A dopaminergic neurotoxic compound which produces irreversible clinical, chemical, and pathological alterations that mimic those found in Parkinson disease.
A condition caused by the neurotoxin MPTP which causes selective destruction of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Clinical features include irreversible parkinsonian signs including rigidity and bradykinesia (PARKINSON DISEASE, SECONDARY). MPTP toxicity is also used as an animal model for the study of PARKINSON DISEASE. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1072; Neurology 1986 Feb;36(2):250-8)
A group of disorders which feature impaired motor control characterized by bradykinesia, MUSCLE RIGIDITY; TREMOR; and postural instability. Parkinsonian diseases are generally divided into primary parkinsonism (see PARKINSON DISEASE), secondary parkinsonism (see PARKINSON DISEASE, SECONDARY) and inherited forms. These conditions are associated with dysfunction of dopaminergic or closely related motor integration neuronal pathways in the BASAL GANGLIA.
Conditions which feature clinical manifestations resembling primary Parkinson disease that are caused by a known or suspected condition. Examples include parkinsonism caused by vascular injury, drugs, trauma, toxin exposure, neoplasms, infections and degenerative or hereditary conditions. Clinical features may include bradykinesia, rigidity, parkinsonian gait, and masked facies. In general, tremor is less prominent in secondary parkinsonism than in the primary form. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch38, pp39-42)
An active neurotoxic metabolite of 1-METHYL-4-PHENYL-1,2,3,6-TETRAHYDROPYRIDINE. The compound reduces dopamine levels, inhibits the biosynthesis of catecholamines, depletes cardiac norepinephrine and inactivates tyrosine hydroxylase. These and other toxic effects lead to cessation of oxidative phosphorylation, ATP depletion, and cell death. The compound, which is related to PARAQUAT, has also been used as an herbicide.
The black substance in the ventral midbrain or the nucleus of cells containing the black substance. These cells produce DOPAMINE, an important neurotransmitter in regulation of the sensorimotor system and mood. The dark colored MELANIN is a by-product of dopamine synthesis.
Any drugs that are used for their effects on dopamine receptors, on the life cycle of dopamine, or on the survival of dopaminergic neurons.
Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.
Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is DOPAMINE.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC
A sporadic neurodegenerative disease with onset in middle-age characterized clinically by Parkinsonian features (e.g., MUSCLE RIGIDITY; HYPOKINESIA; stooped posture) and HYPOTENSION. This condition is considered a clinical variant of MULTIPLE SYSTEM ATROPHY. Pathologic features include a prominent loss of neurons in the zona compacta of the SUBSTANTIA NIGRA and PUTAMEN. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1075-6)
A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. It is a flavin-containing enzyme that is localized in mitochondrial membranes, whether in nerve terminals, the liver, or other organs. Monoamine oxidase is important in regulating the metabolic degradation of catecholamines and serotonin in neural or target tissues. Hepatic monoamine oxidase has a crucial defensive role in inactivating circulating monoamines or those, such as tyramine, that originate in the gut and are absorbed into the portal circulation. (From Goodman and Gilman's, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p415) EC
A deaminated metabolite of LEVODOPA.
The naturally occurring form of DIHYDROXYPHENYLALANINE and the immediate precursor of DOPAMINE. Unlike dopamine itself, it can be taken orally and crosses the blood-brain barrier. It is rapidly taken up by dopaminergic neurons and converted to DOPAMINE. It is used for the treatment of PARKINSONIAN DISORDERS and is usually given with agents that inhibit its conversion to dopamine outside of the central nervous system.
A selective, irreversible inhibitor of Type B monoamine oxidase. It is used in newly diagnosed patients with Parkinson's disease. It may slow progression of the clinical disease and delay the requirement for levodopa therapy. It also may be given with levodopa upon onset of disability. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p385) The compound without isomeric designation is Deprenyl.
Agents used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. The most commonly used drugs act on the dopaminergic system in the striatum and basal ganglia or are centrally acting muscarinic antagonists.
Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The representation of the phylogenetically oldest part of the corpus striatum called the paleostriatum. It forms the smaller, more medial part of the lentiform nucleus.
A genus of the family CEBIDAE consisting of four species: S. boliviensis, S. orstedii (red-backed squirrel monkey), S. sciureus (common squirrel monkey), and S. ustus. They inhabit tropical rain forests in Central and South America. S. sciureus is used extensively in research studies.
The phylogenetically newer part of the CORPUS STRIATUM consisting of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and PUTAMEN. It is often called simply the striatum.
Tricyclic anorexigenic agent unrelated to and less toxic than AMPHETAMINE, but with some similar side effects. It inhibits uptake of catecholamines and blocks the binding of cocaine to the dopamine uptake transporter.
A chemically heterogeneous group of drugs that have in common the ability to block oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. (From Gilman, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p414)
Abnormal involuntary movements which primarily affect the extremities, trunk, or jaw that occur as a manifestation of an underlying disease process. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent episodes of dyskinesia as a primary manifestation of disease may be referred to as dyskinesia syndromes (see MOVEMENT DISORDERS). Dyskinesias are also a relatively common manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES.
Sulfur compounds in which the sulfur atom is attached to three organic radicals and an electronegative element or radical.
Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of dopaminergic neurons. They remove DOPAMINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS and are the target of DOPAMINE UPTAKE INHIBITORS.
Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.
A plant genus of the family OROBANCHACEAE. Members contain phenylethanoid glycosides.
Abnormal movements, including HYPERKINESIS; HYPOKINESIA; TREMOR; and DYSTONIA, associated with the use of certain medications or drugs. Muscles of the face, trunk, neck, and extremities are most commonly affected. Tardive dyskinesia refers to abnormal hyperkinetic movements of the muscles of the face, tongue, and neck associated with the use of neuroleptic agents (see ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1199)
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
The largest and most lateral of the BASAL GANGLIA lying between the lateral medullary lamina of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and the EXTERNAL CAPSULE. It is part of the neostriatum and forms part of the LENTIFORM NUCLEUS along with the GLOBUS PALLIDUS.
A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.
An antidepressive agent and monoamine oxidase inhibitor related to PARGYLINE.
The middle of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain. Without further subdivision, midbrain develops into a short, constricted portion connecting the PONS and the DIENCEPHALON. Midbrain contains two major parts, the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI and the ventral TEGMENTUM MESENCEPHALI, housing components of auditory, visual, and other sensorimoter systems.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.
A family of vesicular amine transporter proteins that catalyze the transport and storage of CATECHOLAMINES and indolamines into SECRETORY VESICLES.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A genus of the subfamily CALLITRICHINAE occurring in forests of Brazil and Bolivia and containing seventeen species.
Integral membrane proteins of the LIPID BILAYER of SECRETORY VESICLES that catalyze transport and storage of biogenic amine NEUROTRANSMITTERS such as ACETYLCHOLINE; SEROTONIN; MELATONIN; HISTAMINE; and CATECHOLAMINES. The transporters exchange vesicular protons for cytoplasmic neurotransmitters.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.
The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.
Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.
Drugs that bind to and activate dopamine receptors.
A subtype of dopamine D2 receptors that are highly expressed in the LIMBIC SYSTEM of the brain.
A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.
Peptide neurotoxins from the marine fish-hunting snails of the genus CONUS. They contain 13 to 29 amino acids which are strongly basic and are highly cross-linked by disulfide bonds. There are three types of conotoxins, omega-, alpha-, and mu-. OMEGA-CONOTOXINS inhibit voltage-activated entry of calcium into the presynaptic membrane and therefore the release of ACETYLCHOLINE. Alpha-conotoxins inhibit the postsynaptic acetylcholine receptor. Mu-conotoxins prevent the generation of muscle action potentials. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The founding member of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family. It was originally characterized as a NERVE GROWTH FACTOR promoting the survival of MIDBRAIN dopaminergic NEURONS, and it has been studied as a potential treatment for PARKINSON DISEASE.
A botanical insecticide that is an inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The methyl homolog of parathion. An effective, but highly toxic, organothiophosphate insecticide and cholinesterase inhibitor.
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Ethers that are linked to a benzene ring structure.
Lens-shaped structure on the inner aspect of the INTERNAL CAPSULE. The SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS and pathways traversing this region are concerned with the integration of somatic motor function.
A synuclein that is a major component of LEWY BODIES that plays a role in neurodegeneration and neuroprotection.
A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D2-class receptor genes contain INTRONS, and the receptors inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
Therapy for MOVEMENT DISORDERS, especially PARKINSON DISEASE, that applies electricity via stereotactic implantation of ELECTRODES in specific areas of the BRAIN such as the THALAMUS. The electrodes are attached to a neurostimulator placed subcutaneously.
A CELL LINE derived from a PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA of the rat ADRENAL MEDULLA. PC12 cells stop dividing and undergo terminal differentiation when treated with NERVE GROWTH FACTOR, making the line a useful model system for NERVE CELL differentiation.
A neurotransmitter analogue that depletes noradrenergic stores in nerve endings and induces a reduction of dopamine levels in the brain. Its mechanism of action is related to the production of cytolytic free-radicals.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
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Replacing the α-methyl with a cyclopropyl dramatically reduces affinity for the noradrenaline transporter and 5-HT2A receptor, ... This research was a continuation of earlier work from the same team which showed that replacing the α-methyl group of MDMA with ... MBDB Methyl-K (UWA-091) Isohexylone UWA-001 Zylofuramine RTI-83 - another drug which selectively increases dopamine and ... the only difference being the replacement of the α-methyl group with an α-cyclopropyl group. MDMA has been found in animal ...
Like GLP-1, it also slows gastric emptying. Lixisenatide is a peptide made of 44 amino acids, with an amide group on its C ... GLP-1 is a hormone that helps pancreatic beta cells to secrete insulin in response to high blood sugar. Because it works like ... 495 (1): 1034-1040. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2017.11.114. PMID 29175324. Liu W, Jalewa J, Sharma M, Li G, Li L, Hölscher C (September ... 3 h post-injection. Lixisenatide also enhanced neurogenesis in the brain. Liraglutide crossed the BBB at 25 and 250 nmol/kg ip ...
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The initial velocity is defined as V 0 = d [ P ] / d t = k 2 [ ES ] {\displaystyle V_{0}=d[{\ce {P}}]/dt=k_{2}[{\ce {ES}}]} , ... In the simplest case of a single-substrate enzyme obeying Michaelis-Menten kinetics, the typical scheme E + S ⇌ k − 1 k 1 ES → ... K m app {\displaystyle K_{m}^{\text{app}}} , the substrate concentration that is needed to reach V max / 2 {\displaystyle V_{\ ... Cells in the central nervous system (astrocytes) include MAO-B that oxidizes MPTP to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+), which ...
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... selective destruction of dopaminergic neurons in the pars compacta of the substantia nigra by N-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6- ... tetrahydropyridine". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 80 (14): 4546-4550. ... Kopin died on August 1, 2017. His funeral service was held at Congregation Beth El in Bethesda, Maryland. NINDS and NIMH held a ...
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... is a drug and research chemical used in scientific studies. It acts as a monoamine releasing agent with 20- ... 4 (8): 3118. doi:10.1039/c3sc51080h. ISSN 2041-6520. v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata ... 329 (1): 272-281. doi:10.1124/jpet.108.143701. PMC 2670586. PMID 19151247. Arai Y, Hamamichi N, Kinemuchi H (1986). "Time- ... It also functions as a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) with preference for MAO-A. 4-Cyanopyridine can be reacted with ...
Glutamate results in cell death by turning on the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptors (NMDA); these receptors cause an increased ... ISBN 978-1-934559-87-1. OCLC 191726483. {{cite book}}: ,last= has generic name (help) Langston, J. W. (1995). The case of the ... 14 (3): 261-274. doi:10.1080/13590840400010318. Kilburn, Kaye H. (2004). Role of Molds and Mycotoxins in Being Sick in ... Jon Palfreman (1 ed.). New York: Pantheon Books. ISBN 0-679-42465-2. OCLC 31608154. Jackson-Lewis, Vernice; Przedborski, Serge ...
27 (3): 311-4. doi:10.1016/j.neuro.2005.09.002. PMID 16460806. Ke Y, Chang YZ, Duan XL, Du JR, Zhu L, Wang K, Yang XD, Ho KP, ... 303 (1-2): 124-7. doi:10.1016/j.jns.2010.12.018. PMID 21276595. S2CID 22098012. He Q, Du T, Yu X, Xie A, Song N, Kang Q, Yu J, ... 122 (2): 171-7. doi:10.1016/S0378-4274(01)00363-0. PMID 11439223. Sharp P, Tandy S, Yamaji S, Tennant J, Williams M, Singh Srai ... 282 (4): G598-607. doi:10.1152/ajpgi.00371.2001. PMID 11897618. Wang X, Ghio AJ, Yang F, Dolan KG, Garrick MD, Piantadosi CA ( ...
1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) This set index page lists chemical structure articles associated with the same ...
306 (1): 401-6. doi:10.1124/jpet.103.051912. PMID 12721323. S2CID 7060934. v t e (Articles without KEGG source, Pages using ... 2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-Treated Monkeys". Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. ... SIB-1553A Improves Both Attention and Memory Components of a Spatial Working Memory Task in Chronic Low Dose 1-Methyl-4-phenyl- ...
Phenylethylamine Amphetamine MDMA N-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) (very potent inhibitors of VMAT2 mediated serotonin ... doi:10.1007/3-540-29784-7_15. ISBN 978-3-540-29783-3. PMID 16722242. Höltje M.; Winter S.; et al. (May 2003). "The vesicular ... 31 (4): 483-19. doi:10.1002/med.20187. PMC 3019297. PMID 20135628. Liu Y, Peter D, Rogahani A, Schuldiner S, Prive GG, ... 34 (2-3): 360-372. doi:10.1016/j.mam.2012.07.005. PMC 3727660. PMID 23506877. Sager, J.J. & Torres, G.E., 2011. Proteins ...
Structural analogs of desmethylprodine with different N-substituents than a methyl group on the piperidine have been ... 13 (4): 367-74. doi:10.1016/0376-8716(84)90004-8. PMID 6148225. Davis GC, Williams AC, Markey SP, Ebert MH, Caine ED, Reichert ... Desmethylprodine or 1-methyl-4-phenyl-4-propionoxypiperidine (MPPP, Ro 2-0718) is an opioid analgesic drug developed in the ... It was later found that his development of Parkinson's was due to a common impurity in the synthesis of MPPP called MPTP (1- ...
... phenyl)-, methyl ester MeSH D03.383.725.547.950 - xanthinol niacinate MeSH D03.383.725.565 - nicotinyl alcohol MeSH D03.383. ... phenyl)-, methyl ester MeSH D03.383.725.210 - dimethindene MeSH D03.383.725.220 - 2,2'-dipyridyl MeSH D03.383.725.227 - ... phenyl)-1h-pyrazol-3-amine MeSH D03.383.129.539.200 - epirizole MeSH D03.383.129.539.487 - indazoles MeSH D03.383.129.539. ... 2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-8-chloro-3-methyl-5-phenyl-1h-3-benzazepin-7-ol MeSH D03.438.079.800 - 2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-7,8-dihydroxy-1- ...
77 (3): 696-711. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2006.00898.x. PMID 16686796. Chugani HT, Behen ME, Muzik O, Juhász C, Nagy F, Chugani ... 45 (2): 279-91. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2005.01.003. PMID 15664179. S2CID 13320649. Zuo Y, Lin A, Chang P, Gan WB (April 2005). " ... 40 (2): 491-504. doi:10.1016/0014-4886(73)90090-3. PMID 4730268. Landi S, Sale A, Berardi N, Viegi A, Maffei L, Cenni MC ( ... 35 (4): 769-81. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.1994.tb01220.x. PMID 7518826. Rutter M, Andersen-Wood L, Beckett C, et al. (May 1999 ...
1), an ED50 value of ≤5 mg/kg is apparent in males compared with ≥20 mg/kg in females. As we discussed above, female mice are ... Figure 2. A low dose of caffeine attenuates MPTP-induced dopamine depletion in OVX but not sham-operated young female mice. Ten ... 1A, available at www.jneurosci.org as supplemental material), the major metabolite of dopamine in mouse, revealed that lower ... 2B, available at www.jneurosci.org as supplemental material) yielded a similar set of findings, with caffeine pretreatment (20 ...
10.21203/rs.3.rs-2260331/v1 * Intuitive movement-based prosthesis control enables arm amputees to reach naturally in virtual ... Pallidal border cells: an anatomical and electrophysiological study in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-treated ... Pallidal border cells: an anatomical and electrophysiological study in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-treated ...
Rufeng Xue1†, Huimin Zhang1†, Jun Pan1, Zhiwei Du1, Wenjie Zhou2, Zhi Zhang2, Zhigang Tian1, Rongbin Zhou1,3 and Li Bai1,3* ... FIGURE 2. Figure 2. Dopamine inhibits production of IL4 and IFNγ in iNKT cells. (A-C) IL4 and IFNγ production in iNKT cells ... FIGURE 4. Figure 4. Dopamine inhibits iNKT cell functions via cAMP-PKA pathway. (A) cAMP level in iNKT cells in the presence of ... FIGURE 6. Figure 6. A77636 inhibits Con A-induced liver injury in MPTP treated mice. (A-D) Mean fluorescence intensity of CD69 ...
The 2 major neuropathologic findings in Parkinson disease are loss of pigmented dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra p ... affecting approximately 1% of individuals older than 60 years and causing progressive disability that can be slowed, but not ... 35, 36] A pooled analysis of 2 of the studies, for example, indicated that in patients with Parkinson disease, the odds ratio ... The deep brain stimulating lead is equipped with 4 electrode contacts, each of which may be used, alone or in combination, for ...
The compound N-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) has been identified in underground laboratory preparations ...
Relaxin-3 Innervation From the Nucleus Incertus to the Parahippocampal Cortex of the Rat Cristina García Díaz, Isis Gil Miravet ... Involvement of the Nucleus Incertus and Relaxin-3/RXFP3 Signaling System in Explicit and Implicit Memory Isis Gil Miravet, Aroa ... GABAergic Neurons in the Rat Medial Septal Complex Express Relaxin-3 Receptor (RXFP3) mRNA Héctor Albert Gascó, Sherie Ma, ... Modulation of forebrain function by nucleus incertus and relaxin-3/RXFP3 signaling Francisco Eliseo Olucha Bordonau, Héctor ...
2010 Apr 1;18(7):2631-8. doi: 10.1016/j.bmc.2010.02.029. Epub 2010 Feb 20. Bioorg Med Chem. 2010. PMID: 20227282 ... 2011 Jan;347(1-2):135-43. doi: 10.1007/s11010-010-0621-4. Epub 2010 Oct 23. Mol Cell Biochem. 2011. PMID: 20972609 ... 2012 Sep;6(3):181-200. doi: 10.2174/187221412802481793. Recent Pat Endocr Metab Immune Drug Discov. 2012. PMID: 22827714 Review ... 2012 Feb;37(2):358-69. doi: 10.1007/s11064-011-0619-7. Epub 2011 Oct 5. Neurochem Res. 2012. PMID: 21971758 ...
The essential thing is not to have conquered but to have fought well."1 (b) In the 2000 Olympics, the reference to non-use of ... Xino YL, Fu JM, Dong Z, et al. Neuroprotective mechanism of modafinil on Parkinson disease induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6 ... tetrahydropyridine. Acta Pharmacol Sin 2004;25:301-5.. OpenUrlPubMedWeb of Science ... 6 The pervasive use of doping agents led to an anti-doping hot line in Sweden which clearly defined this to be a public health ...
Methyl-compounds; Phenyl-compounds; Pyridines; Laboratory-animals; Laboratory-testing; Neurological-diseases; Brain-disorders; ... Advanced Search Search Help About NIOSHTIC-2 Feedback Terms: DNA or Deoxyribonucleic acid OR DNA or Deoxyribonucleic acid 140 ... We recently reported on neurotoxicity of 1-methyl- 4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) in male BXD recombinant inbred ... NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search. Search Results. New Search. ...
Importantly, diapocynin administered 3 days after initiation of the disease restored the neurochemical deficits. Diapocynin ... Notably, diapocynin markedly inhibited MPTP-induced oxidative markers including 3-NT and 4-HNE levels in the SN. Treatment with ... Nigral tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons as well as oxidative markers 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE ... Neuroinflammatory markers, such as ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba-1), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), ...
Dive into the research topics of Activation of transcription factor MEF2D by bis(3)-cognitin protects dopaminergic neurons and ... Activation of transcription factor MEF2D by bis(3)-cognitin protects dopaminergic neurons and ameliorates Parkinsonian motor ...
Dive into the research topics of Movement Disorders: Anatomy and Physiology Relevant to Deep Brain Stimulation. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Fly brains were incubated with 100 nM Tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester (TMRM) (Invitrogen, I34361) for 30 min at 37 °C and ... H2O2, p = 0.001. Fer22/+ ctrl vs. H2O2, p = 0.0076. PAM ctrl vs. H2O2, p = 0.0032. ns, not significant. b ROS levels in w1118 ... 2: Fer2 overexpression protects PAM dopaminergic neurons from oxidative insults.. a w1118, Fer22/+, Fer22, R58E02-GAL4 (PAM) ... Fer2-Gal4, Fer22 day1 vs. Fer2-Gal4, Fer22 day14, p = 0.0152. Fer2-Gal4, Fer22 day1 vs. Fer2 , Sod2, Fer22 day1, p = 0.0191. ...
Mitochonic acid 5 (MA-5), an analogue of indole-3-acetic acid, exerts key... ... Therapeutic effects of paeonol on methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine/probenecid-induced Parkinsons disease in mice. ... 3, 2022, pp. 329-337. doi:10.5114/fn.2022.118796.. Vancouver. Wan J, Gao Y, Tan J, Yi S, Huang K, Liu Y et al. Mitochonic acid ... C57BL/6 mice received i.p. injections of MPTP (30 mg/kg) in a volume of 10 ml/kg of body weight once daily for 7 days [43] and ...
1:. The free radical mechanism of lipid peroxidation. Although most investigations have focused on ●OH formation by the Haber- ... 1).. There is abundant evidence to connect free radicals in the development of degenerative diseases (Huong et al., 1998; ... 2.. Objective of the Review. Medicinal plants, as a group, comprise approximately 8000 species and account for about 50% of all ... 2:. Natural antioxidant. Antioxidants which are widely used in the food industries since the beginning of this century are ...
J. Pineal Res. 2018, 65, 1-16. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]. *Dai, J.; Choo, M.K.; Park, J.M.; Fisher, D.E. Topical ROR ... J. Pineal Res. 2008, 44, 1-15. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]. *Slominski, A.T.; Semak, I.; Fischer, T.W.; Kim, T.K.; ... Kim, T.H.; Jung, J.A.; Kim, G.D.; Jang, A.H.; Ahn, H.J.; Park, Y.S.; Park, C.S. Melatonin inhibits the development of 2,4- ... Figure 2. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) with wavelengths between 200-400 nm is categorized into UVA, UVB, and UVC and can damage ...
... selective destruction of dopaminergic neurons in the pars compacta of the substantia nigra by N-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6- ... tetrahydropyridine.. *R. Burns, C. Chiueh, S. Markey, M. Ebert, D. Jacobowitz, I. Kopin ... 5 Hydroxy 3 Indoleacetic Acid, Hydroxyindoleacetic Acid [Chemical/Ingredient] Expand. A breakdown product of serotonin that is ...
RT-PCR analysis shows the upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase, interleukin-1,i,β,/i,, and tumor necrosis ... Treatment with AM251 and AM630 (CB1/2 antagonists) abolished capsaicin-induced beneficial effects, indicating the existence of ... 3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of Parkinson’s disease (PD). MPTP induced a significant loss of nigrostriatal ... and transient potential receptor vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) could contribute to the survival of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons in ...
International Journal of Geosciences Vol.11 No.6,June 30, 2020 DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2020.116022 326 Downloads 1,047 Views Citations ... A 4-channel 3 Tesla phased array receive coil for awake rhesus monkey fMRI and diffusion MRI experiments (Articles) ... J. of Cosmetics, Dermatological Sciences and Applications Vol.9 No.3,September 26, 2019 ... Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science Vol.2 No.4,November 30, 2012 ...
Here, we report evidence of autophagy in DA neurons of the SN in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) model of ... Here, we report evidence of autophagy in DA neurons of the SN in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) model of ...
Aug 1, 2006 , Magazine: Lancet Neurology Olanow CW, Obeso JA, Stocchi F.. Department of Neurology, Mount Sinai School of ... indicated, which must contain 9-15 digits and begin with 6,8,9,71,72,73 or 74. For international numbers please indicate 00, ... In monkeys treated with MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) and patients with Parkinsons disease, long-acting ...
3. Snider WD. Functions of the neurotrophins during nervous system development: what the knockouts are teaching us. Cell. 1994; ... 6. Caporali A, Sala-Newby GB, Meloni M. et al. Identification of the prosurvival activity of nerve growth factor on cardiac ... 4. Meloni M, Caporali A, Graiani G. et al. Nerve growth factor promotes cardiac repair following myocardial infarction. Circ ... Shimoke K, Chiba H. Nerve growth factor prevents 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced cell death via the Akt ...
논문] 저자 박영준, 김현아, 이상호, 김주은, 제목국내 제약사의 QbD 제도 도입에 대한 인식 및 현황 조사분석 저널 , 약학회지 볼륨 , Vol.65 번호 , No.4 페이지 , pp.1 -12 (Aug, 2021) ... 특허] 저자 박영준, 최숙, 전상원, 액상결정 구조체를 형성하는 오메가-3-지방산 조성물 출원등록구분(출원 or 등록 ) (등록) 번호(출원번호 or 등록번호) (10-2096391) 출원국 (Mar, 2020) ... 논문] 저자 박영준, 김정민, 김종국, Hideharu Ishihara, 이광길, 김선유, Mamoru Koketsu, 여주홍, 제목1,3-Selenazol-4-one derivatives inhibits inducible ... 논문] 저자 박영준, 오명숙, 양현옥, 박건혁, 제목Ropinirole protects against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced ...
Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium. MPTP:. 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine ... Table 1 Clinical and socioeconomic data from PD patients with and without occupational pesticide exposure. Full size table. ... Table 2 Post-hoc analysis for dose-dependent effect of occupational pesticide exposure. Full size table. ... 1. Survival curve comparing patients with (n = 20) and without (n = 130) self-reported occupational pesticide exposure (n = 150 ...
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2, 341-347.. *Schwartzkroin P. A., Wenzel H. J., Lyeth B. G., Poon C. C., Delance A., Van K. C., Campos L., Nguyen D. V. (2010 ... In that regard, 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2DG), an analog of glucose that blocks phosphoglucose isomerase and hence inhibits ... Carl E. Stafstrom1,2 and Jong M. Rho3,4,*. Front Pharmacol. 2012; 3: 59. ... Aft R. L., Zhang F. W., Gius D. (2002). Evaluation of 2-deoxy-D-glucose as a chemotherapeutic agent: mechanism of cell death. ...
Prebiotic feeding elevates central brain derived neurotrophic factor, N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunits and d-serine ... 4 (March 2020). * ^ Boots, E. A., S. A. Schultz, L. R. Clark, A. M. Racine, B. F. Darst, R. L. Koscik, C. M. Carlsson, et al. ... 4 (April 2018): 1477-85. * ^ Scalzo, P., A. K?mmer, T. L. Bretas, F. Cardoso, and A. L. Teixeira. Serum levels of brain-derived ... 2 (2002): 136-37. * ^ Shen, T., Y. You, C. Joseph, M. Mirzaei, A. Klistorner, S. L. Graham, and V. Gupta. BDNF Polymorphism: A ...
phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine of the crab-eating mon- key. Acta Neuropathologica [Berl], 75, 370-376. ... methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States ... Table 1. Volume fraction [Vv] and volume [V] of the SNC cell and its organelles in the midbrain of AS control and AS/AGU mutant ... Table 2. Numbers of synaptic vesicles in TH +ve nigrostriatal dopaminergic terminals [identified by immunogold staining for TH ...
2017 6: 18.. [37]. Betensky RA, Mandel M. Recognizing the problem of delayed entry in time-to-event studies: Better late than ... 2019: 1-6.. [14]. Caballero M, Amiri S, Denney JT, Monsivais P, Hystad P, Amram O. Estimated Residential Exposure to ... 4]. Kaur K, Kaur R. Occupational Pesticide Exposure, Impaired DNA Repair, and Diseases. Indian J Occup Environ Med. 2018 22: 74 ... 1]. Ball N, Teo WP, Chandra S, Chapman J. Parkinsons Disease and the Environment. Front Neurol. 2019 10: 218. ...
3 Work on advisory panel to industry or government or non-government organisation ... MICH develops research in the following areas: 1. Fundamental research on the replication cycle of poliovirus, research ... 3-7 November. 1 p.. Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceeding › Meeting abstract (Book) ... 1 p.. Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceeding › Meeting abstract (Book) ...
  • 1) Caffeine treatment produced a dose-dependent attenuation of MPTP-induced striatal dopamine loss in both young and retired breeder (RB) male, but not female, mice. (jneurosci.org)
  • 3) Estrogen treatment also prevented the protection of caffeine against dopamine loss in young male mice. (jneurosci.org)
  • Dopamine, a critical transmitter, has been shown to regulate immune responses in periphery, and has been related to tumor immunity and several autoimmune diseases, including inflammatory bowel diseases, multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis ( 1 - 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • About 50% dopamine is produced in gastrointestinal tract by enteric neurons and intestinal epithelial cells, and thus results in higher level of dopamine in hepatic portal vein ( 6 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Nigral tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons as well as oxidative markers 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and striatal dopamine levels were quantified for assessment of the neuroprotective efficacy of diapocynin. (springer.com)
  • The present study examined whether crosstalk between cannabinoid (CB) and transient potential receptor vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) could contribute to the survival of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD). (hindawi.com)
  • MPTP induced a significant loss of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons and glial activation in the substantia nigra (SN) and striatum (STR) as visualized by tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) or macrophage antigen complex-1 (MAC-1) or glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunocytochemistry, respectively. (hindawi.com)
  • Parkinson's disease (PD) is a well-known neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by the degeneration of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and dopamine deficiency in the striatum (STR), consequently resulting in motor dysfunction [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • These inflammatory mediators are attributable to the degeneration of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons in animal models of PD and PD patients [ 3 , 5 , 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Many experimental studies demonstrated that TRPV1 activation by capsaicin (CAP) prevents the degeneration of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons in the 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium- (MPP + -) or 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine- (MPTP-) or 6-hydroxy dopamine (6-OHDA-) lesioned rodent model of PD via inhibiting glial-derived inflammatory responses and producing ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) [ 11 - 13 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Higher cortisol levels were found to predict depressed mood 3 days after blood sampling, higher urinary dopamine predicted a manic mood 3 days after blood sampling, urinary norepinephrine was associated with severity of current mood and prolactin was lower with concurrent depressed mood. (neurotransmitter.net)
  • 50% of the variance in mood state in 3 days was explained by combinations of these biologic measures, especially cortisol and urinary dopamine, while all five biologic variables contributed to explaining 50% of the variance in current mood state. (neurotransmitter.net)
  • This results in extrapyramidal motor dysfunction, including tremor, rigidity, and bradykinesia [ 1 ] and decreased tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and the production and storage of dopamine (DA) in the striatum [ 2,3 ]. (avensonline.org)
  • Our results reveal the essential and conserved role of Fer 2 homologs in the mitochondrial maintenance of midbrain DA neurons, opening new perspectives for modeling and treating PD. (nature.com)
  • Current drug therapies for PD provide only symptomatic treatment and do not prevent the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in PD patients and concomitant decline [1]. (termedia.pl)
  • A primate model of parkinsonism: selective destruction of dopaminergic neurons in the pars compacta of the substantia nigra by N-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Here, we report evidence of autophagy in DA neurons of the SN in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) model of Parkinson's disease. (tubitak.gov.tr)
  • and (3) Age-associated morphological changes included declines in the density of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) positive fibers in striatum, decreased nigral soma size, and optical density of TH, but no significant loss of neurons. (elsevier.com)
  • MPTP (1-methyl 4-phenyl 1,2,3,6-tetrahydro pyridine ) is a neurotoxin that causes permanent symptoms of Parkinson's disease by killing certain neurons in the substantia nigra of the brain. (chemeurope.com)
  • Neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), are generally featured by neuroinflammation and procedural loss of selectively vulnerable populations of neurons, which lead to cognitive impairment, dementia and decline in motor functions [1,2]. (biomedres.us)
  • MPP+ has affinity for the catecholamine uptake system, is taken up preferentially into dopaminergic neurons with cell bodies in the substantia nigra zona compacta, where it inhibits complex-1 of the electron transport chain. (avensonline.org)
  • Single-cell transcriptomic analysis of the adult mouse brain indicates that the expression of Cdk5 is not restricted to neurons [ 10 ] (Fig. 1 ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder, estimated to affect 1% of the population over 65 years of age. (springer.com)
  • Parkinson's disease (PD), a common neurodegenerative disease in aging people, affects more than 4 million population around the world [4]. (termedia.pl)
  • In monkeys treated with MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) and patients with Parkinson's disease, long-acting or continuous infusion of a dopaminergic drug reduces the risk of motor complications. (cun.es)
  • Parkinson's disease [PD] is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer's disease, affecting 1% of the population over the age of 55. (openneurologyjournal.com)
  • Also reported is the preparation of 5,7-dioxo-3-methyl-6-phenyl-3,5,6-trihydropyrrolo [3,1+-b]pyridine (203) via dehydrogenation of 202. (ndltd.org)
  • Similar patterns of mitochondrial vulnerability and rescue induced by genetic modification of alpha-synuclein, parkin, and DJ-1 in Caenorhabditis elegans. (wehaveparkinsons.com)
  • RT-PCR analysis shows the upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase, interleukin-1 β , and tumor necrosis factor- α in microglia in the SN in vivo, indicating the activation of the inflammatory system. (hindawi.com)
  • Moreover, microglia are also associated with synaptic spreading of tau, which is related to the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome [6]. (biomedres.us)
  • Lewy body disease is characterized by substantial cognitive dysfunction within 1 year of onset of parkinsonism. (medscape.com)
  • Several lines of clinical and experimental evidence suggest that proteinopathy related to α -synuclein, environmental toxins, mitochondrial dysfunction, and oxidative stress is associated with the molecular mechanisms of PD etiology [ 3 - 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are major events that occur during neuronal death that causes PD [ 4,5 ]. (avensonline.org)
  • Although several genes have been implicated as monogenic causes of the disease, these genetic mutations are only responsible for approximately 10% of cases [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 3 Shortly thereafter, it became clear that certain autosomal recessive forms of PD are caused by mutations in genes that affect mitochondrial function or quality control, such as parkin and PINK1 . (neurology.org)
  • To explore a possible biological basis for this interaction, we systematically investigated how the neuroprotective effect of caffeine is influenced by gender, ovariectomy (OVX), and then exogenous estrogen in the mouse 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) model of PD. (jneurosci.org)
  • 4) Consistent with the putative protective effect of estrogen, female and OVX plus estrogen mice were relatively resistant to MPTP toxicity compared to male and OVX plus placebo mice, respectively. (jneurosci.org)
  • Certain toxins such as MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) and manganese (at high levels of exposure) can also cause parkinsonism. (medscape.com)
  • Permanent human parkinsonism due to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP): seven cases. (medscape.com)
  • The compound N-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) has been identified in underground laboratory preparations of a potent analog of meperidine (Demerol). (cdc.gov)
  • We recently reported on neurotoxicity of 1-methyl- 4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) in male BXD recombinant inbred mice. (cdc.gov)
  • Herein, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant efficacy of diapocynin, an oxidative metabolite of the naturally occurring agent apocynin, in a pre-clinical 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of PD. (springer.com)
  • Notably, diapocynin markedly inhibited MPTP-induced oxidative markers including 3-NT and 4-HNE levels in the SN. (springer.com)
  • Complex I activity is reduced in the brains of PD patients, and mitochondrial toxins such as 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and rotenone potently induce SN degeneration. (nature.com)
  • Paraquat, a herbicide with molecular similarities to MPP+ (1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium, a metabolite of the neurotoxin MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine)), is among the earliest and most well studied pesticides linked to an increased risk of developing PD. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Three age ranges of female rhesus monkeys, 8-9, 15-17, and 21-31 years, received unilateral DA depletion with intracarotid 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). (elsevier.com)
  • Two sets of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-lesioned monkeys were administered levodopa/carbidopa (10 mg/kg and 2.5 mg/kg, respectively) twice daily 5 days a week until they were stably dyskinetic. (sri.com)
  • Once inside the brain, MPTP is metabolized into the toxic cation 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) by the enzyme MAO-B of glial cells. (chemeurope.com)
  • In this study, we used 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) to produce the proposed sensitization and precipitating stages and determine if curcumin can ameliorate the toxic changes. (avensonline.org)
  • Note: however that MPTP serves as a protoxin, via it metabolism by monoamine axidase B (MAO-B) to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+). (avensonline.org)
  • At 3 months, the offspring of the PBS control and the MPTP group were challenged with PBS or MPTP (10 mg/kg/day) for seven days, to cause further harm and to the produce the precipitating stage. (avensonline.org)
  • 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) disrupts social memory/recognition processes in the male mouse. (omeka.net)
  • In particular, the noradrenergic system and its potential involvement with memory/recognition processes in the CD-1 mouse appears to be very sensitive to the neurotoxic effects of MPTP. (omeka.net)
  • Wei K, Liu L, Xie F, Hao X, Luo J, Min S. Nerve Growth Factor Protects the Ischemic Heart via Attenuation of the Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Induced Apoptosis by Activation of Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase. (medsci.org)
  • Increased expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) has been found in the myocardium suffered from ischemia and reperfusion (I/R). The pro-survival activity of NGF on ischemic heart has been supposed to be mediated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) signaling pathway. (medsci.org)
  • 6 It therefore is pertinent to note that aged Gunn rats are characterised by a lower level of visceral fat than is seen in littermates with normal hepatic UGT1A1 activity. (bmj.com)
  • Transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1), a polymodal and nonselective cation channel, is activated by a number of endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including natural vanilloids (capsaicin and resiniferatoxin), heat, acids, and endocannabinoids such as anandamide (AEA) [ 8 , 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The reaction between O 2 − and · NO forms peroxynitrite (ONOO - ), another key player of dopaminergic neurodegeneration in PD. (springer.com)
  • The most common pathologies of neurodegenerative diseases are amyloidosis, tauopathies, α-synucleinopathies, and transactivation response DNA binding protein 43 (TPD-43) [1]. (biomedres.us)
  • Neuroinflammatory markers, such as ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba-1), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), gp91phox and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), were measured in the nigrostriatal system. (springer.com)
  • ing for the gamma isoform of protein kinase C [4]. (scirp.org)
  • The Cdk family comprises 21 members, most of which depend on the association with specific cyclin partners to become constitutively active protein kinases [ 6 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 1 ( b ) In the 2000 Olympics, the reference to non-use of drugs was added to the Olympic oath. (bmj.com)
  • 국가 과제 주관 책임자 및 참여 연구원 (1) 주관책임자 a) 보건의료과제 주관연구책임자 "편두통치료용 구강속붕해 제제 개발 (1998~2000) b) 중소기업청과제 주관연구 책임자 " 고지혈증 치료용 개량신약 개발 (2008~2010) c) 산업통상부 선도형 기술개발사업 주관연구 책임자 "제2형 당뇨병 환자의 심혈관계 질환 위험성 감소를 위한 복합 치료제 개발"(2012~2013) (2) 보건의료 및 과학기술처 과제 참여 - "고분자를 이용한 관해 유도 치료제, 알러지 치료용 서방 캅셀제" -" YH1885계 항궤양제 개발" - 당뇨병 치료제 개발 2. (ajou.ac.kr)
  • 2000 Jul;59(1):55-9. (neurotransmitter.net)
  • factors like malabsorption, autoimmunity with autoantibodies formation to specific organs, inflammation and breaching of the blood brain barrier allowing toxins, cytokines and other signals breach through the blood brain barrier allowing deliverance into our CNS are strongly suggestive ( Figures 1 and 2 ). (alliedacademies.org)
  • Levels of nitrite (NO 2 − ), a metabolite of nitric oxide ( · NO and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) are higher in the central nervous system of human PD cases and in animal models of PD [ 6 ]. (springer.com)
  • Moreover, amyloidosis, tauopathies, and α-synucleinopathies are all associated with neuroinflammation and microglial activation [3-5]. (biomedres.us)
  • methyl (Z)-3-(((4-(2-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-N-nitrosoacetamido)phenyl)amino)(phenyl)methylene)-2-isoindoline-6-carboxylate or methyl (Z)-3-(((4-(2-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-N-nitrosoacetamido)phenyl)amino)(phenyl)methylene)-2-isoindoline-6-carboxylate,is a triple angiokinase inhibitor , is a small molecule, competitive that used for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis,interstitial lung disease. (veeprho.com)
  • BRD2 inhibition blocks SARS-CoV-2 infection by reducing transcription of the host cell receptor ACE2. (ucsf.edu)
  • Neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R) functions by interacting with proinflammatory neuropeptide substance P (SP), exerting crucial roles in various neurological and non-neurological diseases. (bvsalud.org)
  • A 2-fold to 4-fold elevation has been demonstrated for various penicillins. (ncats.io)
  • Nerve growth factor (NGF) is one of the representative members of the neurotrophin family, which includes brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), and neurotrophin-4/5 (NT-4/5). (medsci.org)
  • In addition to paraquat, subsequent studies, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses have suggested that a wide range of pesticides (including rotenone, maneb, organochlorines, and organophosphates) are associated with an increased risk of PD [ 6 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Trivalent oxygen reduction occurs by reaction of H 2 O 2 with ● O 2 ¯ to produce the hydroxyl radical ( ● OH). (scialert.net)
  • The toxaemia promotes secretions of Substance P and other stress hormones like IGF, corticosteroids and cytokines mediators especially tumour necrosis factors systemically [ 6 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
  • 4. Viruses on the origin of multiple sclerosis? (vub.be)
  • Additionally, knockout mice lacking NK-1R expression, SP addition and NK-1R pharmacological antagonist treatment in the unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) model, and NK-1R-overexpressed HK-2 cells were employed. (bvsalud.org)
  • Such as SRY, a Y-chromosome gene, directly contributes to the gender differences in the 6-OHDA-induced rat model of PD [11]. (biomedres.us)
  • One of the major sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in neurodegeneration is NADPH oxidase, a multimeric enzyme that generates both superoxide O 2 − (O 2 and H 2 O 2 [ 8 ]. (springer.com)
  • The reaction rate of formation of ● OH is enhanced in presence of metal catalyst (Fe +3 ) via the Haber-Weiss reaction ( Haber and Weiss, 1934 ) ( Table 1 ). (scialert.net)
  • The inflammatory reaction following 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3, 6-tetrahydropyridine intoxication in mouse. (cocites.com)
  • These were synthesized by Diels-Alder reaction of corresponding p-quinones and acyclic-1,3-dienes [diagram omitted]. (ndltd.org)
  • The addition of one electron to O 2 yields the superoxide radical ( ● O 2 ¯), which on further reduction gives hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), a divalent oxygen reduction product. (scialert.net)
  • The relationship between IL-6 levels and overt HE (OHE) after TIPS is rarely reported.We aimed to explore the relationship between the preoperative serum IL-6 levels and OHE risk after TIPS, and to evaluate its value in predicting the OHE risk. (bvsalud.org)
  • 1-3 Diagnosis of GS generally requires a plasma bilirubin of 20 µM or above-alternatively, 1.2 mg/dL-but this diagnosis is not entirely objective, as non-genetic factors such as fasting status, gastrointestinal motility, enterohepatic bilirubin reabsorption/secretion and degree of light exposure can cause bilirubin levels to vary considerably over time. (bmj.com)