcutaneously.
A CELL LINE derived from a PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA of the rat ADRENAL MEDULLA. PC12 cells stop dividing and undergo terminal differentiation when treated with NERVE GROWTH FACTOR, making the line a useful model system for NERVE CELL differentiation.
A neurotransmitter analogue that depletes noradrenergic stores in nerve endings and induces a reduction of dopamine levels in the brain. Its mechanism of action is related to the production of cytolytic free-radicals.
'Nerve tissue proteins' are specialized proteins found within the nervous system's biological tissue, including neurofilaments, neuronal cytoskeletal proteins, and neural cell adhesion molecules, which facilitate structural support, intracellular communication, and synaptic connectivity essential for proper neurological function.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).

1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) is a chemical compound that can cause permanent parkinsonian symptoms. It is not a medication or a treatment, but rather a toxin that can damage the dopamine-producing neurons in the brain, leading to symptoms similar to those seen in Parkinson's disease.

MPTP itself is not harmful, but it is metabolized in the body into a toxic compound called MPP+, which accumulates in and damages dopaminergic neurons. MPTP was discovered in the 1980s when a group of drug users in California developed parkinsonian symptoms after injecting a heroin-like substance contaminated with MPTP.

Since then, MPTP has been used as a research tool to study Parkinson's disease and develop new treatments. However, it is not used clinically and should be handled with caution due to its toxicity.

Methyl-phenyl-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) poisoning is a rare neurological disorder that occurs due to the accidental exposure or intentional intake of MPTP, a chemical compound that can cause permanent parkinsonian symptoms. MPTP is metabolized into MPP+, which selectively destroys dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta region of the brain, leading to Parkinson's disease-like features such as rigidity, bradykinesia, resting tremors, and postural instability. MPTP poisoning can be a model for understanding Parkinson's disease pathophysiology and developing potential treatments.

Parkinsonian disorders are a group of neurological conditions characterized by motor symptoms such as bradykinesia (slowness of movement), rigidity, resting tremor, and postural instability. These symptoms are caused by the degeneration of dopamine-producing neurons in the brain, particularly in the substantia nigra pars compacta.

The most common Parkinsonian disorder is Parkinson's disease (PD), which is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder. However, there are also several other secondary Parkinsonian disorders, including:

1. Drug-induced parkinsonism: This is caused by the use of certain medications, such as antipsychotics and metoclopramide.
2. Vascular parkinsonism: This is caused by small vessel disease in the brain, which can lead to similar symptoms as PD.
3. Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB): This is a type of dementia that shares some features with PD, such as the presence of alpha-synuclein protein clumps called Lewy bodies.
4. Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP): This is a rare brain disorder that affects movement, gait, and eye movements.
5. Multiple system atrophy (MSA): This is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that affects multiple systems in the body, including the autonomic nervous system, motor system, and cerebellum.
6. Corticobasal degeneration (CBD): This is a rare neurological disorder that affects both movement and cognition.

It's important to note that while these disorders share some symptoms with PD, they have different underlying causes and may require different treatments.

Secondary Parkinson's disease, also known as acquired or symptomatic Parkinsonism, is a clinical syndrome characterized by the signs and symptoms of classic Parkinson's disease (tremor at rest, rigidity, bradykinesia, and postural instability) but caused by a known secondary cause. These causes can include various conditions such as brain injuries, infections, drugs or toxins, metabolic disorders, and vascular damage. The underlying pathology of secondary Parkinson's disease is different from that of classic Parkinson's disease, which is primarily due to the degeneration of dopamine-producing neurons in a specific area of the brain called the substantia nigra pars compacta.

1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) is a neurotoxic compound that is widely used in scientific research to study Parkinson's disease and other neurological disorders. MPP+ is an ionic form of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), which is a lipophilic compound that can cross the blood-brain barrier and be converted to MPP+ by monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) in glial cells.

MPP+ is taken up by dopaminergic neurons through the dopamine transporter (DAT), where it inhibits complex I of the electron transport chain, leading to mitochondrial dysfunction and energy depletion. This results in the death of dopaminergic neurons, which are the primary cells affected in Parkinson's disease.

MPP+ has been used as a model compound to study the mechanisms of neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease and other neurological disorders, and it has also been used in the development of potential therapeutic strategies for these conditions.

The Substantia Nigra is a region in the midbrain that plays a crucial role in movement control and reward processing. It is composed of two parts: the pars compacta and the pars reticulata. The pars compacta contains dopamine-producing neurons, whose loss or degeneration is associated with Parkinson's disease, leading to motor symptoms such as tremors, rigidity, and bradykinesia.

In summary, Substantia Nigra is a brain structure that contains dopamine-producing cells and is involved in movement control and reward processing. Its dysfunction or degeneration can lead to neurological disorders like Parkinson's disease.

Dopamine agents are medications that act on dopamine receptors in the brain. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter, a chemical messenger that transmits signals in the brain and other areas of the body. It plays important roles in many functions, including movement, motivation, emotion, and cognition.

Dopamine agents can be classified into several categories based on their mechanism of action:

1. Dopamine agonists: These medications bind to dopamine receptors and mimic the effects of dopamine. They are used to treat conditions such as Parkinson's disease, restless legs syndrome, and certain types of dopamine-responsive dystonia. Examples include pramipexole, ropinirole, and rotigotine.
2. Dopamine precursors: These medications provide the building blocks for the body to produce dopamine. Levodopa is a commonly used dopamine precursor that is converted to dopamine in the brain. It is often used in combination with carbidopa, which helps to prevent levodopa from being broken down before it reaches the brain.
3. Dopamine antagonists: These medications block the action of dopamine at its receptors. They are used to treat conditions such as schizophrenia and certain types of nausea and vomiting. Examples include haloperidol, risperidone, and metoclopramide.
4. Dopamine reuptake inhibitors: These medications increase the amount of dopamine available in the synapse (the space between two neurons) by preventing its reuptake into the presynaptic neuron. They are used to treat conditions such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depression. Examples include bupropion and nomifensine.
5. Dopamine release inhibitors: These medications prevent the release of dopamine from presynaptic neurons. They are used to treat conditions such as Tourette's syndrome and certain types of chronic pain. Examples include tetrabenazine and deutetrabenazine.

It is important to note that dopamine agents can have significant side effects, including addiction, movement disorders, and psychiatric symptoms. Therefore, they should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Neurotoxins are substances that are poisonous or destructive to nerve cells (neurons) and the nervous system. They can cause damage by destroying neurons, disrupting communication between neurons, or interfering with the normal functioning of the nervous system. Neurotoxins can be produced naturally by certain organisms, such as bacteria, plants, and animals, or they can be synthetic compounds created in a laboratory. Examples of neurotoxins include botulinum toxin (found in botulism), tetrodotoxin (found in pufferfish), and heavy metals like lead and mercury. Neurotoxic effects can range from mild symptoms such as headaches, muscle weakness, and tremors, to more severe symptoms such as paralysis, seizures, and cognitive impairment. Long-term exposure to neurotoxins can lead to chronic neurological conditions and other health problems.

Dopamine is a type of neurotransmitter, which is a chemical messenger that transmits signals in the brain and nervous system. It plays several important roles in the body, including:

* Regulation of movement and coordination
* Modulation of mood and motivation
* Control of the reward and pleasure centers of the brain
* Regulation of muscle tone
* Involvement in memory and attention

Dopamine is produced in several areas of the brain, including the substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area. It is released by neurons (nerve cells) and binds to specific receptors on other neurons, where it can either excite or inhibit their activity.

Abnormalities in dopamine signaling have been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric conditions, including Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and addiction.

The corpus striatum is a part of the brain that plays a crucial role in movement, learning, and cognition. It consists of two structures called the caudate nucleus and the putamen, which are surrounded by the external and internal segments of the globus pallidus. Together, these structures form the basal ganglia, a group of interconnected neurons that help regulate voluntary movement.

The corpus striatum receives input from various parts of the brain, including the cerebral cortex, thalamus, and other brainstem nuclei. It processes this information and sends output to the globus pallidus and substantia nigra, which then project to the thalamus and back to the cerebral cortex. This feedback loop helps coordinate and fine-tune movements, allowing for smooth and coordinated actions.

Damage to the corpus striatum can result in movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and dystonia. These conditions are characterized by abnormal involuntary movements, muscle stiffness, and difficulty initiating or controlling voluntary movements.

Dopaminergic neurons are a type of specialized brain cells that produce, synthesize, and release the neurotransmitter dopamine. These neurons play crucial roles in various brain functions, including motivation, reward processing, motor control, and cognition. They are primarily located in several regions of the midbrain, such as the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and the ventral tegmental area (VTA).

Dopaminergic neurons have a unique physiology characterized by their ability to generate slow, irregular electrical signals called pacemaker activity. This distinctive firing pattern allows dopamine to be released in a controlled manner, which is essential for proper brain function.

The degeneration and loss of dopaminergic neurons in the SNc are associated with Parkinson's disease, a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor impairments such as tremors, rigidity, and bradykinesia (slowness of movement). The reduction in dopamine levels caused by this degeneration leads to an imbalance in the brain's neural circuitry, resulting in the characteristic symptoms of Parkinson's disease.

Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase (also known as Tyrosinase or Tyrosine hydroxylase) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the synthesis of catecholamines, which are neurotransmitters and hormones in the body. This enzyme catalyzes the conversion of the amino acid L-tyrosine to 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) by adding a hydroxyl group to the 3rd carbon atom of the tyrosine molecule.

The reaction is as follows:

L-Tyrosine + O2 + pterin (co-factor) -> L-DOPA + pterin (oxidized) + H2O

This enzyme requires molecular oxygen and a co-factor such as tetrahydrobiopterin to carry out the reaction. Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase is found in various tissues, including the brain and adrenal glands, where it helps regulate the production of catecholamines like dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine. Dysregulation of this enzyme has been implicated in several neurological disorders, such as Parkinson's disease.

Striatonigral degeneration (SND) is a type of neurodegenerative disorder that affects the basal ganglia, specifically the striatum and the substantia nigra. It is also known as "striatonigral degeneration with olivopontocerebellar atrophy" or "multiple system atrophy-parkinsonian type (MSA-P)".

SND is characterized by the progressive loss of nerve cells in the striatum, which receives input from the cerebral cortex and sends output to the substantia nigra. This results in a decrease in the neurotransmitter dopamine, leading to symptoms similar to those seen in Parkinson's disease (PD), such as stiffness, slowness of movement, rigidity, and tremors.

However, unlike PD, SND is also associated with degeneration of the olivopontocerebellar system, which can lead to additional symptoms such as ataxia, dysarthria, and oculomotor abnormalities. The exact cause of striatonigral degeneration is unknown, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Currently, there is no cure for the condition, and treatment is focused on managing the symptoms.

Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that affects movement. It is characterized by the death of dopamine-producing cells in the brain, specifically in an area called the substantia nigra. The loss of these cells leads to a decrease in dopamine levels, which results in the motor symptoms associated with Parkinson's disease. These symptoms can include tremors at rest, stiffness or rigidity of the limbs and trunk, bradykinesia (slowness of movement), and postural instability (impaired balance and coordination). In addition to these motor symptoms, non-motor symptoms such as cognitive impairment, depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbances are also common in people with Parkinson's disease. The exact cause of Parkinson's disease is unknown, but it is thought to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors. There is currently no cure for Parkinson's disease, but medications and therapies can help manage the symptoms and improve quality of life.

Monoamine oxidase (MAO) is an enzyme found on the outer membrane of mitochondria in cells throughout the body, but primarily in the gastrointestinal tract, liver, and central nervous system. It plays a crucial role in the metabolism of neurotransmitters and dietary amines by catalyzing the oxidative deamination of monoamines. This enzyme exists in two forms: MAO-A and MAO-B, each with distinct substrate preferences and tissue distributions.

MAO-A preferentially metabolizes serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine, while MAO-B is mainly responsible for breaking down phenethylamines and benzylamines, as well as dopamine in some cases. Inhibition of these enzymes can lead to increased neurotransmitter levels in the synaptic cleft, which has implications for various psychiatric and neurological conditions, such as depression and Parkinson's disease. However, MAO inhibitors must be used with caution due to their potential to cause serious adverse effects, including hypertensive crises, when combined with certain foods or medications containing dietary amines or sympathomimetic agents.

3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic Acid (3,4-DOPAC) is a major metabolite of dopamine, which is a neurotransmitter in the brain. Dopamine is metabolized by the enzyme monoamine oxidase to form dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde, which is then further metabolized to 3,4-DOPAC by the enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase.

3,4-DOPAC is found in the urine and can be used as a marker for dopamine turnover in the brain. Changes in the levels of 3,4-DOPAC have been associated with various neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia. Additionally, 3,4-DOPAC has been shown to have antioxidant properties and may play a role in protecting against oxidative stress in the brain.

Levodopa, also known as L-dopa, is a medication used primarily in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. It is a direct precursor to the neurotransmitter dopamine and works by being converted into dopamine in the brain, helping to restore the balance between dopamine and other neurotransmitters. This helps alleviate symptoms such as stiffness, tremors, spasms, and poor muscle control. Levodopa is often combined with carbidopa (a peripheral decarboxylase inhibitor) to prevent the conversion of levodopa to dopamine outside of the brain, reducing side effects like nausea and vomiting.

Selegiline is a selective, irreversible MAO-B inhibitor, which is primarily used in the clinical management of Parkinson's disease. It works by blocking the action of monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B), an enzyme responsible for breaking down dopamine, a neurotransmitter involved in movement regulation. By inhibiting MAO-B, selegiline increases the availability of dopamine in the brain, thereby helping to alleviate symptoms of Parkinson's disease such as stiffness, tremors, and spasms.

Selegiline is also available under the brand name Eldepryl, Zelapar, and Emsam. In addition to its use in Parkinson's disease, selegiline has been explored for its potential benefits in treating depression, dementia, and other neurological disorders. However, its use in these conditions is still considered off-label and requires careful consideration of the potential risks and benefits.

It is important to note that MAO inhibitors like selegiline can have serious interactions with certain foods and medications, particularly those containing tyramine, which can lead to a dangerous increase in blood pressure (hypertensive crisis). Therefore, it is crucial to follow strict dietary restrictions and medication guidelines when taking selegiline or any other MAO inhibitor.

Antiparkinson agents are a class of medications used to treat the symptoms of Parkinson's disease and related disorders. These agents work by increasing the levels or activity of dopamine, a neurotransmitter in the brain that is responsible for regulating movement and coordination.

There are several types of antiparkinson agents, including:

1. Levodopa: This is the most effective treatment for Parkinson's disease. It is converted to dopamine in the brain and helps to replace the missing dopamine in people with Parkinson's.
2. Dopamine agonists: These medications mimic the effects of dopamine in the brain and can be used alone or in combination with levodopa. Examples include pramipexole, ropinirole, and rotigotine.
3. Monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) inhibitors: These medications block the breakdown of dopamine in the brain and can help to increase its levels. Examples include selegiline and rasagiline.
4. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitors: These medications block the breakdown of levodopa in the body, allowing it to reach the brain in higher concentrations. Examples include entacapone and tolcapone.
5. Anticholinergic agents: These medications block the action of acetylcholine, another neurotransmitter that can contribute to tremors and muscle stiffness in Parkinson's disease. Examples include trihexyphenidyl and benztropine.

It is important to note that antiparkinson agents can have side effects, and their use should be carefully monitored by a healthcare professional. The choice of medication will depend on the individual patient's symptoms, age, overall health, and other factors.

Pyridinium compounds are organic salts that contain a positively charged pyridinium ion. Pyridinium is a type of cation that forms when pyridine, a basic heterocyclic organic compound, undergoes protonation. The nitrogen atom in the pyridine ring accepts a proton (H+) and becomes positively charged, forming the pyridinium ion.

Pyridinium compounds have the general structure of C5H5NH+X-, where X- is an anion or negatively charged ion. These compounds are often used in research and industry, including as catalysts, intermediates in chemical synthesis, and in pharmaceuticals. Some pyridinium compounds have been studied for their potential therapeutic uses, such as in the treatment of bacterial infections or cancer. However, it is important to note that some pyridinium compounds can also be toxic or reactive, so they must be handled with care.

Neuroprotective agents are substances that protect neurons or nerve cells from damage, degeneration, or death caused by various factors such as trauma, inflammation, oxidative stress, or excitotoxicity. These agents work through different mechanisms, including reducing the production of free radicals, inhibiting the release of glutamate (a neurotransmitter that can cause cell damage in high concentrations), promoting the growth and survival of neurons, and preventing apoptosis (programmed cell death). Neuroprotective agents have been studied for their potential to treat various neurological disorders, including stroke, traumatic brain injury, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and multiple sclerosis. However, more research is needed to fully understand their mechanisms of action and to develop effective therapies.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

Homovanillic acid (HVA) is a major metabolite of dopamine, a neurotransmitter in the human body. It is formed in the body when an enzyme called catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) breaks down dopamine. HVA can be measured in body fluids such as urine, cerebrospinal fluid, and plasma to assess the activity of dopamine and the integrity of the dopaminergic system. Increased levels of HVA are associated with certain neurological disorders, including Parkinson's disease, while decreased levels may indicate dopamine deficiency or other conditions affecting the nervous system.

The Globus Pallidus is a structure in the brain that is part of the basal ganglia, a group of nuclei associated with movement control and other functions. It has two main subdivisions: the external (GPe) and internal (GPi) segments. The GPe receives input from the striatum and sends inhibitory projections to the subthalamic nucleus, while the GPi sends inhibitory projections to the thalamus, which in turn projects to the cerebral cortex. These connections allow for the regulation of motor activity, with abnormal functioning of the Globus Pallidus being implicated in various movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease.

"Saimiri" is the genus name for the group of primates known as squirrel monkeys. These small, agile New World monkeys are native to Central and South America and are characterized by their slim bodies, long limbs, and distinctive hairless faces with large eyes. They are omnivorous and known for their active, quick-moving behavior in the trees. There are several species of squirrel monkey, including the Central American squirrel monkey (Saimiri oerstedii) and the much more widespread common squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus).

The neostriatum is a component of the basal ganglia, a group of subcortical nuclei in the brain that are involved in motor control, procedural learning, and other cognitive functions. It is composed primarily of two types of neurons: medium spiny neurons and aspiny interneurons. The neostriatum receives input from various regions of the cerebral cortex and projects to other parts of the basal ganglia, forming an important part of the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loop.

In medical terminology, the neostriatum is often used interchangeably with the term "striatum," although some sources reserve the term "neostriatum" for the caudate nucleus and putamen specifically, while using "striatum" to refer to the entire structure including the ventral striatum (also known as the nucleus accumbens).

Damage to the neostriatum has been implicated in various neurological conditions, such as Huntington's disease and Parkinson's disease.

C57BL/6 (C57 Black 6) is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The term "inbred" refers to a strain of animals where matings have been carried out between siblings or other closely related individuals for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci.

The C57BL/6 strain was established in 1920 by crossing a female mouse from the dilute brown (DBA) strain with a male mouse from the black strain. The resulting offspring were then interbred for many generations to create the inbred C57BL/6 strain.

C57BL/6 mice are known for their robust health, longevity, and ease of handling, making them a popular choice for researchers. They have been used in a wide range of biomedical research areas, including studies of cancer, immunology, neuroscience, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism.

One of the most notable features of the C57BL/6 strain is its sensitivity to certain genetic modifications, such as the introduction of mutations that lead to obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. This has made it a valuable tool for studying the genetic basis of complex diseases and traits.

Overall, the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is an important model organism in biomedical research, providing a valuable resource for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease.

Mazindol is a prescription medication that belongs to a class of drugs known as sympathomimetic amines or anorectics. It has been used in the treatment of obesity, as it works by reducing appetite and increasing the amount of energy that the body uses. Mazindol affects certain chemicals in the brain that control appetite.

It's important to note that mazindol is not commonly used today due to its potential for abuse and serious side effects. It should only be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider, and its use is typically reserved for individuals with severe obesity who have not responded to other treatment options.

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a class of drugs that work by blocking the action of monoamine oxidase, an enzyme found in the brain and other organs of the body. This enzyme is responsible for breaking down certain neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine, which are chemicals that transmit signals in the brain.

By inhibiting the action of monoamine oxidase, MAOIs increase the levels of these neurotransmitters in the brain, which can help to alleviate symptoms of depression and other mood disorders. However, MAOIs also affect other chemicals in the body, including tyramine, a substance found in some foods and beverages, as well as certain medications. As a result, MAOIs can have serious side effects and interactions with other substances, making them a less commonly prescribed class of antidepressants than other types of drugs.

MAOIs are typically used as a last resort when other treatments for depression have failed, due to their potential for dangerous interactions and side effects. They require careful monitoring and dosage adjustment by a healthcare provider, and patients must follow strict dietary restrictions while taking them.

Dyskinesias are a type of movement disorder characterized by involuntary, erratic, and often repetitive muscle movements. These movements can affect any part of the body and can include twisting, writhing, or jerking motions, as well as slow, writhing contortions. Dyskinesias can be caused by a variety of factors, including certain medications (such as those used to treat Parkinson's disease), brain injury, stroke, infection, or exposure to toxins. They can also be a side effect of some medical treatments, such as radiation therapy or chemotherapy.

Dyskinesias can have a significant impact on a person's daily life, making it difficult for them to perform routine tasks and affecting their overall quality of life. Treatment for dyskinesias depends on the underlying cause and may include medication adjustments, surgery, or physical therapy. In some cases, dyskinesias may be managed with the use of assistive devices or by modifying the person's environment to make it easier for them to move around.

Sulfonium compounds are organosulfur molecules that contain a central sulfur atom bonded to three alkyl or aryl groups and have the general formula (R-S-R'-R'')+X-, where R, R', and R'' are organic groups and X is an anion. These compounds are widely used in chemical synthesis as phase-transfer catalysts, alkylating agents, and in the production of detergents, pharmaceuticals, and agrochemicals. Sulfonium compounds can also be found in some natural sources, such as certain antibiotics and marine toxins.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Pyridines" is not a medical term. It is a chemical term that refers to a class of organic compounds with the chemical structure of a six-membered ring containing one nitrogen atom and five carbon atoms (heterocyclic aromatic compound).

In a biological or medical context, pyridine derivatives can be found in various natural and synthetic substances. For example, some medications contain pyridine rings as part of their chemical structure. However, "Pyridines" itself is not a medical term or condition.

Neurons, also known as nerve cells or neurocytes, are specialized cells that constitute the basic unit of the nervous system. They are responsible for receiving, processing, and transmitting information and signals within the body. Neurons have three main parts: the dendrites, the cell body (soma), and the axon. The dendrites receive signals from other neurons or sensory receptors, while the axon transmits these signals to other neurons, muscles, or glands. The junction between two neurons is called a synapse, where neurotransmitters are released to transmit the signal across the gap (synaptic cleft) to the next neuron. Neurons vary in size, shape, and structure depending on their function and location within the nervous system.

Dopamine plasma membrane transport proteins, also known as dopamine transporters (DAT), are a type of protein found in the cell membrane that play a crucial role in the regulation of dopamine neurotransmission. They are responsible for the reuptake of dopamine from the synaptic cleft back into the presynaptic neuron, thereby terminating the signal transduction of dopamine and regulating the amount of dopamine available for further release.

Dopamine transporters belong to the family of sodium-dependent neurotransmitter transporters and are encoded by the SLC6A3 gene in humans. Abnormalities in dopamine transporter function have been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, including Parkinson's disease, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and substance use disorders.

In summary, dopamine plasma membrane transport proteins are essential for the regulation of dopamine neurotransmission by mediating the reuptake of dopamine from the synaptic cleft back into the presynaptic neuron.

Nerve degeneration, also known as neurodegeneration, is the progressive loss of structure and function of neurons, which can lead to cognitive decline, motor impairment, and various other symptoms. This process occurs due to a variety of factors, including genetics, environmental influences, and aging. It is a key feature in several neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and multiple sclerosis. The degeneration can affect any part of the nervous system, leading to different symptoms depending on the location and extent of the damage.

Noradrenergic agents, often referred to as "noradrenalines" or "nortropanes," are a class of medications that work by modulating the noradrenergic system in the body. Noradrenaline, also known as norepinephrine, is a neurotransmitter and hormone that plays a crucial role in regulating various physiological functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, attention, and arousal.

Noradrenergic agents exert their effects by either increasing the release of noradrenaline from nerve terminals, blocking its reuptake into the presynaptic neuron, or antagonizing its interaction with specific receptors. These medications are used in various clinical settings, including the treatment of depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and certain neurological disorders.

Examples of noradrenergic agents include:

* Atomoxetine: a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor used to treat ADHD
* Desipramine: a tricyclic antidepressant that increases the availability of noradrenaline in the synaptic cleft by blocking its reuptake
* Methylphenidate: a stimulant medication used to treat ADHD, which increases the release of both dopamine and noradrenaline in the brain
* Reboxetine: another selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor used to treat depression.

It is important to note that while these medications are often referred to as "nortropanes," this term is not a formally recognized medical or pharmacological classification. Instead, it is a colloquial term used to describe drugs that primarily affect the noradrenergic system.

Cistanche is a genus of plants in the family Orobanchaceae, also known as the broomrape family. It includes several species that are native to Asia and the Mediterranean region. One commonly used species is Cistanche deserticola, which is known in traditional Chinese medicine as Rou Cong Rong. This plant is a parasitic desert shrub that grows by tapping into the roots of other plants for nutrients.

In traditional Chinese medicine, extracts from the dried root of Cistanche deserticola are used to treat various conditions, such as impotence, constipation, and kidney deficiency. However, it's important to note that while some studies suggest potential health benefits of Cistanche, more research is needed to confirm its effectiveness and safety.

As with any supplement or medication, consult a healthcare professional before using Cistanche extract or any other products derived from this plant.

Drug-induced dyskinesia is a movement disorder that is characterized by involuntary muscle movements or abnormal posturing of the body. It is a side effect that can occur from the long-term use or high doses of certain medications, particularly those used to treat Parkinson's disease and psychosis.

The symptoms of drug-induced dyskinesia can vary in severity and may include rapid, involuntary movements of the limbs, face, or tongue; twisting or writhing movements; and abnormal posturing of the arms, legs, or trunk. These symptoms can be distressing and negatively impact a person's quality of life.

The exact mechanism by which certain medications cause dyskinesia is not fully understood, but it is thought to involve changes in the levels of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that plays a key role in regulating movement. In some cases, adjusting the dose or switching to a different medication may help alleviate the symptoms of drug-induced dyskinesia. However, in severe cases, additional treatments such as deep brain stimulation or botulinum toxin injections may be necessary.

"Motor activity" is a general term used in the field of medicine and neuroscience to refer to any kind of physical movement or action that is generated by the body's motor system. The motor system includes the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and muscles that work together to produce movements such as walking, talking, reaching for an object, or even subtle actions like moving your eyes.

Motor activity can be voluntary, meaning it is initiated intentionally by the individual, or involuntary, meaning it is triggered automatically by the nervous system without conscious control. Examples of voluntary motor activity include deliberately lifting your arm or kicking a ball, while examples of involuntary motor activity include heartbeat, digestion, and reflex actions like jerking your hand away from a hot stove.

Abnormalities in motor activity can be a sign of neurological or muscular disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, cerebral palsy, or multiple sclerosis. Assessment of motor activity is often used in the diagnosis and treatment of these conditions.

The putamen is a round, egg-shaped structure that is a part of the basal ganglia, located in the forebrain. It is situated laterally to the globus pallidus and medially to the internal capsule. The putamen plays a crucial role in regulating movement and is involved in various functions such as learning, motivation, and habit formation.

It receives input from the cerebral cortex via the corticostriatal pathway and sends output to the globus pallidus and substantia nigra pars reticulata, which are also part of the basal ganglia circuitry. The putamen is heavily innervated by dopaminergic neurons from the substantia nigra pars compacta, and degeneration of these neurons in Parkinson's disease leads to a significant reduction in dopamine levels in the putamen, resulting in motor dysfunction.

"Macaca fascicularis" is the scientific name for the crab-eating macaque, also known as the long-tailed macaque. It's a species of monkey that is native to Southeast Asia. They are called "crab-eating" macaques because they are known to eat crabs and other crustaceans. These monkeys are omnivorous and their diet also includes fruits, seeds, insects, and occasionally smaller vertebrates.

Crab-eating macaques are highly adaptable and can be found in a wide range of habitats, including forests, grasslands, and wetlands. They are also known to live in close proximity to human settlements and are often considered pests due to their tendency to raid crops and steal food from humans.

These monkeys are social animals and live in large groups called troops. They have a complex social structure with a clear hierarchy and dominant males. Crab-eating macaques are also known for their intelligence and problem-solving abilities.

In medical research, crab-eating macaques are often used as animal models due to their close genetic relationship to humans. They are used in studies related to infectious diseases, neuroscience, and reproductive biology, among others.

Clorgyline is a type of medication known as a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI). It works by blocking the action of an enzyme called monoamine oxidase, which helps to break down certain chemicals in the brain called neurotransmitters. This leads to an increase in the levels of these neurotransmitters in the brain, which can help to improve mood and alleviate symptoms of depression.

Clorgyline is not commonly used as a first-line treatment for depression due to its potential for serious side effects and interactions with certain foods and other medications. It may be used in some cases where other treatments have been unsuccessful, or in research settings to study the role of monoamine oxidase in various physiological processes.

It's important to note that MAOIs like clorgyline require careful monitoring by a healthcare provider and should only be used under close medical supervision due to the risk of serious side effects and interactions.

The mesencephalon, also known as the midbrain, is the middle portion of the brainstem that connects the hindbrain (rhombencephalon) and the forebrain (prosencephalon). It plays a crucial role in several important functions including motor control, vision, hearing, and the regulation of consciousness and sleep-wake cycles. The mesencephalon contains several important structures such as the cerebral aqueduct, tectum, tegmentum, cerebral peduncles, and several cranial nerve nuclei (III and IV).

"Macaca mulatta" is the scientific name for the Rhesus macaque, a species of monkey that is native to South, Central, and Southeast Asia. They are often used in biomedical research due to their genetic similarity to humans.

Herbicides are a type of pesticide used to control or kill unwanted plants, also known as weeds. They work by interfering with the growth processes of the plant, such as inhibiting photosynthesis, disrupting cell division, or preventing the plant from producing certain essential proteins.

Herbicides can be classified based on their mode of action, chemical composition, and the timing of their application. Some herbicides are selective, meaning they target specific types of weeds while leaving crops unharmed, while others are non-selective and will kill any plant they come into contact with.

It's important to use herbicides responsibly and according to the manufacturer's instructions, as they can have negative impacts on the environment and human health if not used properly.

Vesicular Monoamine Transporter Proteins (VMATs) are a type of transmembrane protein that play a crucial role in the packaging and transport of monoamines, such as serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine, into synaptic vesicles within neurons. There are two main isoforms of VMATs, VMAT1 and VMAT2, which differ in their distribution and function.

VMAT1 (also known as SLC18A1) is primarily found in neuroendocrine cells and is responsible for transporting monoamines into large dense-core vesicles. VMAT2 (also known as SLC18A2), on the other hand, is mainly expressed in presynaptic neurons and is involved in the transport of monoamines into small synaptic vesicles.

Both VMAT1 and VMAT2 are integral membrane proteins that utilize a proton gradient to drive the uptake of monoamines against their concentration gradient, allowing for their storage and subsequent release during neurotransmission. Dysregulation of VMAT function has been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, including Parkinson's disease and depression.

The brain is the central organ of the nervous system, responsible for receiving and processing sensory information, regulating vital functions, and controlling behavior, movement, and cognition. It is divided into several distinct regions, each with specific functions:

1. Cerebrum: The largest part of the brain, responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, learning, memory, language, and perception. It is divided into two hemispheres, each controlling the opposite side of the body.
2. Cerebellum: Located at the back of the brain, it is responsible for coordinating muscle movements, maintaining balance, and fine-tuning motor skills.
3. Brainstem: Connects the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord, controlling vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory information and motor commands between the brain and the rest of the body.
4. Diencephalon: A region that includes the thalamus (a major sensory relay station) and hypothalamus (regulates hormones, temperature, hunger, thirst, and sleep).
5. Limbic system: A group of structures involved in emotional processing, memory formation, and motivation, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cingulate gyrus.

The brain is composed of billions of interconnected neurons that communicate through electrical and chemical signals. It is protected by the skull and surrounded by three layers of membranes called meninges, as well as cerebrospinal fluid that provides cushioning and nutrients.

Callithrix is a genus of New World monkeys, also known as marmosets. They are small, active primates found in the forests of South and Central America. The term "Callithrix" itself is derived from the Greek words "kallis" meaning beautiful and "thrix" meaning hair, referring to their thick, vibrantly colored fur.

Marmosets in the genus Callithrix are characterized by their slender bodies, long, bushy tails, and specialized dental structures that allow them to gouge tree bark to extract sap and exudates, which form a significant part of their diet. They also consume fruits, insects, and small vertebrates.

Some well-known species in this genus include the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), the white-headed marmoset (Callithrix geoffroyi), and the buffy-tufted-ear marmoset (Callithrix aurita). Marmosets are popular subjects of research due to their small size, short gestation period, and ease of breeding in captivity.

Vesicular biogenic amine transport proteins (VMATs) are a type of transmembrane protein that play a crucial role in the packaging and transport of biogenic amines, such as serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, and histamine, into synaptic vesicles within neurons. These proteins are located on the membranes of neurosecretory vesicles and function to regulate the concentration of these neurotransmitters in the cytoplasm and maintain their storage in vesicles until they are released into the synapse during neurotransmission. VMATs are members of the solute carrier family 18 (SLC18) and consist of two isoforms, VMAT1 and VMAT2, which differ in their distribution and substrate specificity. VMAT1 is primarily found in non-neuronal cells, such as endocrine and neuroendocrine cells, while VMAT2 is predominantly expressed in neurons. Dysregulation of VMATs has been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, including Parkinson's disease, depression, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

'Animal behavior' refers to the actions or responses of animals to various stimuli, including their interactions with the environment and other individuals. It is the study of the actions of animals, whether they are instinctual, learned, or a combination of both. Animal behavior includes communication, mating, foraging, predator avoidance, and social organization, among other things. The scientific study of animal behavior is called ethology. This field seeks to understand the evolutionary basis for behaviors as well as their physiological and psychological mechanisms.

The caudate nucleus is a part of the brain located within the basal ganglia, a group of structures that are important for movement control and cognition. It has a distinctive C-shaped appearance and plays a role in various functions such as learning, memory, emotion, and motivation. The caudate nucleus receives inputs from several areas of the cerebral cortex and sends outputs to other basal ganglia structures, contributing to the regulation of motor behavior and higher cognitive processes.

Microglia are a type of specialized immune cell found in the brain and spinal cord. They are part of the glial family, which provide support and protection to the neurons in the central nervous system (CNS). Microglia account for about 10-15% of all cells found in the CNS.

The primary role of microglia is to constantly survey their environment and eliminate any potentially harmful agents, such as pathogens, dead cells, or protein aggregates. They do this through a process called phagocytosis, where they engulf and digest foreign particles or cellular debris. In addition to their phagocytic function, microglia also release various cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors that help regulate the immune response in the CNS, promote neuronal survival, and contribute to synaptic plasticity.

Microglia can exist in different activation states depending on the nature of the stimuli they encounter. In a resting state, microglia have a small cell body with numerous branches that are constantly monitoring their surroundings. When activated by an injury, infection, or neurodegenerative process, microglia change their morphology and phenotype, retracting their processes and adopting an amoeboid shape to migrate towards the site of damage or inflammation. Based on the type of activation, microglia can release both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors that contribute to either neuroprotection or neurotoxicity.

Dysregulation of microglial function has been implicated in several neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). Therefore, understanding the role of microglia in health and disease is crucial for developing novel therapeutic strategies to treat these conditions.

The basal ganglia are a group of interconnected nuclei, or clusters of neurons, located in the base of the brain. They play a crucial role in regulating motor function, cognition, and emotion. The main components of the basal ganglia include the striatum (made up of the caudate nucleus, putamen, and ventral striatum), globus pallidus (divided into external and internal segments), subthalamic nucleus, and substantia nigra (with its pars compacta and pars reticulata).

The basal ganglia receive input from various regions of the cerebral cortex and other brain areas. They process this information and send output back to the thalamus and cortex, helping to modulate and coordinate movement. The basal ganglia also contribute to higher cognitive functions such as learning, decision-making, and habit formation. Dysfunction in the basal ganglia can lead to neurological disorders like Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and dystonia.

Dopamine agonists are a class of medications that mimic the action of dopamine, a neurotransmitter in the brain that regulates movement, emotion, motivation, and reinforcement of rewarding behaviors. These medications bind to dopamine receptors in the brain and activate them, leading to an increase in dopaminergic activity.

Dopamine agonists are used primarily to treat Parkinson's disease, a neurological disorder characterized by motor symptoms such as tremors, rigidity, bradykinesia (slowness of movement), and postural instability. By increasing dopaminergic activity in the brain, dopamine agonists can help alleviate some of these symptoms.

Examples of dopamine agonists include:

1. Pramipexole (Mirapex)
2. Ropinirole (Requip)
3. Rotigotine (Neupro)
4. Apomorphine (Apokyn)

Dopamine agonists may also be used off-label to treat other conditions, such as restless legs syndrome or certain types of dopamine-responsive dystonia. However, these medications can have significant side effects, including nausea, dizziness, orthostatic hypotension, compulsive behaviors (such as gambling, shopping, or sexual addiction), and hallucinations. Therefore, they should be used with caution and under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Dopamine D3 receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor that bind to the neurotransmitter dopamine. They are classified as part of the D2-like family of dopamine receptors, which also includes the D2 and D4 receptors. The D3 receptor is primarily expressed in the limbic areas of the brain, including the hippocampus and the nucleus accumbens, where it plays a role in regulating motivation, reward, and cognition.

D3 receptors have been found to be involved in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and drug addiction. In Parkinson's disease, the loss of dopamine-producing neurons in the substantia nigra results in a decrease in dopamine levels and an increase in D3 receptor expression. This increase in D3 receptor expression has been linked to the development of motor symptoms such as bradykinesia and rigidity.

In schizophrenia, antipsychotic medications that block D2-like receptors, including D3 receptors, are used to treat positive symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions. However, selective D3 receptor antagonists have also been shown to have potential therapeutic effects in treating negative symptoms of schizophrenia, such as apathy and anhedonia.

In drug addiction, D3 receptors have been found to play a role in the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse, such as cocaine and amphetamines. Selective D3 receptor antagonists have shown promise in reducing drug-seeking behavior and preventing relapse in animal models of addiction.

Overall, dopamine D3 receptors play an important role in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, and further research is needed to fully understand their functions and potential therapeutic uses.

NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester (L-NAME) is not a medication, but rather a research chemical used in scientific studies. It is an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, an enzyme that synthesizes nitric oxide, a molecule involved in the relaxation of blood vessels.

Therefore, L-NAME is often used in experiments to investigate the role of nitric oxide in various physiological and pathophysiological processes. It is important to note that the use of L-NAME in humans is not approved for therapeutic purposes due to its potential side effects, which can include hypertension, decreased renal function, and decreased cerebral blood flow.

Conotoxins are a group of peptide toxins found in the venom of cone snails (genus Conus). These toxins are synthesized and stored in the venom ducts of the snails and are used for prey capture or defense against predators. Conotoxins have diverse pharmacological activities, acting on various ion channels and receptors in the nervous system. They are characterized by their small size (10-30 amino acids), disulfide bonding pattern, and high sequence variability. Due to their specificity and potency, conotoxins have been studied as potential leads for the development of novel therapeutics, particularly in the areas of pain management and neurological disorders.

High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is a type of chromatography that separates and analyzes compounds based on their interactions with a stationary phase and a mobile phase under high pressure. The mobile phase, which can be a gas or liquid, carries the sample mixture through a column containing the stationary phase.

In HPLC, the mobile phase is a liquid, and it is pumped through the column at high pressures (up to several hundred atmospheres) to achieve faster separation times and better resolution than other types of liquid chromatography. The stationary phase can be a solid or a liquid supported on a solid, and it interacts differently with each component in the sample mixture, causing them to separate as they travel through the column.

HPLC is widely used in analytical chemistry, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, and other fields to separate, identify, and quantify compounds present in complex mixtures. It can be used to analyze a wide range of substances, including drugs, hormones, vitamins, pigments, flavors, and pollutants. HPLC is also used in the preparation of pure samples for further study or use.

A "knockout" mouse is a genetically engineered mouse in which one or more genes have been deleted or "knocked out" using molecular biology techniques. This allows researchers to study the function of specific genes and their role in various biological processes, as well as potential associations with human diseases. The mice are generated by introducing targeted DNA modifications into embryonic stem cells, which are then used to create a live animal. Knockout mice have been widely used in biomedical research to investigate gene function, disease mechanisms, and potential therapeutic targets.

Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (GDNF) is a protein that plays a crucial role in the survival, development, and function of certain neurons in the nervous system. It is a member of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily and was initially identified for its ability to support the survival and differentiation of midbrain dopaminergic neurons, which are critical for movement control and motivation. GDNF also supports other types of neurons, including motor neurons and sensory neurons. It exerts its effects by binding to a receptor complex consisting of GFRα1 and RET tyrosine kinase receptors, activating intracellular signaling pathways that promote neuronal survival, growth, and synaptic plasticity. GDNF has been investigated as a potential therapeutic agent for various neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).

Rotenone is not strictly a medical term, but it is a pesticide that is used in some medical situations. According to the National Pesticide Information Center, rotenone is a pesticide derived from the roots and stems of several plants, including Derris Eliptica, Lonchocarpus utilis, and Tephrosia vogelii. It is used as a pesticide to control insects, mites, and fish in both agricultural and residential settings.

In medical contexts, rotenone has been studied for its potential effects on human health, particularly in relation to Parkinson's disease. Some research suggests that exposure to rotenone may increase the risk of developing Parkinson's disease, although more studies are needed to confirm this link. Rotenone works by inhibiting the mitochondria in cells, which can lead to cell death and neurodegeneration.

It is important to note that rotenone is highly toxic and should be handled with care. It can cause skin and eye irritation, respiratory problems, and gastrointestinal symptoms if ingested or inhaled. Therefore, it is recommended to use personal protective equipment when handling rotenone and to follow all label instructions carefully.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

Methyl parathion is an organophosphate insecticide and acaricide. It functions by inhibiting the enzyme cholinesterase, which leads to an accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, causing nervous system excitation and ultimately damage or death in insects. However, it can also have toxic effects on mammals, including humans, if ingested, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin. It is classified as a highly hazardous pesticide by the World Health Organization (WHO) and its use is restricted or banned in many countries due to its high toxicity and environmental persistence.

Cell death is the process by which cells cease to function and eventually die. There are several ways that cells can die, but the two most well-known and well-studied forms of cell death are apoptosis and necrosis.

Apoptosis is a programmed form of cell death that occurs as a normal and necessary process in the development and maintenance of healthy tissues. During apoptosis, the cell's DNA is broken down into small fragments, the cell shrinks, and the membrane around the cell becomes fragmented, allowing the cell to be easily removed by phagocytic cells without causing an inflammatory response.

Necrosis, on the other hand, is a form of cell death that occurs as a result of acute tissue injury or overwhelming stress. During necrosis, the cell's membrane becomes damaged and the contents of the cell are released into the surrounding tissue, causing an inflammatory response.

There are also other forms of cell death, such as autophagy, which is a process by which cells break down their own organelles and proteins to recycle nutrients and maintain energy homeostasis, and pyroptosis, which is a form of programmed cell death that occurs in response to infection and involves the activation of inflammatory caspases.

Cell death is an important process in many physiological and pathological processes, including development, tissue homeostasis, and disease. Dysregulation of cell death can contribute to the development of various diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and autoimmune diseases.

Autoradiography is a medical imaging technique used to visualize and localize the distribution of radioactively labeled compounds within tissues or organisms. In this process, the subject is first exposed to a radioactive tracer that binds to specific molecules or structures of interest. The tissue is then placed in close contact with a radiation-sensitive film or detector, such as X-ray film or an imaging plate.

As the radioactive atoms decay, they emit particles (such as beta particles) that interact with the film or detector, causing chemical changes and leaving behind a visible image of the distribution of the labeled compound. The resulting autoradiogram provides information about the location, quantity, and sometimes even the identity of the molecules or structures that have taken up the radioactive tracer.

Autoradiography has been widely used in various fields of biology and medical research, including pharmacology, neuroscience, genetics, and cell biology, to study processes such as protein-DNA interactions, gene expression, drug metabolism, and neuronal connectivity. However, due to the use of radioactive materials and potential hazards associated with them, this technique has been gradually replaced by non-radioactive alternatives like fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) or immunofluorescence techniques.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Phenyl Ethers" is not a recognized medical term. Phenyl ethers are a class of organic compounds consisting of an ether with a phenyl group as one of the components. They are widely used in industry and research, including as solvents, intermediates in chemical synthesis, and pharmaceuticals.

However, if you have any concerns about exposure to certain chemicals or their effects on health, it would be best to consult with a medical professional who can provide advice based on your specific situation and symptoms.

The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a small, lens-shaped structure located in the basal ganglia of the brain. It plays a crucial role in motor control and has been identified as a key target for deep brain stimulation surgery in the treatment of Parkinson's disease and other movement disorders.

The STN is involved in the regulation of movement, balance, and posture, and helps to filter and coordinate signals that are sent from the cerebral cortex to the thalamus and then on to the motor neurons in the brainstem and spinal cord. In Parkinson's disease, abnormal activity in the STN can contribute to symptoms such as tremors, rigidity, and difficulty initiating movements.

Deep brain stimulation of the STN involves implanting electrodes into the nucleus and delivering electrical impulses that help to regulate its activity. This can lead to significant improvements in motor function and quality of life for some people with Parkinson's disease.

Alpha-synuclein is a protein that is primarily found in neurons (nerve cells) in the brain. It is encoded by the SNCA gene and is abundantly expressed in presynaptic terminals, where it is believed to play a role in the regulation of neurotransmitter release.

In certain neurological disorders, including Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and multiple system atrophy, alpha-synuclein can form aggregates known as Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites. These aggregates are a pathological hallmark of these diseases and are believed to contribute to the death of nerve cells, leading to the symptoms associated with these disorders.

The precise function of alpha-synuclein is not fully understood, but it is thought to be involved in various cellular processes such as maintaining the structure of the presynaptic terminal, regulating synaptic vesicle trafficking and neurotransmitter release, and protecting neurons from stress.

Dopamine D2 receptor is a type of metabotropic G protein-coupled receptor that binds to the neurotransmitter dopamine. It is one of five subtypes of dopamine receptors (D1-D5) and is encoded by the gene DRD2. The activation of D2 receptors leads to a decrease in the activity of adenylyl cyclase, which results in reduced levels of cAMP and modulation of ion channels.

D2 receptors are widely distributed throughout the central nervous system (CNS) and play important roles in various physiological functions, including motor control, reward processing, emotion regulation, and cognition. They are also involved in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, drug addiction, and Tourette syndrome.

D2 receptors have two main subtypes: D2 short (D2S) and D2 long (D2L). The D2S subtype is primarily located in the presynaptic terminals and functions as an autoreceptor that regulates dopamine release, while the D2L subtype is mainly found in the postsynaptic neurons and modulates intracellular signaling pathways.

Antipsychotic drugs, which are used to treat schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders, work by blocking D2 receptors. However, excessive blockade of these receptors can lead to side effects such as extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), tardive dyskinesia, and hyperprolactinemia. Therefore, the development of drugs that selectively target specific subtypes of dopamine receptors is an active area of research in the field of neuropsychopharmacology.

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a surgical procedure that involves the implantation of a medical device called a neurostimulator, which sends electrical impulses to specific targets in the brain. The impulses help to regulate abnormal brain activity, and can be used to treat a variety of neurological conditions, including Parkinson's disease, essential tremor, dystonia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

During the procedure, electrodes are implanted into the brain and connected to the neurostimulator, which is typically implanted in the chest. The neurostimulator can be programmed to deliver electrical impulses at varying frequencies, amplitudes, and pulse widths, depending on the specific needs of the patient.

DBS is generally considered a safe and effective treatment option for many patients with neurological conditions, although it does carry some risks, such as infection, bleeding, and hardware complications. It is typically reserved for patients who have not responded well to other forms of treatment, or who experience significant side effects from medication.

PC12 cells are a type of rat pheochromocytoma cell line, which are commonly used in scientific research. Pheochromocytomas are tumors that develop from the chromaffin cells of the adrenal gland, and PC12 cells are a subtype of these cells.

PC12 cells have several characteristics that make them useful for research purposes. They can be grown in culture and can be differentiated into a neuron-like phenotype when treated with nerve growth factor (NGF). This makes them a popular choice for studies involving neuroscience, neurotoxicity, and neurodegenerative disorders.

PC12 cells are also known to express various neurotransmitter receptors, ion channels, and other proteins that are relevant to neuronal function, making them useful for studying the mechanisms of drug action and toxicity. Additionally, PC12 cells can be used to study the regulation of cell growth and differentiation, as well as the molecular basis of cancer.

Oxidopamine is not a recognized medical term or a medication commonly used in clinical practice. However, it is a chemical compound that is often used in scientific research, particularly in the field of neuroscience.

Oxidopamine is a synthetic catecholamine that can be selectively taken up by dopaminergic neurons and subsequently undergo oxidation, leading to the production of reactive oxygen species. This property makes it a useful tool for studying the effects of oxidative stress on dopaminergic neurons in models of Parkinson's disease and other neurological disorders.

In summary, while not a medical definition per se, oxidopamine is a chemical compound used in research to study the effects of oxidative stress on dopaminergic neurons.

Nerve tissue proteins are specialized proteins found in the nervous system that provide structural and functional support to nerve cells, also known as neurons. These proteins include:

1. Neurofilaments: These are type IV intermediate filaments that provide structural support to neurons and help maintain their shape and size. They are composed of three subunits - NFL (light), NFM (medium), and NFH (heavy).

2. Neuronal Cytoskeletal Proteins: These include tubulins, actins, and spectrins that provide structural support to the neuronal cytoskeleton and help maintain its integrity.

3. Neurotransmitter Receptors: These are specialized proteins located on the postsynaptic membrane of neurons that bind neurotransmitters released by presynaptic neurons, triggering a response in the target cell.

4. Ion Channels: These are transmembrane proteins that regulate the flow of ions across the neuronal membrane and play a crucial role in generating and transmitting electrical signals in neurons.

5. Signaling Proteins: These include enzymes, receptors, and adaptor proteins that mediate intracellular signaling pathways involved in neuronal development, differentiation, survival, and death.

6. Adhesion Proteins: These are cell surface proteins that mediate cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, playing a crucial role in the formation and maintenance of neural circuits.

7. Extracellular Matrix Proteins: These include proteoglycans, laminins, and collagens that provide structural support to nerve tissue and regulate neuronal migration, differentiation, and survival.

Oxidative stress is defined as an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (free radicals) and the body's ability to detoxify them or repair the damage they cause. This imbalance can lead to cellular damage, oxidation of proteins, lipids, and DNA, disruption of cellular functions, and activation of inflammatory responses. Prolonged or excessive oxidative stress has been linked to various health conditions, including cancer, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative disorders, and aging-related diseases.

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It is related to the drug MPPP, with an N-phenethyl group in place of the N-methyl substitution and an acetate ester rather ... It is unlikely that the tetrahydropyridine byproducts that may be formed during the synthesis of PEPAP are neurotoxic in the ... It appears that the N-methyl group of MPTP is required for neurotoxic activity. In animal experiments, only MPTP analogues that ... Most structural changes, including replacing the N-methyl group with other substituents, abolished neurotoxicity. There is ...
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Replacing the α-methyl with a cyclopropyl dramatically reduces affinity for the noradrenaline transporter and 5-HT2A receptor, ... This research was a continuation of earlier work from the same team which showed that replacing the α-methyl group of MDMA with ... MBDB Methyl-K (UWA-091) Isohexylone UWA-001 Zylofuramine RTI-83 - another drug which selectively increases dopamine and ... the only difference being the replacement of the α-methyl group with an α-cyclopropyl group. MDMA has been found in animal ...
Like GLP-1, it also slows gastric emptying. Lixisenatide is a peptide made of 44 amino acids, with an amide group on its C ... GLP-1 is a hormone that helps pancreatic beta cells to secrete insulin in response to high blood sugar. Because it works like ... 495 (1): 1034-1040. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2017.11.114. PMID 29175324. Liu W, Jalewa J, Sharma M, Li G, Li L, Hölscher C (September ... 3 h post-injection. Lixisenatide also enhanced neurogenesis in the brain. Liraglutide crossed the BBB at 25 and 250 nmol/kg ip ...
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The initial velocity is defined as V 0 = d [ P ] / d t = k 2 [ ES ] {\displaystyle V_{0}=d[{\ce {P}}]/dt=k_{2}[{\ce {ES}}]} , ... In the simplest case of a single-substrate enzyme obeying Michaelis-Menten kinetics, the typical scheme E + S ⇌ k − 1 k 1 ES → ... K m app {\displaystyle K_{m}^{\text{app}}} , the substrate concentration that is needed to reach V max / 2 {\displaystyle V_{\ ... Cells in the central nervous system (astrocytes) include MAO-B that oxidizes MPTP to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+), which ...
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Glutamate results in cell death by turning on the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptors (NMDA); these receptors cause an increased ... ISBN 978-1-934559-87-1. OCLC 191726483. {{cite book}}: ,last= has generic name (help) Langston, J. W. (1995). The case of the ... 14 (1): 35. doi:10.1186/s13024-019-0332-6. ISSN 1750-1326. PMC 6728988. PMID 31488222. edited by Stewart A. Factor, William J. ... 38 (4): 799-824. doi:10.1016/j.ncl.2020.07.006. PMID 33040862. S2CID 222301922. (CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list, CS1 ...
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1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) This set index page lists chemical structure articles associated with the same ...
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Phenylethylamine Amphetamine MDMA N-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) (very potent inhibitors of VMAT2 mediated serotonin ... doi:10.1007/3-540-29784-7_15. ISBN 978-3-540-29783-3. PMID 16722242. Höltje M.; Winter S.; et al. (May 2003). "The vesicular ... 31 (4): 483-19. doi:10.1002/med.20187. PMC 3019297. PMID 20135628. Liu Y, Peter D, Rogahani A, Schuldiner S, Prive GG, ... 34 (2-3): 360-372. doi:10.1016/j.mam.2012.07.005. PMC 3727660. PMID 23506877. Sager, J.J. & Torres, G.E., 2011. Proteins ...
Structural analogs of desmethylprodine with different N-substituents than a methyl group on the piperidine have been ... 13 (4): 367-74. doi:10.1016/0376-8716(84)90004-8. PMID 6148225. Davis GC, Williams AC, Markey SP, Ebert MH, Caine ED, Reichert ... Desmethylprodine or 1-methyl-4-phenyl-4-propionoxypiperidine (MPPP, Ro 2-0718) is an opioid analgesic drug developed in the ... It was later found that his development of Parkinson's was due to a common impurity in the synthesis of MPPP called MPTP (1- ...
... phenyl)-, methyl ester MeSH D03.383.725.547.950 - xanthinol niacinate MeSH D03.383.725.565 - nicotinyl alcohol MeSH D03.383. ... phenyl)-, methyl ester MeSH D03.383.725.210 - dimethindene MeSH D03.383.725.220 - 2,2'-dipyridyl MeSH D03.383.725.227 - ... phenyl)-1h-pyrazol-3-amine MeSH D03.383.129.539.200 - epirizole MeSH D03.383.129.539.487 - indazoles MeSH D03.383.129.539. ... 2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-8-chloro-3-methyl-5-phenyl-1h-3-benzazepin-7-ol MeSH D03.438.079.800 - 2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-7,8-dihydroxy-1- ...
Journal of Neurochemistry, 75 (1), pp. 133-140. ISSN 0022-3042 Full text not available from this repository. Item Type:. ... Effects of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine on differentiating mouse N2a neuroblastoma cells. ... Effects of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine on differentiating mouse N2a neuroblastoma cells ...
Tetrahydropyridines, Phenyl compounds). ... It is classified as a tetrahydropyridine. It is of interest as ... Retrieved 3 September 2023. "Success reported using fetal tissue to repair a brain". The New York Times. 26 November 1992. "How ... 88 (1): 193-201. doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfi304. PMID 16141438. Langston, J. W. (2002). "Chapter 30 The Impact of MPTP on ... 1 (3): 249-254. doi:10.1016/0165-1781(79)90006-4. PMID 298352. S2CID 44304872. "Bogus Heroin Brings Illness on the Coast". The ...
Thus, 2′-NH2-MPTP causes severe and immediate decrements in 5-HT and NE in frontal cortex and hippocampus, yet induces a modest ... 1-Methyl-4-(2′-aminophenyl)-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (2′-NH2-MPTP) causes long-term loss of forebrain serotonin (5-HT) and ... ABBREVIATIONS: MPTP, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine; DA, dopamine; 2′-NH2-MPTP, 1-methyl-4-(2′-aminophenyl)-1,2,3 ... To explore the possibility that 5-HT modulates the astrocytic response to injury, 2′-NH2-MPTP was used to damage 5-HT axons 2 ...
Taken together, these data suggest that a high n-3 PUFA dietary intake exerts neuroprotective actions in an animal model of ... Rats receiving UMP, DHA, both, or neither, daily, and intrastriatal 6-OHDA 3 days after treatment onset, were tested for d- ... Wang et al [1] tested the effects of DHA on rats. They found:- DHA at 5-50 microg/ml successfully protected neurons against the ... Beneficial effects of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid on toxin-induced neuronal degeneration in an animal model of ...
4. The NAD+/NADH Redox State. NAD+ and NADH can be either free or bound to protein, with three major pools compartmentalised in ... 5.2.2. CD38/CD157. CD38 is one of the main NAD-degrading enzymes in mammalian tissues [121,122]. It catalyses the synthesis of ... J. Neurosci. 1989, 1, 27-33. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]. *Howell, G.R.; Libby, R.T.; Jakobs, T.C.; Smith, R.S.; Phalan, F.C.; ... Figure 1. NAD+ synthesis and catabolism. There are multiple routes to sustain NAD concentrations within the cell; de novo from ...
3, 4, 5, 6, 7] ALO may present either in isolation or in association with blepharospasm. [8, 9, 10] The challenge for ... 1, 15, 23, 29] :. * Lithium - Lithium intoxication resulted in development of ALO; on withdrawal of lithium, symptoms may remit ... 2] Nevertheless, the designation ALO does address the main feature of the condition-namely, the inability to open the eyes at ... 1] Controversy surrounds the designation of this syndrome. Strictly speaking, ALO is not truly an apraxia or "inability to ...
In this study we investigated the effects of modulating intracellular urate concentration on 1-methyl-4-phenyl-pyridinium (MPP+ ... 4B, F-I), corresponding to a complete blockade of MPP+ toxicity. Urate on its own did not affect TH-IR cell number (Fig. 4C). ... 6B). UOx activity was significantly increased in Tg/Tg (p,0.001) but not in Tg cell medium in comparison to non-Tg samples (Fig ... B) MPP+ effect on MAP-2-IR cell number in non-Tg (n = 18), Tg (n = 35) and Tg/Tg (n = 8) cultures. C) Two-way ANOVA followed by ...
A problem in clinical toxicology Med Toxicol Adverse Drug Exp 1988 3(1):1-17 ... 1988;3(1):1-17.. Buchanan JF, Brown CR. "Designer drugs. A problem in clinical toxicology" Med Toxicol Adverse Drug Exp. 1988 ... Attempts to synthesise pethidine have resulted in the accidental production of MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6- ... tetrahydropyridine), a compound which is metabolised in the brain by the monoamine oxidase system to a toxic intermediate (MPP+ ...
1-2% of the dosing instructions were vague. The duration or regularity of use was clearly indicated in 5% of the dosing ... Two weeks after 6-OHDA lesions, amphetamine-induced rotation test was conducted to the rats. The rats were divided into groups ... The aim of this study was to characterize ER stress in 6-OHDA rat model. The expression of some key mediators of the UPR were ... While PD affects 1-2% of total population, all currently used medicines are symptomatic, and there is no disease modifying ...
Pharmacol. 3:59. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2012.00059. Received: 17 January 2012; Paper pending published: 25 January 2012;. Accepted: ... 1 Department of Neurology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA. *2 Department of Pediatrics, University of Wisconsin, ... In that regard, 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG), an analog of glucose that blocks phosphoglucose isomerase and hence inhibits ... 2009) showed that the KD pre-treatment reduced Bcl-2 (also known as Bax) mRNA and protein levels 72 h after trauma, indicating ...
2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced C57BL/6 mouse model of parkinsonism. MPTP (20 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally admi … ... that may be nonenzymatically linked to α-synuclein accumulation in the chronic 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, ... 1 Research Team of Pain and Neuroscience, WHO Collaborating Center for Traditional Medicine, East-West Medical Research ... induced C57BL/6 mouse model of parkinsonism. MPTP (20 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally administrated once daily for 30 days to the ...
... tetrahydropyridine model of Parkinsons disease. J Neuroinflammation 7: 83. *Lee HJ, Suk JE, Patrick C, Bae EJ, Cho JH, et al ... Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) also known as catabolin, is a cytokine protein that in humans is encoded by the IL-1β gene and is ... 1] have examined the effect of ibuprofen on dopaminergic neuron injury in the mouse model of PD. This study showed that the ... Antioxid Redox Signal 1: 5-27.. *Mao P, Manczak M, Shirendeb UP, Reddy PH (2013) MitoQ, a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant, ...
Advanced Search Search Help About NIOSHTIC-2 Feedback Terms: pesticide or pesticides or insecticide or insecticides or ... We also studied genetic differences among 10 BXD recombinant inbred mouse strains to MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6- ... tetrahydropyridine), a proneurotoxicant (the active agent is the metabolite, MPP+ produced in astrocytes) used to model the ... NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search. Search Results. New Search. ...
Knockout of miR-29b2/c inhibited the expression of inflammatory factors in 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+)-treated primary ... 2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced PD mice exhibited dynamic changes. The role of miR-29b2/c in aging and PD was studied ... Here we show that the serum levels of miR-29s in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, ... Xiaochen Bai1,2, *, , Xiaoshuang Zhang1, *, , Rong Fang1, *, , Jinghui Wang1, *, , Yuanyuan Ma1, , Zhaolin Liu1, , Hongtian ...
Note: Reading Room Hours, M-F, 9 am - 3:45 pm. Some material may be stored offsite and require up to two business days for ... Keywords: 6-hydroxydopamine, angiotensin II type 1 receptor, adenosine 5-triphosphate, cell determinant, cyclohexamide, ... Generation of reactive oxygen species in 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) treated dopaminergic neurons occurs as an NADPH ... "Generation of reactive oxygen species in 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) treated dopaminergic neurons occurs as an NADPH ...
Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is critically involved in brain water and volume homeostasis and has been implicated in a wide range of ... 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine). Here, we investigated the effect of Aqp4 deletion on microglial activation in ... mice subjected to unilateral intrastriatal injection of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+, the toxic metabolite of MPTP). Our ...
TEL: +82-2-525-7552 FAX: +82-2-525-7554 E-mail: [email protected] About , Browse Articles , Current Issue , For Authors and ... Prospero Homeobox 1 and Doublecortin Correlate with Neural Damage after Ischemic Stroke Dong-Hun Lee, Eun Chae Lee, Sang-Won ... Effect of Mixture of Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenic Protein-2 and Demineralized Bone Matrix in Lateral Lumbar Interbody ... Neuro-Restorative Effect of Nimodipine and Calcitriol in 1-Methyl 4-Phenyl 1,2,3,6 Tetrahydropyridine-Induced Zebrafish ...
Tetrahydropyridine Neuroscience 100% * Energy Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 50% * Membrane Biochemistry, ... Y1 - 1988/1/1. N2 - It is widely believed that the nigrostriatal toxicity of MPTP is due to its oxidation by brain monoamine ... 1, 01.01.1988, p. 17-23.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Review article › peer-review ... Singer, T. P., Ramsay, R. R., McKeown, K., Trevor, A., & Castagnoli, N. E. (1988). Mechanism of the neurotoxicity of 1-methyl-4 ...
4, 13.03.2020, p. 580-590.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article › peer-review ... Y1 - 2020/3/13. N2 - Parkinsons disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease with a heterogeneous etiology that involves ... Human molecular genetics, 29(4), 580-590. https://doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddz271 ...
Suppression of epileptogenesis by modification of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit composition. Bengzon, J., Okabe, S., ... Kokaia, Z., Othberg, A., Kokaia, M. & Lindvall, O., 1994 Jun 2, In: NeuroReport. 5, 10, p. 1241-4 4 p.. Research output: ... Smits, A., Odin, P., Duan, W-M., Brundin, P., Widner, H., Heldin, C-H., Lindvall, O. & Keiko, F., 1993 Mar 1, In: Cell ... Laterza, C., Wattananit, S., Uoshima, N., Ge, R., Pekny, R., Tornero, D., Monni, E., Lindvall, O. & Kokaia, Z., 2017 Nov 1, In ...
N-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. Tree number(s):. D03.383.725.450. ... 3,6-tetrahydropyridine - Preferred Concept UI. M0023971. Scope note. A dopaminergic neurotoxic compound which produces ... We invite you to complete a survey that will take no more than 3 minutes.. Go to survey ... 1-Méthyl-4-phényl-1,2,3,6-tétrahydropyridine Entry term(s):. MPTP. ...
N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors] heteromerisation [59, 60] .Upon forming a heteromeric complex with D2 receptors, A2A and D2 ... methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine [MPTP], a fast acting neurotoxin. Such herbicides can induce parkinsonian ... 3. DIFFERENT EFFECTS OF CAFFEINE IN PD. 3.1. Adenosine A2A Receptors. Adenosine A2A receptors are distributed in the BG, which ... 1] Kempster PA, Hurwitz B, Lees AJ. A new look at james parkinsons essay on the shaking palsy. Neurology 2007; 69(5): 482-5.. ...
Neurosciences 2015;20(3):277-9. PMID 26166598 46 Ihara H. High signal intensity of globus pallidus on T1-weighted MRI in liver ... Hepatology 1997;26(4):837-41. PMID 9328301 65 Kulisevsky J, Pujol J, Balanzo J, et al. Pallidal hyperintensity on magnetic ... Exp Clin Transplant 2011;9(6):363-9. PMID 22142042 15 Choi Y, Park JK, Park NH, et al. Whole blood and red blood cell manganese ... Neurosci Lett 1993;162:192-6. PMID 8121627 91 Naegele T, Grodd W, Viebahn R, et al. MR imaging and (1)H spectroscopy of brain ...
Twenty-four athletes were treated with 100 mg.day-1 of melatonin or placebo 30 min before bedtime during ... إقراء المزيد ... To gain insight into the mechanism of sarcopenia and the protective effect of melatonin, the gastrocnemius muscles of young (3- ... These experiments can be carried out in zebrafish embryos, which were treated with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6- ... In Vivo Determination of Mitochondrial Respiration in 1-Methyl-4-Phenyl-1,2,3,6-Tetrahydropyridine-Treated Zebrafish Reveals ...
METHODS: C57BL/6J mice were exposed to CORT for 4 days, and exposed to DFP on day 5, before sacrifice 6 h later. The ... CORT was given in the drinking water (200 mg/L) for 1 week or every other week for 90 days followed by LPS. Proinflammatory ... The known dopaminergic neurotoxicant 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP; 12.5 mg/kg s.c.) was used to induce ... Acute exposure to LPS caused brain-wide neuroinflammation without producing astrogliosis; exposure to CORT for 1 week caused ...
Occup Med 1987;2(4):655-61) Annotation: a type of hypersensitivity usually to occup or environ chemicals; often affects ... This disorder is classified as one of the SPINOCEREBELLAR ATAXIAS (Type 3) and has been associated with a mutation of the MJD1 ... Clinical features are usually present at birth or develop in the first 3 days of life and consist of hypotonia and impaired ... From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp689-701; Curr Opin Pediatr 1998 Feb;10(1):13-8) Annotation: do not coord ...
Table 4 The effects of ERα agonist 16α-LE2 and ERβ agonist DPN on the transcription of E2-regulated neuroinflammatory genes.. ... Figure 1. The effects of estrogen replacements on uterus weight (A) and body weight (B). E2 and ERα agonist 16α-lactone- ... Figure 2. Microarray analysis revealed 87 ERα agonist-regulated genes which were categorized based on function. ERα agonist- ... Table 1 Confirmation of the ERα agonist-regulated immunity/inflammation genes by quantitative real-time PCR.. Full size table. ...
3. High Genetic Diversity of HIV-1 and Active Transmission Clusters among Male-to-Male Sexual Contacts (MMSCs) in Zhuhai, China ... 1. Risk factors for renal outcomes in children with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis: a nationwide ... 2. A multicenter study on the application of artificial intelligence radiological characteristics to predict prognosis after ... WT mice and anti-Act1 mice at 3 weeks old were examined by OCT every week and killed at eight weeks old. Their mandibular bones ...
  • MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) is an organic compound. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once inside the brain, MPTP is metabolized into the toxic cation 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) by the enzyme monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) of glial cells, specifically astrocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1-Methyl-4-(2′-aminophenyl)-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (2′-NH 2 -MPTP) causes long-term loss of forebrain serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) and consequently, is unlike 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and its other 2′-analogs that primarily deplete striatal dopamine (DA). (aspetjournals.org)
  • In the present investigation into the acute effects of 2′-NH 2 -MPTP in mice, profound decreases in cortical and hippocampal 5-HT and NE to 10 to 40% of control were observed as early as 30 min post-treatment and lasted throughout the ensuing 21 days. (aspetjournals.org)
  • To explore the possibility that 5-HT modulates the astrocytic response to injury, 2′-NH 2 -MPTP was used to damage 5-HT axons 2 weeks before administration of the potent DA neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-(2′-methylphenyl)-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (2′-CH 3 -MPTP). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Despite a 90% decrement in striatal DA in 2′-NH 2 -MPTP/2′-CH 3 -MPTP-treated mice, increases in GFAP were attenuated compared to mice treated with 2′-CH 3 -MPTP alone. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Thus, 2′-NH 2 -MPTP causes severe and immediate decrements in 5-HT and NE in frontal cortex and hippocampus, yet induces a modest GFAP response compared with other MPTP analogs that have their primary effect on DA. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Samadi et al [2] tested the effect of the application of DHA to monkeys treated with MPTP to induce levadopa-induced dyskinesia (LID). (wikiversity.org)
  • Bousquet et al [4] tested the hypothesis that omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may exert neuroprotective action in Parkinson's disease, by putting mice on a high PUFA diet and then inducing Parkunsonism with MPTP. (wikiversity.org)
  • Attempts to synthesise pethidine have resulted in the accidental production of MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine), a compound which is metabolised in the brain by the monoamine oxidase system to a toxic intermediate (MPP+) which selectively destroys the sustantia nigra, resulting in the rapid onset of severe Parkinsonian symptoms. (erowid.org)
  • This study investigated the involvement of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) that may be nonenzymatically linked to α-synuclein accumulation in the chronic 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced C57BL/6 mouse model of parkinsonism. (nih.gov)
  • We also studied genetic differences among 10 BXD recombinant inbred mouse strains to MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine), a proneurotoxicant (the active agent is the metabolite, MPP+ produced in astrocytes) used to model the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease. (cdc.gov)
  • Here we show that the serum levels of miR-29s in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced PD mice exhibited dynamic changes. (aging-us.com)
  • Neuroinflammation is a hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD), and we have previously shown that astrocytes in substantia nigra (SN) are enriched in AQP4 relative to cortical astrocytes, and that their complement of AQP4 is further increased following treatment with the parkinsonogenic toxin MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine). (stami.no)
  • Here, we investigated the effect of Aqp4 deletion on microglial activation in mice subjected to unilateral intrastriatal injection of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+, the toxic metabolite of MPTP). (stami.no)
  • The dopamine transporter (DAT) plays an important role in substance abuse, schizophrenia, and dopaminergic toxicity associated with the Parkinsonian animal model toxin, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). (omeka.net)
  • 1 Research Team of Pain and Neuroscience, WHO Collaborating Center for Traditional Medicine, East-West Medical Research Institute, Kyung Hee University, #1 Hoegi-dong Dongdaemoon-gu, Seoul 130-701, Republic of Korea. (nih.gov)
  • In this study we investigated the effects of modulating intracellular urate concentration on 1-methyl-4-phenyl-pyridinium (MPP + )-induced degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in cultures of mouse ventral mesencephalon prepared to contain low (neuron-enriched cultures) or high (neuron-glial cultures) percentage of astrocytes. (plos.org)
  • Generation of reactive oxygen species in 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) treated dopaminergic neurons occurs as an NADPH oxidase-dependent two-wave cascade. (tufts.edu)
  • The 2 major neuropathologic findings in Parkinson disease are loss of pigmented dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta and the presence of Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites. (medscape.com)
  • Rats receiving UMP, DHA, both, or neither, daily, and intrastriatal 6-OHDA 3 days after treatment onset, were tested for d-amphetamine-induced rotational behavior and dopaminergic markers after 24 and 28 days, respectively. (wikiversity.org)
  • PD is characterized by the selective loss of the substantia nigra pars compacta dopaminergic (DA) neurons accompanied by the formation of intra cytoplasmic inclusions known as Lewy bodies that contain α- synuclein as well as by complex interactions between susceptible genes and various environmental risk factors [ 2 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Based on these observations, the dopamine neu- from dopamine neurons implanted into the brain pa- rons used for transplantation in these experiments renchyma with the goal of reinnervating the dener- were neuroblasts obtained from mid-trimester rat vated striatum.8,9 Rats with unilateral, 6-hydroxydo- fetuses. (lu.se)
  • VM), showed that the recovery of motor functions induced implanted either (1) as a solid piece in the lateral ven- by the grafted fetal dopamine neurons was well cor- tricle6 or a cortical cavity8 adjacent to the denervated related with the extent of graft-derived reinnervation caudate-putamen, or (2) as a crude cell suspension of the host caudate-putamen. (lu.se)
  • Although Par-4 (prostate apoptosis response-4) is involved in initiation of neurodegenerative cascades associated with certain neurodegenerative disorders, normal physiological roles of Par-4 in neurons have remained elusive. (omeka.net)
  • 4 Because the pathology of PD is characterized by progressive dopaminergic deficiency and selective loss of neurons in the substantia nigra, factors which reduce the risk of developing PD may also slow disease progression after diagnosis, as has been found for caffeine consumption and lower serum urate levels. (parki-stgt.de)
  • UMP/DHA treatment reduced ipsilateral rotations by 57% and significantly elevated striatal dopamine, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity, TH protein and Synapsin-1 on the lesioned side. (wikiversity.org)
  • the donor.4,11 In the case of nerve cells obtained from either delivery of dopamine released from cells the developing central nervous system (CNS), the opti- implanted into the ventricle, adjacent to the stria- mal age was shown to be at, or close to, the cell-cycle tum,6,7 or restoration of synaptic dopamine release exit. (lu.se)
  • Taken together, these data suggest that a high n-3 PUFA dietary intake exerts neuroprotective actions in an animal model of Parkinsonism. (wikiversity.org)
  • J Alzheimers Dis Parkinsonism 4:148. (omicsonline.org)
  • Par-4 is a synaptic protein that regulates neurite outgrowth by altering calcium homeostasis and transcription factor AP-1 activation. (omeka.net)
  • Wang et al [1] tested the effects of DHA on rats. (wikiversity.org)
  • Cansey et al [3] worked with rats rendered Parkinsonian by the administration of 6-OHDA. (wikiversity.org)
  • Monoamine-activated alpha 2-macroglobulin binds trk receptor and inhibits nerve growth factor-stimulated trk phosphorylation and signal transduction. (omeka.net)
  • Rat alpha(2)-macroglobulin inhibits NGF-promoted neurite outgrowth, TrK phosphorylation, and gene expression of pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. (omeka.net)
  • Synthetic opioid derivatives, which represent the second major class of 'designer drugs', are derivatives of fentanyl (e.g. alpha-methylfentanyl, 3-methylfentanyl) or pethidine (meperidine) and are extremely potent compounds responsible for numerous overdose deaths. (erowid.org)
  • ABHD2, ABHD3, ABHD4, ABHD5, ABHD6, ABHD12 and ABHD16 are involved in the metabolism of glycerin esters and phospholipids, in particular lipid mediator 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and its metabolites have a significant effect on neuroinflammation via the endocannabinoid system. (helsinki.fi)
  • UOx) [1] , an enzyme primarily expressed in the liver [2] . (plos.org)
  • DHA or Docoaheaenoic acid is an omega-3 fatty acid that is a primary structural component of the human brain, sperm, testicles and retina. (wikiversity.org)
  • Parkinson's disease [PD] is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer's disease, affecting 1% of the population over the age of 55. (openneurologyjournal.com)
  • Proanthocyanidin-rich fraction from Croton celtidifolius Baill confers neuroprotection in the intranasal 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine rat model of Parkinson's disease. (api.org.br)
  • PD is the second most common neurodegenerative disease [ 1 ], only superseded by Alzheimer's disease. (omicsonline.org)
  • Knockout of miR-29b2/c inhibited the expression of inflammatory factors in 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP + )-treated primary cultures of mixed glia, primary astrocytes, or LPS-treated primary microglia. (aging-us.com)
  • Although most of these compounds are only of historical interest, amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) continue to be used recreationally. (erowid.org)
  • To gain insight into the mechanism of sarcopenia and the protective effect of melatonin, the gastrocnemius muscles of young (3-4 months), early-aged (12 months), and old-aged (24 months) wild type C57BL/6J female mice, were examined by magnetic resonance and microscopy. (sohag-univ.edu.eg)
  • Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is critically involved in brain water and volume homeostasis and has been implicated in a wide range of pathological conditions. (stami.no)
  • This disorder is classified as one of the SPINOCEREBELLAR ATAXIAS (Type 3) and has been associated with a mutation of the MJD1 gene on chromosome 14. (doctorinternet.com)
  • The complex interactions between the immune and central nervous systems govern the innate immune responses in the brain [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Importantly, in the largest and best-powered study to date among women, Xu et al 3 observed a significant dose-response between the number of hours of moderate to vigorous physical activity per week and lower PD risk in 3 of the 4 age categories examined. (parki-stgt.de)
  • Human molecular genetics , 29 (4), 580-590. (johnshopkins.edu)
  • Rat alpha-1-macroglobulin (alpha(1)M) and alpha-2-macroglobulin (alpha(2)M) are murine homologs of human alpha(2)M, and rat alpha(2)M is generally known as an acute-phase protein. (omeka.net)
  • Parkinson disease (PD) is one of the most common neurologic disorders, affecting approximately 1% of individuals older than 60 years and causing progressive disability that can be slowed, but not halted, by treatment. (medscape.com)
  • Parkinson disease is recognized as one of the most common neurologic disorders, affecting approximately 1% of individuals older than 60 years. (medscape.com)
  • Par-4 induces cholinergic hypoactivity by suppressing ChAT protein synthesis and inhibiting NGF-inducibility of ChAT activity. (omeka.net)
  • Since the article by Fang et al 1 was submitted, Müller et al 2 reported the results of a cohort study of 7347 male veterans (the Veterans Exercise Testing Study) in which physical fitness was measured objectively by maximal exercise testing. (parki-stgt.de)
  • Journal of Neurochemistry , 75 (1), pp. 133-140. (ntu.ac.uk)
  • Journal of Neuroinflammation 8, no. 1 (12, 2011): 1-13. (tufts.edu)
  • They reported dramatically positive results in 2 patients that received pieces of adrenal medulla placed in At this point the development took an unexpected a premade cavity in the head of the caudate nucleus on 1 and somewhat surprising turn. (lu.se)
  • Funding came from the United States National Institutes of Health http://www.nih.gov/(R21NS058324 and K24NS060991), US Department of Defense http://www.defense.gov/(W81XWH-11-1-0150), and the American Parkinson Disease Association http://www.apdaparkinson.org/userND/index.asp . (plos.org)
  • Fang et al 1 reported a meta-analysis of prospective studies to determine whether there is evidence of a quantitative dose-response association between physical activity and Parkinson disease (PD) risk. (parki-stgt.de)
  • however, it would be premature to conclude that moderate to vigorous physical activity is not a protective factor for women because only 4 of the 8 studies included women and all but 1 of those studies had fewer than 150 women with PD. (parki-stgt.de)
  • Note: Reading Room Hours, M-F, 9 am - 3:45 pm. (tufts.edu)