A potent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitor; due to this action, the compound increases cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in tissue and thereby activates CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE-REGULATED PROTEIN KINASES
Purine bases found in body tissues and fluids and in some plants.
A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.

Luteinizing hormone inhibits conversion of pregnenolone to progesterone in luteal cells from rats on day 19 of pregnancy. (1/1387)

We have previously reported that intrabursal ovarian administration of LH at the end of pregnancy in rats induces a decrease in luteal progesterone (P4) synthesis and an increase in P4 metabolism. However, whether this local luteolytic effect of LH is exerted directly on luteal cells or on other structures, such as follicular or stromal cells, to modify luteal function is unknown. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of LH on isolated luteal cells obtained on Day 19 of pregnancy. Incubation of luteal cells with 1, 10, 100, or 1000 ng/ml of ovine LH (oLH) for 6 h did not modify basal P4 production. The addition to the culture medium of 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol (22R-HC, 10 microgram/ml), a membrane-permeable P4 precursor, or pregnenolone (10(-2) microM) induced a significant increase in P4 accumulation in the medium in relation to the control value. When luteal cells were preincubated for 2 h with oLH, a significant (p < 0.01) reduction in the 22R-HC- or pregnenolone-stimulated P4 accumulation was observed. Incubation of luteal cells with dibutyryl cAMP (1 mM, a cAMP analogue) plus isobutylmethylxanthine (1 mM, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor) also inhibited pregnenolone-stimulated P4 accumulation. Incubation with an inositol triphosphate synthesis inhibitor, neomycin (1 mM), or an inhibitor of intracellular Ca2+ mobilization, (8,9-N, N-diethylamino)octyl-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate (1 mM), did not prevent the decrease in pregnenolone-stimulated P4 secretion induced by oLH. It was concluded that the luteolytic action of LH in late pregnancy is due, at least in part, to a direct action on the luteal cells and that an increase in intracellular cAMP level might mediate this effect.  (+info)

Phosphorylation of the small heat shock-related protein, HSP20, in vascular smooth muscles is associated with changes in the macromolecular associations of HSP20. (2/1387)

Cyclic nucleotide-dependent vasorelaxation is associated with increases in the phosphorylation of a small heat shock-related protein, HSP20. We hypothesized that phosphorylation of HSP20 in vascular smooth muscles is associated with alterations in the macromolecular associations of HSP20. Treatment of bovine carotid artery smooth muscles with the phosphodiesterase inhibitor, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, and the adenylate cyclase activator, forskolin, led to increases in the phosphorylation of HSP20 and dissociation of macromolecular aggregates of HSP20. However, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine and forskolin treatment of a muscle that is uniquely refractory to cyclic nucleotide-dependent vasorelaxation, human umbilical artery smooth muscle, did not result in increases in the phosphorylation of HSP20 or to dissociation of macromolecular aggregates. HSP20 can be phosphorylated in vitro by the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) in both carotid and umbilical arteries and this phosphorylation of HSP20 is associated with dissociation of macromolecular aggregates of HSP20. Activation of cyclic nucleotide-dependent signaling pathways does not lead to changes in the macromolecular associations of another small heat shock protein, HSP27. Interestingly, the myosin light chains (MLC20) are in similar fractions as the HSP20, and phosphorylation of HSP20 is associated with changes in the macromolecular associations of MLC20. These data suggest that increases in the phosphorylation of HSP20 are associated with changes in the macromolecular associations of HSP20. HSP20 may regulate vasorelaxation through a direct interaction with specific contractile regulatory proteins.  (+info)

Identification of a region of the C-terminal domain involved in short-term desensitization of the prostaglandin EP4 receptor. (3/1387)

1. The prostaglandin EP4 receptor, which couples to stimulation of adenylyl cyclase, undergoes rapid agonist-induced desensitization when expressed in CHO-K1 cells. 2. Truncation of the 488-amino acid receptor at residue 350 removes the carboxy-terminal domain and abolishes desensitization. 3. To further delineate residues involved in desensitization, the receptor was truncated at position 408, 383 or 369. Receptors truncated at position 408 or 383 underwent PGE2-induced desensitization, whereas the receptor truncated at position 369 displayed sustained activity, indicating that the essential residues for desensitization lie between 370 and 383. 4. The six serines in the 14-amino acid segment between residues 370 and 383 were mutated to alanine, retaining the entire C-terminal domain. Desensitization was absent in cells expressing this mutant. 5. The results indicate involvement of serines located between 370 and 382 in rapid desensitization of the EP4 receptor.  (+info)

Melatonin inhibits release of luteinizing hormone (LH) via decrease of [Ca2+]i and cyclic AMP. (4/1387)

The role of [Ca2+]i and cAMP in transduction of the melatonin inhibitory effect on GnRH-induced LH release from neonatal rat gonadotrophs has been studied, because melatonin inhibits the increase of both intracellular messengers. Treatments increasing Ca2+ influx (S(-) Bay K8644 or KCI) or cAMP concentration (8-bromo-cAMP or 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine) potentiated the GnRH-induced LH release and partially diminished the inhibitory effect of melatonin. Combination of the treatments increasing cAMP and calcium concentrations blocked completely the melatonin inhibition of LH release. The combined treatment with 8-bromo-cAMP and S(-) Bay K8644 also blocked the melatonin inhibition of GnRH-induced [Ca2+]i increase in 89 % of the gonadotrophs, while any of the treatments alone blocked the melatonin effect in about 25 % of these cells. These observations suggest that a cAMP-dependent pathway is involved in regulation of Ca2+ influx by melatonin and melatonin inhibition of LH release may be mediated by the decrease of both messengers.  (+info)

Modulation of human airway smooth muscle proliferation by type 3 phosphodiesterase inhibition. (5/1387)

Elevation in cell cAMP content can inhibit mitogenic signaling in cultured human airway smooth muscle (HASM) cells. We studied the effects of the type 3-selective phosphodiesterase inhibitor siguazodan, the type 4-selective phosphodiesterase inhibitor rolipram, and the nonselective inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) on proliferation of cultured HASM cells. At concentrations selective for the type 3 phosphodiesterase isoform, siguazodan inhibited both [3H]thymidine incorporation (IC50 2 microM) and the increase in cell number (10 microM; 64% reduction) induced by platelet-derived growth factor-BB (20 ng/ml). These effects were mimicked by IBMX. At concentrations selective for type 4 phosphodiesterase inhibition, rolipram was without effect. A 20-min exposure to siguazodan and rolipram did not increase whole cell cAMP levels. However, in HASM cells transfected with a cAMP-responsive luciferase reporter (p6CRE/Luc), increases in cAMP-driven luciferase expression were seen with siguazodan (3.9-fold) and IBMX (16.5-fold). These data suggest that inhibition of the type 3 phosphodiesterase isoform present in airway smooth muscle results in inhibition of mitogenic signaling, possibly through an increase in cAMP-driven gene expression.  (+info)

Isoforms of the Na-K-2Cl cotransporter in murine TAL II. Functional characterization and activation by cAMP. (6/1387)

The functional properties of alternatively spliced isoforms of the mouse apical Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter (mBSC1) were examined, using expression in Xenopus oocytes and measurement of 22Na+ or 86Rb+ uptake. A total of six isoforms, generated by the combinatorial association of three 5' exon cassettes (A, B, and F) with two alternative 3' ends, are expressed in mouse thick ascending limb (TAL) [see companion article, D. B. Mount, A. Baekgaard, A. E. Hall, C. Plata, J. Xu, D. R. Beier, G. Gamba, and S. C. Hebert. Am. J. Physiol. 276 (Renal Physiol. 45): F347-F358, 1999]. The two 3' ends predict COOH-terminal cytoplasmic domains of 129 amino acids (the C4 COOH terminus) and 457 amino acids (the C9 terminus). The three C9 isoforms (mBSC1-A9/F9/B9) all express Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransport activity, whereas C4 isoforms are nonfunctional in Xenopus oocytes. Activation or inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA) does not affect the activity of the C9 isoforms. The coinjection of mBSC1-A4 with mBSC1-F9 reduces tracer uptake, compared with mBSC1-F9 alone, an effect of C4 isoforms that is partially reversed by the addition of cAMP-IBMX to the uptake medium. The inhibitory effect of C4 isoforms is a dose-dependent function of the alternatively spliced COOH terminus. Isoforms with a C4 COOH terminus thus exert a dominant negative effect on Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransport, a property that is reversed by the activation of PKA. This interaction between coexpressed COOH-terminal isoforms of mBSC1 may account for the regulation of Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransport in the mouse TAL by hormones that generate cAMP.  (+info)

Insulin-secreting activity of the traditional antidiabetic plant Viscum album (mistletoe). (7/1387)

Viscum album (mistletoe) has been documented as a traditional treatment of diabetes. In acute 20-min tests, 1-10 mg/ml aqueous extract of mistletoe evoked a stepwise 1.1- to 12.2-fold stimulation of insulin secretion from clonal pancreatic B-cells. This effect was abolished by 0.5 mM diazoxide and prior exposure to extract did not alter subsequent stimulation of insulin secretion induced by 10 mM L-alanine, thereby negating a detrimental effect on cell viability. The insulin-releasing effect of mistletoe extract was unaltered by 16.7 mM glucose, l-alanine (10 mM), 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) (1 mM), or a depolarising concentration of KCl (25 mM). The ability of extract to enhance insulin secretion did not depend upon the use of heat during extract preparation and was not mediated by lectins. These results demonstrate the presence of insulin-releasing natural product(s) in Viscum album which may contribute to the reported antidiabetic property of the plant.  (+info)

Aldosterone, not estradiol, is the physiological agonist for rapid increases in cAMP in vascular smooth muscle cells. (8/1387)

BACKGROUND: Steroid-induced gene regulation in the endocrine tissues and vascular wall is achieved through the interaction of specific receptor proteins and promoters of target genes. In addition to these delayed steroid actions, rapid effects of steroids have been reported in various tissues that were clearly incompatible with the classic theory of genomic steroid action. METHODS AND RESULTS: Because high doses of 17beta-estradiol have been shown to modulate intracellular cAMP levels in vascular smooth muscle cells, steroid-induced stimulation of adenylate cyclase stimulation and phosphorylation of cAMP response element binding protein was investigated in porcine coronary artery vascular smooth muscle cells. Aldosterone induces a approximately 1.5- to 2.5-fold increase in intracellular cAMP levels (EC50 approximately 0.01 to 0.1 nmol/L) within 1 minute, whereas 17beta-estradiol and hydrocortisone act only at supraphysiological concentrations (10 micromol/L). Aldosterone-induced changes in intracellular cAMP are calcium dependent; they are not blocked by inhibitors of mineralocorticoid receptors, transcription, or protein synthesis. In addition, aldosterone induces a time-dependent phosphorylation of cAMP response element binding protein with potential transcriptional importance. CONCLUSIONS: A nongenomic modulation of vascular smooth muscle cells by aldosterone is consistent with the data that aldosterone, not estrogen, is the physiological stimulus for cAMP.  (+info)

1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine is a chemical compound that belongs to the class of xanthines. It is a methylated derivative of xanthine and is commonly found in some types of tea, coffee, and chocolate. This compound acts as a non-selective phosphodiesterase inhibitor, which means it can increase the levels of intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) by preventing its breakdown.

In medical terms, 1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine is often used as a bronchodilator and a stimulant of central nervous system. It is also known to have diuretic properties. This compound is sometimes used in the treatment of asthma, COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), and other respiratory disorders.

It's important to note that 1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine can have side effects, including increased heart rate, blood pressure, and anxiety. It should be used under the supervision of a medical professional and its use should be carefully monitored to avoid potential adverse reactions.

Xanthines are a type of natural alkaloids that are found in various plants, including tea leaves, cocoa beans, and mate. The most common xanthines are caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine. These compounds have stimulant effects on the central nervous system and are often used in medication to treat conditions such as asthma, bronchitis, and other respiratory issues.

Caffeine is the most widely consumed xanthine and is found in a variety of beverages like coffee, tea, and energy drinks. It works by blocking adenosine receptors in the brain, which can lead to increased alertness and reduced feelings of fatigue.

Theophylline is another xanthine that is used as a bronchodilator to treat asthma and other respiratory conditions. It works by relaxing smooth muscles in the airways, making it easier to breathe.

Theobromine is found in cocoa beans and is responsible for the stimulant effects of chocolate. While it has similar properties to caffeine and theophylline, it is less potent and has a milder effect on the body.

It's worth noting that while xanthines can have beneficial effects when used in moderation, they can also cause negative side effects such as insomnia, nervousness, and rapid heart rate if consumed in large quantities or over an extended period of time.

Theophylline is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called methylxanthines. It is used in the management of respiratory diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and other conditions that cause narrowing of the airways in the lungs.

Theophylline works by relaxing the smooth muscle around the airways, which helps to open them up and make breathing easier. It also acts as a bronchodilator, increasing the flow of air into and out of the lungs. Additionally, theophylline has anti-inflammatory effects that can help reduce swelling in the airways and relieve symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath.

Theophylline is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and liquid solutions. It is important to take this medication exactly as prescribed by a healthcare provider, as the dosage may vary depending on individual factors such as age, weight, and liver function. Regular monitoring of blood levels of theophylline is also necessary to ensure safe and effective use of the medication.

Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is a key secondary messenger in many biological processes, including the regulation of metabolism, gene expression, and cellular excitability. It is synthesized from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by the enzyme adenylyl cyclase and is degraded by the enzyme phosphodiesterase.

In the body, cAMP plays a crucial role in mediating the effects of hormones and neurotransmitters on target cells. For example, when a hormone binds to its receptor on the surface of a cell, it can activate a G protein, which in turn activates adenylyl cyclase to produce cAMP. The increased levels of cAMP then activate various effector proteins, such as protein kinases, which go on to regulate various cellular processes.

Overall, the regulation of cAMP levels is critical for maintaining proper cellular function and homeostasis, and abnormalities in cAMP signaling have been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

425 (1): 88-90. doi:10.1016/j.ab.2012.03.005. ISSN 0003-2697. PMID 22425542. Poulos, Sylvia P; Dodson, Michael V; Hausman, Gary ... The 3T3 process began with cultures having 3 days to propagate on a plate (the first "3"), and then a transfer (the "T") of ... ISBN 978-1-119-51301-8. OCLC 1163959689. Lane, M. Daniel; Quang, Qi-Qun (2005). "From multipoint stem cell to adipocyte". Birth ... 28 (3): 209-216. doi:10.1016/j.cellbi.2003.11.020. ISSN 1065-6995. PMID 14984747. S2CID 25922187. Morrison, Shona; McGee, Sean ...
Y Fujita 1 2, T Nohara 1, S Takashima 1, K Natsuga 1, M Adachi 3, K Yoshida 3, S Shinkuma 4, T Takeichi 5, H Nakamura 1, O Wada ... 2021 Jan;141(1):198-202 Mineda, K.; Feng, J.; Ishimine, H.; Takada, H.; Doi, K.; Kuno, S.; Kinoshita, K.; Kanayama, K.; Kato, H ... 3][1][4][5][6] ] In the bone marrow, they represent one out of 3000 mono-nucleated cells. Other than mesenchymal tissues, Muse ... 34 (1): 160-73. doi:10.1002/stem.2206. PMID 26388204. Kinoshita, K.; Kuno, S.; Ishimine, H.; Aoi, N.; Mineda, K.; Kato, H.; Doi ...
... methyl ester MeSH D03.383.725.210 - dimethindene MeSH D03.383.725.220 - 2,2'-dipyridyl MeSH D03.383.725.227 - disopyramide MeSH ... methyl ester MeSH D03.383.725.547.950 - xanthinol niacinate MeSH D03.383.725.565 - nicotinyl alcohol MeSH D03.383.725.592 - ... 4-dichloro-n-methyl-n-(2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-cyclohexyl)-benzeneacetamide, (trans)-isomer MeSH D03.383.773.342 - glycopyrrolate ... 4-methyl-1-homopiperazinylthiocarbonyl)disulfide MeSH D03.383.129.308.100 - 4-(3-butoxy-4-methoxybenzyl)-2-imidazolidinone MeSH ...
T J Kelley 1 , L Al-Nakkash, C U Cotton, M L Drumm ... 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N,N-tetraacetic acid ... 1 Department of Pediatrics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106-4948, USA. ...
425 (1): 88-90. doi:10.1016/j.ab.2012.03.005. ISSN 0003-2697. PMID 22425542. Poulos, Sylvia P; Dodson, Michael V; Hausman, Gary ... The 3T3 process began with cultures having 3 days to propagate on a plate (the first "3"), and then a transfer (the "T") of ... ISBN 978-1-119-51301-8. OCLC 1163959689. Lane, M. Daniel; Quang, Qi-Qun (2005). "From multipoint stem cell to adipocyte". Birth ... 28 (3): 209-216. doi:10.1016/j.cellbi.2003.11.020. ISSN 1065-6995. PMID 14984747. S2CID 25922187. Morrison, Shona; McGee, Sean ...
Inhibition of separated forms of phosphodiesterases from pig coronary arteries by uracils and by 7-substituted derivatives of 1 ... methyl-3-isobutylxanthine. Garst, J.E., Kramer, G.L., Wu, Y.J., Wells, J.N. J. Med. Chem. (1976) [Pubmed] ... A series of 1,3-dialkyluracils was of low potency as inhibitors of either peak I or peak II. The 7-substituted xanthines were ... A series of 7-substituted 1-methyl-3-isobutylxanthines was designed in an attempt to increade the specificity of the 1-methyl-3 ...
methyl methanesulfonate decreases expression. ISO. RGD:1604336. 6480464. Methyl Methanesulfonate results in decreased ... Alliance orthologs 3. Mus musculus (house mouse):. Iars2 (isoleucine-tRNA synthetase 2, mitochondrial) Alliance. DIOPT (Ensembl ... 3.. GOA pipeline. RGD automated data pipeline. 4.. ClinVar Automated Import and Annotation Pipeline. RGD automated import ... 1. 218,334,078 - 218,388,006 (+). NCBI. NCBI36. Build 36. hg18. NCBI36. Celera. 1. 193,486,662 - 193,540,592 (+). NCBI. Celera ...
Axling, U., Cavalera, M., Degerman, E., Gåfvels, M., Eggertsen, G. & Holm, C., 2020, In: Adipocyte. 9, 1, p. 587-599 13 p.. ... Omar, B., Banke, E., Ekelund, M., SG, F. & Degerman, E., 2011, In: Nutrition and Diabetes. 1, 8, p. e13. Research output: ... Pålbrink, A-K., Morén, B., Stenkula, K. G., Magnusson, M. & Degerman, E., 2022, In: Acta Oto-Laryngologica. 142, 1, p. 6-12. ... Abels, M., Riva, M., Shcherbina, L., Fischer, A. H. T., Banke, E., Degerman, E., Lindqvist, A. & Wierup, N., 2022 May 1, In: ...
This inhibitory effect required lower GTP[S] concentrations than the stimulatory effect (50% inhibition at 1-10 microM), and ... 1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine, Adenosine Triphosphate, Animals, Calcium, Cell Membrane Permeability, Cells, Cultured, Cyclic AMP ... This inhibitory effect required lower GTP[S] concentrations than the stimulatory effect (50% inhibition at 1-10 microM), and ... Egtazic Acid, Exocytosis, GTP-Binding Proteins, Guanosine 5-O-(3-Thiotriphosphate), Guanylyl Imidodiphosphate, Kinetics, ...
1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine, Animals, Cell Line, Cell Separation, Colforsin, Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance ...
N-Methyl-D-Aspartate D12.776.543.550.425.500.200.500 D12.776.543.550.450.500.200.500 Receptors, Neurokinin-1 D12.776.543.750. ... 3,4,5-Tetrahydro-7,8-dihydroxy-1-phenyl-1H-3-benzazepine D3.438.79.800 D3.633.100.79.800 2-Aminopurine D3.438.759.138.50 D3.633 ... ErbB-3 D12.776.543.750.60.09.500 D12.776.543.750.630.09.500 Receptor, ErbB-4 D12.776.543.750.60.09.600 D12.776.543.750.630.09. ... 2-Ethyl-1,3,4,6,7,11b-hexahydro-3-isobutyl-9,10-dimethoxy- D3.438.834.700 D3.633.100.834.700 4-Hydroxyaminoquinoline-1-oxide ...
N-Methyl-D-Aspartate D12.776.543.550.425.500.200.500 D12.776.543.550.450.500.200.500 Receptors, Neurokinin-1 D12.776.543.750. ... 3,4,5-Tetrahydro-7,8-dihydroxy-1-phenyl-1H-3-benzazepine D3.438.79.800 D3.633.100.79.800 2-Aminopurine D3.438.759.138.50 D3.633 ... ErbB-3 D12.776.543.750.60.09.500 D12.776.543.750.630.09.500 Receptor, ErbB-4 D12.776.543.750.60.09.600 D12.776.543.750.630.09. ... 2-Ethyl-1,3,4,6,7,11b-hexahydro-3-isobutyl-9,10-dimethoxy- D3.438.834.700 D3.633.100.834.700 4-Hydroxyaminoquinoline-1-oxide ...
N-Methyl-D-Aspartate D12.776.543.550.425.500.200.500 D12.776.543.550.450.500.200.500 Receptors, Neurokinin-1 D12.776.543.750. ... 3,4,5-Tetrahydro-7,8-dihydroxy-1-phenyl-1H-3-benzazepine D3.438.79.800 D3.633.100.79.800 2-Aminopurine D3.438.759.138.50 D3.633 ... ErbB-3 D12.776.543.750.60.09.500 D12.776.543.750.630.09.500 Receptor, ErbB-4 D12.776.543.750.60.09.600 D12.776.543.750.630.09. ... 2-Ethyl-1,3,4,6,7,11b-hexahydro-3-isobutyl-9,10-dimethoxy- D3.438.834.700 D3.633.100.834.700 4-Hydroxyaminoquinoline-1-oxide ...
N-Methyl-D-Aspartate D12.776.543.550.425.500.200.500 D12.776.543.550.450.500.200.500 Receptors, Neurokinin-1 D12.776.543.750. ... 3,4,5-Tetrahydro-7,8-dihydroxy-1-phenyl-1H-3-benzazepine D3.438.79.800 D3.633.100.79.800 2-Aminopurine D3.438.759.138.50 D3.633 ... ErbB-3 D12.776.543.750.60.09.500 D12.776.543.750.630.09.500 Receptor, ErbB-4 D12.776.543.750.60.09.600 D12.776.543.750.630.09. ... 2-Ethyl-1,3,4,6,7,11b-hexahydro-3-isobutyl-9,10-dimethoxy- D3.438.834.700 D3.633.100.834.700 4-Hydroxyaminoquinoline-1-oxide ...
1. Isolation and characterization of bacteria associated with silkworm gut under antibiotic-treated larval feeding / Isolamento ... Notavelmente, 83,3% das cepas eram resistentes a penicilina, tetraciclina, amoxicilina, ampicilina e eritromicina, mas 16,6% ... The average fluorescence intensity of CD11b decreased and the average fluorescence intensity of Arg-1 increased in CC in the ... The average fluorescence intensity of CD45 and CD11b decreased and the average fluorescence intensity of Arg-1 increased in ...
N-Methyl-D-Aspartate D12.776.543.550.425.500.200.500 D12.776.543.550.450.500.200.500 Receptors, Neurokinin-1 D12.776.543.750. ... 3,4,5-Tetrahydro-7,8-dihydroxy-1-phenyl-1H-3-benzazepine D3.438.79.800 D3.633.100.79.800 2-Aminopurine D3.438.759.138.50 D3.633 ... ErbB-3 D12.776.543.750.60.09.500 D12.776.543.750.630.09.500 Receptor, ErbB-4 D12.776.543.750.60.09.600 D12.776.543.750.630.09. ... 2-Ethyl-1,3,4,6,7,11b-hexahydro-3-isobutyl-9,10-dimethoxy- D3.438.834.700 D3.633.100.834.700 4-Hydroxyaminoquinoline-1-oxide ...
4-Dichloro-N-methyl-N-(2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-cyclohexyl)-benzeneacetamide, (trans)-Isomer ... 3-Deoxyarabinoheptulosonate-7-Phosphate Synthetase use 3-Deoxy-7-Phosphoheptulonate Synthase 3 End Processing, RNA use RNA 3 ... 3 beta-Hydroxy-delta-5-Steroid Dehydrogenase use Progesterone Reductase 3-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase use 3- ... 3,5-Cyclic-Nucleotide Phosphodiesterase use 3,5-Cyclic-AMP Phosphodiesterases 3-alpha-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase (B- ...
4-Dichloro-N-methyl-N-(2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-cyclohexyl)-benzeneacetamide, (trans)-Isomer ... 3-Deoxyarabinoheptulosonate-7-Phosphate Synthetase use 3-Deoxy-7-Phosphoheptulonate Synthase 3 End Processing, RNA use RNA 3 ... 3 beta-Hydroxy-delta-5-Steroid Dehydrogenase use Progesterone Reductase 3-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase use 3- ... 3,5-Cyclic-Nucleotide Phosphodiesterase use 3,5-Cyclic-AMP Phosphodiesterases 3-alpha-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase (B- ...
4-Dichloro-N-methyl-N-(2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-cyclohexyl)-benzeneacetamide, (trans)-Isomer ... 2-Dehydro-3-Deoxyphosphoheptonate Aldolase use 3-Deoxy-7-Phosphoheptulonate Synthase 2-Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-Glucose use ... 3-Deoxyarabinoheptulosonate-7-Phosphate Synthetase use 3-Deoxy-7-Phosphoheptulonate Synthase 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaric Acid ... 1,2-Benzoquinones use Benzoquinones 1,2-Cyclic-Inositol-Phosphate Phosphodiesterase use Glycerophosphoinositol ...
4-Dichloro-N-methyl-N-(2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-cyclohexyl)-benzeneacetamide, (trans)-Isomer ... 2-Dehydro-3-Deoxyphosphoheptonate Aldolase use 3-Deoxy-7-Phosphoheptulonate Synthase 2-Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-Glucose use ... 3-Deoxyarabinoheptulosonate-7-Phosphate Synthetase use 3-Deoxy-7-Phosphoheptulonate Synthase 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaric Acid ... 1,2-Benzoquinones use Benzoquinones 1,2-Cyclic-Inositol-Phosphate Phosphodiesterase use Glycerophosphoinositol ...
4-Dichloro-N-methyl-N-(2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-cyclohexyl)-benzeneacetamide, (trans)-Isomer ... 2-Dehydro-3-Deoxyphosphoheptonate Aldolase use 3-Deoxy-7-Phosphoheptulonate Synthase 2-Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose use ... 3-Deoxyarabinoheptulosonate-7-Phosphate Synthetase use 3-Deoxy-7-Phosphoheptulonate Synthase 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaric Acid ... 1,2-Benzoquinones use Benzoquinones 1,2-Cyclic-Inositol-Phosphate Phosphodiesterase use Glycerophosphoinositol ...
4-Dichloro-N-methyl-N-(2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-cyclohexyl)-benzeneacetamide, (trans)-Isomer ... 2-Dehydro-3-Deoxyphosphoheptonate Aldolase use 3-Deoxy-7-Phosphoheptulonate Synthase 2-Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose use ... 3-Deoxyarabinoheptulosonate-7-Phosphate Synthetase use 3-Deoxy-7-Phosphoheptulonate Synthase 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaric Acid ... 1,2-Benzoquinones use Benzoquinones 1,2-Cyclic-Inositol-Phosphate Phosphodiesterase use Glycerophosphoinositol ...
4-Dichloro-N-methyl-N-(2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-cyclohexyl)-benzeneacetamide, (trans)-Isomer ... 2-Dehydro-3-Deoxyphosphoheptonate Aldolase use 3-Deoxy-7-Phosphoheptulonate Synthase 2-Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-Glucose use ... 3-Deoxyarabinoheptulosonate-7-Phosphate Synthetase use 3-Deoxy-7-Phosphoheptulonate Synthase 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaric Acid ... 1,2-Benzoquinones use Benzoquinones 1,2-Cyclic-Inositol-Phosphate Phosphodiesterase use Glycerophosphoinositol ...
4-Dichloro-N-methyl-N-(2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-cyclohexyl)-benzeneacetamide, (trans)-Isomer ... 2-Dehydro-3-Deoxyphosphoheptonate Aldolase use 3-Deoxy-7-Phosphoheptulonate Synthase 2-Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose use ... 3-Deoxyarabinoheptulosonate-7-Phosphate Synthetase use 3-Deoxy-7-Phosphoheptulonate Synthase 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaric Acid ... 1,2-Benzoquinones use Benzoquinones 1,2-Cyclic-Inositol-Phosphate Phosphodiesterase use Glycerophosphoinositol ...
To find differences in effect on sperm motility of agents that increase intracellular cAMP: manganese ion, methyl-isobutyl- ... 1S/C10H13N5O3/c11-9-8-10(13-3-12-9)15(4-14-8)7-1-5(17)6(2-16)18-7/h3-7,16-17H,1-2H2,(H2,11,12,13)/t5-,6+,7+/m0/s1 ... inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) ... and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase had the lowest activities. When the cells were incubated with glucose ...
Activation of alpha 1-adrenoceptors appears to amplify beta-adrenergic stimulation of cyclic AMP (cAMP) accumulation in rat ... 1989;53(3):197-203. doi: 10.1016/0079-6107(89)90002-3. Prog Biophys Mol Biol. 1989. PMID: 2577126 Review. No abstract available ... Activation of alpha 1-adrenoceptors appears to amplify beta-adrenergic stimulation of cyclic AMP (cAMP) accumulation in rat ... Activation of protein kinase C with 4 beta-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA; 10(-7) M) or the alpha 1-adrenergic agonist ...
MeSH Terms: 1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine/pharmacology; Adipocytes/cytology; Adipocytes/drug effects; Adipocytes/metabolism; ... 3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Dexamethasone and methylisobutylxanthine in combination produced near maximum ...
Methyl ester / pharmacology Actions ... 1 Department of Pharmacology, University of Rochester School of ... Nelson EJ, Li CC, Bangalore R, Benson T, Kass RS, Hinkle PM. Nelson EJ, et al. Biochem J. 1994 Aug 15;302 ( Pt 1)(Pt 1):147-54 ... 1994 Jan;124(1):91-8. doi: 10.1006/taap.1994.1012. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1994. PMID: 7507268 ... Akt-dependent potentiation of L channels by insulin-like growth factor-1 is required for neuronal survival. Blair LA, Bence- ...
N-Methyl-D-Aspartate D12.776.543.550.425.500.200.500 D12.776.543.550.450.500.200.500 Receptors, Neurokinin-1 D12.776.543.750. ... 3,4,5-Tetrahydro-7,8-dihydroxy-1-phenyl-1H-3-benzazepine D3.438.79.800 D3.633.100.79.800 2-Aminopurine D3.438.759.138.50 D3.633 ... ErbB-3 D12.776.543.750.60.09.500 D12.776.543.750.630.09.500 Receptor, ErbB-4 D12.776.543.750.60.09.600 D12.776.543.750.630.09. ... 2-Ethyl-1,3,4,6,7,11b-hexahydro-3-isobutyl-9,10-dimethoxy- D3.438.834.700 D3.633.100.834.700 4-Hydroxyaminoquinoline-1-oxide ...
1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine Preferred Term Term UI T043918. Date01/01/1999. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (1979). ... 3-Isobutyl-1-methylxanthine Term UI T043919. Date03/09/1978. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID UNK (19XX). ... 1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine Preferred Concept UI. M0023168. Registry Number. TBT296U68M. Related Numbers. 28822-58-4. Scope ... 1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine. Tree Number(s). D03.633.100.759.758.824.751.500. Unique ID. D015056. RDF Unique Identifier. http ...
1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine Preferred Term Term UI T043918. Date01/01/1999. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (1979). ... 3-Isobutyl-1-methylxanthine Term UI T043919. Date03/09/1978. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID UNK (19XX). ... 1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine Preferred Concept UI. M0023168. Registry Number. TBT296U68M. Related Numbers. 28822-58-4. Scope ... 1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine. Tree Number(s). D03.633.100.759.758.824.751.500. Unique ID. D015056. RDF Unique Identifier. http ...
Dive into the research topics of Characterization of a novel glucose-responsive insulin-secreting cell line, BRIN-BD11, produced by electrofusion. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
CGP12177A (1-10 μmol/l) and 0.5 mmol/l 8-bromo-cAMP had no effects, whereas 0.5 mmol/l 8-bromo-cGMP and 0.5 mmol/l MIX had ... CGP12177A (1-10 μmol/l) and 0.5 mmol/l 8-bromo-cAMP had no effects, whereas 0.5 mmol/l 8-bromo-cGMP and 0.5 mmol/l MIX had ... CGP12177A (1-10 μmol/l) and 0.5 mmol/l 8-bromo-cAMP had no effects, whereas 0.5 mmol/l 8-bromo-cGMP and 0.5 mmol/l MIX had ... CGP12177A (1-10 μmol/l) and 0.5 mmol/l 8-bromo-cAMP had no effects, whereas 0.5 mmol/l 8-bromo-cGMP and 0.5 mmol/l MIX had ...
1, 1984, p. 71-78.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article › peer-review ... In the presence of 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, the TSH response to either of the peptides was augmented, and the difference in ... In the presence of 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, the TSH response to either of the peptides was augmented, and the difference in ... In the presence of 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, the TSH response to either of the peptides was augmented, and the difference in ...
Methyl Ethers N0000166537 Methyl Green N0000166483 Methyl Methanesulfonate N0000166799 Methyl n-Butyl Ketone N0000166451 Methyl ... Parathion N0000005969 methyl salicylate N0000169247 Methyl-CpG-Binding Protein 2 N0000008122 Methylamines N0000175512 ... N0000168131 2-Isopropylmalate Synthase N0000166683 2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic Acid N0000179015 2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3- ... N0000006594 methsuximide N0000007400 Methyclothiazide N0000179185 methyl anthranilate N0000166318 Methyl Chloride N0000008119 ...
... methyl-4-dimethylamino-azobenzene carcinogenesis. II. Cyclic AMP metabolism. AB - We have studied cAMP metabolism in rat livers ... isobutylxanthine (IBMX) also enhanced ODC activity when administered with ASN. Additionally, treatment with sodium butyrate at ... methyl-4-dimethylamino-azobenzene carcinogenesis. I. Histology. PMID- 214895 TI - A study of cyclic nucleotide metabolism and ... methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene. A correlation between the biochemical and the histological changes described in the companion ...
1 YDP-15 20 16 2 YDP-16 15 11 3 YDP-17 4 YDP-18 15 10 5 YDP-19 11 10 6 YDP-20 15 15 7 YDP-21 14 15 8 YDP-22 9 YDP-23 13 20 10 ... TABLE 1 Adhesion of Thawed Enzyme-Treated Cells Number of Disseminated Adhesion Cells Culture Confirmation Freezing ID Age Sex ... 1 * 104) Start Date Date 1 YDP-15 9 Female 2 Oct. 15, 2014 Oct. 21, 2014 2 YDP-16 9 Female 33 Oct. 16, 2014 Oct. 18, 2014 3 YDP ... 1 * 104) Start Date Date Period 1 YDP-15 9 Female 0.75 Nov. 5, 2014 Nov. 10, 2014 21 2 YDP-16 9 Female 1.75 Nov. 5, 2014 Nov. ...
AND PE METHYL METHANESULFONATE ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS, NOXAE, AND PE METHYL PARATHION ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS, NOXAE, AND PE ... 4-DICHLORO-N-METHYL-N-(2-(1-PYRROLIDI SENSORY SYSTEM AGENTS ACETAMINOPHEN SENSORY SYSTEM AGENTS ADENOSINE SENSORY SYSTEM AGENTS ... 4-DICHLORO-N-METHYL-N-(2-(1-PYRROLIDI CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM AGENTS 3,4-METHYLENEDIOXYAMPHETAMINE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM AGENTS ... DYES METHYL GREEN DYES NEUTRAL RED DYES O-AMINOAZOTOLUENE DYES OLIVOMYCINS DYES P-AMINOAZOBENZENE DYES P- ...
N-Methyl-D-Aspartate D12.776.543.550.425.500.200.500 D12.776.543.550.450.500.200.500 Receptors, Neurokinin-1 D12.776.543.750. ... 3,4,5-Tetrahydro-7,8-dihydroxy-1-phenyl-1H-3-benzazepine D3.438.79.800 D3.633.100.79.800 2-Aminopurine D3.438.759.138.50 D3.633 ... ErbB-3 D12.776.543.750.60.09.500 D12.776.543.750.630.09.500 Receptor, ErbB-4 D12.776.543.750.60.09.600 D12.776.543.750.630.09. ... 2-Ethyl-1,3,4,6,7,11b-hexahydro-3-isobutyl-9,10-dimethoxy- D3.438.834.700 D3.633.100.834.700 4-Hydroxyaminoquinoline-1-oxide ...
3. Shape Control of Carbon Nanoparticles via Simple Anion-Directed Strategy for Precise Endoplasmic Reticulum-Targeted Imaging ... The human health AWQC values of SCCPs ranged from 14.99 ng L-1 to 154.54 ng L-1 in different regions in China, and the national ... Anti-PD-1/Her2 Bispecific Antibody IBI315 Enhances the Treatment Effect of Her2-Positive Gastric Cancer through Gasdermin B- ... The result indicated that in air-DBD system, over 95.4% of the initial 5 mg L-1 lindane was degraded within 60 min. Moreover, ...
1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine, 3,5-Cyclic-AMP Phosphodiesterases, Arrestins, CD28 Antigens, Cyclic AMP, Cyclic AMP-Dependent ...
... isobutyl xanthine was bought from Aldrich Chemical Co. The ATP used in these studies was either purified according to the ... isobutyl xanthine (results not shown). * Pretreatment of membranes with cholera toxin A, peptide plus NALD and the mercurial ... 2.° Previous studies (3, 5) had shown that the inhibition caused by GTP at 25°C could be either reduced or altered to activa- ... 3. Effects of metal ion con- 1 i, f centration on the GTP titration. Ade- 10 um isoproterenol (A) or 2 pu ACTH (©). Standard ...
  • The most commonly used synthetic glucocorticoid in adipocyte differentiation procedures tends to be dexamethasone and the most commonly used phosphodiesterase inhibitor is 1-methyl-3-isobutyl-xanthine (IBMX). (wikipedia.org)
  • This inhibitory effect required lower GTP[S] concentrations than the stimulatory effect (50% inhibition at 1-10 microM), and was not observed with p[NH]ppG. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The 3T3 process began with cultures having 3 days to propagate on a plate (the first "3"), and then a transfer (the "T") of 300,000 cells (second "3") to a new plate to restart the process. (wikipedia.org)
  • A series of 1,3-dialkyluracils was of low potency as inhibitors of either peak I or peak II. (wikigenes.org)
  • The most commonly used synthetic glucocorticoid in adipocyte differentiation procedures tends to be dexamethasone and the most commonly used phosphodiesterase inhibitor is 1-methyl-3-isobutyl-xanthine (IBMX). (wikipedia.org)
  • To determine which factors are most important for regulation of ob mRNA expression, we examined the effects of insulin, dexamethasone, a β 3 - adrenergic agonist (CGP12177A), 8-bromo-cAMP, 8-bromo-cGMP and 1-methyl-3-isobutylxanthine (MM) on primary cultured adipocytes. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Furthermore, 954 drugs or compounds were shown to have therapeutic potential for recurrent POP, and the most critical target drugs were dexamethasone, bisphenol A, efavirenz, 1-methyl-3-isobutylxanthine, and estradiol. (bvsalud.org)
  • Activation of alpha 1-adrenoceptors appears to amplify beta-adrenergic stimulation of cyclic AMP (cAMP) accumulation in rat pinealocytes severalfold by a mechanism involving activation of a Ca2+-, phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase C). The mechanism of action of protein kinase C was investigated in this report using intact cells. (nih.gov)
  • This stimulation represents up to 40% of the level produced by maximum activation of the arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR) with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). (nih.gov)
  • The cAMP response following cholera toxin pretreatment (60-120 min) was rapidly and markedly enhanced by alpha 1-adrenergic agonists (cirazoline greater than PE greater than methoxamine), by phorbol esters (PMA greater than 4 beta-phorbol 12,13,-dibutyrate much greater than 4 alpha-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate), and by synthetic diacylglycerols (1,2-dioctanoylglycerol greater than 1-oleoyl 2-acetylglycerol much greater than diolein). (nih.gov)
  • The amplification of the beta-adrenergic cAMP response by these agents also occurred in the presence of isobutylmethylxanthine (10(-3) M) and Ro 20-1724 (10(-4) M), an observation suggesting that inhibition of cAMP phosphodiesterase activity is not the mechanism of action. (nih.gov)
  • EGF exerted a half-maximal reduction in depolarization-stimulated 45Ca2+ uptake at 0.1 nM and a maximal effect at 1-10 nM. (nih.gov)
  • EGF treatment increased the amount of PRL secreted basally, but inhibited the acute PRL secretory response to depolarization with 50 mM KCl and 1 microM BAY K8644 from 2.6- to 1.5-fold. (nih.gov)