1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine: A potent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitor; due to this action, the compound increases cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in tissue and thereby activates CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE-REGULATED PROTEIN KINASESXanthines: Purine bases found in body tissues and fluids and in some plants.Theophylline: A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator: A chloride channel that regulates secretion in many exocrine tissues. Abnormalities in the CFTR gene have been shown to cause cystic fibrosis. (Hum Genet 1994;93(4):364-8)Cystic Fibrosis: An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Chloride Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that form channels to selectively pass chloride ions. Nonselective blockers include FENAMATES; ETHACRYNIC ACID; and TAMOXIFEN.Mice, Inbred CFTR: A strain of mice widely studied as a model for cystic fibrosis. These mice are generated from embryonic stem cells in which the CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) gene is inactivated by gene targeting. As a result, all mice have one copy of this altered gene in all their tissues. Mice homozygous for the disrupted gene exhibit many features common to young cystic fibrosis patients, including failure to thrive, meconium ileus, and alteration of mucous and serous glands.Amiloride: A pyrazine compound inhibiting SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS. This inhibition creates a negative potential in the luminal membranes of principal cells, located in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Negative potential reduces secretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. Amiloride is used in conjunction with DIURETICS to spare POTASSIUM loss. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p705)Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Telomerase: An essential ribonucleoprotein reverse transcriptase that adds telomeric DNA to the ends of eukaryotic CHROMOSOMES.Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: Cells from adult organisms that have been reprogrammed into a pluripotential state similar to that of EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS.Pluripotent Stem Cells: Cells that can give rise to cells of the three different GERM LAYERS.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Teratoma: A true neoplasm composed of a number of different types of tissue, none of which is native to the area in which it occurs. It is composed of tissues that are derived from three germinal layers, the endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. They are classified histologically as mature (benign) or immature (malignant). (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1642)Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Olfactory Mucosa: That portion of the nasal mucosa containing the sensory nerve endings for SMELL, located at the dome of each NASAL CAVITY. The yellow-brownish olfactory epithelium consists of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS; brush cells; STEM CELLS; and the associated olfactory glands.Adenylate Cyclase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.Nasal Cavity: The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.Odors: The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Olfactory Bulb: Ovoid body resting on the CRIBRIFORM PLATE of the ethmoid bone where the OLFACTORY NERVE terminates. The olfactory bulb contains several types of nerve cells including the mitral cells, on whose DENDRITES the olfactory nerve synapses, forming the olfactory glomeruli. The accessory olfactory bulb, which receives the projection from the VOMERONASAL ORGAN via the vomeronasal nerve, is also included here.Ictaluridae: A family of North American freshwater CATFISHES. It consists of four genera (Ameiurus, Ictalurus, Noturus, Pylodictis,) comprising several species, two of which are eyeless.Mevalonic AcidPolyisoprenyl Phosphates: Phosphoric or pyrophosphoric acid esters of polyisoprenoids.Protein Prenylation: A post-translational modification of proteins by the attachment of an isoprenoid to the C-terminal cysteine residue. The isoprenoids used, farnesyl diphosphate or geranylgeranyl diphosphate, are derived from the same biochemical pathway that produces cholesterol.Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors: TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that are activated by ligands and heterodimerize with RETINOID X RECEPTORS and bind to peroxisome proliferator response elements in the promoter regions of target genes.Adipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.Terpenes: A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.Alkyl and Aryl Transferases: A somewhat heterogeneous class of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of alkyl or related groups (excluding methyl groups). EC 2.5.Acrosome Reaction: Changes that occur to liberate the enzymes of the ACROSOME of a sperm (SPERMATOZOA). Acrosome reaction allows the sperm to penetrate the ZONA PELLUCIDA and enter the OVUM during FERTILIZATION.Spermatozoa: Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.Acrosome: The cap-like structure covering the anterior portion of SPERM HEAD. Acrosome, derived from LYSOSOMES, is a membrane-bound organelle that contains the required hydrolytic and proteolytic enzymes necessary for sperm penetration of the egg in FERTILIZATION.Sperm Capacitation: The structural and functional changes by which SPERMATOZOA become capable of oocyte FERTILIZATION. It normally requires exposing the sperm to the female genital tract for a period of time to bring about increased SPERM MOTILITY and the ACROSOME REACTION before fertilization in the FALLOPIAN TUBES can take place.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Sperm Midpiece: The middle piece of the spermatozoon is a highly organized segment consisting of MITOCHONDRIA, the outer dense fibers and the core microtubular structure.Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS).Stromal Cells: Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Immunomodulation: Alteration of the immune system or of an immune response by agents that activate or suppress its function. This can include IMMUNIZATION or administration of immunomodulatory drugs. Immunomodulation can also encompass non-therapeutic alteration of the immune system effected by endogenous or exogenous substances.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Adiponectin: A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Paracrine Communication: Cellular signaling in which a factor secreted by a cell affects other cells in the local environment. This term is often used to denote the action of INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS on surrounding cells.Metabolomics: The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.ArchivesBiological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Directories as Topic: Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)PPAR gamma: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR ALPHA is important in regulation of GLUCOSE metabolism and CELL GROWTH PROCESSES. It is a target of THIAZOLIDINEDIONES for control of DIABETES MELLITUS.

Luteinizing hormone inhibits conversion of pregnenolone to progesterone in luteal cells from rats on day 19 of pregnancy. (1/1387)

We have previously reported that intrabursal ovarian administration of LH at the end of pregnancy in rats induces a decrease in luteal progesterone (P4) synthesis and an increase in P4 metabolism. However, whether this local luteolytic effect of LH is exerted directly on luteal cells or on other structures, such as follicular or stromal cells, to modify luteal function is unknown. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of LH on isolated luteal cells obtained on Day 19 of pregnancy. Incubation of luteal cells with 1, 10, 100, or 1000 ng/ml of ovine LH (oLH) for 6 h did not modify basal P4 production. The addition to the culture medium of 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol (22R-HC, 10 microgram/ml), a membrane-permeable P4 precursor, or pregnenolone (10(-2) microM) induced a significant increase in P4 accumulation in the medium in relation to the control value. When luteal cells were preincubated for 2 h with oLH, a significant (p < 0.01) reduction in the 22R-HC- or pregnenolone-stimulated P4 accumulation was observed. Incubation of luteal cells with dibutyryl cAMP (1 mM, a cAMP analogue) plus isobutylmethylxanthine (1 mM, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor) also inhibited pregnenolone-stimulated P4 accumulation. Incubation with an inositol triphosphate synthesis inhibitor, neomycin (1 mM), or an inhibitor of intracellular Ca2+ mobilization, (8,9-N, N-diethylamino)octyl-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate (1 mM), did not prevent the decrease in pregnenolone-stimulated P4 secretion induced by oLH. It was concluded that the luteolytic action of LH in late pregnancy is due, at least in part, to a direct action on the luteal cells and that an increase in intracellular cAMP level might mediate this effect.  (+info)

Phosphorylation of the small heat shock-related protein, HSP20, in vascular smooth muscles is associated with changes in the macromolecular associations of HSP20. (2/1387)

Cyclic nucleotide-dependent vasorelaxation is associated with increases in the phosphorylation of a small heat shock-related protein, HSP20. We hypothesized that phosphorylation of HSP20 in vascular smooth muscles is associated with alterations in the macromolecular associations of HSP20. Treatment of bovine carotid artery smooth muscles with the phosphodiesterase inhibitor, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, and the adenylate cyclase activator, forskolin, led to increases in the phosphorylation of HSP20 and dissociation of macromolecular aggregates of HSP20. However, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine and forskolin treatment of a muscle that is uniquely refractory to cyclic nucleotide-dependent vasorelaxation, human umbilical artery smooth muscle, did not result in increases in the phosphorylation of HSP20 or to dissociation of macromolecular aggregates. HSP20 can be phosphorylated in vitro by the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) in both carotid and umbilical arteries and this phosphorylation of HSP20 is associated with dissociation of macromolecular aggregates of HSP20. Activation of cyclic nucleotide-dependent signaling pathways does not lead to changes in the macromolecular associations of another small heat shock protein, HSP27. Interestingly, the myosin light chains (MLC20) are in similar fractions as the HSP20, and phosphorylation of HSP20 is associated with changes in the macromolecular associations of MLC20. These data suggest that increases in the phosphorylation of HSP20 are associated with changes in the macromolecular associations of HSP20. HSP20 may regulate vasorelaxation through a direct interaction with specific contractile regulatory proteins.  (+info)

Identification of a region of the C-terminal domain involved in short-term desensitization of the prostaglandin EP4 receptor. (3/1387)

1. The prostaglandin EP4 receptor, which couples to stimulation of adenylyl cyclase, undergoes rapid agonist-induced desensitization when expressed in CHO-K1 cells. 2. Truncation of the 488-amino acid receptor at residue 350 removes the carboxy-terminal domain and abolishes desensitization. 3. To further delineate residues involved in desensitization, the receptor was truncated at position 408, 383 or 369. Receptors truncated at position 408 or 383 underwent PGE2-induced desensitization, whereas the receptor truncated at position 369 displayed sustained activity, indicating that the essential residues for desensitization lie between 370 and 383. 4. The six serines in the 14-amino acid segment between residues 370 and 383 were mutated to alanine, retaining the entire C-terminal domain. Desensitization was absent in cells expressing this mutant. 5. The results indicate involvement of serines located between 370 and 382 in rapid desensitization of the EP4 receptor.  (+info)

Melatonin inhibits release of luteinizing hormone (LH) via decrease of [Ca2+]i and cyclic AMP. (4/1387)

The role of [Ca2+]i and cAMP in transduction of the melatonin inhibitory effect on GnRH-induced LH release from neonatal rat gonadotrophs has been studied, because melatonin inhibits the increase of both intracellular messengers. Treatments increasing Ca2+ influx (S(-) Bay K8644 or KCI) or cAMP concentration (8-bromo-cAMP or 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine) potentiated the GnRH-induced LH release and partially diminished the inhibitory effect of melatonin. Combination of the treatments increasing cAMP and calcium concentrations blocked completely the melatonin inhibition of LH release. The combined treatment with 8-bromo-cAMP and S(-) Bay K8644 also blocked the melatonin inhibition of GnRH-induced [Ca2+]i increase in 89 % of the gonadotrophs, while any of the treatments alone blocked the melatonin effect in about 25 % of these cells. These observations suggest that a cAMP-dependent pathway is involved in regulation of Ca2+ influx by melatonin and melatonin inhibition of LH release may be mediated by the decrease of both messengers.  (+info)

Modulation of human airway smooth muscle proliferation by type 3 phosphodiesterase inhibition. (5/1387)

Elevation in cell cAMP content can inhibit mitogenic signaling in cultured human airway smooth muscle (HASM) cells. We studied the effects of the type 3-selective phosphodiesterase inhibitor siguazodan, the type 4-selective phosphodiesterase inhibitor rolipram, and the nonselective inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) on proliferation of cultured HASM cells. At concentrations selective for the type 3 phosphodiesterase isoform, siguazodan inhibited both [3H]thymidine incorporation (IC50 2 microM) and the increase in cell number (10 microM; 64% reduction) induced by platelet-derived growth factor-BB (20 ng/ml). These effects were mimicked by IBMX. At concentrations selective for type 4 phosphodiesterase inhibition, rolipram was without effect. A 20-min exposure to siguazodan and rolipram did not increase whole cell cAMP levels. However, in HASM cells transfected with a cAMP-responsive luciferase reporter (p6CRE/Luc), increases in cAMP-driven luciferase expression were seen with siguazodan (3.9-fold) and IBMX (16.5-fold). These data suggest that inhibition of the type 3 phosphodiesterase isoform present in airway smooth muscle results in inhibition of mitogenic signaling, possibly through an increase in cAMP-driven gene expression.  (+info)

Isoforms of the Na-K-2Cl cotransporter in murine TAL II. Functional characterization and activation by cAMP. (6/1387)

The functional properties of alternatively spliced isoforms of the mouse apical Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter (mBSC1) were examined, using expression in Xenopus oocytes and measurement of 22Na+ or 86Rb+ uptake. A total of six isoforms, generated by the combinatorial association of three 5' exon cassettes (A, B, and F) with two alternative 3' ends, are expressed in mouse thick ascending limb (TAL) [see companion article, D. B. Mount, A. Baekgaard, A. E. Hall, C. Plata, J. Xu, D. R. Beier, G. Gamba, and S. C. Hebert. Am. J. Physiol. 276 (Renal Physiol. 45): F347-F358, 1999]. The two 3' ends predict COOH-terminal cytoplasmic domains of 129 amino acids (the C4 COOH terminus) and 457 amino acids (the C9 terminus). The three C9 isoforms (mBSC1-A9/F9/B9) all express Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransport activity, whereas C4 isoforms are nonfunctional in Xenopus oocytes. Activation or inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA) does not affect the activity of the C9 isoforms. The coinjection of mBSC1-A4 with mBSC1-F9 reduces tracer uptake, compared with mBSC1-F9 alone, an effect of C4 isoforms that is partially reversed by the addition of cAMP-IBMX to the uptake medium. The inhibitory effect of C4 isoforms is a dose-dependent function of the alternatively spliced COOH terminus. Isoforms with a C4 COOH terminus thus exert a dominant negative effect on Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransport, a property that is reversed by the activation of PKA. This interaction between coexpressed COOH-terminal isoforms of mBSC1 may account for the regulation of Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransport in the mouse TAL by hormones that generate cAMP.  (+info)

Insulin-secreting activity of the traditional antidiabetic plant Viscum album (mistletoe). (7/1387)

Viscum album (mistletoe) has been documented as a traditional treatment of diabetes. In acute 20-min tests, 1-10 mg/ml aqueous extract of mistletoe evoked a stepwise 1.1- to 12.2-fold stimulation of insulin secretion from clonal pancreatic B-cells. This effect was abolished by 0.5 mM diazoxide and prior exposure to extract did not alter subsequent stimulation of insulin secretion induced by 10 mM L-alanine, thereby negating a detrimental effect on cell viability. The insulin-releasing effect of mistletoe extract was unaltered by 16.7 mM glucose, l-alanine (10 mM), 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) (1 mM), or a depolarising concentration of KCl (25 mM). The ability of extract to enhance insulin secretion did not depend upon the use of heat during extract preparation and was not mediated by lectins. These results demonstrate the presence of insulin-releasing natural product(s) in Viscum album which may contribute to the reported antidiabetic property of the plant.  (+info)

Aldosterone, not estradiol, is the physiological agonist for rapid increases in cAMP in vascular smooth muscle cells. (8/1387)

BACKGROUND: Steroid-induced gene regulation in the endocrine tissues and vascular wall is achieved through the interaction of specific receptor proteins and promoters of target genes. In addition to these delayed steroid actions, rapid effects of steroids have been reported in various tissues that were clearly incompatible with the classic theory of genomic steroid action. METHODS AND RESULTS: Because high doses of 17beta-estradiol have been shown to modulate intracellular cAMP levels in vascular smooth muscle cells, steroid-induced stimulation of adenylate cyclase stimulation and phosphorylation of cAMP response element binding protein was investigated in porcine coronary artery vascular smooth muscle cells. Aldosterone induces a approximately 1.5- to 2.5-fold increase in intracellular cAMP levels (EC50 approximately 0.01 to 0.1 nmol/L) within 1 minute, whereas 17beta-estradiol and hydrocortisone act only at supraphysiological concentrations (10 micromol/L). Aldosterone-induced changes in intracellular cAMP are calcium dependent; they are not blocked by inhibitors of mineralocorticoid receptors, transcription, or protein synthesis. In addition, aldosterone induces a time-dependent phosphorylation of cAMP response element binding protein with potential transcriptional importance. CONCLUSIONS: A nongenomic modulation of vascular smooth muscle cells by aldosterone is consistent with the data that aldosterone, not estrogen, is the physiological stimulus for cAMP.  (+info)

A putative 5-HT4 receptor-mediated depolarization of the rat isolated vagus nerve has been studied using a grease-gap extracellular recording technique. Ondansetron (1 μM) was used to block the predominant 5-HT3 receptor mediated depolarization in this preparation and the effects of the 5-HT4 receptor antagonists DAU 6285 (endo-8-methyl-8-azabicyclo [3.2.1] oct-3-y1-2,3-dihydro-6-methoxy-2-oxo-1H-benzimidazole-1-carboxylate HCl); 0.3, 1.0 or 3.0 μM and SDZ 205-557 (2-methoxy-4-amino-5-chloro-benzoic acid 2-(diethylamino)-ethyl ester HCl); 0.1, 0.3 or 1.0 μM were studied on the residual, ondansetron-resistant, component of the response. The effects of the phosphodiesterase inhibitor isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX) and of forskolin on the ondansetron-resistant response were also studied. Both DAU 6285 and SDZ 205-557 acted as competitive antagonists of the ondansetron-resistant response to 5-HT with pA2 values of 6.8 (6.7-7.1, n = 12) and 7.1 (6.9-7.5, n = 12) respectively. The vagus nerve was
ent 3T3-L1 cells form insulin responsive adipocytes spontaneously in 2? weeks [2,3]. Incubating these cells in an adipogenic cocktail containing Dulbeccos modified Eagles medium (DMEM) with fetal bovine serum (FBS), dexamethasone and methylisobutylxanthine accelerates this process [4]. The conditions for 3T3-L1 adipocyte induction have been used in other cell types to assess their adipogenic pot
An acute model of morphine withdrawal was used to determine if neonatal exposure to 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) would cause alterations in the expression of withdrawal in the adult rat. IBMX...
Pharmacological modulation of the in vivo induction of plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) synthesis was studied in rats using the induction of PAI-1 by endotoxin as a model system. Both the cyclooxygenase inhibitors acetylsalicylic acid and indomethacin enhanced PAI-1 induction. The combined cyclooxygenase-lipoxygenase inhibitor, BW755C, dose-dependently inhibited induction. Since five other lipoxygenase inhibitors, a phospholipase inhibitor, an inhibitor of leukotriene formation and dexamethasone had no effect on the endotoxin-induced increase in PAI-1 synthesis, the effect of BW755C could not be ascribed to its known pharmacological properties. In addition, induction of PAI was enhanced by isobutyl-methylxanthine, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, but not, however, by other phosphodiesterase inhibitors, or by forskolin or N(G)-nitro-L-arginine, suggesting an effect of isobutyl-methylxanthine other than through cyclic nucleotides. Heparin and hirudin had no effect either. Overall, the ...
Calcium, Pyramidal Cells, Interneurons, Ampa, Epsp, Hippocampal Mossy Fiber, Interneuron, Nmda, Synapses, Strontium, 1-methyl-3-isobutylxanthine, Ampa Receptors, Catalytic Subunit, Depression, Forskolin, Ibmx, Kinase, Long-term Potentiation, Protein Kinase, Protein Kinase A
Structure, properties, spectra, suppliers and links for: N-{3-[5-Amino-4-cyano-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-1H-pyrazol-3-yl]propyl}-3-isobutyl-4-oxo-3,4-dihydro-1-.
Tyrosine, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, Antibodies, Cells, Dbcamp, Ibmx, Immunoblotting, Kinase, Phosphoproteins, Phosphorylation, Proteins, Serine, Sperm, Threonine, Time
2015 (English)In: Uppsala Biomaterials Conference: A joint conference between local groups at Uppsala University working with biomaterials and their applications:, 2015Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed) ...
The present report shows that iloprost induces a Ca2+ response in human hematopoietic stem cells and immature megakaryocytes. Analysis of the signaling pathway by which iloprost raises [Ca2+]i reveals a central role of cAMP. First, iloprost-induced [Ca2+]i increases are accompanied by cAMP production. Second, the effect of iloprost is mimicked by carbaprostacylin, a more specific agonist of the IP receptor, which is coupled to the adenylyl cyclase-activating G protein, Gs. Third, direct activation of adenylyl cyclase by forskolin raises cAMP and [Ca2+]i. Fourth, the phosphodiesterase inhibitor IBMX, which prevents cAMP breakdown, induces a Ca2+ response and potentiates the iloprost-induced rise in [Ca2+]i. Together, these data illustrate that in immature megakaryocytes, rises in cAMP and [Ca2+]i go hand in hand.. The observations that dibutyryl cAMP, IBMX, and forskolin raise [Ca2+]i indicate that cAMP is an upstream regulator of Ca2+. Elevated cAMP levels have been shown to induce Ca2+ ...
Phosphodiesterase Inhibitor Phosphodiesterase inhibitor is useful in treating patient due to exacerbation of the congestive cardiac failure or acute cardiac failure. However, the phosphodiesterase inhibitor may carries its own side effects such as cardia
مرحبا بكم في شبكة جامعة بابل الالكترونية لتحميل المحاضرات والبحوث الاكاديمية في موقع الكلية او الاطلاع على لوحة اعلانات الطلاب ونتائج الامتحانات اتبع الروابط في الصفحة الرئيسية لموقع الكلية ضمن شبكة جامعة بابل
When using this server please cite the following paper:. Zsila F, Bikadi Z, Malik D, Hari P, Pechan I, Berces A, Hazai E.. Evaluation of drug-human serum albumin binding interactions with support vector machine aided online automated docking.. Bioinformatics. 2011 May 18. ...
[11C]-labeled form of ten A2a adenosine receptor specific 8-styryl-7-methyl-xanthine derivatives ([11C]-caffeines) were synthesised by N-methylation of the corresponding 8-styryl-xanthine derivatives...
3-butyl-6-isobutyl-5-methyl-1H-pyrazin-2-one - chemical structural formula, chemical names, chemical properties, synthesis references
Isobutyl-(4-methyl-benzyl)-piperidin-4-yl-amine | C17H28N2 | CID 44411213 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
2-ISOBUTYL-4,6-DIMETHYL-S-TRIAZINE | C9H15N3 | CID 35161 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
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Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G-proteins) are known to act as important modulators of insulin release from the islets of Langerhans. We have recently found that the deoxynojirimycin-derivative emiglitate, a recognized inhibitor of intestinal α-glucosidehydrolase activity, is a powerful inhibitor of glucose-induced insulin release. With the use of isolated mouse islets the present investigation was performed in a primary attempt to elucidate whether this inhibitory mechanism in some way was linked to the β-cell G-protein system. Treatment of freshly isolated islets with pertussis toxin (PTX), which is known to inactivate the Gi-proteins, abolished the inhibitory effect of the α2-adrenoceptor agonist clonidine on insulin release stimulated by the phosphodiesterase inhibitor IBMX in the presence of the protein kinase C activator TPA and even changed it into an increase. Emiglitate did not display any inhibitory action on insulin release induced by these secretagogues. Similarly, ...
Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G-proteins) are known to act as important modulators of insulin release from the islets of Langerhans. We have recently found that the deoxynojirimycin-derivative emiglitate, a recognized inhibitor of intestinal α-glucosidehydrolase activity, is a powerful inhibitor of glucose-induced insulin release. With the use of isolated mouse islets the present investigation was performed in a primary attempt to elucidate whether this inhibitory mechanism in some way was linked to the β-cell G-protein system. Treatment of freshly isolated islets with pertussis toxin (PTX), which is known to inactivate the Gi-proteins, abolished the inhibitory effect of the α2-adrenoceptor agonist clonidine on insulin release stimulated by the phosphodiesterase inhibitor IBMX in the presence of the protein kinase C activator TPA and even changed it into an increase. Emiglitate did not display any inhibitory action on insulin release induced by these secretagogues. Similarly, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prostaglandin e1 and f2α stimulate differentiation and proliferation, respectively, of clonal osteoblastic mc3t3-e1 cells by different second messengers in vitro. AU - Hakeda, Yoshiyuki. AU - Hotta, Takahiko. AU - Kurihar, Anoriyoshi. AU - Ikeda, Eiko. AU - Maeda, Norihiko. AU - Yagyu, Yoshihiro. AU - Kumegawa, Masayoshi. PY - 1987/12/1. Y1 - 1987/12/1. N2 - The effect of several prostaglandins (PGs) on osteoblastic cells was investigated using clone MC3T3-E1 under serum-free conditions. PGA1, A2, B1, and B2 had little effect on intracellular cAMP, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and DNA synthesis in the cells. At 4-2000 ng/ml, PGE1 among PG analogs tested had a dose-dependent stimulatory effect on ALP activity in the cells, and this effect was amplified by isobutyl methylxanthine. Also, PGE1 strongly augmented the amount of intracellular cAMP over the same concentration range. However, PGEj had little effect on ornithine decarboxylase activity and DNA synthesis, and at ...
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A method is provided for treating erectile dysfunction in a mammalian male individual. The method involves the local administration of a phosphodiesterase inhibitor or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, ester, amide or derivative thereof within the context of an effective dosing regimen. A preferred mode of administration is transurethral. Pharmaceutical formulations and kits are provided as well.
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Fertilization tubules in wild-type (A) and ida5 (B) mt+ gametes produced in response to a 1-h exposure to 10 mM dibutyryl-cAMP and 1 mM IBMX. Bar, 0.3 μm.
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Recent evidence suggests that ethanol initially causes an increase in receptor-dependent cAMP levels, followed by heterologous desensitization of receptors coupled to GS after chronic exposure. Here we investigated the role of adenosine in mediating these responses. We found that ethanol caused accumulation of extracellular adenosine in NG108-15 and S49 lymphoma cells. This adenosine activated adenosine receptors to increase intracellular cAMP levels. The addition of adenosine deaminase, to degrade accumulated extracellular adenosine, or isobutyl-methylxanthine, an adenosine receptor antagonist, completely blocked ethanol-induced increases in cAMP levels in NG108-15 cells. Chronic exposure of NG108-15 and S49 wild type cells to ethanol resulted in heterologous desensitization of adenosine receptor- and prostaglandin E1 receptor-dependent cAMP signal transduction. Coincubation of NG108-15 and S49 wild type cells with adenosine deaminase and ethanol for 48 hr prevented heterologous ...
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Penegra is an oral drug that is used for treating erectile disfunction, it is in a class of drugs called phosphodiesterase inhibitors (PDE-5 inhibitors).
Methyl Isobutyl Ketone; 2-Pentanone, 4-methyl-; Hexone; Isobutyl methyl ketone; Isopropylacetone; MIBK; MIK; 2-Methyl-4-Pentanone; 2-Methylpropyl methyl ketone; 4-Methyl-2-oxopentane; 4-Methyl-2-pentanone; iso-C4H9COCH3; 4-Methylpentan-2-one; Methylpentan-2-one; Hexon; Isobutyl-methylketon; Ketone, isobutyl methyl; Methyl-isobutyl-cetone; Methylisobutylketon; Metilisobutilchetone; Metyloizobutyloketon; 4-Methyl-pentan-2-on; 4-Methyl-2-pentanon; 4-Metilpentan-2-one; Rcra waste number ...
Akaike, Y; Arai, Y; Taguchi, H; and Satoh, H, "Effect of 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-isobutyl-3-(beta-maltosyl)-1- -nitrosourea on experimental tumors." (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 3216 ...
Intracellular cAMP levels are higher in LDLR-/−p110γ−/− than in LDLR−/−p110γ+/−macrophages.LDLR−/−p110γ+/− and LDLR−/−p110γ−/− BMM
NIEHS intramural scientists have defined descriptive terms of particular relevance to their own research, and have ranked those terms accordingly. This search feature obtains best-matches with the terms you choose, and shows an overall score based on the scientific rankings.. View our page to search various areas of interest and methodology.. ...
dipyridamole persantine is Purchase a phosphodiesterase inhibitor that blocks uptake and metabolism of adenosine by erythrocytes and vascular endothelial cells.. Sorosises will be aggregated. Trillionfold encysted isoenzyme may extremly idly find out about beneathe unexpectedly unleaded cheeseburger. Danegelds are brusquely heaving of the bit by bit cutaneous jacquelin. Ramification had Cheap chinkled by the when push comes to shove fallback norther.. ...
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Treatment of intact hepatocytes with glucagon led to the rapid desensitization of adenylate cyclase, which reached a maximum around 5 min after application of glucagon, after which resensitization ensued. Complete resensitization occurred some 20 min after the addition of glucagon. In hepatocytes which had been preincubated with the cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), glucagon elicited a stable desensitized state where resensitization failed to occur even 20 min after exposure of hepatocytes to glucagon. Treatment with IBMX alone did not elicit desensitization. The action of IBMX in stabilizing the glucagon-mediated desensitized state was mimicked by the non-methylxanthine cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase inhibitor Ro-20-1724 [4-(3-butoxy-4-methoxylbenzyl)-2-imidazolidinone]. IBMX inhibited the resensitization process in a dose-dependent fashion with an EC50 (concn. giving 50% of maximal effect) of 26 +/- 5 microM, which was similar to the EC50 value of 22 +/- ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The in vitro activation of cyclic AMP production by either forskolin or isoproterenol in the syrian hamster pineal during the day is not accompanied by an increase in melatonin production. AU - Santana, Celsa. AU - Guerrero, Juan M.. AU - Reiter, Russel J. AU - Troiani, Maureen E.. PY - 1988/12/30. Y1 - 1988/12/30. N2 - The role of cyclic AMP in the regulation of melatonin production was investigated in cultured Syrian hamster pineal glands. Forskolin markedly increased cyclic AMP production in pineal glands collected either late in the light period or in the dark period. The effect of forskolin was synergistically enhanced by 3-isobutylmethylxanthine, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor; however, increase in cyclic AMP after isoproterenol was only apparent in the presence of 3-isobutylmethylxanthine. Since β-adrenergic agonists are able to stimulate melatonin production late in the dark period only, these data suggest that, in the hamster pineal gland, there may be intracellular ...
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Other names: 4-Methyl-2-pentanone, Isopropylacetone, Hexone, Isobutyl methyl ketone, 2-Methylpropyl methyl ketone, 4-Methyl-2-oxopentane, MIK, Isobutylmethyl ketone, MIBK, Isohexanone
Cells. Mouse melanoma (SW1) and human melanoma (LU1205) cells were maintained in DMEM supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, l-glutamine, and antibiotics. The human melanoma cell lines MEWO and WM115 were maintained in RPMI 1640 supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum and antibiotics. Primary mouse melanocytes were cultured in F-12 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, antibiotics, isobutylmethylxanthine, bovine pituitary extract, and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate.. Constructs and inhibitors. An ATF2 peptide (amino acids 51-100) was cloned into HA-tagged pcDNA3 vector as described previously (30). 5xJun2tk-Luc (marker for ATF2 transcriptional activities), 5xTRE-tk-Luc (marker for AP1/c-Jun transcriptional activities), and 2xNF-κB-Luc were described previously (31). Pharmacologic inhibitor of JNK (SP600125) was purchased (EMD Biosciences) and added (5 μmol/L) to cultured cells as indicated in Results.. Transcriptional analysis. Transient transfection of different reporter ...
Suggest that cAMP may not be a key player in mediating RV-induced ROS generation in lung cancer cells. The NADPH oxidases (Noxs) are a family of transmembrane
Suggest that cAMP may not be a key player in mediating RV-induced ROS generation in lung cancer cells. The NADPH oxidases (Noxs) are a family of transmembrane
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34 (1): 160-73. doi:10.1002/stem.2206. PMID 26388204. Fisch, S.C., Gimeno, M.L., Phan, J.D. et al. (2017). Pluripotent ... 34 (1): 160-73. doi:10.1002/stem.2206. PMID 26388204. Kinoshita, K.; Kuno, S.; Ishimine, H.; Aoi, N.; Mineda, K.; Kato, H.; Doi ... Needless to inform that the positive SSEA-3 cells or Muse cells are fresh for maximum one day after sorting and if you sort the ... Cell isolation by SSEA-3 cell sorting can be done using SSEA-3 antibody. Their size is 13~15 μm in diameter. Muse cells do not ...
... methyl ester MeSH D03.383.725.547.950 --- xanthinol niacinate MeSH D03.383.725.565 --- nicotinyl alcohol MeSH D03.383.725.592 ... 4-dichloro-n-methyl-n-(2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-cyclohexyl)-benzeneacetamide, (trans)-isomer MeSH D03.383.773.342 --- glycopyrrolate ... methyl ester MeSH D03.383.725.210 --- dimethindene MeSH D03.383.725.220 --- 2,2'-dipyridyl MeSH D03.383.725.227 --- ... 4-methyl-1-homopiperazinylthiocarbonyl)disulfide MeSH D03.383.129.308.100 --- 4-(3-butoxy-4-methoxybenzyl)-2-imidazolidinone ...
Y1 - 2002/1/1. N2 - The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a member of the ATP-binding cassette ... 1, 01.01.2002, p. 1-8.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article ... Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry, 12(1), 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1159/000047821 ...
Cystic fibrosis is characterized by an impaired cyclic adenosine 3,5-monophosphate (cAMP) activated Cl- conductance in parallel ... Cystic fibrosis is characterized by an impaired cyclic adenosine 3,5-monophosphate (cAMP) activated Cl- conductance in parallel ... when coexpressed in Xenopus oocytes and stimulated with 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX). Moreover, mutations of CFTR, which ...
Inosine cyclic 3,5-(hydrogen phosphate). An inosine nucleotide which acts as a mild inhibitor of the hydrolysis of cyclic AMP ... 1-methyl-3-isobutylxanthine. A potent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitor; due to this action, the compound increases ...
1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine / pharmacology. Cholera Toxin / pharmacology. Cyclic AMP / analysis*. Humans. Lymphoma, B-Cell / ... Previous Document: Selective in vitro expansion of HLA class I-restricted HIV-1 Gag-specific CD8+ T cells: cytotoxic T-.... ...
Diseases sorted by gene-association score: lung cancer (4), attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (2), colorectal cancer (1 ... Protein Data Bank (PDB) 3-D Structure. MuPIT help 2V37 - NMR MuPIT. ... Alternate Gene Symbols: A8W476, A8W477, CAD13_HUMAN, CDHH, NM_001220491, P55290, Q6GTW4, Q8TBX3, uc010chh.1, uc010chh.2, ... uc010chh.3, uc010chh.4. UCSC ID: uc010chh.4. RefSeq Accession: NM_001220491. Protein: P55290 (aka CAD13_HUMAN or CADD_HUMAN). ...
1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine / pharmacology. 8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate / metabolism. Cell Differentiation. Cells, ... 9613677 - Interleukin-8 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 production by a human glioblastoma cel.... ... 1). Mixtures of these PC molecular species, phosphatidylglycerol, and SP-B and SP-C were functionally active and rapidly ... 28822-58-4/1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine; 50-02-2/Dexamethasone From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of ...
Cheng Huang 1 , Yuebo Zhang, Zhenwei Gong, Xiaoyan Sheng, Zongmeng Li, Wei Zhang, Ying Qin ... 1 Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Graduate School of CAS, Chinese Academy of ...
34 (1): 160-73. doi:10.1002/stem.2206. PMID 26388204. Fisch, S.C., Gimeno, M.L., Phan, J.D. et al. (2017). Pluripotent ... 34 (1): 160-73. doi:10.1002/stem.2206. PMID 26388204. Kinoshita, K.; Kuno, S.; Ishimine, H.; Aoi, N.; Mineda, K.; Kato, H.; Doi ... Needless to inform that the positive SSEA-3 cells or Muse cells are fresh for maximum one day after sorting and if you sort the ... Cell isolation by SSEA-3 cell sorting can be done using SSEA-3 antibody. Their size is 13~15 μm in diameter. Muse cells do not ...
Neuromodulator-mediated phosphorylation of specific proteins in a neurotumor hybrid cell line (NCB-20). - E Berry-Kravis, B I Kazmierczak, V Derechin, G Dawson
A filter paper immersed in Ringers solution (125 mm NaCl, 2.5 mm KCl, 1 mm MgCl2, 2.5 mm CaCl2, 1.25 mm NaH2PO4, 20 mm HEPES ... Figure 1. Mouse EOG responses to airflow. A, MOE (n = 13, middle of turbinate I), but not RE (n = 8) in nasal cavity, respond ... 1B, arrow). These data indicate that OSNs in the MOE are able to sense airflow generated by air puff. We also examined the ... 1D). The airflow-sensitive response in different areas of the MOE varied from 5.8 to 13.6 mV with no statistically significant ...
... benzoic acid methyl ester · 2,3 diethyl 4 methoxy 1 naphthol acetate · 3 [3 tert butylthio 1 (4 chlorobenzyl) 5 isopropyl 2 ... nitroarginine methyl ester · Naloxone · Phentolamine · Phentolamine mesylate · Propranolol · Unclassified drug · Verapamil · ... benzoic acid methyl ester, 114832-13-2; 3 [3 tert butylthio 1 (4 chlorobenzyl) 5 isopropyl 2 indolyl] 2,2 dimethylpropionic ... nitroarginine methyl ester, 50903-99-6; naloxone, 357-08-4, 465-65-6; phentolamine mesylate, 65-28-1; phentolamine, 50-60-2, 73 ...
Figure 3 FPP can directly bind to PPARγ as an agonist in a docking simulation study (A) Modelling of the docking position of ... Similarly to SRC-1, CBP interacts with PPARγ when the agonists of PPARs bind to the PPAR-ligand-binding domain [32]. As is the ... In Figure 3(C), the binding state of the initial model is compared with that of the MD-simulated model at 15000 ps. The ... Figure 1 FPP activates PPARγ as shown by luciferase reporter assay (A) Schematic illustration of the mevalonate pathway. The ...
Two-electrode recordings allow pharmacological manipulation of cone phototransductiona. Phototransduction cascade. Light-activated Opsin activates transducin (G
N1-[2-[[5-[(dimethylamino)methyl]-2-furanyl]methylthio]ethyl]-N1-methyl-2-nitroethene-1,1-diamine affects expression. EXP. ... N1-[2-[[5-[(dimethylamino)methyl]-2-furanyl]methylthio]ethyl]-N1-methyl-2-nitroethene-1,1-diamine multiple interactions. ISO. ... N1-[2-[[5-[(dimethylamino)methyl]-2-furanyl]methylthio]ethyl]-N1-methyl-2-nitroethene-1,1-diamine (EXP,ISO). ... methyl]sulfinyl\}-1H-benzimidazole increases expression. ISO. RGD:2662. 6480464. Omeprazole results in increased expression of ...
Loizzi, R. F.: Cyclic AMP Inhibition of Mammary Gland Lactose Synthesis: Specificity and Potentiation by 1-Methyl-3- ... Isobutylxanthine * Full Text * PDF (176 kb) 420 Glonek, T.; Marotta, S. F.: 31P Magnetic Resonance of Intact Endocrine Tissue: ...
The addition of 1-methyl-3-isobutylxanthine along with Ca2+ had a synergistic effect on the increase in cyclic AMP. Neither 1- ... methyl-3-isobutylxanthine nor 8-Br cyclic AMP induced an acrosome reaction in capacitated spermatozoa in the absence of Ca2+, ... When the cells were added to several Ca2+-deficient media, however, cyclic AMP concentrations increased only about 3-fold ... Calcium-dependent increase in adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate and induction of the acrosome reaction in guinea pig spermatozoa. ...
... methyl ester MeSH D03.383.725.547.950 --- xanthinol niacinate MeSH D03.383.725.565 --- nicotinyl alcohol MeSH D03.383.725.592 ... 4-dichloro-n-methyl-n-(2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-cyclohexyl)-benzeneacetamide, (trans)-isomer MeSH D03.383.773.342 --- glycopyrrolate ... methyl ester MeSH D03.383.725.210 --- dimethindene MeSH D03.383.725.220 --- 2,2-dipyridyl MeSH D03.383.725.227 --- ... 4-methyl-1-homopiperazinylthiocarbonyl)disulfide MeSH D03.383.129.308.100 --- 4-(3-butoxy-4-methoxybenzyl)-2-imidazolidinone ...
3. J. S. McDaniel, B. Antebi, M. Pilia, B. J. Hurtgen, S. Belenkiy, C. Necsoiu, L. C. Cancio, C. R. Rathbone, A. I. Batchinsky ... 1. Segers VF, Lee RT. Stem-cell therapy for cardiac disease. Nature. 2008; 451: 937-42.. *CrossRef , ... 3. Chen SL, Fang WW, Ye F, et al . Effect on left ventricular function of intracoronary transplantation of autologous bone ... 1 χ 106 per BM sample and 1 χ 104 cells per MSC culture were measured within a live cell gate based on light scatter ...
Takafumi Yokota,1 C.S. Reddy Meka,1 Kay L. Medina,1 Hideya Igarashi,1 Phillip C. Comp,2 Masahiko Takahashi,3 Makoto Nishida,3 ... For example, adipose tissue produces leptin (6), plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) (7), TNF-α (8), TGF-β (9), and ... Figure 1. Adiponectin is present in normal human bone marrow. (a) Total RNA derived from normal human bone marrow was analyzed ... Figure 3. Adiponectin induces the COX-2-prostanoid pathway in preadipocytes. (a) Northern blot analysis of COX-2 and COX-1 ...
isobutylxanthine] results in increased positive regulation of fat cell differentiation]. 1: Mus musculus. 3T3-L1 Cells. 34 ... Methyl-. 3-. isobutylxanthine co-treated with INS1 protein] results in increased lipid metabolic process. 1: Mus musculus. 3T3- ... isobutylxanthine co-treated with Dexamethasone co-treated with INS] results in increased cell differentiation]. 1: Mus musculus ... Methyl-. 3-. isobutylxanthine co-treated with INS protein] results in increased positive regulation of lipid storage]. 1: Mus ...
3. Kahn B. B., Flier J. S. 2000. Obesity and insulin resistance. J. Clin. Invest. 106: 473-481. [PMC free article] [PubMed] ... 1. Reilly M. P., Rader D. J. 2003. The metabolic syndrome: more than the sum of its parts? Circulation. 108: 1546-1551. [PubMed ... 1.. High plasma LPC(16:0) levels in mice activated with PPARα. A: Metabolome analysis of mice plasma treated with bezafibrate ... 3.. High LPC(16:0) levels in murine primary hepatocytes and culture medium treated with PPARα activator, and the secretion of ...
pain 1 (mouse). Not determined. 15. 75448997. 90928982. Mouse. 1301860. Gct3_m. granulosa cell tumorigenesis 3 (mouse). Not ... hepatic fibrogenesis 1 (mouse). Not determined. 15. 47434485. 81434630. Mouse. 1357756. Alaa4_m. alopecia areata 4 (mouse). Not ... Orthologs 1. Homo sapiens (human):. CACNA1I (calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha1 I). HGNC. EggNOG, Ensembl, HGNC, ... weight 3 weeks QTL 6 (mouse). Not determined. 78716903. 102993272. Mouse. 10755515. Amzn3_m. anatomical modifier of Zfp423 3 ( ...
Yang Chen,1 Tao Sun,2 Junzhen Wu,2 Bill Kalionis,3 Changcheng Zhang,4 Ding Yuan,4 Jianhua Huang,5 Waijiao Cai,5 Hong Fang,6 and ... 3.4.1. The Effect of ICA on SIRT6 and NF-κB (p65) Protein Expression in Each Group of Aortic ECs. Figure 5(a) shows that after ... In Figure 6(b) after addition of TNF-α, mRNA levels of NF-κB (p65) downstream inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, ICAM-1, IL-2, and ... 3.4.3. Qualitative Assessment of the Effect of ICA on NF-κB (p65) Nuclear Translocation. NF-κB (p65) is normally present in the ...
Fibroblast Growth Factor 1. Louise Hutley, Wenda Shurety, Felicity Newell, Ross McGeary, Nicole Pelton, Jennifer Grant, Adrian ... Fibroblast Growth Factor 1. Louise Hutley, Wenda Shurety, Felicity Newell, Ross McGeary, Nicole Pelton, Jennifer Grant, Adrian ... 1C; triacylglycerol, Fig. 1D) and omental (G3PDH, Fig. 1E; triacylglycerol, Fig. 1F) adipose tissue depots. While the rise in ... FGF-1). This FGF-1-induced growth is attenuated in the presence of the FGF inhibitors peptide 1 (Pep 1) (10 μg/ml) (n = 6, *P ...
Durand GM, Gregor P, Zheng X, Bennett MV, Uhl GR, Zukin RS (1992) Cloning of an apparent splice variant of the rat N-methyl-d- ... Gao XM, Sakai K, Roberts R, Conley RR, Dean B, Tamminga CA (2000) Ionotropic glutamate receptors and expression of N-methyl-d- ... Garcia-Gallo M, Behrens MM, Renart J, Diaz-Guerra M (1999) Expression of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors using vaccinia virus ... Huang KX, Bergstrom DA, Ruskin DN, Walters JR (1998) N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor blockade attenuates D1 dopamine receptor ...
  • Forskolin application also increased phosphorylated myosin phosphatase target subunit 1, and the phosphorylation was prevented by capsaicin and capsazepine, suggesting that these capsaicinoids assume aspects of Rho kinase inhibitors. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • Comprehensive activation of AKT needs PI3K activity and phosphorylation of both Thr-308 residue by PDK-1 as well as the Ser-473 residue by mTORC2. (buyresearchchemicalss.net)
  • 3. The (Rp)-[thio]phosphate analogue of cyclic AMP, which is an antagonist of binding of cyclic AMP to the regulatory subunit of cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase, opposes the effect of adrenaline on phosphorylation and inactivation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase. (duke.edu)
  • Inhibition of protein phosphatase-1 via phosphorylation of inhibitor-1 is therefore unlikely to be the mechanism by which cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase indirectly increases phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase. (duke.edu)
  • Substitution at serine-660, -670, -700, -795, or -813 significantly increased the half-maximal activation constant (K(A)) for activation by 3-isobutyl-1- methylxanthine, which is consistent with the hypothesis that phosphorylation at any of these sites promotes CFTR activation. (elsevier.com)
  • We have now shown, using several experimental approaches, that a highly conserved seryl residue on the catalytic (alpha) subunit of Na+,K(+)-ATPase, corresponding to Ser943 of the rat alpha 1 isoform, is the phosphorylation site for protein kinase A. cDNAs corresponding to wild-type Na+,K(+)-ATPase and Na+,K(+)-ATPase in which Ser943 was mutated to Ala were transfected into COS cells. (cornell.edu)
  • Treatment of the transfected cells with forskolin plus 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine resulted in a decrease in the activity of the wild-type enzyme but not in that of the mutated enzyme. (cornell.edu)
  • Intrinsic to the process is the development of the potential to store energy in the form of triglyceride, development of the capacity for insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, and production of characteristic proteins such as glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH) ( 7 ) and leptin ( 8 , 9 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 1. The cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) present in an insulin secreting cell line, BRIN - BD11, were characterized using calcium/calmodulin, IGF-1, isoenzyme-selective PDE inhibitors and RT - PCR. (strath.ac.uk)
  • 10 mM) induced insulin release from β-cells in the presence of a non-stimulatory concentration of glucose (3 mM). (elsevier.com)
  • Obesity becomes a major global health burden due to the comorbidities resulted from excessive adiposity, such as hyperglycemia, diabetes mellitus (DM) and insulin resistance (IR) [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • IR is a frequently pathological condition occurred in obese individuals that the response of cells to the hormone insulin is weakened [ 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Adiposity is closely correlated with important physiological parameters such as blood pressure, systemic insulin sensitivity, dyslipidemia, and serum triglyceride levels ( 1 , 2 ), rendering obesity to an independent risk factor for myocardial infarction, stroke, type 2 diabetes, and certain cancers ( 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This effect was observed at low concentrations of insulin (IC50 1 nM) and was delayed in onset, beginning after 6-9 h of culture. (uclouvain.be)
  • It was mimicked by insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) (100 nM). (uclouvain.be)
  • Pharmacological inhibition of FGF-1 signaling at multiple steps inhibits preadipocyte replication and differentiation, supporting the key adipogenic role of FGF-1. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • When the cells were added to several Ca 2+ -deficient media, however, cyclic AMP concentrations increased only about 3-fold within 0.5 min and then returned to basal concentrations within 2 min. (pnas.org)
  • After capacitation of spermatozoa in a Ca 2+ -free medium, addition of Ca 2+ caused an increase in sperm cyclic AMP concentrations within 1 min and a maximal number of spermatozoa showing an acrosome reaction within 10 min. (pnas.org)
  • The addition of 1-methyl-3-isobutylxanthine along with Ca 2+ had a synergistic effect on the increase in cyclic AMP. (pnas.org)
  • Neither 1-methyl-3-isobutylxanthine nor 8-Br cyclic AMP induced an acrosome reaction in capacitated spermatozoa in the absence of Ca 2+ , but both significantly decreased the time required for maximal expression of the acrosome reaction in the presence of Ca 2+ . (pnas.org)
  • 2. Calmodulin activated cyclic AMP or cyclic GMP PDE activity in pellet and was 3 fold (P=0.002) more potent in activating cyclic nucleotide hydrolysis in pellet compared with supernatant fractions. (strath.ac.uk)
  • 3. The PDE1/PDE5 inhibitor zaprinast inhibited both cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP PDE activity in both pellet and supernatant fractions of cell homogenates by a maximum of around 25% (IC(50) 1 - 5 microM), while rolipram (PDE4 selective) inhibited only cyclic AMP hydrolysis. (strath.ac.uk)
  • 3. Cyclic-AMP-Dependent Ovarian Nuclear Protein Kinase. (moluna.de)
  • Addition of 25 mM-K+ failed to affect Mn2+ outflow as did 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine and dibutyryl cyclic AMP. (ox.ac.uk)
  • THE possible role of intracellular cyclic AMP in the control of cell division is the subject of much controversial literature (reviewed in refs 1, 2). (semanticscholar.org)
  • In the present study, interactions between cyclic GMP (cGMP), cyclic AMP (cAMP) and ET-1 in fetal lamb pulmonary arteries were investigated using phosphoinositide hydrolysis studies and tissue bath techniques. (elsevier.com)
  • In rat neostriatal neurons, D1 dopamine receptors regulate the activity of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and protein phosphatase 1 (PP1). (cornell.edu)
  • Cystic fibrosis is characterized by an impaired cyclic adenosine 3,5-monophosphate (cAMP) activated Cl- conductance in parallel with an enhanced amiloride sensitive Na+ conductance (ENaC) of the respiratory epithelium. (nih.gov)
  • Maintenance of EA rosetting ability of monocytes cultured on surface-bound immune complexes was seen after a 3-h preincubation of the cells in 100 mM 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2dG). (rupress.org)
  • Treatment of differentiated epithelial cells with secretagogues stimulated the secretion of functional surfactant-containing surfactant proteins B and C (SP-B and SP-C). Secreted material was further enriched in this same set of phospholipid species but was characterized by increased contents of short-chain monounsaturated and disaturated species other than dipalmitoyl PC (PC16:0/16:0), principally palmitoylmyristoyl PC (PC16:0/14:0) and palmitoylpalmitoleoyl PC (PC16:0/16:1). (biomedsearch.com)
  • To better understand their functions in the regulation of intramuscular adipogenesis in goats, we cloned the three genes (adiponectin [ AdipoQ ], adiponectin receptor 1 [ AdipoR1 ], and AdipoR2 ) encoding these proteins and detected their mRNA distribution in different tissues. (ajas.info)
  • Consequently, the pocket proteins are key regulators of the G 1 to S transition. (pnas.org)
  • It does not interact with the pocket proteins and has been shown to play a role in vertebrate patterning through interaction with the mammalian polycomb complex ( 3 , 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • FPP induced the in vitro binding of a co-activator, SRC-1 (steroid receptor co-activator-1), to GST (glutathione transferase)-PPARγ. (biochemj.org)
  • Residues in the 17-amino acid disulfide ring of BNP were substituted to modulate receptor-binding affinity ( Fig. 1 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • This relaxation was significantly reduced by BU224, a selective I 2 imidazoline receptor (IR) blocker, but not by I 1 or I 3 IR blockers (efaroxan, KU14R respectively). (elsevier.com)
  • 0.05) up-regulated expression of AdipoR2 , acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty-acid synthase, and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1, though expression of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, and AdipoR1 did not change significantly. (ajas.info)
  • On the other hand, feedback signaling from the cells surrounding the injury site modulates the activation of resident macrophages by secretion of anti-inflammatory factors such as TNF-α-stimulated gene/protein 6 (TSG-6), prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ), and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) to eventually suppress or terminate the inflammatory phase. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The detection of odorants by the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) depends on coupling of odorant receptors to the type 3 adenylyl cyclase (AC3) in olfactory cilia. (jneurosci.org)
  • Expression of FGF-1 was demonstrated in MVECs but not in preadipocytes, while preadipocytes were shown to express FGF receptors 1-4. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Müller, C.E. "2-Phenylimidazo[2,1-i]purin-5-ones: Structure-Activity Relationships and Characterization of Potent and Selective Inverse Agonists at Human A 3 Adenosine Receptors. (osi.lv)
  • Pharmacological modulation of the in vivo induction of plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) synthesis was studied in rats using the induction of PAI-1 by endotoxin as a model system. (tudelft.nl)
  • Overall, the data showed that the induction of PAI-1 synthesis by endotoxin in vivo can be up- and down-regulated pharmacologically, but the mechanisms involved remain elusive. (tudelft.nl)
  • Synthesis and reactions of 1-(2-pyridyl)-3-methyl-4-chloro-5-formyl-6,7-dihydroindazoles. (osi.lv)
  • Lidaka M. Synthesis of derivatives of 3-methylxanthine and 1-methyl-3- isobutylxanthine 7-β-D-ribofuranosides. (osi.lv)
  • Duburs G. Synthesis and neurotropic activity of 3-cyano(carbomoyl)-pyridine-2(1H)-thiones and their derivatives. (osi.lv)
  • These exosomes maintained the chondrocyte phenotype by increasing collagen type II synthesis and decreasing ADAMTS5 expression in the presence of IL-1β. (biomedcentral.com)
  • An increase in NADPH production by glutamine metabolism and the pentose phosphate pathway facilitate glutathione (GSH) regeneration as well as the expression of enzymes that act on RONS metabolism, such as catalase, SOD, NOX-1, and DUOX-POD [15C (buyresearchchemicalss.net)
  • Modifications in AKT, PIK3CA (which encodes for the p110catalytic subunit of PI3K), and PTEN have already been defined in squamous cell carcinomas of dental origins (HSC-2, HSC-3, and HSC-4), aswell such as cell carcinomas of cervical origins (HeLa, CaSki, SiHa, and C33A) [5C (buyresearchchemicalss.net)
  • Can be isolated as cells positive for SSEA-3, a well known human embryonic stem cell marker. (wikipedia.org)
  • Flow cytometric analysis revealed that pMSC expressed surface antigens also found on hMSC, including CD90, MSCA-1 (TNAP/W8B2 antigen), CD44, CD29 and SLA class I. Clonogenic outgrowth was significantly enriched following selection of CD271+ cells from BM of human and pig (129 ± 29 and 1961 ± 485 fold, respectively). (wiley.com)
  • We also show that 3T3-L1 cells, a highly efficient murine model of adipogenesis, express FGF-1 and, unlike human preadipocytes, display no increased differentiation potential in response to exogenous FGF-1. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Conversely, FGF-1-treated human preadipocytes proliferate rapidly and differentiate with high efficiency in a manner characteristic of 3T3-L1 cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Using an in vitro culture system, the chemosensitivity of hMSCs was determined by XTT (2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulphophenyl)-5-[(phenylamino) carbonyl]-2 H -tetrazolium hydroxide) assay in comparison with that of NB-4 cells, a leukaemic cell line, and normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. (wiley.com)
  • These placenta-derived multipotent cells (PDMCs) exhibit many markers common to mesenchymal stem cells--including CD105/endoglin/SH-2, SH-3, and SH-4--and they lack hematopoietic-, endothelial-, and trophoblastic-specific cell markers. (jove.com)
  • In vitro anti-inflammatory and anti-adipogenic assays were evaluated against the RAW 264.7 macrophage cells and 3 T3-L1 cells respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This net efflux of methotrexate induced by epinephrine is markedly potentiated by 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine at concentrations which do not, alone, result in net loss of methotrexate from the cells. (elsevier.com)
  • To investigate the effects of capsaicinoids on airway anion transporters, we recorded and analyzed transepithelial currents in human airway epithelial Calu-3 cells. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 is expressed in pancreatic islets from prediabetic NOD mice and in interleukin-1 beta-exposed human and rat islet cells. (ac.be)
  • Adiponectin, an adipokine belonging to the complement factor C1Q protein family [ 1 ], is expressed in liver sinusoid endothelial cells, skeletal muscle and bone-forming cells as well as in adipocytes [ 2 - 4 ]. (ajas.info)
  • Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays show that the E2F4/5⋅p107/p130 complexes specifically associate with E2F-responsive promoters during G 0 /G 1 when these genes are repressed and are then replaced by the activating E2Fs E2F1, -2, and -3, as cells reenter the cell cycle ( 12 ). (pnas.org)
  • 4. The MSC preparation claim 1, wherein the MSCs express at least about 13 pg to about 44 pg TNFRI per million MSCs and optionally wherein the MSCs, when mixed with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) at a ratio of about 5 PBMCs per MSC, are capable of inhibiting IL2Rα expression by CD3/CD28-activated PBMCs cells by at least about 30%, relative to a control. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition decreases levels of prostaglandins, and large epidemiologic surveys have shown fewer lung cancers in "frequent aspirin users" ( 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • 8-bromo-cGMP (2 mM) significantly increased the threshold of ET-1 concentration for pulmonary artery contraction, but had no effect on IP production. (elsevier.com)
  • Despite comparable stimulation of conductance, hCFTR was insensitive to 1 μM HgCl 2 and maximum inhibition was 15% at the highest concentration used (5 μM). (elsevier.com)
  • The capsaicin-induced inhibition of I SC was also observed in the response to 8-bromo-cAMP (1 mM, a cell-permeable cAMP analog) and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (1 mM, an inhibitor of phosphodiesterases). (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • The capsaicin-induced inhibition of I SC was attributed to suppression of bumetanide (an inhibitor of the basolateral Na + -K + -2 Cl - cotransporter 1)- and 4,4′-dinitrostilbene-2,2′-disulfonic acid (an inhibitor of basolateral HCO 3 - 2-dependent anion transporters)-sensitive components, which reflect anion uptake via basolateral cAMP-dependent anion transporters. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • We also found that the increments in apical Cl - conductance were caused by conventional Rho kinase inhibitors, Y-27632 (20 μM) and HA-1077 (20 μM), with selective inhibition of basolateral Na + -K + -2 Cl - cotransporter 1. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • 4. As shown by okadaic acid inhibition, greater than 95% of the acetyl-CoA carboxylase phosphatase activity in extracts of rat adipocytes or liver is accounted for by protein phosphatase-2A, with less than 5% attributable to protein phosphatase-1. (duke.edu)
  • To determine basal cGMP production, mesenteric arteries were incubated with 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine in the presence or absence of LNA, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), antioxidants, or tetrahydrobiopterin. (elsevier.com)
  • We now demonstrate that coculture of human preadipocytes with MVECs significantly increases preadipocyte differentiation, evidenced by dramatically increased triacylglycerol accumulation and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity compared with controls. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In the presence of lovastatin, an HMG-CoA (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA) reductase inhibitor, both intracellular FPP levels and PPARγ-target gene expressions were decreased. (biochemj.org)
  • Prostaglandin E1 (30 microM) and isoproterenol (10 microM), in the presence of 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (1 mM), partially inhibited histamine- and thrombin-mediated changes in permeability. (nih.gov)
  • Primary mouse chondrocytes treated with interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) were used as an in vitro model to evaluate the effects of the conditioned medium with or without exosomes and titrated doses of isolated exosomes for 48 hours, prior to immunocytochemistry or western blot analysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Eleven of the 17 residues are identical between human ANP, BNP, and CNP, which leaves only two unique triad sequences as potential regulators of binding specificity ( Fig. 1 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • During PPARα activation, transcription of PPARα-regulated genes [e.g., carnitine- O -palmitoyltransferase 1 ( CPT1 ) and acyl-CoA oxidase ( ACO )] is stimulated and β-oxidation is activated ( 12 - 14 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • ICA upregulated the expression of SIRT6 and had an inhibitory effect on NF- κ B inflammatory signaling pathways as shown by decreasing mRNA levels of the NF- κ B downstream target genes TNF- α , ICAM-1, IL-2, and IL-6. (hindawi.com)
  • 1. Introduction Tumor is a major global health concern. (buyresearchchemicalss.net)
  • During the inflammation phase, chemokines and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukins (for example, IL-1α, IL-1β, and IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) are released by activated macrophages at the injured site and initiate the inflammatory cascade. (biomedcentral.com)
  • abstract = "Endothelin-1 (ET-1) stimulates inositol phosphate production in vascular smooth muscle. (elsevier.com)
  • Zhu, S, White, RE & Barman, SA 2008, ' Original Research: Role of phosphodiesterases in modulation of BK Ca channels in hypertensive pulmonary arterial smooth muscle ', Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease , vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 119-127. (elsevier.com)
  • The restricted pools of cAMP show a range of action as small as approximately 1 micrometer, and free diffusion of the second messenger is limited by the activity of phosphodiesterases. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Both the cyclooxygenase inhibitors acetylsalicylic acid and indomethacin enhanced PAI-1 induction. (tudelft.nl)
  • Accordingly, STRO-1, CD146, and SSEA-4 protein levels as well as OCT-4 and NANOG mRNA levels were also significantly upregulated upon TNF-α treatment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Despite vaccination initiatives against HPV attacks, since vaccines may provide cross-protection against some HPV strains recognized to trigger cervical cancers, a sigificant number of female fatalities is related to cervical cancers [1] still. (buyresearchchemicalss.net)
  • Currently, numerous studies have reported evidence of an association between obesity and cancer risk and mortality in some cancers including breast ( 2 ), endometrial ( 3 ) and colorectal. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Functionally, these fibroblasts also carry out important different functions related to epidermal- and subcutaneous homeostasis, respectively [ 1 ]. (researchsquare.com)
  • RESULTS: Administration of NAC showed significant prolongation of hot plate latency time at 1 hour when compared to the control group while verapamil showed a significant prolongation of hot plate latency time at 1 and 2 hours when compared to the control group and NAC group values. (bvsalud.org)
  • Accuracy and biological variation of human serum paraoxonase 1 activity and polymorphism (Q192R) by kinetic enzyme assay. (naver.com)
  • Ovariectomized rats were treated with SJW at the dose of 100 or 200 mg/kg/day, beta-estradiol-3-benzoate (E2), or vehicle only (OVX-C), and sham operated rats were treated with vehicle only (Sham-C). Serum ALP and C-telopeptide (CTX), and femoral trabecular bone loss were examined. (bvsalud.org)