1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine: A dopaminergic neurotoxic compound which produces irreversible clinical, chemical, and pathological alterations that mimic those found in Parkinson disease.MPTP Poisoning: A condition caused by the neurotoxin MPTP which causes selective destruction of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Clinical features include irreversible parkinsonian signs including rigidity and bradykinesia (PARKINSON DISEASE, SECONDARY). MPTP toxicity is also used as an animal model for the study of PARKINSON DISEASE. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1072; Neurology 1986 Feb;36(2):250-8)Parkinsonian Disorders: A group of disorders which feature impaired motor control characterized by bradykinesia, MUSCLE RIGIDITY; TREMOR; and postural instability. Parkinsonian diseases are generally divided into primary parkinsonism (see PARKINSON DISEASE), secondary parkinsonism (see PARKINSON DISEASE, SECONDARY) and inherited forms. These conditions are associated with dysfunction of dopaminergic or closely related motor integration neuronal pathways in the BASAL GANGLIA.Parkinson Disease, Secondary: Conditions which feature clinical manifestations resembling primary Parkinson disease that are caused by a known or suspected condition. Examples include parkinsonism caused by vascular injury, drugs, trauma, toxin exposure, neoplasms, infections and degenerative or hereditary conditions. Clinical features may include bradykinesia, rigidity, parkinsonian gait, and masked facies. In general, tremor is less prominent in secondary parkinsonism than in the primary form. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch38, pp39-42)1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium: An active neurotoxic metabolite of 1-METHYL-4-PHENYL-1,2,3,6-TETRAHYDROPYRIDINE. The compound reduces dopamine levels, inhibits the biosynthesis of catecholamines, depletes cardiac norepinephrine and inactivates tyrosine hydroxylase. These and other toxic effects lead to cessation of oxidative phosphorylation, ATP depletion, and cell death. The compound, which is related to PARAQUAT, has also been used as an herbicide.Substantia Nigra: The black substance in the ventral midbrain or the nucleus of cells containing the black substance. These cells produce DOPAMINE, an important neurotransmitter in regulation of the sensorimotor system and mood. The dark colored MELANIN is a by-product of dopamine synthesis.Dopamine Agents: Any drugs that are used for their effects on dopamine receptors, on the life cycle of dopamine, or on the survival of dopaminergic neurons.Neurotoxins: Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Dopaminergic Neurons: Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is DOPAMINE.Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC 1.14.16.2.Striatonigral Degeneration: A sporadic neurodegenerative disease with onset in middle-age characterized clinically by Parkinsonian features (e.g., MUSCLE RIGIDITY; HYPOKINESIA; stooped posture) and HYPOTENSION. This condition is considered a clinical variant of MULTIPLE SYSTEM ATROPHY. Pathologic features include a prominent loss of neurons in the zona compacta of the SUBSTANTIA NIGRA and PUTAMEN. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1075-6)Parkinson Disease: A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)Monoamine Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. It is a flavin-containing enzyme that is localized in mitochondrial membranes, whether in nerve terminals, the liver, or other organs. Monoamine oxidase is important in regulating the metabolic degradation of catecholamines and serotonin in neural or target tissues. Hepatic monoamine oxidase has a crucial defensive role in inactivating circulating monoamines or those, such as tyramine, that originate in the gut and are absorbed into the portal circulation. (From Goodman and Gilman's, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p415) EC 1.4.3.4.3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic Acid: A deaminated metabolite of LEVODOPA.Levodopa: The naturally occurring form of DIHYDROXYPHENYLALANINE and the immediate precursor of DOPAMINE. Unlike dopamine itself, it can be taken orally and crosses the blood-brain barrier. It is rapidly taken up by dopaminergic neurons and converted to DOPAMINE. It is used for the treatment of PARKINSONIAN DISORDERS and is usually given with agents that inhibit its conversion to dopamine outside of the central nervous system.Selegiline: A selective, irreversible inhibitor of Type B monoamine oxidase. It is used in newly diagnosed patients with Parkinson's disease. It may slow progression of the clinical disease and delay the requirement for levodopa therapy. It also may be given with levodopa upon onset of disability. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p385) The compound without isomeric designation is Deprenyl.Antiparkinson Agents: Agents used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. The most commonly used drugs act on the dopaminergic system in the striatum and basal ganglia or are centrally acting muscarinic antagonists.Pyridinium CompoundsNeuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Homovanillic AcidGlobus Pallidus: The representation of the phylogenetically oldest part of the corpus striatum called the paleostriatum. It forms the smaller, more medial part of the lentiform nucleus.Saimiri: A genus of the family CEBIDAE consisting of four species: S. boliviensis, S. orstedii (red-backed squirrel monkey), S. sciureus (common squirrel monkey), and S. ustus. They inhabit tropical rain forests in Central and South America. S. sciureus is used extensively in research studies.Neostriatum: The phylogenetically newer part of the CORPUS STRIATUM consisting of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and PUTAMEN. It is often called simply the striatum.Mice, Inbred C57BLMazindol: Tricyclic anorexigenic agent unrelated to and less toxic than AMPHETAMINE, but with some similar side effects. It inhibits uptake of catecholamines and blocks the binding of cocaine to the dopamine uptake transporter.Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors: A chemically heterogeneous group of drugs that have in common the ability to block oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. (From Gilman, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p414)Dyskinesias: Abnormal involuntary movements which primarily affect the extremities, trunk, or jaw that occur as a manifestation of an underlying disease process. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent episodes of dyskinesia as a primary manifestation of disease may be referred to as dyskinesia syndromes (see MOVEMENT DISORDERS). Dyskinesias are also a relatively common manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES.Sulfonium Compounds: Sulfur compounds in which the sulfur atom is attached to three organic radicals and an electronegative element or radical.Pyridines: Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Dopamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of dopaminergic neurons. They remove DOPAMINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS and are the target of DOPAMINE UPTAKE INHIBITORS.Nerve Degeneration: Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.NortropanesCistanche: A plant genus of the family OROBANCHACEAE. Members contain phenylethanoid glycosides.Dyskinesia, Drug-Induced: Abnormal movements, including HYPERKINESIS; HYPOKINESIA; TREMOR; and DYSTONIA, associated with the use of certain medications or drugs. Muscles of the face, trunk, neck, and extremities are most commonly affected. Tardive dyskinesia refers to abnormal hyperkinetic movements of the muscles of the face, tongue, and neck associated with the use of neuroleptic agents (see ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1199)Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Putamen: The largest and most lateral of the BASAL GANGLIA lying between the lateral medullary lamina of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and the EXTERNAL CAPSULE. It is part of the neostriatum and forms part of the LENTIFORM NUCLEUS along with the GLOBUS PALLIDUS.Macaca fascicularis: A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.Clorgyline: An antidepressive agent and monoamine oxidase inhibitor related to PARGYLINE.Mesencephalon: The middle of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain. Without further subdivision, midbrain develops into a short, constricted portion connecting the PONS and the DIENCEPHALON. Midbrain contains two major parts, the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI and the ventral TEGMENTUM MESENCEPHALI, housing components of auditory, visual, and other sensorimoter systems.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Herbicides: Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.Vesicular Monoamine Transport Proteins: A family of vesicular amine transporter proteins that catalyze the transport and storage of CATECHOLAMINES and indolamines into SECRETORY VESICLES.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Callithrix: A genus of the subfamily CALLITRICHINAE occurring in forests of Brazil and Bolivia and containing seventeen species.Vesicular Biogenic Amine Transport Proteins: Integral membrane proteins of the LIPID BILAYER of SECRETORY VESICLES that catalyze transport and storage of biogenic amine NEUROTRANSMITTERS such as ACETYLCHOLINE; SEROTONIN; MELATONIN; HISTAMINE; and CATECHOLAMINES. The transporters exchange vesicular protons for cytoplasmic neurotransmitters.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Caudate Nucleus: Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.Microglia: The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.Basal Ganglia: Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.Dopamine Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate dopamine receptors.Receptors, Dopamine D3: A subtype of dopamine D2 receptors that are highly expressed in the LIMBIC SYSTEM of the brain.NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester: A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.Conotoxins: Peptide neurotoxins from the marine fish-hunting snails of the genus CONUS. They contain 13 to 29 amino acids which are strongly basic and are highly cross-linked by disulfide bonds. There are three types of conotoxins, omega-, alpha-, and mu-. OMEGA-CONOTOXINS inhibit voltage-activated entry of calcium into the presynaptic membrane and therefore the release of ACETYLCHOLINE. Alpha-conotoxins inhibit the postsynaptic acetylcholine receptor. Mu-conotoxins prevent the generation of muscle action potentials. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor: The founding member of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family. It was originally characterized as a NERVE GROWTH FACTOR promoting the survival of MIDBRAIN dopaminergic NEURONS, and it has been studied as a potential treatment for PARKINSON DISEASE.Rotenone: A botanical insecticide that is an inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Methyl Parathion: The methyl homolog of parathion. An effective, but highly toxic, organothiophosphate insecticide and cholinesterase inhibitor.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Autoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)Phenyl Ethers: Ethers that are linked to a benzene ring structure.Subthalamic Nucleus: Lens-shaped structure on the inner aspect of the INTERNAL CAPSULE. The SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS and pathways traversing this region are concerned with the integration of somatic motor function.alpha-Synuclein: A synuclein that is a major component of LEWY BODIES that plays a role in neurodegeneration and neuroprotection.Receptors, Dopamine D2: A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D2-class receptor genes contain INTRONS, and the receptors inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Deep Brain Stimulation: Therapy for MOVEMENT DISORDERS, especially PARKINSON DISEASE, that applies electricity via stereotactic implantation of ELECTRODES in specific areas of the BRAIN such as the THALAMUS. The electrodes are attached to a neurostimulator placed subcutaneously.PC12 Cells: A CELL LINE derived from a PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA of the rat ADRENAL MEDULLA. PC12 cells stop dividing and undergo terminal differentiation when treated with NERVE GROWTH FACTOR, making the line a useful model system for NERVE CELL differentiation.Oxidopamine: A neurotransmitter analogue that depletes noradrenergic stores in nerve endings and induces a reduction of dopamine levels in the brain. Its mechanism of action is related to the production of cytolytic free-radicals.Nerve Tissue ProteinsOxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).

*MPTP

... (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) is a prodrug to the neurotoxin MPP+, which causes permanent symptoms of ... 1 (3): 249-254. doi:10.1016/0165-1781(79)90006-4. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) "Success reported using fetal ... 12 (6): 885-893. doi:10.1021/jo01170a021. Vinken, P. J.; Bruyn, G. W. (1994). Intoxications of the Nervous System. Elsevier ... "1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine". ChemIDplus. Langston, J. W. (2002). "Chapter 30 The Impact of MPTP on ...

*William Langston

3.0.CO;2-F. PMID 10514096. Farrer M, Chan P, Chen R, Tan L, Lincoln S, Hernandez D, Forno L, Gwinn-Hardy K, Petrucelli L, ... 281 (4): 341-6. doi:10.1001/jama.281.4.341. PMID 9929087. Langston JW, Forno LS, Tetrud J, Reeves AG, Kaplan JA, Karluk D (Oct ... 59 (4): 591-6. doi:10.1002/ana.20834. PMID 16566021. Tanner CM, Ross GW, Jewell SA, Hauser RA, Jankovic J, Factor SA, Bressman ... 47 (6 Suppl 3): 153S-160S. doi:10.1212/WNL.47.6_Suppl_3.153S. ISSN 0028-3878. "FRONTLINE: my father, my brother, and me: ...

*D-Deprenyl

430 (2-3): 235-241. doi:10.1016/S0014-2999(01)01375-9. PMID 11711036. S Yasar; C W Schindler; E B Thorndike; I Szelenyi; S R ... 265 (1): 1-6. PMID 8473997. Yasar S; Gaál J; Panlilio LV; et al. (January 2006). "A comparison of drug-seeking behavior ... 49 (1-2): 127-136. doi:10.1016/S0169-328X(97)00135-6. PMID 9387872. Srinivasan ThyagaRajan; Kelley S. Madden; Gary W. Boehm; ... 183 (4): 413-21. doi:10.1007/s00213-005-0200-7. PMC 1360227 . PMID 16292593. Winger GD, Yasar S, Negus SS, Goldberg SR ( ...

*PEPAP

It appears that the N-methyl group of MPTP is required for neurotoxic activity. In animal experiments, only MPTP analogues that ... It is unlikely that the tetrahydropyridine byproducts that may be formed during the synthesis of PEPAP are neurotoxic in the ... Most structural changes, including replacing the N-methyl group with other substituents, abolished neurotoxicity. There is ... with an N-phenethyl group in place of the N-methyl substitution and an acetate ester rather than propionate. PEPAP is ...

*Apraxia of Lid Opening

2008 Dec 6 Yamada S, Matsuo K, Hirayama M, Sobue G. The effects of levodopa on apraxia of lid opening: A case report. Neurology ... 22(3):176-9 Tsuji S, Kikkawa S, Horiguchi J, Yamashita H, Kagaya A, Morinobu S, et al. Meige syndrome with apraxia of lid ... 22(3):176-9 Tsuji S, Kikkawa S, Horiguchi J, Yamashita H, Kagaya A, Morinobu S, et al. Meige syndrome with apraxia of lid ... 39(4):204-10 Ugarte M, Teimory M. Apraxia of lid opening. Br J Ophthalmol. 2007 Jul. 91(7):854 Aramideh M, Bour LJ, Koelman JH ...

*UWA-101

Replacing the α-methyl with a cyclopropyl dramatically reduces affinity for the noradrenaline transporter and 5-HT2A receptor ... This research was a continuation of earlier work from the same team which showed that replacing the α-methyl group of MDMA with ... MBDB Methyl-K (UWA-091) UWA-001 RTI-83 - another drug which selectively increases dopamine and serotonin levels without ... the only difference being the replacement of the α-methyl group with an α-cyclopropyl group. MDMA has been found in animal ...

*Parthanatos

PARP-1 accomplishes many of its roles through regulating poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR). PAR is a polymer that varies in length and can ... 4: 2240. Reynolds P, Cooper S, Lomax M, O'Neill P. 2015. Disruption of PARP1 function inhibits base excision repair of a sub- ... PARP-1 mediates parthanatos when it is over-activated in response to extreme genomic stress and synthesizes PAR which causes ... Once the PARP-1 protein recognizes the DNA damage, it catalyzes post-transcriptional modification of PAR. PAR will be formed ...

*Methylphenyltetrahydropyridine N-monooxygenase

... (EC 1.13.12.11) is an enzyme with systematic name 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6- ... tetrahydropyridine:oxygen N-oxidoreductase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6- ... tetrahydropyridine + O2 ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine N-oxide + methanol ... 2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine in mice". J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 246: 1108-1115. PMID 3262153. Methylphenyltetrahydropyridine N- ...

*BH3 interacting-domain death agonist

Bcl-2 proteins act as anti- or pro-apoptotic regulators that are involved in a wide variety of cellular activities. BID is a ... 17 (3): 393-403. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2004.12.030. PMID 15694340. Real PJ, Cao Y, Wang R, Nikolovska-Coleska Z, Sanz-Ortiz J, ... Bcl-2 family members share one or more of the four characteristic domains of homology entitled the Bcl-2 homology (BH) domains ... 23 (1): 143-50. doi:10.1093/carcin/23.1.143. PMID 11756235. Human BID genome location and BID gene details page in the UCSC ...

*Competitive inhibition

The initial velocity is defined as V 0 = d [ P ] / d t = k 2 [ ES ] {\displaystyle V_{0}=d[{{\ce {P}}}]/dt=k_{2}[{{\ce {ES ... In the simplest case of a single-substrate enzyme obeying Michaelis-Menten kinetics, the typical scheme E + S ⇌ k − 1 k 1 ES → ... K m app {\displaystyle K_{m}^{\text{app}}} , the substrate concentration that is needed to reach V max / 2 {\displaystyle V_{\ ... Cells in the central nervous system (astrocytes) include MAO-B that oxidizes MPTP to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+), which ...

*Protective autoimmunity

2. Alteration of regulatory T cell activity: Suppressing regulatory T cell activity following injury can allow a more robust ... 4 (7): 814-821. doi:10.1038/nm0798-814. PMID 9662373. Schwartz, M.; Ziv, Y. (2008). "Immunity to self and self-maintenance: a ... 183 (1-2): 60-68. doi:10.1016/j.jneuroim.2006.11.009. PMID 17196666. Frenkel, D.; et al. (2005). "Nasal vaccination with a ... 5 (1): 49-55. doi:10.1038/4734. PMID 9883839. Yoles, E.; et al. (2001). "Protective autoimmunity is a physiological response to ...

*Isoquinoline

... methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine), the precursor to MPP+, was found and linked to Parkinson's disease in the 1980s. ... 4, pages 125-129. See also: S. Hoogewerf and W.A. van Dorp (1886) "Sur quelques dérivés de l'isoquinoléine" (On some ... ISBN 978-0-85404-182-4. Brown, H.C., et al., in Baude, E.A. and Nachod, F.C., Determination of Organic Structures by Physical ... 1-Benzylisoquinoline is the structural backbone in naturally occurring alkaloids including papaverine. The isoquinoline ring in ...

*Irwin Kopin

... selective destruction of dopaminergic neurons in the pars compacta of the substantia nigra by N-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6- ... tetrahydropyridine". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 80 (14): 4546-4550. doi: ...

*4-Benzylpiperidine

... is a drug and research chemical used in scientific studies. It acts as a monoamine releasing agent with 20- ... 70 (2): 255-260. doi:10.1016/0304-3940(86)90473-8. PMID 3490636. Gray, Allan P.; Archer, Wesley L.; Spinner, Ernest E.; ... 329 (1): 272-281. doi:10.1124/jpet.108.143701. PMC 2670586 . PMID 19151247. Arai Y, Hamamichi N, Kinemuchi H (1986). "Time- ... 2-Benzylpiperidine Benzylpiperazine Negus SS, Baumann MH, Rothman RB, Mello NK, Blough BE (2009). "Selective suppression of ...

*Mark Mattson

Dec 4;3:1250. doi: 10.1038/ncomms2238 Cheng A, Yang Y, Zhou Y, Maharana C, Lu D, Peng W, Liu Y, Wan R, Marosi K, Misiak M, Bohr ... 7:1-7 Arumugam TV, Phillips TM, Cheng A, Morrell CH, Mattson MP, Wan R (2010) Age and energy intake interact to modify cell ... 16:161-74 Cheng A, Wan R, Yang JL, Kamimura N, Son TG, Ouyang X, Luo Y, Okun E, Mattson MP (2012) Involvement of PGC-1α in the ... Nature Medicine 2: 788-794 (1998) Evidence for synaptic apoptosis. Exp. Neurol. 153: 35-48 Glazner, G. W., S. L. Chan, C. Lu ...

*John Walsh (American scientist)

PMID 23875003 Kintz N, Petzinger G, Akopian G, Ptasnik S, Williams C, Jakowec M, Walsh J. Exercise modifies á-amino-3-hydroxy-5 ... methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic-acid receptor (AMPAR) expression in striatopallidal neurons in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6- ... tetrahydropyridine-(MPTP)-Lesioned Mouse. J Nsci Res, 91:1492-1507, 2013. PMID 23918451 Davis D, Akopian G, Walsh JP, Sioutus C ... Treadmill exercise reverses dendritic spine loss in direct and indirect striatal medium spiny neurons in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl- ...

*MitoQ

D.G. Nicholls, S.J. Ferguson, Bioenergetics 3, Academic Press, London, 2002. M.F. Ross, T.A. Prime, I. Abakumova, A.M. James, C ... L. Yang, K. Zhao, N.Y. Calingasan, G. Luo, H.H. Szeto, M.F. Beal, Mitochondria targeted peptides protect against 1-methyl-4- ... phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine neurotoxicity, Antioxidants & redox signaling, 11 (2009) 2095-2104. L.F. Yousif, K.M. Stewart ... H. Nohl, A.V. Kozlov, K. Staniek, L. Gille, The multiple functions of coenzyme Q, Bioorganic chemistry, 29 (2001) 1-13. A.M. ...

*DMT1

303 (1-2): 124-7. doi:10.1016/j.jns.2010.12.018. PMID 21276595. He Q, Du T, Yu X, Xie A, Song N, Kang Q, Yu J, Tan L, Xie J, ... 27 (3): 311-4. doi:10.1016/j.neuro.2005.09.002. PMID 16460806. Ke Y, Chang YZ, Duan XL, Du JR, Zhu L, Wang K, Yang XD, Ho KP, ... 282 (4): G598-607. doi:10.1152/ajpgi.00371.2001. PMID 11897618. Wang X, Ghio AJ, Yang F (2002). "Iron uptake and Nramp2/DMT1/ ... 374 (2): 124-8. doi:10.1016/j.neulet.2004.10.038. PMID 15644277. Blasco H, Vourc'h P, Nadjar Y, Ribourtout B, Gordon PH, ...

*SIB-1553A

2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-Treated Monkeys". Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 306 (1): 401-6. doi:10.1124/ ... SIB-1553A Improves Both Attention and Memory Components of a Spatial Working Memory Task in Chronic Low Dose 1-Methyl-4-phenyl- ...

*Vesicular monoamine transporter

Phenylethylamine Amphetamine MDMA N-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+)(very potent inhibitors of VMAT2 mediated serotonin ... 31 (4): 483-19. doi:10.1002/med.20187. PMC 3019297 . PMID 20135628. Liu Y, Peter D, Rogahani A, Schuldiner S, Prive GG, ... 34 (2-3): 360-372. doi:10.1016/j.mam.2012.07.005. PMC 3727660 . PMID 23506877. Sager, J.J. & Torres, G.E., 2011. Proteins ... 31 (4): 483-519. doi:10.1002/med.20187. PMC 3019297 . PMID 20135628. Henry J. P.; Botton D.; et al. (1994). "Biochemistry and ...

*Desmethylprodine

Structural analogs of desmethylprodine with different N-substituents than a methyl group on the piperidine have been ... 13 (4): 367-374. doi:10.1016/0376-8716(84)90004-8. PMID 6148225. Davis, G. C.; Williams, A. C.; Markey, S. P.; Ebert, M. H.; ... Desmethylprodine or 1-methyl-4-phenyl-4-propionoxypiperidine (MPPP, Ro 2-0718) is an opioid analgesic drug developed in the ... It was later found that his development of Parkinson's was due to a common impurity in the synthesis of MPPP called MPTP (1- ...

*List of MeSH codes (D03)

... phenyl)-, methyl ester MeSH D03.383.725.210 --- dimethindene MeSH D03.383.725.220 --- 2,2'-dipyridyl MeSH D03.383.725.227 --- ... phenyl)-, methyl ester MeSH D03.383.725.547.950 --- xanthinol niacinate MeSH D03.383.725.565 --- nicotinyl alcohol MeSH D03.383 ... phenyl)-1h-pyrazol-3-amine MeSH D03.383.129.539.200 --- epirizole MeSH D03.383.129.539.487 --- indazoles MeSH D03.383.129.539. ... 2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-8-chloro-3-methyl-5-phenyl-1h-3-benzazepin-7-ol MeSH D03.438.079.800 --- 2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-7,8-dihydroxy-1- ...

*Environmental enrichment

45 (2): 279-91. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2005.01.003. PMID 15664179. Zuo Y, Lin A, Chang P, Gan WB (April 2005). "Development of ... 45 (3): 1051-67. doi:10.1016/j.nbd.2011.12.024. PMID 22198503. Janssen H, Bernhardt J, Collier JM, Sena ES, McElduff P, Attia J ... 77 (3): 696-711. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2006.00898.x. PMID 16686796. Chugani HT, Behen ME, Muzik O, Juhász C, Nagy F, Chugani ... 70 (19 Pt 2): 1732-9. doi:10.1212/01.wnl.0000284603.85621.aa. PMID 18160675. Roe CM, Mintun MA, D'Angelo G, Xiong C, Grant EA, ...

*Solenopsin

The pyridine ring is then reduced to a tetrahydropyridine via catalytic hydrogenation with Pd/C and then further reduced to a ... Chemically, solenopsin contains a piperidine ring substituted with a methyl group and a long hydrophobic chain. Fire ant venom ... followed by reaction with phenyl chloroformate to form 4-chloro-1-(phenoxycarbonyl)-2-n-undecyl-1,2-dihydropyridine. The ... 8 (1): 30. doi:10.3390/toxins8010030. PMC 4728552 . Howell G, Butler J, Deshazo RD, Farley JM, Liu HL, Nanayakkara NP, Yates A ...

*List of phenyltropanes

... substituted phenyl)nortropane-2beta-carboxylic acid methyl esters. Norepinephrine transporter selective compounds". Journal of ... Indole tetrahydropyridines and cyclohexenylamines as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry ... and thusly the phenyl is attached direct to the tropane skeleton with no further spacer (therefore the name "phenyl"-tropane) ... 1R,2S,10R,12S)-15-methyl-15-azatetracyclo(10.2.1.0²,¹⁰.0⁴,⁹)pentadeca-4(9),5,7-trien-3-one Parent compound of a series of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - N-Methyl, N-propynyl-2-phenylethylamine (MPPE), a Selegiline Analog, Attenuates MPTP-induced Dopaminergic Toxicity with Guaranteed Behavioral Safety. T2 - Involvement of Inhibitions of Mitochondrial Oxidative Burdens and p53 Gene-elicited Pro-apoptotic Change. AU - Shin, Eun Joo. AU - Nam, Yunsung. AU - Lee, Ji Won. AU - Nguyen, Phuong Khue Thi. AU - Yoo, Ji Eun. AU - Tran, The Vinh. AU - Jeong, Ji Hoon. AU - Jang, Choon Gon. AU - Oh, Young J.. AU - Youdim, Moussa B.H.. AU - Lee, Phil Ho. AU - Nabeshima, Toshitaka. AU - Kim, Hyoung Chun. PY - 2016/11/1. Y1 - 2016/11/1. N2 - Selegiline is a monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B) inhibitor with anti-Parkinsonian effects, but it is metabolized to amphetamines. Since another MAO-B inhibitor N-Methyl, N-propynyl-2-phenylethylamine (MPPE) is not metabolized to amphetamines, we examined whether MPPE induces behavioral side effects and whether MPPE affects dopaminergic toxicity induced by ...
1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) does not elicit long-lasting increases in cyclooxygenase-2 expression in dopaminergic neurons of monkeys. 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) does not elicit long-lasting increases in cyclooxygenase-2 expression in dopaminergic neurons of monkeys
CEP-1347/KT-7515 promotes neuronal survival and is neuroprotective in a variety of primary neuronal culture systems and in models of neurodegeneration in vivo. In the current studies, CEP-1347/KT-7515 attenuated the MPTP-mediated degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic nerve terminals and cell bodies. Neuroprotective activity was observed with peripheral administration of CEP-1347/KT-7515 beginning 4 h before MPTP (and then daily) but was not evident when dosing was initiated after maximal loss of these dopaminergic neurons (7 days after MPTP administration). CEP-1347/KT-7515 did not inhibit MAO-B activity or the dopamine transporter, suggesting that CEP-1347/KT-7515 does not act by interfering with the conversion of MPTP to MPP+ or uptake of MPP+ into dopaminergic neurons.. In mice, MPTP administration produces a well-described nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration. In our studies, a 20-mg/kg dose of MPTP produced consistent and equivalent losses of striatal TH activity, GBR-12935 binding ...
Neuronal loss in the substantia nigra pars compacta: A) TH-positive neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc), bar=500 um B) Estimation of total number of TH-positive neurons in SNpc after acute MPTP exposure using stereology shows ca. 50% loss in MPTP vs. sham group. Data presented as mean of n=4, with S.E.M., Student t-test, ***p,0.001. ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [S K Youngster, R C Duvoisin, A Hess, P K Sonsalla, M V Kindt, R E Heikkila].
Figure: Induction of proinflammatory cytokines is attenuated in CX3CL1−/− mice expressing sFKN. TNFα and IL-1β concentrations were measured using standard ELISA techniques for VM lysates. a, TNFα concentrations were upregulated following MPTP administration (three-way ANOVA; F(1, 23) = 18.36, ★★★p , 0.001). Comparatively, CX3CL1−/− mice expressing sFKN in the SNpc had significantly lower concentrations of TNFα relative to mFKN (Tukeys HSD; ***p , 0.001) and GFP (Tukeys HSD; ###p , 0.001) expressing mice. There were no significant differences between sFKN and WT-MPTP (Tukeys HSD; p = 0.384) or mFKN and GFP (Tukeys HSD; p = 0.773). b, The IL-1β concentrations in the VM were significantly upregulated for mice exposed to MPTP (three-way ANOVA; F(1, 23) = 11.97, ★★★p = 0.002). Similar to the pattern of TNFα, IL-1β concentrations in CX3CL1−/− mice expressing sFKN were significantly blunted compared to both mFKN (Tukeys HSD; ***p = 0.001) and GFP (Tukeys HSD; ###p , ...
Wu D. C., Jackson-Lewis V., Vila M., Tieu K., Teismann P., Vadseth C., Choi D. K., Ischiropoulos H. and Przedborski S. (2002) Blockade of microglial activation is neuroprotective in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine mouse model of Parkinson disease. J. Neurosci. 22, 1763-1771. ...
The neuroprotective effects of riluzole, a Na(+) channel blocker with antiglutamatergic activity, and MK-801, a blocker of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, were compared in the model of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induce
In animal models of Parkinsons disease (PD), 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) is one of the most widely used agents that damages the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway. However, brain structural changes in response to MPTP remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate in vivo longitudinal changes in gray matter (GM) volume and white matter (WM) microstructure in primate models administered with MPTP. In six cynomolgus monkeys, high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) scans were acquired 7 times over 32 weeks, and assessments of motor symptoms were conducted over 15 months, before and after the MPTP injection ...
Caspase family has been recognized to be involved in dopaminergic (DA) neuronal death and to exert an unfavorable role in Parkinsons disease (PD) pathology. Our previous study has revealed that caspase-1, as an important component of NLRP3 inflammasome, induces microglia-mediated neuroinflammation in the pathogenesis of PD. However, the role of caspase-1 in DA neuronal degeneration in the onset of PD remains unclear. Here, we showed that caspase-1 knockout ameliorated DA neuronal loss and dyskinesia in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine/probenecid (MPTP/p)-induced PD model mice. We further found that caspase-1 knockout decreased MPTP/p-induced caspase-7 cleavage, subsequently inhibited nuclear translocation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1), and reduced the release of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF). Consistently, we demonstrated that caspase-1 inhibitor suppressed caspase-7/PARP1/AIF-mediated apoptosis pathway by ...
CR protects against a number of pathological conditions including diabetes, cancer, heart disease, and neurodegeneration. In PD, an alternate-day feeding schedule where rats consumed 30-40% less calories than ad libitum controls was neuroprotective post-MPTP exposure (Duan and Mattson, 1999). Mice also elicited a neuroprotective response when alternate day feeding begun after exposure to MPTP (Holmer et al., 2005). Primates with a chronic overall 30% reduction in food intake were also resistant to MPTP-induced neurotoxicity (Maswood et al., 2004). These studies prove that CR is beneficial in PD; however, the difficulty to adhere to CR necessitates an alternative method to recapitulate the neuroprotective benefits of CR while bypassing dietary constraints. Evidence from cells treated with serum from CR rats suggests a hormonal factor improves mitochondrial function and cell viability (López-Lluch et al., 2006). We hypothesized that ghrelin may be this hormonal factor, because CR increases plasma ...
Immunological abnormalities have been described in idiopathic Parkinson's disease and in the mouse model of this disorder induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). This investigation was aimed to study the effect of MPTP on inflammatory response of whole blood phagocytes at different time intervals. C57BL male mice were injected intraperitoneally with either MPTP (30 mg/kg) or saline (control group) and the blood samples were collected at 4, 24 and 48 h. 50 μl of a 500-fold diluted blood sample was mixed with 150 μl of reaction mixture (0.4 mM luminol + 50 μg opsonized zymosan + 0.1% gelatin, in Hanks' balanced salt solution) and the chemiluminescence (CL) signal was measured in a luminometer at 37°C. Although the CL response of the whole blood from control and MPTP groups was similar at 4 h, a significant increase in the CL signal was observed in MPTP-treated mice at 24 h post-treatment, which got subsided at 48 h. The ...
A recent study by Lau and colleagues [29] used a chronic MPTP mouse model of PD with moderate neurologic deficits to examine the effects of endurance training on neurophysiologic, cellular, and behavioral outcomes. This chronic model is created by systemically injecting the mouse with MPTP over the course of five weeks to allow for behavioral and cellular effects similar to PD to last for up to six months. A group of chronic parkinsonian mice performed 18 weeks of treadmill running (one week before, five weeks during, and 12 weeks after MPTP injection) five times per week for 40 minutes per day at a moderate intensity of 15 meters per minute. The researchers reported that the exercisers demonstrated cardiorespiratory and metabolic adaptations similar to endurance trained humans.[29] These mice were compared to a sedentary group of chronic parkinsonian mice and a control group treated only with probenecid, a drug used to reduce neuronal and urinary elimination of MPTP in the chronic parkinsonian ...
Examples classify children with multiple congenital anomalies, children who are ventilator dependent, children with respiratory conditions, children with cardiac conditions, and children with cancer. Moreover, SP600125 exerts neuroprotective effects against MPTP-induced neurotoxicity in mice, inhibiting JNK signaling and also reducing COX-2 expres- sion (Wang et al. So how does single overpower the psychological habituation buy propranolol 80mg without prescription cardiovascular disease rates by country. Clinical testing, if approved, proceeds help of phase I (to reckon safety and dosing considerations), to gradually eliminate II (advanced investigations of efficacy and additionally inspection of prescribeВ-response), and in the end to state III (definitive investigations of safety and efficacy in the intended unfailing population). In late-model years, the eat of microarrays to hawkshaw TCDD-responsive genes has identified scores upon scores of altered genes within uncountable cellular ...
We sought to delineate signaling cascades which may initiate reactive gliosis. Down-stream effectors of cytokines and growth factors implicated in gliosis include the Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) and mitogen-activated (MAP) kinases. We used the dopaminergic neurotoxicant, l-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6 tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) to injure the striatum and assessed
Authors: Schneider, J.S. , Rothblat, David S. Article Type: Research Article Abstract: Purpose: This study was designed to assess differences in dopamine clearance rates and potassium chloride (KCl)-stimulated release in the striatum of cats that had either spontaneously recovered from 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine(MPTP)-induced Parkinsonism or recovered after receiving GM1 ganglioside treatment. Methods: A severe Parkinsonian motor disorder was produced in 17 adult cats by administration of MPTP for seven to ten days. Six MPTP-treated cats received daily GM1 administration (30 mg/kg, i.m.) for 6 weeks and …eleven MPTP-treated cats were allowed to spontaneously recover over the same period of time. High-speed chronoamperometric electrochemical measurements were obtained from dorsal and ventral striatal regions in all animals. Dopamine clearance rates were obtained by measuring the clearance of pressure-ejected dopamine from the extracellular ...
Fujita et al. have indicated that the intake of H2-water, even after MPTP administration, reduces neurotoxic damage [5]. The findings of our previous study [7] on PD patients are in agreement with the previous results that were obtained in animal models.. Antioxidant supplements that are considered medicinal products should undergo sufficient evaluation before marketing, as they might be harmful at high doses [9]. H2 selectively reduces •OH radicals, but not O2 − •, H2O2, or NO• [4]. It is expected that prolonged application of H2 will have no or little adverse effects in chronic diseases. The effects of H2 could be mediated by modulating activities and expression of various molecules, such as Lyn, ERK, p38, JNK, ASK1, Akt, GTP-Rac1, iNOS, Nox1, NF-κB, p65, Iκba, STST3, NFATc1, c-Fos, and ghrelin [10]. Iuchi et al. proposed a hypothetical model in which H2 is linked to the modulation of Ca2+ signal transduction and the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) pathway via oxidized ...
We performed pharmokinetic/pharmodynamic studies in order to determine the optimal drug delivery dosage regimin in older or younger pre-clinical models for the general prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) inhibitor 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate (DHB). This information guided our decisions regarding dosage in an age-related chronic PD pre-clinical model (inducible glutathione depletion, Chinta et al., 2007). Results indicated that in older pre-clinical models (where neurodegenerative effects are first observed), treatment with DHB at one particular dose, with assessment after 14 days, prevented iron dysregulation and resulted in significant retention of both mitochondrial respiratory function and nigral dopaminergic cell numbers versus saline-treated controls. These data suggest that at this dosage, DHB administration in a chronic, age-related model of the disorder results in neuroprotection similar to those previously observed in the more acute MPTP intoxication model (Lee et al., 2009). ...
To study MPTP-induced muscular rigidity, we try to detect the changes of both dopamine (DA) and GABA within rat striatums by immunohistochemical means. A high dose (30 mg/kg) of MPTP i. p. injected into rats produces behavioral abnormalities (tremor and ataxia), and higher doses (,60 mg/kg) develop an acutely muscular rigidity without producing a measurable histological change. GABA is induced in the striatum of 4 MPTP (30 mg/kg) i. p. treated-rats developed tremor and ataxia. But the animals recovered to an apparently normal state and are not showed GABAimmunoreactivity. Dense GABA-immunoreactivity is observed in the striatum developed muscular rigidity, when the animals are injected with 60 mg/kg MPTP i. p.. At this time, their striatums show slight decrease of DA-immunoreactivity in medium sized-spiny neurons. The results give some insight as to how DA and GABA function within the striatum with respect to the development of neuronal abnormalities. It is also suggested by our behavioral and ...
Co-administration of memantine and amantadine with sub/suprathreshold doses of L-Dopa restores motor behviour of MPTP-treated mice. ...
1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) induces parkinsonism in humans after its oxidation into 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+) by type B monoamine oxidase. The 1-amino analogues of MPTP and MPP+, 1-amino-4-phenyl-1,2,3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (APTP) and 1-amino-4-phenylpyridinium ion (APP+), were synthesized, and their cytotoxicity to clonal pheochromocytoma PC12 cells was examined using a tetrazolium formazan assay. After ...
en] 5-HT1A receptors represent a major target for research and drug development due to their involvement in pathologies such as anxiety,1 depression,2 sleep and memory disorders,3,4 and schizophrenia.5 The main feature of many drugs having a 5-HT1A affinity is the presence of arylpiperazine moiety.6 Indeed, the protonated nitrogen and the aromatic ring of the arylpiperazine compounds are considered crucial for the interaction with the receptor.7 Interestingly, an in vitro binding study realized in our laboratory reveals the presence of the 1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine instead of the piperazine moiety in 4-arylpiperazine-ethyl carboxamide derivatives is highly favourable for 5-HT1A affinity. In order to better understand the favourable effect of this chemical modification, we have performed a conformational analysis of these compounds mainly based on the position of the phenyl ring relative to the piperazine and tetrahydropyridine ones. In the piperazine ...
The objective of the present study was to determine whether lesion of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) promoted by N-methyl- D-aspartate (NMDA) would rescue nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons after unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) injection into the medial forebrain bundle (MFB). Initially, 16 μg 6-OHDA (6-OHDA group) or vehicle (artificial cerebrospinal fluid - aCSF; Sham group) was infused into the right MFB of adult male Wistar rats. Fifteen days after surgery, the 6-OHDA and Sham groups were randomly subdivided and received ipsilateral injection of either 60 mM NMDA or aCSF in the right STN. Additionally, a control group was not submitted to stereotaxic surgery. Five groups of rats were studied: 6-OHDA/NMDA, 6-OHDA/Sham, Sham/ NMDA, Sham/Sham, and control. Fourteen days after injection of 6-OHDA, rats were submitted to the rotational test induced by apomorphine (0.1 mg/kg, ip) and to the open-field test. The same tests were performed again 14 days after NMDA-induced lesion of the STN. ...
The parkinsonian inducing agent 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and its corresponding five-membered ring analogue 1-methyl-3-phenyl-3-pyrroline are cyclic tertiary allylamines and good substrates of monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B). The MAO-B catalyzed 2-electron α-carbon oxidation of this class of substrates appears to be dependent on the presence of the allylic π-bond since the corresponding saturated piperidinyl analogue of MPTP is reported not to be an MAO-B substrate. The only saturated cyclic tertiary amine known to act as an MAO-B substrate is the 3,4-cyclopropyl analogue of MPTP, 3-methyl-6-phenyl-3-azabicyclo[4.1.0]heptane. As part of our ongoing studies we have examined the MAO-B substrate properties of the corresponding pyrrolidinyl analogue, 1-methyl-3-phenylpyrrolidine, and the 3,4-cyclopropyl analogue, ...
GTP cyclohydrolase 1, encoded by the GCH1 gene, is an essential enzyme for dopamine production in nigrostriatal cells. Loss-of-function mutations in GCH1 result in severe reduction of dopamine synthesis in nigrostriatal cells and are the most common cause of DOPA-responsive dystonia, a rare disease that classically presents in childhood with generalized dystonia and a dramatic long-lasting response to levodopa. We describe clinical, genetic and nigrostriatal dopaminergic imaging ([(123)I]N-ω-fluoropropyl-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl) tropane single photon computed tomography) findings of four unrelated pedigrees with DOPA-responsive dystonia in which pathogenic GCH1 variants were identified in family members with adult-onset parkinsonism. Dopamine transporter imaging was abnormal in all parkinsonian patients, indicating Parkinsons disease-like nigrostriatal dopaminergic denervation. We subsequently explored the possibility that pathogenic GCH1 variants could contribute to the risk of ...
GTP cyclohydrolase 1, encoded by the GCH1 gene, is an essential enzyme for dopamine production in nigrostriatal cells. Loss-of-function mutations in GCH1 result in severe reduction of dopamine synthesis in nigrostriatal cells and are the most common cause of DOPA-responsive dystonia, a rare disease that classically presents in childhood with generalized dystonia and a dramatic long-lasting response to levodopa. We describe clinical, genetic and nigrostriatal dopaminergic imaging ([(123)I]N-ω-fluoropropyl-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl) tropane single photon computed tomography) findings of four unrelated pedigrees with DOPA-responsive dystonia in which pathogenic GCH1 variants were identified in family members with adult-onset parkinsonism. Dopamine transporter imaging was abnormal in all parkinsonian patients, indicating Parkinsons disease-like nigrostriatal dopaminergic denervation. We subsequently explored the possibility that pathogenic GCH1 variants could contribute to the risk of ...
Address correspondence and reprint requests to Andreas Hartmann, Centre de Recherche de lInstitut du Cerveau et de la Moelle Epinière, UPMC/INSERM UMR_S975, Groupe Hospitalier Pitié-Salpêtrière, 47 Boulevard de lHôpital, 75651 Paris Cedex 13, France. E-mail ...
In the present study, we determined the effects of MPTP-induced nigrostriatal damage on nAChR sites and function in mouse striatum. The main findings are that there are distinct alterations in different nAChR subtypes after lesioning, with declines in both α-conotoxin MII-sensitive and -resistant sites, but no change in α7* nAChRs. These changes parallel those in striatal nAChR responsiveness, with a close correspondence between nAChR function and receptor sites after nigrostriatal damage.. Nigrostriatal damage decreased 125I-α-conotoxin MII sites in parallel with the dopamine transporter, a marker localized to dopaminergic neurons (Miller et al., 1999). The coincident declines suggest that striatal 125I-α-conotoxin MII sites are primarily localized to presynaptic dopaminergic terminals in mice, a finding consistent with that in monkeys (Quik et al., 2001). By contrast, 125I-epibatidine and [125I]A85380 binding sites, although altered in a similar manner after MPTP treatment, were decreased ...
Liss et al. set out to understand why the dopaminergic (DA) neurons of the substantia nigra were selectively vulnerable to toxins that produce Parkinsons disease-like symptoms and dopaminergic cell death in mice. DA neurons of the substantia nigra or ventral tegmental area (VTA) were selectively labeled in brain slices from 3-month-old mice. All midbrain DA neurons exhibited ATP-regulated K+ current such that activation of the KATP channel in the brain slices with ATP-free solution hyperpolarized the membrane. This response was absent in slices from mice lacking the pore-forming subunit Kir6.2. All midbrain DA neurons expressed the mRNA for the SUR1 subunit of the KATP channel, so differences in susceptibility were not the result of either lack of the channel or differential expression of channel subunits. However, substantia nigra DA neurons exhibited greater magnitude KATP currents, which may be due to the increased abundance of the SUR1 mRNA relative to that present in the VTA DA neurons. ...
The main pathological feature of Parkinsons disease (PD) is the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. In this study, we investigated the role of cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2R) agonist AM1241 on 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced neurotoxicity in a mouse model of PD. Upon treatment with AM1241, the decreased CB2R level in the PD mouse brain was reversed and the behavior score markedly elevated, accompanied with a dose-dependent increase of dopamine and serotonin. In addition, western blot assay and immunostaining results suggested that AM1241 significantly activated PI3K/Akt/MEK phosphorylation and increased the expression of Parkin and PINK1, both in the substantia nigra and hippocampus ...
Background Parkinsons disease (PD) is a disorder characterized by dopaminergic neuron programmed cell death. The etiology of PD remains uncertain-some cases are due to selected genes associated with familial heredity, others are due to environmental exposure to toxic components, but over 90% of cases have a sporadic origin. Nocardia are Actinobacteria that can cause human diseases like nocardiosis. This illness can lead to lung infection or central nervous system (CNS) invasion in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals. The main species involved in CNS are N. farcinica, N. nova, N. brasiliensis and N. cyriacigeorgica. Some studies have highlighted the ability of N. cyriacigeorgica to induce Parkinsons disease-like symptoms in animals. Actinobacteria are known to produce a large variety of secondary metabolites, some of which can be neurotoxic. We hypothesized that neurotoxic secondary metabolite production and the onset of PD-like symptoms in animals could be linked. Methods Here we
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Abstract: "Endocannabinoids as well as their receptors play a modulatory role from the control of dopamine transmission during the basal ganglia. On the other hand, this influence is usually indirect and exerted from the modulation of GABA and glutamate inputs obtained by nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons, which lack cannabinoid CB1 receptors Even though They might produce endocannabinoids. Added proof implies that CB2 receptors could be situated in nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons, and that particular eicosanoid-related cannabinoids may possibly straight activate TRPV1 receptors, that have been found in nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons, As Find Out More a try this result making it possible for in both cases a immediate regulation of dopamine transmission by unique cannabinoids. Furthermore, CB1 receptors type heteromers with dopaminergic receptors which give Yet another pathway to immediate interactions between equally methods, in this case within the postsynaptic amount ...
MJFF-funded research led to novel findings on the structure and function of new family of neurotrophic factors, the CDNF/MANF - family. We solved the crystal structure of CDNF and MANF and found that these proteins are structurally related, but they may have a different mechanism of action. Both have a saposin-like N-terminal domain that binds lipids, which most likely is responsible for their neuroprotective effect in rodent models of Parkinsons disease. The C-terminal domains of MANF and CDNF are responsible for their protective effects against cell stress, i.e. endoplasmic reticulum stress, associated with post-ischemic brain damage and neurodegeneration.. We discovered the intracellular receptor of CDNF and MANF, and characterized their mode of action in neurons. CDNF and MANF were neurorestorative in experimental Parkinsons disease in rats. The mechanism of action of the neurorestorative effect of CDNF is very different from that of GDNF. Another important difference is that the ...
Progressive supranuclear palsy - Comprehensive overview covers symptoms and self-care of this Parkinsons disease-like condition.
Welders can develop Parkinsons disease-like symptoms that may get worse the longer and more they are exposed to the chemical element manganese from welding fumes, according to a study published in the Dec. 28, 2016, online issue of Neurology®, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology.
Medical definition of MPTP: a neurotoxin C12H15N that destroys dopamine-producing neurons of the substantia nigra and causes symptoms (as tremors and…
The neurotoxin 1-methyl,4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropiridine (MPTP) is widely used to produce experimental parkinsonism in rodents and primates. Among different administration protocols, continuous or...
The monoamine uptake inhibitor BTS 74 398 effectively reversed motor deficits in MPTP-treated primates (Hansard et al., 2004), but investigation into the contribution 5-HT and noradrenaline uptake inhibition made to this effect were confounding (Hansard et al., 2002a). BTS 74 398 was found to be highly potent, but a combination of GBR 12909 with 5-HT uptake inhibition negated all the benefits afforded by the dopamine uptake inhibitor alone. Neither had there been any investigation of the dopamine receptors involved in the response. Against this background, the relative involvement of dopamine, noradrenaline, and 5-HT in motor behavior was investigated in the 6-OHDA-lesioned rat.. The selective dopamine reuptake inhibitor GBR 12909 evoked ipsilateral circling in the 6-OHDA-lesioned rat, presumably by increasing dopamine levels in the intact striatum. As previously found, neither 5-HT nor noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors produced rotational behavior over that seen following vehicle administration ...
Genetically engineered neural stem cell (NSC) lines are promising vectors for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, particularly Parkinsons disease (PD). Neurturin (NTN), a member of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family, has been demonstrated to act specifically on mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons, suggesting its therapeutic potential for PD. In our previous work, we demonstrated that NTN-overexpressing c17.2 NSCs exerted dopaminergic neuroprotection in a rat model of PD. In this study, we transplanted NTN-c17.2 into the striatum of the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) PD model to further determine the regenerative effect of NTN-c17.2 on the rat models of PD. After intrastriatal grafting, NTN-c17.2 cells differentiated and gradually downregulated nestin expression, while the grafts stably overexpressed NTN. Further, an observation of rotational behavior and the contents of neurotransmitters tested by high-performance liquid chromatography showed that the regenerative effect
Allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1) is an evolutionary conserved protein important to inflammatory responses throughout the body including that of microglia in the central nervous system (CNS). In addition to critical intracellular roles in the activation of microglia and macrophages, AIF-1 can be secreted by these cells in response to inflammatory signals as well as soluble signals released by dying neurons. In response to the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine, we found increased levels of AIF-1 expression in cells clustered in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc), the site of dopaminergic cell death. The number of these AIF-1 bright cells continued to increase even after neuronal cell death was complete. This increased expression of AIF-1 was restricted to resident microglia; flow cytometric analysis showed that infiltrating CD45hi leukocytes did not express high levels of AIF-1. Analysis of microglia ex vivo demonstrated the ...
Cocktail recipes containing Psoralea corylifolia seeds (PCS) are used to empirically treat Parkinson disease. A PCS isolate Delta(3),2-hydroxybakuchiol (BU) can inhibit dopamine uptake in dopamine transporter (DAT) transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, and dopamine reuptake blockade may provide an alternative approach for ameliorating parkinsonism. Here, we assessed the potential dopaminergic neuroprotective, and antiparkinsonian-like activity of BU. BU sample size was increased by using a scale-up extraction paradigm. Pharmacologically, BU significantly protected SK-N-SH cells from 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) insult, produced striking inhibitory actions on dopamine/norepinephrine uptake and WIN35,428 binding in synaptosomes on in vivo administration, and significantly preventing poor performance on rotarod and dopaminergic loss in substantia nigra in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) ...
Monoamine oxidase B, also known as MAOB, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAOB gene. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the flavin monoamine oxidase family. It is an enzyme located in the outer mitochondrial membrane. It catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic and xenobiotic amines and plays an important role in the catabolism of neuroactive and vasoactive amines in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. This protein preferentially degrades benzylamine and phenylethylamine. Like MAOA, it also degrades dopamine. Monoamine oxidase B has a hydrophobic bipartite elongated cavity that (for the "open" conformation) occupies a combined volume close to 700 Å3. hMAO-A has a single cavity that exhibits a rounder shape and is larger in volume than the "substrate cavity" of hMAO-B. The first cavity of hMAO-B has been termed the entrance cavity (290 Å3), the second substrate cavity or active site cavity (~390 Å3) - between both an isoleucine199 side-chain serves ...
Retinoic acid (RA) plays an important role in the commitment, maturation and survival of neural cells. Recently, RA was pointed as a therapeutic option for some neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinsons disease (PD). The administration of RA has been defying, and in this sense we have previously developed novel RA-loaded polymeric nanoparticles (RA-NPs) that ensure the efficient intracellular transport and controlled release of RA. Herein, we show that nanoformulation as an efficient neuroprotective effect on dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) induced mouse model for PD. The results showed that the RA-NPs administration induced a significant reduction of DA neuron loss in the substantia nigra (SN) as well as their neuronal fiber/axonal innervations in the striatum. Furthermore, we observed an increase in the expression levels of the transcription factors Pitx3 and Nurr1 induced by RA-NPs, showing ...
Parkinsons disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Recently, bee venom was reported to protect dopaminergic neurons in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine induced mice PD model, however, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood ...
Akkhawattanangkul, Y., Maiti, P., Xue, Y., Aryal, D., Wetsel, W. C., Hamilton, D., . . . McDonald, M. P. (2017). Targeted deletion of GD3 synthase protects against MPTP-induced neurodegeneration. Genes, Brain and Behavior, n/a-n/a. doi: 10.1111/gbb.12377.. Chung, Y. C., Baek, J. Y., Kim, S. R., Ko, H. W., Bok, E., Shin, W.-H., . . . Jin, B. K. (2017). Capsaicin prevents degeneration of dopamine neurons by inhibiting glial activation and oxidative stress in the MPTP model of Parkinson/s disease. Experimental and Molecular Medicine, 49, e298. doi: 10.1038/emm.2016.159.. Hajheidari, S., Sameni, H. R., Bandegi, A. R., & Miladi-gorji, H. (2017). Effects of prolonged abstinence from METH on the hippocampal BDNF levels, neuronal numbers and apoptosis in methamphetamine-sensitized rats. Neuroscience Letters, 645, 80-85. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2017.02.051.. Krishnasamy, S., Weng, Y.-C., Thammisetty, S. S., Phaneuf, D., Lalancette-Hebert, M., & Kriz, J. (2017). Molecular imaging of ...
mps:MPTP_0659 K01176 alpha-amylase [EC:3.2.1.1] , (GenBank) cytoplasmic alpha-amylase (A) MEKKQRTLLQGFEWYLPEDQYHWQKIAELAPLLKQIGFTSIWLPPAYKGLKGEKEVGYAP YDLYDLGEFQQQGTIATKYGTKDEYLACIHALKENDLEVLADIVFDHFMGADEKEEVLAE RCKATDREAIISKQRMIEARTKFTFSGRKGKYDNYQWSWKNFSGVDYDDKQKEEGIFKFV GKKWNSPVDNENANFDYLMGCNLDMTYPETIQQLDNWGKWYQSITDIDGYRFDAVKHIKF DFFNQWLLHRRKEKEQELFIIGEYWNNDLQKLENYIDQSGALLPLFDIPLHYNFYEAAKK GNQYDLRKLLVNTLVDSRPEWAITFVENHDTQEGQSLESWVLPWFKPMAYAIILLLMKGT PVVFWGDLFGIPAKKVEKMGQTLIILLKIRQQIRSNYELTYFDDPTIVGWTHVDSLNERD FNYAVIMSNDQNGSKQMCIGTRAAHKNYIDILGNHHQIVRLNEVGIGNFYVKERSLAVYV EETVAKKLLAEVEQLDIK ...
Four persons developed marked parkinsonism after using an illicit drug intravenously. Analysis of the substance injected by two of these patients revealed primarily 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) with trace amounts of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-4-propionoxy-piperidine (MPPP). On the basis of the striking parkinsonian features observed in our patients, and additional pathological data from one previously reported case, it is proposed that this chemical selectively damages cells in the substantia nigra. ...
Cypermethrin a class II pyrethroid pesticide is used to control insects in the household and CYC116 agricultural fields. research not only because of its variable responses depending upon the doses time Rabbit polyclonal to PLA2G12B. and routes of exposure and strain age gender and species of animals used across multiple studies but also due to its capability to induce the nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurodegeneration. This post describes the result of acute chronic adulthood and developmental exposures to cypermethrin in experimental animals. This article sheds light on cypermethrin-induced adjustments in the central anxious program including its contribution in the onset of particular features that are from the nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Resemblances and dissimilarities of cypermethrin-induced nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurodegeneration with sporadic and chemicals-induced disease versions along using its advantages and pitfalls may also be discussed. ramifications of ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Qingshan Wang, Eun-Joo Shin, Xuan-Khanh Thi Nguyen, Quan Li, Jae-Hyung Bach, Guoying Bing, Won-Ki Kim, Hyoung-Chun Kim, Jau-Shyong Hong].
Certified Advisor: UB Securities Ltd, telephone: +358 9 25 380 225. About Parkinsons disease. Parkinsons disease (PD) is a slowly progressing, incurable neurodegenerative disease caused by the death of dopaminergic neurons in the midbrain. Common first motor symptoms of the disease include tremors, rigidity and slowness of movement. While the motor symptoms can be treated with medication the disease progression cannot be prevented, and the benefits of medication may be lost with disease progression or side effects can become unmanageable. In addition, PD may cause non-motor symptoms such as sleep problems, depression, and anxiety, which are not alleviated by current Parkinsons drugs. It is estimated that 7 million people worldwide suffer from Parkinsons disease.. About CDNF. CDNF is a novel drug candidate for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Naturally present in the human blood circulation and cerebrospinal fluid, CDNF is a protein with neuroprotective and neurorestorative ...
In view of the neurotoxic properties of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+), the monoamine oxidase-B-generated metabolite of the Parkinsonian agent 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (Kalgutkar et al., 2001), the identification of MPP+-like HPP+ and RHPP+ metabolites in significant quantities in the urine (Subramanyam et al., 1991b), plasma (Avent et al., 1997), and post-mortem brain samples (Eyles et al., 1997) in schizophrenic patients treated with HP is of neurotoxicological importance especially in the pathogenesis of HP-induced TD. Additional support for this proposal is evident from the observations that HPP+ displays MPP+-like neurotoxicity in vivo as well as in vitro (Bloomquist et al., 1994).. Although glucuronidation and reduced HP formation constitute the major routes of HP clearance in humans, the wide interindividual variations in HP oral clearance have been mainly attributed to the "minor" ...
Sumanirole: | | Sumanirole | | | ||| | | | ... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most definitive collection ever assembled.
Mild, moderate, and vigorous physical activity are associated with decreased risks of Alzheimers disease, Parkinsons disease, and a decreased infarct from stroke. Physical activity increases neurogenesis in the hippocampus and upregulates neurotrophic factors throughout the brain, but it largely has been understudied in motor brain regions related to Parkinsons disease. We hypothesized that aerobic exercise would be protective against a MPTP lesion in Rhesus monkeys. We used three cohorts of monkeys to study gene expression associated with physical activity and exercise in motor regions of the brain: (1) spontaneously physically active rhesus monkeys, (2) exercised rhesus monkeys, and (3) spontaneously physically active and exercised rhesus monkeys before and after receiving a MPTP lesion. We found that physical activity as measured by accelerometers predicts the size the MPTP lesion, as monkeys with high levels of physical activity were protected from the lesion. Furthermore, the ...
Ontogenesis of nigral dopaminergic neurons and electrophysiological assessment of substantianigra of crossbreds of two mice strains with differential susceptibility to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP ...
Role dietary supplementation with turmeric protects against 1-methyl, 4-phenyl, 1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mediated complex I inhibition, protein nitration and neurotoxicity in vivo - implications for Parkinsons disease ...
Other indirect methods used to estimate the efficiency of an antioxidant include the measurement of oxidatively damaged products. Of the major categories of macromolecules that are damaged by free radicals, i.e., lipids, proteins, and DNA, the bulk of the studies have examined the role of melatonin in protecting membrane lipids from free radical destruction (8). Without exception, in both in vitro and in vivo studies melatonin has been shown to reduce the accumulation of the major products of lipid peroxidation (usually measured as malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxyalkenals) when membranes are exposed to radical-generating agents. Thus lipid destruction induced by paraquat, amyloid β-peptide of Alzheimers disease, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine, chromium, lipopolysaccharide, carbon tetrachloride, porphyrins, kainic acid, ischemia-reperfusion, hyperbaric hyperoxia, ibuprofen, aspirin, alcohol, and many other agents are reduced in the presence of ...
There is a strong association between chronic inflammatory conditions in a particular organ and the incidence of cancer specific to that organ. The longer the inflammation persists, the higher is the risk of associated carcinogenesis. Our interest is to synthesis new, potent and safer anticancer agents. The functionalized tetrahydropyridine (THP) ring systems are widely found in biologically active natural products and pharmaceuticals. The pharmacological activities of the THP derivatives depended greatly on the position and nature of the substitutions on the THP ring structure. 2-Substituted benzimidazole derivatives have been found to possess anti-inflammatory, antihistaminic, antimicrobial, anticancer, and cycloxygenase inhibiting activities. It is believed that synthesizing new compounds that contain both the pharmacophores of THP and benzimidazole could have the potential of becoming effective anticancer agents.. 6-Methyl-2-(pyridin-4-yl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazole was ...
6-Acetyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydropyridine is responsible for the biscuit or cracker-like flavor present in baked goods like bread, popcorn, tortilla products. The structurally related compound 2-acetylpyrroline has a similar smell and occurs also naturally without heating and gives varieties of cooked rice and the spice pandan (Pandanus amaryllifolius) their typical smell. Both compounds have odor thresholds below 0.06 ng/l.[1]. The browning reactions which occur when meat is roasted or seared have often been referred to as Maillard reaction browning. However, lean meat contains very few, if any, reducing sugars. Furthermore, red meat undergoes more extensive browning than does white meat. The browning reactions in lean meat are most likely due to the breakdown of the tetrapyrrole rings of the muscle protein, myoglobin. Thus, the browning of meat is technically not a Maillard browning since it does not involve the reaction with a reducing sugar.. Caramelization is an entirely different process ...
Here, we demonstrate a broad modulatory role of the PGE2 EP2 receptor in macrophage/microglial innate immune responses. Multiple immune factors in blood and inflammatory endothelial factors were reduced in mice with global deletion of EP2 after systemic administration of LPS. In vitro, activation of macrophage EP2 receptor magnified the proinflammatory response to LPS, consistent with the in vivo plasma proteomic data. Cell-specific deletion of EP2 receptor in monocyte lineage cells, including macrophages, monocytes, and microglia, blunted the LPS-mediated innate immune response peripherally and in the CNS, as well as in the MPTP model of secondary microglial inflammation in the substantia nigra. Unbiased examination of gene expression regulated by microglial EP2 in adult EP2-deficient microglia revealed a significant suppression of inflammatory genetic pathways regulated by COX-2.. The importance of PGE2 EP2 signaling lies in its profound proinflammatory function in neurodegenerative models ...
Our goal was to extend our understanding of the neural changes behind motor recovery with treadmill exercise in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-lesioned mouse. We determined the extent of dopamine (DA) terminal changes using W
Parkinsons disease (PD) is a degenerative disorder caused by the accelerated death of dopamine (DA) producing neurons. Within the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc), cell loss is predominately found in the ventral tier with less (but still extensive) damage in the dorsal tier (Fearnley and Lees 1991, Gibb and Lees 1991). In contrast, normal aging yields substantially less cell loss and in a dorsal-to-ventral pattern. Parkinsonian motor symptoms appear after a loss of 60-70% of SNpc cells and 70-80% of DA levels in striatal nuclei where SNpc cells send projections (Bernheimer et al. 1973, Gibb and Lees 1991). Motor symptoms include resting tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia (slow movements), and akinesia (loss of voluntary movements). In addition to motor deficits, PD patients without dementia present cognitive symptoms that resemble those observed in patients with brain damage in the frontal lobes. Numerous studies documenting cognitive deficits of PD patients have revealed impairment in a ...
Neuronal loss in substantia nigra pars compacta: A) The images present the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) staining in midbrain 3 weeks after the sham (above) or 6-OHDA (below) lesion. B) Stereological assessment of number of TH-positive dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) indicates a 50%-70% cell loss 3-6 weeks after the lesion. Data presented as mean of n=4-8, with S.E.M., two-way ANOVA, with Tukey test, ****p,0.0001 (sham and 6-OHDA lesion groups within time point), ##p,0.01 (6-OHDA groups). ...
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Potential evaluation of lipid and free fatty acid alterations as a biomarker in MPTP mouse model of Parkinsons disease using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS): Thailand Research Fund (principal investigator ...
Schneider, JS (July 2003). "The Subtype-Selective Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Agonist SIB-1553A Improves Both Attention and Memory Components of a Spatial Working Memory Task in Chronic Low Dose 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-Treated Monkeys". Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 306 (1): 401-6. PMID 12721323. doi:10.1124/jpet.103.051912. Cite uses deprecated parameter ...
摘 要:帕金森病(Parkinsons disease, PD) 是一种常见于中老年人的神经系统退行性疾病,由中脑腹侧的多巴胺能(dopaminergic, DA) 神经元缺失造成。这类疾病可通过移植由人胚胎干细胞(human embryonic stem cells, hESC) 或其他途径获得的多巴胺能神经元实现治疗。然而,在应用于临床之前,需要对这些多巴胺能 神经元的安全性和有效性在合适的动物模型中进行充分、全面的评价。为评价由临床级人胚胎干细胞分化的多巴胺能神经元是否安全、有效,根据先导专项部署,我们建立了MPTP ...
Yes, the good humor of this all is that MPTP, the toxin accidentally produced in SF by drug designers making synthetic heroin and which produces a severe Parkinsons syndrome, was actually developed by Gulf chemical as a pesticide named Cyperquat. It was never marketed,however, because if lethal effects in animals. The reason Paraquat and Diquat have generated interest is because they are chemically very similar -- but, as far as I know, this isnt very interesting because they dont produce Parkisons in animal models the way MPTP (and MPP+, which is the active metabolite) does. THe cause of most Parkinsons is not known ,called idiopathic for, my doctor is an idiot who likes big words :) JK! , There are several theories, most of which are ENVIRONMENTAL, not genetic. Most genetic theories of Parkinsons emphasize increased susceptibility to the environmental agents for one reason or another, although some people believe that there is purely genetic Parkinsons. The only two confirmed ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Hongzhu Li, Chao Zhang, Weiming Sun, Lina Li, Bo Wu, Shuzhi Bai, Hongxia Li, Xin Zhong, Rui Wang, Lingyun Wu, Changqing Xu].
PD is associated with alterations of gut motor functions (Cloud and Greene, 2011; Pfeiffer, 2011; Pellegrini et al., 2015), which have been proposed to result both from an early impairment of the ENS and as a consequence of central nigrostriatal degeneration associated with dopaminergic denervation. In this context, our purpose was to evaluate the impact of nigrostriatal dopaminergic denervation on the patterns of colonic motility and related cholinergic control. Indeed, current data on the abnormalities of colonic cholinergic neuromotor control in PD are scarce and inconsistent. Thus, we aimed at characterizing the alterations occurring in the 6-OHDA model by a multidisciplinary functional, molecular, and morphologic approach. Overall, our results provide convincing evidence that the induction of nigrostriatal denervation, which reflects one of the main pathologic hallmarks of PD, is associated with significant alterations of colonic excitatory cholinergic neurotransmission, resulting in ...
Two models of Parkinsons will be used to test Rodins HDAC inhibitors: the MPTP model, which uses a chemical toxin that results in Parkinsons pathology, and a transgenic model known as the A53T synuclein model, which overexpresses a toxic form of a key protein linked to Parkinsons. In both cases, the models will be treated for 14 days with Rodin HDAC inhibitors in an attempt to stabilize or improve symptoms in the mice. Brain sections will be analyzed for expression of key molecules and levels of gene expression to understand the underlying mechanism of the drugs actions.. Impact on Diagnosis/Treatment of Parkinsons Disease ...
Order monoclonal and polyclonal Monoamine Oxidase B antibodies for many applications. Selected quality suppliers for anti-Monoamine Oxidase B antibodies.
Parkinsons disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of neurons in specific regions of the nervous system, notably in the substantia nigra pars compacta and, in most cases, by the deposition of intraneuronal inclusions named Lewy bodies
2BK5: Demonstration of Isoleucine 199 as a Structural Determinant for the Selective Inhibition of Human Monoamine Oxidase B by Specific Reversible Inhibitors.
2C72: Functional Role of the Aromatic Cage in Human Monoamine Oxidase B: Structures and Catalytic Properties of Tyr435 Mutant Proteins
J:107647 Thuret S, Bhatt L, OLeary DD, Simon HH, Identification and developmental analysis of genes expressed by dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2004 Mar;25(3):394-405 ...
28822-58-4:C10H14N4O2, 1H-Purine-2,6-dione, 3,7-dihydro-1-methyl-3-(2-methylpropyl)-, 1H-Purine-2,6-dione, 3,7-dihydro-1-methyl-3-(2-methylpropyl)-, 1H-Purine-2,6-dione, 3,9-dihydro-1-methyl-3-(2-methylpropyl)-, 1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine, 22: PN: WO2005058295 PAGE: 15 claimed sequence, 3,7-dihidro-3-isobutil-1-metil-1H-purina-2,6-diona, 3,7-Dihydro-3-isobutyl-1-methyl-1H-purin-2,6-dion, 3,7-dihydro-3-isobutyl-1-methyl-1H-purine-2,6-dione, 3-Isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, IBMX, IMX, Isobutylmethylxanthine, Methylisobutylxanthine, NSC 165960, SC 2964, Xanthine, 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-
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J:147559 Thuret S, Alavian KN, Gassmann M, Lloyd CK, Smits SM, Smidt MP, Klein R, Dyck RH, Simon HH, The neuregulin receptor, ErbB4, is not required for normal development and adult maintenance of the substantia nigra pars compacta. J Neurochem. 2004 Dec;91(6):1302-11 ...
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Chinta SJ, Kumar MJ, Hsu M, Rajagopalan S, Kaur D, Rane A, Nicholls DG, Choi J, Andersen JK. Inducible alterations of glutathione levels in adult dopaminergic midbrain neurons result in nigrostriatal degeneration ...
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product Name 1-methyl-aminomethyl-naphthalene Synonyms 1-Methyl-Aminomethylnaphthalene; N-Methyl-1-Naphthalene Methylamine; N-Methyl-1-Naphthalenemethyl Amine; N-Methyl-1-Naphthalenemethylamine; N-Methyl-1-Naphthylmethylamine;...
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1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (CHEBI:17963)1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (CHEBI:17963)

A tetrahydropyridine that is 1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine substituted by a methyl group at position 1 and a phenyl group at ... CHEBI:17963 - 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models ... 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine N-oxide (CHEBI:17472) has functional parent 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6- ... 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (CHEBI:17963) has role neurotoxin (CHEBI:50910) 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6- ...
more infohttps://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/searchId.do?chebiId=CHEBI:17963

Does 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) cause Parkinson disease (PD)?Does 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) cause Parkinson disease (PD)?

Several individuals were identified who developed parkinsonism after self-injection of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6- ... tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). These patients developed bradykinesia, rigidity, and tremor,... more ... 2C6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) cause Parkinson disease (PD)?) and Does 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) cause ... 6] MPP+ accumulates in mitochondria and interferes with the function of complex I of the respiratory chain. A chemical ...
more infohttps://www.medscape.com/answers/1831191-9854/867463-overview

1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine | CTD1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine | CTD

phenyl-. 3-. cyclohexen-. 1-. yl)methyl)pyridine 1,2,3,6-. tetrahydro-. 4-. phenyl-. 1-. ((3-. phenyl-. 3-. cyclohexen-. 1-. yl ... methyl-. 4-. phenyl-. 1,2,3,6-. tetrahydro-. 3-. pyridinol 1-. methyl-. 4-. phenyl-. 1,2,3,6-. (tetrahydropyridine)-. N-. oxide ... methyl)pyridine 1,2,3,6-. tetrahydro-. 4-. (p-. hydroxyphenyl)-. 1-. ((3-. (p-. hydroxyphenyl)-. 3-. cyclohexen-. 1-. yl)methyl ... 3-. trifluoro-. N-. methyl-. 4-. phenyl-. 1,2,3,6-. tetrahydropyridine 4-. (4-. methoxy-. 1,2,5-. thiadiazol-. 3-. yl)-. 1- ...
more infohttp://ctd.mdibl.org/detail.go?type=chem&acc=D015632

e-Cadherin in 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-Induced Parkinson Diseasee-Cadherin in 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-Induced Parkinson Disease

Samuela Cataldi,1 Michela Codini,1 Stéphane Hunot,2 François-Pierre Légeron,2 Ivana Ferri,3 Paola Siccu,3 Angelo Sidoni,3 ... 1-8, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar. *Samuela Cataldi, Cataldo Arcuri, Stéphane Hunot, Carmen Mecca, Michela ... 2Inserm U 1127, CNRS UMR 7225, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Université Paris 06 UMR S 1127, Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle ... 3Institute of Pathologic Anatomy and Histology, University of Perugia, 06100 Perugia, Italy. 4Department of Clinical and ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2016/3937057/citations/

Metabolite Profile Resulting from the Activation/Inactivation of 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine  and 2...Metabolite Profile Resulting from the Activation/Inactivation of 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine and 2...

... and N-methyl-β-carbolinium-βC+-) by MAO and heme peroxidases and the rate of inactivation (i.e., N-demethylation, aromatic ... MAO catalyzed the oxidation of MPTP to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-2,3-dihydropyridinium cation (MPDP+), whereas heme peroxidases ... Metabolic enzymes are involved in the activation/deactivation of the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyiridine (MPTP) ... and of 2-methyltetrahydro-β-carboline to 2-methyl-3,4-dihydro-β-carbolinium cation (2-Me-3,4-DHβC+). These substances were ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2013/248608/abs/

Hydrogen in Drinking Water Reduces Dopaminergic Neuronal Loss in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine Mouse Model...Hydrogen in Drinking Water Reduces Dopaminergic Neuronal Loss in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine Mouse Model...

3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). The concentration-dependency of H2 showed that H2 as low as 0.08 ppm had almost the same effect ... 4-HNE), a marker of lipid peroxidation were significantly decreased in the nigro-striatal dopaminergic pathway in mice drinking ... reduced the loss of dopaminergic neurons in PD model mice using both acute and chronic administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2, ... as saturated H2 water (1.5 ppm). MPTP-induced accumulation of cellular 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG), a marker of DNA damage, and 4- ...
more infohttp://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0007247

Persistent EcoHIV infection induces nigral degeneration in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-intoxicated mice |...Persistent EcoHIV infection induces nigral degeneration in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-intoxicated mice |...

2.Department of Medicine, Infectious Diseases DivisionIcahn School of Medicine at Mount SinaiNew YorkUSA ... Dickens AM, Yoo SW, Chin AC, Xu J, Johnson TP, Trout AL, Hauser KF, Haughey NJ (2017) Chronic low-level expression of HIV-1 tat ... Lu SM, Tremblay ME, King IL, Qi J, Reynolds HM, Marker DF, Varrone JJ, Majewska AK, Dewhurst S, Gelbard HA (2011) HIV-1 tat- ... Zauli G, Secchiero P, Rodella L, Gibellini D, Mirandola P, Mazzoni M, Milani D, Dowd DR, Capitani S, Vitale M (2000) HIV-1 tat- ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13365-018-0629-1

Rapid ATP Loss Caused by 1‐Methyl‐4‐Phenyl‐1,2,3,6‐Tetrahydropyridine in Mouse Brain, Journal of Neurochemistry | 10.1111/j...Rapid ATP Loss Caused by 1Methyl4Phenyl1,2,3,6Tetrahydropyridine in Mouse Brain, Journal of Neurochemistry | 10.1111/j...

Methyl4Phenyl1,2,3,6Tetrahydropyridine in Mouse Brain, Journal of Neurochemistry" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental ... Energy‐dependent uptake of N‐methyl4‐phenylpyridinium, the neurotoxic metabolite of 1methyl4phenyl1,2,3,6‐ ... Methyl4Phenyl1,2,3,6Tetrahydropyridine in Mouse Brain. Chan, Piu; DeLanney, Louis E.; Irwin, Ian; Langston, J. William; ... Tetrahydropyridine in Mouse Brain. Rapid ATP Loss Caused by 1Methyl4Phenyl1,2,3,6Tetrahydropyridine in Mouse Brain Chan, ...
more infohttps://www.deepdyve.com/lp/wiley/rapid-atp-loss-caused-by-1-methyl-4-phenyl-1-2-3-6-tetrahydropyridine-LVxhQE08yO?impressionId=5d33eace67ff1&i_medium=docview&i_campaign=references&i_source=references

1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine destroys dopamine neurons in explants of rat embryo mesencephalon. - Semantic...1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine destroys dopamine neurons in explants of rat embryo mesencephalon. - Semantic...

Addition of 10 microM 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) to the culture medium for 4 to 7 days resulted in ... Selective decrease of immunoreactive tyrosine hydroxylase in nigrostriatum of adult male rats after N-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6- ... tetrahydropyridine treatment. *Dr. Linda L. Vacca-Galloway, Ryoichi Ikeda, Shirley Y. Coleman ... 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine destroys dopamine neurons in explants of rat embryo mesencephalon.. @article{ ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/1-methyl-4-phenyl-1%2C2%2C3%2C6-tetrahydropyridine-in-of-Mytilineou-Cohen/6214a8da3a3b84c00540bf43c24130824eb8d1f6

The Neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine induces apoptosis in mouse nigrostriatal glia. Relevance to nigral...The Neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine induces apoptosis in mouse nigrostriatal glia. Relevance to nigral...

A late (days 6-11) increase in striatal dopamine oxidative metabolism, ascorbic acid oxidative status, and catabolites of high- ... The Neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine induces apoptosis in mouse nigrostriatal glia. Relevance to nigral ... Swiss mice were given 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), 25 mg/kg/day, for 5 consecutive days and killed at ... Decreases in striatal tyrosine hydroxylase activity and levels of dopamine and its metabolites were observed 1 day after MPTP ...
more infohttp://eprints.uniss.it/615/

Lentiviral Overexpression of GRK6 Alleviates l-Dopa-Induced Dyskinesia in Experimental Parkinsons Disease | Science...Lentiviral Overexpression of GRK6 Alleviates l-Dopa-Induced Dyskinesia in Experimental Parkinson's Disease | Science...

Erwan Bezard2,3,*†. *. 1Department of Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University, 2200 Pierce Avenue, PRB422, Nashville, TN 37232, USA ... The improved Horsley-Clarke stereotactic technique was used as described (2, 5, 7, 8, 36, 37). Either GRK6-GFP (n = 6) or GFP ( ... The 6-OHDA lesion was performed as described (3, 15). The viruses were injected either at the time of the 6-OHDA lesion or ... The signaling is further distorted by chronic l-dopa treatment (2-4). Supersensitivity of the D1 (5) and D2 (6, 7) dopamine ...
more infohttp://stm.sciencemag.org/content/2/28/28ra28?ijkey=704753c8d603734fc6dcf74532c7eafa56fd3ec6&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Minocycline prevents nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurodegeneration in the MPTP model of Parkinsons disease | PNASMinocycline prevents nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurodegeneration in the MPTP model of Parkinson's disease | PNAS

To adequately quantify TH-positive neurons, we used the nuclear counterstain methyl green (Vector Laboratories) and the ... 4 A and B), but does so quite effectively in the presence of glia (Fig. 4 C and D), we argue that the neurotoxicity of MPTP/MPP ... 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine;. MPP+,. 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium;. SNpc,. substantia nigra pars compacta;. CGN ... 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid;. HVA,. homovanilic acid;. MAPK,. mitogenactivated protein kinase;. TH,. tyrosine hydroxylase;. ...
more infohttp://www.pnas.org/content/98/25/14669

PET and SPECT Imaging of Neurotoxicity | SpringerLinkPET and SPECT Imaging of Neurotoxicity | SpringerLink

... an update on the acute and chronic manifestations of methyl mercury poisoning. J Neurol Sci 262:131-144PubMedCrossRefGoogle ... 3.Department of Radiology and Nuclear MedicineGhent UniversityGhentBelgium. *4.Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific ... 1.Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular ImagingUniversity Medical Center Groningen, University of GroningenGroningenThe ... 2.Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular ImagingUniversity of Groningen, University Medical Center GroningenGroningenThe ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-54307-4_36

Molecules | Free Full-Text | Mitigation Effects of a Novel Herbal Medicine, Hepad, on Neuroinflammation, Neuroapoptosis, and...Molecules | Free Full-Text | Mitigation Effects of a Novel Herbal Medicine, Hepad, on Neuroinflammation, Neuroapoptosis, and...

Hepad 1 and 2 remarkably alleviated the enhanced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin ... Therefore, our results suggest that Hepad 1 and 2 are useful for treating PD and other disorders associated with neuro- ... The present study demonstrated that the herbal medicines Hepad 1 and 2 protected against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6- ... tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity in C57BL/6 mice and SH-SY5Y cells. ...
more infohttps://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/23/11/2920

Activation of innate immunity in the CNS triggers neurodegeneration through a Toll-like receptor 4-dependent pathway | PNASActivation of innate immunity in the CNS triggers neurodegeneration through a Toll-like receptor 4-dependent pathway | PNAS

Involvement of the Fc{gamma} Receptor in a Chronic N-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine Mouse Model of Dopaminergic ... Activated microglia are critical for N-methyl-d-aspartate-induced neurodegeneration in slice cultures (28). β-Amyloid in ... 4. TLR4 is necessary for LPS-induced neuronal injury in vitro. Mixed CNS cultures prepared from BALB/cJ and lpsd mouse ... 3C).. Microglia bind Alexa-tagged LPS in vitro, whereas oligodendrocytes and astrocytes do not (16). Thus, we next asked ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/100/14/8514

Destruction of Hazardous Chemicals in the Laboratory, 3rd Edition | Chemical and Environmental Health and Safety | Chemistry |...Destruction of Hazardous Chemicals in the Laboratory, 3rd Edition | Chemical and Environmental Health and Safety | Chemistry |...

PREFACE xi. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xiii. INTRODUCTION 1. SPECIFIC METHODS FOR THE DESTRUCTION OF HAZARDOUS CHEMICALS IN THE LABORATORY 17. Acetonitrile 19. Acid Halides and Anhydrides 23. Aflatoxins 29. Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals 37. Alkali Metal Alkoxides 41. Anatoxin-A 43. Aromatic Amines 47. Arsenic 57. Azides 61. Azo and Azoxy Compounds and Tetrazenes 69. Boron Trifluoride and Inorganic Fluorides 77. Botulinum Toxins 81. Brevetoxins 85. Butyllithium 89. Calcium Carbide 93. Carbamic Acid Esters 95. Carbofuran 99. Chloromethylsilanes and Silicon Tetrachloride 101. N-Chlorosuccinimide and Chloramine-T 103. Chlorosulfonic Acid 105. Chromium(VI) 107. Citrinin 113. Complex Metal Hydrides 121. Cyanides and Cyanogen Bromide 129. Cylindrospermopsin 137. Diisopropyl Fluorophosphate 141. Dimethyl Sulfate and Related Compounds 151. Dyes and Biological Stains 163. Ethidium Bromide 201. Haloethers 211. Halogenated Compounds 217. Halogens 229. Heavy Metals 233. Hexamethylphosphoramide 241. Hydrazines ...
more infohttps://www.wiley.com/en-us/Destruction+of+Hazardous+Chemicals+in+the+Laboratory%2C+3rd+Edition-p-9781118146590

Neuroprotective Effects of Glucosinolates | SpringerLinkNeuroprotective Effects of Glucosinolates | SpringerLink

Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. MS. Multiple sclerosis. NFTs. Neurofibrillary tangles ... 2.. Olesen J, Gustavsson A, Svensson M et al (2012) The economic cost of brain disorders in Europe. Eur J Neurol 19:155-162 ... 1.. Hung CW, Chen YC, Hsieh WL, Chiou SH, Kao CL (2010) Ageing and neurodegenerative diseases. Ageing Res Rev 9(Suppl 1):S36- ... 1.Dipartimento di Scienze per la Qualità della VitaAlma Mater Studiorum, Università di BolognaRiminiItaly ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/referenceworkentry/10.1007/978-3-319-25462-3_20

Plus itPlus it

dynamin related-protein 1. HD. Huntingtons disease. Hsp. heat shock protein. htt. huntingtin. mhtt. mutant htt. LRRK2. leucine ... 3-NP. 3-nitropropionic acid. OMM. outer mitochondrial membrane. OPA1. optic atrophy 1. PD. Parkinsons disease. PGC-1α. ... 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside. ALS. amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. AMPK. AMP-activated protein kinase. APP. ... 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. mtDNA. mitochondrial DNA. NRF. nuclear respiratory factor. ...
more infohttp://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/342/3/619

Short-Term Depression of Synaptic Transmission during Stimulation in the Globus Pallidus of 1-Methyl-4-Phenyl-1,2,3,6...Short-Term Depression of Synaptic Transmission during Stimulation in the Globus Pallidus of 1-Methyl-4-Phenyl-1,2,3,6...

2B). The normalized peak time and amplitude were calculated for each neuron for the early (Fig. 2C) and late (Fig. 2D) ... 2A), where GPe neurons tended to fire 3.5 ± 0.13 ms (mean ± SEM) after the stimulus, and GPi neurons tended to fire at a ... 2E), indicating a decay of the time-locked response over time. Of the neurons that showed an evolving time-locked response to ... Figure 2. Time-locked response changes during stimulation. A, Population PSTH of all GPe (blue) and GPi (red) neurons during ...
more infohttp://www.jneurosci.org/content/29/24/7797.long

Protective and restorative effects of the traditional Chinese medicine Jitai tablet against methamphetamine-induced...Protective and restorative effects of the traditional Chinese medicine Jitai tablet against methamphetamine-induced...

The mechanisms for METH-induced neurotoxicity are believed to include oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, N-methyl-D- ... 2012;45(2):810-20.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar. *. Chen H, Wu J, Zhang J, Fujita Y, Ishima T, Iyo M, et al. Protective ... 2007;31(3):127-36.View ArticleGoogle Scholar. *. Lee B, Yang CH, Hahm D-H, Lee H-J, Han S-M, Kim K-S, et al. Inhibitory effects ... 2004;9(6):557-69.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar. *. McCann UD, Kuwabara H, Kumar A, Palermo M, Abbey R, Brasic J, et al. ...
more infohttps://bmccomplementalternmed.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12906-018-2094-z/

Protective and restorative effects of the traditional Chinese medicine Jitai tablet against methamphetamine-induced...Protective and restorative effects of the traditional Chinese medicine Jitai tablet against methamphetamine-induced...

The mechanisms for METH-induced neurotoxicity are believed to include oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, N-methyl-D- ... 2012;45(2):810-20.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar. *. Chen H, Wu J, Zhang J, Fujita Y, Ishima T, Iyo M, et al. Protective ... 2007;31(3):127-36.View ArticleGoogle Scholar. *. Lee B, Yang CH, Hahm D-H, Lee H-J, Han S-M, Kim K-S, et al. Inhibitory effects ... 2004;9(6):557-69.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar. *. McCann UD, Kuwabara H, Kumar A, Palermo M, Abbey R, Brasic J, et al. ...
more infohttps://bmccomplementalternmed.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12906-018-2094-z

Destruction of Hazardous Chemicals in the Laboratory. 3rd EditionDestruction of Hazardous Chemicals in the Laboratory. 3rd Edition

The fully updated reference on degrading and disposing of hazardous chemicals in the laboratory When its time for laboratory technicians to get rid of...
more infohttps://www.researchandmarkets.com/reports/2171992/destruction_of_hazardous_chemicals_in_the

Ubiquitin and Parkinsons disease through the looking glass of genetics | Biochemical JournalUbiquitin and Parkinson's disease through the looking glass of genetics | Biochemical Journal

Figure 1. Domain schematic of key ubiquitin-related proteins in PD.. Ubiquitin molecules that are either mutated in PD (PINK1, ... 2016) MINDY-1 is a member of an evolutionarily conserved and structurally distinct new family of deubiquitinating enzymes. Mol ... Figure 2. Ubiquitin pathways combating Parkinsonism.. Multiple proteins and pathways implicated in protein homeostasis are ... 2004) Ubiquitylation of synphilin-1 and alpha-synuclein by SIAH and its presence in cellular inclusions and Lewy bodies imply a ...
more infohttp://www.biochemj.org/content/474/9/1439

neurotoxin (CHEBI:50910)neurotoxin (CHEBI:50910)

N-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (CHEBI:641) has role neurotoxin (CHEBI:50910). L-BMAA (CHEBI:73169) has role neurotoxin (CHEBI: ... S)-2-chloropropanoic acid (CHEBI:73956) has role neurotoxin (CHEBI:50910). (S)-amphetamine (CHEBI:4469) has role neurotoxin ( ... butane-1,4-diol (CHEBI:41189) has role neurotoxin (CHEBI:50910). carbon monoxide (CHEBI:17245) has role neurotoxin (CHEBI:50910 ... 4-hydroxybutyric acid (CHEBI:30830) has role neurotoxin (CHEBI:50910). N-butylbenzenesulfonamide (CHEBI:44237) has role ...
more infohttp://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/searchId.do?chebiId=CHEBI:50911

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6B). Two-way ANOVA showed significance for effect of treatment (F(3,18) = 20.57, p = 0.0002), genotype (F(3,18) = 6.615, p = ... A, B, Plasma was collected and analyzed at 6 h after administration of PBS or LPS (5 mg/kg, i.p.) to EP2+/+ and EP2−/− mice. A ... 1), IL-6 and TNFα were significantly reduced in Cd11bCre;EP2lox/lox mice (Fig. 5A) while cytokines IL1β, IL-4, IL-12, IL-13 and ... Of note, interleukin 1 β (IL1β) was induced with LPS by 2.85-fold but was reduced in EP2−/− LPS plasma by 44.7% (p , 0.001), ...
more infohttp://www.jneurosci.org/content/33/40/16016
  • ATP levels in the striatum, ventral mesencephalon, and cerebellum of untreated C57BL/6 mice killed by microwave irradiation were 23 times greater than values measured in the brains of animals killed by cervical dislocation. (deepdyve.com)
  • The neuroprotective effect of minocycline is associated with marked reductions in inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and caspase 1 expression. (pnas.org)
  • A late (days 6-11) increase in striatal dopamine oxidative metabolism, ascorbic acid oxidative status, and catabolites of high-energy phosphates were observed concomitant with nigral neuron and nigrostriatal glial cell apoptotic death, as revealed by TUNEL, acridine orange, and Hoechst staining, and transmission electron microscopy. (uniss.it)
  • Therefore, our results suggest that Hepad 1 and 2 are useful for treating PD and other disorders associated with neuro-inflammatory, neuro-apoptotic, and neuro-oxidative damage. (mdpi.com)
  • Activation of microglia, bone marrow-derived macrophage-like cells that function as the resident immune defense system of the brain ( 1 ), is a characteristic feature of most neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, AIDS dementia complex, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis as well as ischemia and posttraumatic brain injury ( 2 - 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • These inclusions, subsequently termed Lewy bodies, were distinct both in their morphology and location from inclusions found in other neurodegenerative diseases, e.g. extracellular amyloid plaques of Alzheimer's and intranuclear inclusions of Huntington's disease [ 2 ]. (biochemj.org)
  • Some administered levodopa is O-methylated by catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and converted to 3-O-methyldopa (3-OMD), which does not work as a dopaminergic neurotransmitter in the striatum ( Kaakkola, 2000 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The lipid messenger PGE 2 is a major downstream product of arachidonic acid metabolism by the cyclooxygenases COX-1 and COX-2, and mediates innate and adaptive immune responses in allergic inflammation, autoimmune diseases, asthma, nociception, and chronic neurodegenerative disorders. (jneurosci.org)
  • We show that in the CNS, specific activation of innate immunity through a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-dependent pathway leads to neurodegeneration. (pnas.org)
  • Supersensitivity of the D1 ( 5 ) and D2 ( 6 , 7 ) dopamine receptors is thought to be among the molecular mechanisms underlying LID. (sciencemag.org)
  • In innate and adaptive immune responses, PGE 2 can elicit both immunosuppressive as well as proinflammatory effects, suggesting that the specificity of the PGE 2 inflammatory response depends not only on the type of stimulus, but on the specific EP receptors and immune cell types that are activated. (jneurosci.org)
  • In parkinsonian monkeys, loss of dopamine leads to the up-regulation of several GRKs ( 2 ), which may temper dopaminergic signaling on initial l -dopa administration and ensure a therapeutic response to the drug. (sciencemag.org)
  • In the peripheral system (Figure 1 ), levodopa administered systemically, whether oral or intravenous, undergoes decarboxylation by aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) and is converted to dopamine. (frontiersin.org)
  • The herbal medicine Toki-shakuyaku-san improves the hypertension and intrauterine growth retardation in preeclampsia rats induced by N ω -nitro-L-arginine methyl ester," Phytomedicine , vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 43-50, 2004. (hindawi.com)