White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Mucoproteins isolated from the kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris); some of them are mitogenic to lymphocytes, others agglutinate all or certain types of erythrocytes or lymphocytes. They are used mainly in the study of immune mechanisms and in cell culture.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
A classification of lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
An integrin heterodimer widely expressed on cells of hematopoietic origin. CD11A ANTIGEN comprises the alpha chain and the CD18 antigen (ANTIGENS, CD18) the beta chain. Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 is a major receptor of T-CELLS; B-CELLS; and GRANULOCYTES. It mediates the leukocyte adhesion reactions underlying cytolytic conjugate formation, helper T-cell interactions, and antibody-dependent killing by NATURAL KILLER CELLS and granulocytes. Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 has been defined as a ligand for lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1.
The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
Proteins isolated from the roots of the pokeweed, Phytolacca americana, that agglutinate some erythrocytes, stimulate mitosis and antibody synthesis in lymphocytes, and induce activation of plasma cells.
Measure of histocompatibility at the HL-A locus. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from two individuals are mixed together in tissue culture for several days. Lymphocytes from incompatible individuals will stimulate each other to proliferate significantly (measured by tritiated thymidine uptake) whereas those from compatible individuals will not. In the one-way MLC test, the lymphocytes from one of the individuals are inactivated (usually by treatment with MITOMYCIN or radiation) thereby allowing only the untreated remaining population of cells to proliferate in response to foreign histocompatibility antigens.
An anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic glucocorticoid that can be administered orally, by inhalation, locally, and parenterally. It may cause water and salt retention.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Substances that stimulate mitosis and lymphocyte transformation. They include not only substances associated with LECTINS, but also substances from streptococci (associated with streptolysin S) and from strains of alpha-toxin-producing staphylococci. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
The in vitro formation of clusters consisting of a cell (usually a lymphocyte) surrounded by antigenic cells or antigen-bearing particles (usually erythrocytes, which may or may not be coated with antibody or antibody and complement). The rosette-forming cell may be an antibody-forming cell, a memory cell, a T-cell, a cell bearing surface cytophilic antibodies, or a monocyte possessing Fc receptors. Rosette formation can be used to identify specific populations of these cells.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
A method to identify and enumerate cells that are synthesizing ANTIBODIES against ANTIGENS or HAPTENS conjugated to sheep RED BLOOD CELLS. The sheep red blood cells surrounding cells secreting antibody are lysed by added COMPLEMENT producing a clear zone of HEMOLYSIS. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 3rd ed)
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
A plant genus of the family MENISPERMACEAE. Members contain eletefine (a stephaoxocane alkaloid) and tropoloisoquinoline and protoberberine ALKALOIDS.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
T-cell enhancement of the B-cell response to thymic-dependent antigens.
Syndromes in which there is a deficiency or defect in the mechanisms of immunity, either cellular or humoral.
Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.
An immunological attack mounted by a graft against the host because of tissue incompatibility when immunologically competent cells are transplanted to an immunologically incompetent host; the resulting clinical picture is that of GRAFT VS HOST DISEASE.
Antigens which may directly stimulate B lymphocytes without the cooperation of T lymphocytes.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.
Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.
Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.
Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.
A mixture of the enzymes (streptokinase and streptodornase) produced by hemolytic streptococci. It is used topically on surface lesions and by instillation in closed body cavities to remove clotted blood or fibrinous or purulent accumulations. It is also used as a skin test antigen in evaluating generalized cell-mediated immunodeficiency. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.-.
A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
A cell-surface ligand involved in leukocyte adhesion and inflammation. Its production is induced by gamma-interferon and it is required for neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
Lymphocytes that show specificity for autologous tumor cells. Ex vivo isolation and culturing of TIL with interleukin-2, followed by reinfusion into the patient, is one form of adoptive immunotherapy of cancer.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.
The transfer of lymphocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Cell surface glycoproteins on lymphocytes and other leukocytes that mediate adhesion to specialized blood vessels called high endothelial venules. Several different classes of lymphocyte homing receptors have been identified, and they appear to target different surface molecules (addressins) on high endothelial venules in different tissues. The adhesion plays a crucial role in the trafficking of lymphocytes.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
Leukemia associated with HYPERPLASIA of the lymphoid tissues and increased numbers of circulating malignant LYMPHOCYTES and lymphoblasts.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated gamma and delta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4-/CD8- T-cells. The receptors appear to be preferentially located in epithelial sites and probably play a role in the recognition of bacterial antigens. The T-cell receptor gamma/delta chains are separate and not related to the gamma and delta chains which are subunits of CD3 (see ANTIGENS, CD3).
Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.
A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A class of lymphocytes characterized by the lack of surface markers specific for either T or B lymphocytes.
An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
A protein extracted from boiled culture of tubercle bacilli (MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS). It is used in the tuberculin skin test (TUBERCULIN TEST) for the diagnosis of tuberculosis infection in asymptomatic persons.
A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
A method for the detection of very small quantities of antibody in which the antigen-antibody-complement complex adheres to indicator cells, usually primate erythrocytes or nonprimate blood platelets. The reaction is dependent on the number of bound C3 molecules on the C3b receptor sites of the indicator cell.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
The largest lymphatic vessel that passes through the chest and drains into the SUBCLAVIAN VEIN.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
... localization of the human telencephalin and its distinctive interaction with lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1". J Biol ... 2000). "Binding of T lymphocytes to hippocampal neurons through ICAM-5 (telencephalin) and characterization of its interaction ... It may be a critical component in neuron-microglial cell interactions in the course of normal development or as part of ... 2002). "Interaction with telencephalin and the amyloid precursor protein predicts a ring structure for presenilins". Neuron. 32 ...
Huang C, Springer TA (Aug 1995). "A binding interface on the I domain of lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) ... required for specific interaction with intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1)". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 270 ( ... leukocyte function associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), and fibrinogen. These three proteins are generally expressed on endothelial ... Katz FE, Parkar M, Stanley K, Murray LJ, Clark EA, Greaves MF (Jan 1985). "Chromosome mapping of cell membrane antigens ...
Integrin, alpha L (antigen CD11A (p180), lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1; alpha polypeptide), also known as ITGAL, is ... CD11a is one of the two components, along with CD18, which form lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1. Efalizumab acts as an ... ". "Entrez Gene: ITGAL integrin, alpha L (antigen CD11A (p180), lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1; alpha polypeptide)". ... to form the integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), which is expressed on all leukocytes. LFA-1 plays a ...
It also impairs immune cell interaction, immune recognition, and cell-killing lymphocyte functions. The lack of CR3 interferes ... including lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1), complement receptor 3 (CR-3), and complement receptor 4 (CR-4). The ... Leukocyte adhesion deficiency-1 (LAD1) is a rare and often fatal genetic disorder in humans. The main sign of the disease is ... deficiency of LFA-1 causes neutrophils to be unable to adhere to and migrate out of blood vessels, so their counts can be high ...
Binding of CD18 and CD11 results in the formation of Lymphocyte Functions Associated Antigen 1 (LFA-1), a protein found on B ... required for specific interaction with intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1)". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 270 ( ... Huang C, Springer TA (August 1995). "A binding interface on the I domain of lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) ... CD18+antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ITGB2 Info with links in the Cell Migration ...
Dömling A (2013). Protein-protein interactions in drug discovery. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. ISBN 9783527648238. OCLC 828743731. ... Lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) is an integrin found on lymphocytes and other leukocytes. LFA-1 plays a key ... "Lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1): a surface antigen distinct from Lyt-2,3 that participates in T lymphocyte- ... The antigen that bound to the monoclonal antibodies was identified as an important molecule in cellular recognition processes. ...
... costimultory molecules on antigen presenting cells upon interaction with CTLA-4 or lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 ( ... tumor antigens, alloantigens, and self-antigens in inflamed tissue. Immune recognition of non-self-antigens typically ... Those lymphocytes that have receptors that bind strongly to self-antigens are removed by induction of apoptosis of the ... In these tissues, maturing lymphocytes are exposed to self-antigens presented by medullary thymic epithelial cells and thymic ...
Tissue Antigens. 39:225. 9. Lindemann M. 2014. Ex vivo assessment of cellular immune function - applications in patient care ... Lymphocyte interaction: A potential histocompatibility test in vitro. Science 143:813. 4. Benacerraf, B. and H.O. McDevitt. ... Mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) is a test used by pharmaceutical and biotech organizations to show the safety of a drug or ... "Why are Mixed Lymphocyte Reactions Performed?". Retrieved 7 January 2017. 1. Meo, T.: The MLR test in the mouse. 1979. In ...
... expression is altered by antigen exposure. This function enables the adaptive immune system to ... Mediated by lymphocyte receptors and vascular ligand interactions, "tethering" is a reversible linkage that leads to either ... The process of lymphocyte homing is deliberate, mediated by lymphocyte-endothelial recognition mechanisms that enable antigen- ... Organ-specific lymphocyte homing is important for antigen-specificity and in avoiding autoimmune cross-reactions. Lymphocyte ...
p-SMAC (peripheral-SMAC) within which the lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) and the cytoskeletal protein talin ... The initial interaction occurs between LFA-1 present in the p-SMAC of a T-cell, and non-specific adhesion molecules (such as ... This complex as a whole is postulated to have several functions including but not limited to: Regulation of lymphocyte ... is the interface between an antigen-presenting cell or target cell and a lymphocyte such as a T/B cell or Natural Killer cell. ...
Through these interactions they play a crucial role in orchestrating circulating lymphocytes. CAM function in cancer metastasis ... This antigen is known for its role in tissue-specific adhesion of lymphocytes to high endothelium venules. ... Lymphocyte homing is a key process occurring in a strong immune system. It controls the process of circulating lymphocytes ... In addition, integrins participate in cell-matrix interactions, while other CAM families participate in cell-cell interactions ...
CD86 costimultory molecules on antigen presenting cells upon interaction with CTLA-4 or lymphocyte function-associated antigen ... and bone marrow for T and B lymphocytes, respectively. In these tissues, maturing lymphocytes are exposed to self-antigens ... Those lymphocytes that have receptors that bind strongly to self-antigens are removed by induction of apoptosis of the ... Self-antigens are present due to endogenous expression, importation of antigen from peripheral sites via circulating blood, and ...
Mehta SR, Sandler RS, Ford RJ, Sharma S, Maizel AL (1986). "Cellular interaction between B and T lymphocytes: enhanced release ... B-cell growth factor is released by T lymphocytes after either lectin or antigen stimulation. It supports the clonal ... "Human BCGF-12kD functions as an autocrine growth factor in transformed B cells". European Cytokine Network. 1 (2): 109-13. PMID ... Vazquez A, Mills S, Sharma S, Maizel AL (October 1988). "Expression of CD23 antigen is not necessary for human 12-kDa B cell ...
... also known as lymphocyte antigen 6 or urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is family of proteins that share ... Ly6 family proteins have different functions depending on expression in different tissues. They play an important role in the ... For example, they are involved in cell proliferation, cell migration, cell-cell interactions, immune cell maturation, ... Upadhyay G (2019). "Emerging Role of Lymphocyte Antigen-6 Family of Genes in Cancer and Immune Cells". Frontiers in Immunology ...
Analysis of the CD4 coreceptor and activation-induced costimulatory molecules in antigen-mediated mature T lymphocyte death. ... the process by which external stimuli regulate internal cellular functioning. The key to optimal cellular functioning is ... The co-receptors of tumor cells and their interaction with T-cells provide important considerations for tumor immunotherapy. ... Structure-function studies of the HIV-1 coreceptors. Seminars in Immunology, Vol. 10 pp. 237-248. Bleul, C.C., Wu, L., Hoxie, J ...
Tec family kinases are involved in the intracellular signaling mechanisms of cytokine receptors, lymphocyte surface antigens, ... Its function has not been identified in these cells. Tec kinase is activated through a similar process to other members of the ... The other protein interaction domains of Tec kinase include Src homology (SH) domains SH2 and SH3 and a kinase domain with ... They are also key players in the regulation of the immune functions. Tec kinase has low expression in naïve T cells but is ...
B lymphocytes and natural killer cells. CD38 also functions in cell adhesion, signal transduction and calcium signaling. In ... "Similarities in amino acid sequences of Aplysia ADP-ribosyl cyclase and human lymphocyte antigen CD38". Trends in Biochemical ... "Modulation of CD4 lateral interaction with lymphocyte surface molecules induced by HIV-1 gp120". European Journal of Immunology ... CD38 can function either as a receptor or as an enzyme. As a receptor, CD38 can attach to CD31 on the surface of T cells, ...
... by the clonal selection theory of acquired immunity that explains how B and T lymphocytes improve their response to antigens ... focus on the Darwinian attributes of the theory where selection is inspired by the affinity of antigen-antibody interactions, ... The field of Artificial Immune Systems (AIS) is concerned with abstracting the structure and function of the immune system to ... The common techniques are inspired by specific immunological theories that explain the function and behavior of the mammalian ...
Together, CR3 and CR4 are involved in various functions of the T and B lymphocytes and NK cells. For instance, while both CR3 ... phagocytosis and other cell-cell interactions in a variety of cells and circumstances. Upregulation of Mac-1 in the presence of ... on T lymphocytes: activation-dependent up-regulation and regulatory function". Eur. J. Immunol. 31 (4): 1173-80. doi:10.1002/ ... CR3 and CR4, both members of the β2-integrin family, are generally thought to exhibit overlapping functions in myeloid cells ...
SP-A and SP-D can suppress activated T-lymphocytes and IL-2 (interleukin-2) production. SP-D increases bacterial antigen ... Wang, J Y; U Kishore; B L Lim; P Strong; K B Reid (November 1996). "Interaction of human lung surfactant proteins A and D with ... Other functions of collectins are modulation of inflammatory, allergic responses, adaptive immune system and clearance of ... Affinity of interaction between microbes and collectins depends on the degree of collectin oligomerization and also on the ...
Like ILC2, ILC 3 can express MHC II and be appropriating the function of antigen presenting cells. However, ILCs lack the ... ILCs, on the contrary, may set the helper T lymphocytes in the state of anergy. In the case of ILC 3, the ability to express ... is typical since interactions of these two transcription factors cause the accumulation of ILC 3 and the production of IL-22 in ... They suppress the response of CD4 + T lymphocytes to harmless and beneficial intestinal bacteria. If this tolerance is not ...
"A new tumor-rejection antigen recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes infiltrating into a lung adenocarcinoma". Cancer Research. ... van der Weyden L, White JK, Adams DJ, Logan DW (2011). "The mouse genetics toolkit: revealing function and mechanism". Genome ... "The nuclear import of TAF10 is regulated by one of its three histone fold domain-containing interaction partners". Molecular ... Model organisms have been used in the study of SUPT7L function. A conditional knockout mouse line, called Supt7ltm1a(EUCOMM) ...
Molecular function. • peptide antigen binding. Cellular component. • integral component of membrane. • endocytic vesicle ... 1991). "Interaction of CD4 with HLA class II antigens and HIV gp120". Immunogenetics. 34 (2): 121-8. doi:10.1007/BF00211424. ... Class II molecules are expressed in antigen-presenting cells (APC: B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages).[5] ... antigen processing and presentation. • antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class II. • ...
... is involved in lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 costimulatory signal for naive T cell differentiation and proliferation ... interaction with its ligands PVR (CD155) and nectin-2 (PRR-2/CD112)". International Immunology. 16 (4): 533-8. doi:10.1093/ ... a novel adhesion molecule involved in the cytolytic function of T lymphocytes". Immunity. 4 (6): 573-81. doi:10.1016/S1074-7613 ... CD226 (Cluster of Differentiation 226), PTA1 (outdated term, 'platelet and T cell activation antigen 1') or DNAM-1 (DNAX ...
Lymphocytes migrate from the blood stream via a distinctive 'rolling interaction' mediated by interactions between cellular ... In this case, in humans α4β1 and cutaneous lymphocyte antigen (CLA) are expressed on the T cell surface. These integrins ... The activated T cells, immunoblasts, undergo clonal expansion before acquiring effector functions. The activated T cells then ... Initial binding of a lymphocyte selectin and its ligand. This creates an unstable interaction where the lymphocyte is lightly ...
FDCs assist the development of the germinal center via an interaction with B lymphocytes and helper T-lymphocytes. B ... Antigen-presenting cells accumulate near high endothelial venules to process soluble antigens. Antigens are also presented on ... Lymph node stromal cells are essential to the structure and function of the lymph node whose functions include: creating an ... Naive lymphocytes (those with no history of contact with antigens) travel from the bone marrow or high endothelial venules of ...
... which are polymorphic and involved in antigen presentation. Though more remains to be elucidated about the function of HLA-DO, ... Chen X, Jensen PE (June 2004). "The expression of HLA-DO (H2-O) in B lymphocytes". Immunologic Research. 29 (1-3): 19-28. doi: ... February 2005). "Spatial separation of HLA-DM/HLA-DR interactions within MIIC and phagosome-induced immune escape". Immunity. ... Further suggesting the tangential function of DO and DM, the movement of DO from the endoplasmic reticulum to the site of MHC ...
B lymphocytes and natural killer cells. CD38 also functions in cell adhesion, signal transduction and calcium signaling.[6] ... "Similarities in amino acid sequences of Aplysia ADP-ribosyl cyclase and human lymphocyte antigen CD38". Trends in Biochemical ... "Modulation of CD4 lateral interaction with lymphocyte surface molecules induced by HIV-1 gp120". European Journal of Immunology ... Molecular function. • transferase activity. • hydrolase activity, acting on glycosyl bonds. • NAD(P)+ nucleosidase activity. • ...
These interactions allow TLR4 to recognize LPS. LPS is extracted from the bacterial membrane and transferred to TLR4-MD-2 by ... "The role of disulfide bonds in the assembly and function of MD-2". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ... "Entrez Gene: LY96 lymphocyte antigen 96". Park BS, Song DH, Kim HM, Choi BS, Lee H, Lee JO (April 2009). "The structural basis ... Lymphocyte antigen 96 has been shown to interact with TLR 4. When LPS binds to a hydrophobic pocket in MD-2, it directly ...
In addition to aiding with cytotoxic T cell antigen interactions the CD8 co-receptor also plays a role in T cell signaling. The ... Function[edit]. The extracellular IgV-like domain of CD8-α interacts with the α3 portion of the Class I MHC molecule.[5] This ... "CD8 alpha - Marker for cytotoxic T Lymphocytes". Archived from the original on 21 September 2015. Retrieved 11 January 2016.. ... the CD8 co-receptor plays a role in T cell signaling and aiding with cytotoxic T cell antigen interactions. ...
Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 plays an essential role in the function of CD25+CD4+ regulatory cells that control ... Gorelik E, Gunji Y, Interaction of tumor cells and immune system in the metastatic process Goldfarb RH.Biochem Cell Biol. 1988; ... Furthermore, in vivo lymphocyte depletion experiments further confirmed that the efficacy of combining with EGFR DNA vaccine ... In vivo depletion of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells enhances the antigen-specific primary and memory CTL response elicited by ...
Function of macrophages in antigen recognition by guinea pig T lymphocytes. II. Role of the macrophage in the regulation of ... Cell interactions between histoincompatible T and B lymphocytes. II. Failure of physiologic cooperative interactions between T ... Distinct Ir genes for helper and killer cells in the cytotoxic response to H-Y antigen scientific article ... In irradiation chimeras, K or D regions of the chimeric host, not of the donor lymphocytes, determine immune responsiveness of ...
The development of checkpoint blocking antibodies, such as those directed against cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and ... PD-1 and PD-L1 antibodies for melanoma. Katy K Tsai, Inés Zarzoso, Adil I Daud Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics 2014, 10 (11 ... In contrast, PD-1 is primarily involved in modulating T cell activity in peripheral tissues via interaction with its ligands, ... At the bedside: CTLA-4- and PD-1-blocking antibodies in cancer immunotherapy. Margaret K Callahan, Jedd D Wolchok Journal of ...
... as well as the lymphocyte function in antigen recognition, immune response, and autoimmunity. ... Research interests focus on two broad areas: host-microbe interactions, and the function of the immune system. Laboratories ... Focus on interaction of humans and viruses from a number of perspectives: historical, cultural, political, and demographic. ... Focus on interaction of humans and viruses from a number of perspectives: historical, cultural, political, and demographic. ...
BTLA displays T cell inhibition via interaction with tumor necrosis family receptors, not just the B7 family of cell surface ... Like PD-1 and CTLA-4, BTLA interacts with a B7 homolog, B7-H4. However, unlike PD-1 and CTLA-4, ... and T-lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) also known as CD272. BTLA is an Ig superfamily member which is expressed on B cells, T cells ... B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA). The transcription factor RORgammat, via its activating function-2 domain, repressed Btla ...
HCMV UL141 alters the distribution of CD155, an activator of NK cell function. In the top panel CD155 (in red) is found at the ... This research gives us not only a better understanding of the interaction between NK cells and HCMV infected cells, but also ... NK cells are able to act independently of specific antigen recognition making them a key constituent of the innate immune ... NK cells constitute a heterogeneous population of innate lymphocytes that exhibit an extraordinary capacity to kill tumour ...
... the B and T lymphocytes of our immune systems deliberately induce and repair DNA breaks in a mutagenic fashion to diversify ... antibody and antigen receptor encoding genes. Research in the Chapman laboratory aims to better understand the biological ... where they function to bring about genetic diversity: ... where they function to bring about genetic diversity: the B and ... and will foster interactions with multiple labs in the WIMM. Experimental approaches in the lab include advanced molecular ...
Interleukin 15 promotes antigen-independent in vitro expansion and long-term survival of antitumor cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Lu ... Helper T Cells Potentiate the Effector Function and Growth of Anti-Tumor Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes. Lecture. Annual meeting of ... Amphiregulin Regulates Keratinocyte and T cell Interactions: A Key Mediator in Psoriasis. Poster. International Society of ... Recognition of prostate tumor cells by cytotoxic T lymphocytes specific for prostate-specific membrane antigen. Lu, Jun; Celis ...
... and Compact disc3+ T-lymphocyte subpopulations, more powerful peripheral bloodstream lymphocyte proliferative activity; and ... This acquiring could be exploited for the introduction of a book MD vaccine that leads to the persistence from the antigen ... We 1st examined B52 phosphorylation in the Topo I loss-of-function mutant larvae, B52 is usually displaced towards the ... These results disagree using the postulate that MDV antigens persist, stimulate the disease fighting capability, and maintain a ...
... receptors to the T cell receptor on lymphocytes. The interaction of CD40L and CD40 results in clonal expansion, antibody ... on antigen presenting cells. These antigen presenting cells are simultaneously presenting foreign peptides on their major ... immune system activation by mediating both antibody and cellular immune responses through modulation of germinal cell function ... Interaction of CD40 with CD40L on immune cells mediates the activation of the co-stimulatory immune pathway, controlling "cross ...
The survey of the relationship and interactions between the immune system and malignant neoplastic disease or malignant cells ... Phase 4: Tumor specific CD4 and CD8 cells every bit good as cytolytic T lymphocytes so destruct any staying antigen-bearing ... The function of the chemokines is to suppress the formation of new blood vass. The dust from the cell lysis of the tumour is so ... The survey of the relationship and interactions between the immune system and malignant neoplastic disease or malignant cells ...
2) 190 220 and 150 kDa). CD35 antigen is expressed on erythrocytes ABT-888 ACVRLK4 B -lymphocytes and 10-15% of T -lymphocytes ... The peripheral regulatory cells instead, only reduce the functions of circulating T lymphocytes. While the nursing work kills ... This paper is usually a short review regarding some features of these accessory cells and their main interactions with T ... As the migration goes on, T lymphocytes begin the manifestation of their receptors to recognize antigens known as T cell ...
CD11a is the a chain of the leukocyte function associated antigen-1 LFA-1a), a member of the integrin subfamily, and ... such as lymphocyte adhesion, NK and T-cell cytolysis, and T-cell proliferation. CD11/CD18 is also involved in the interaction ... CD11a is the a chain of the leukocyte function associated antigen-1 (LFA-1a), and is expressed on all leukocytes including T ... CD11/CD18 is also involved in the interaction of leucocytes with endothelium., but is absent on non-hematopoietic tissue and ...
Although they function more effectively alongside T helper cells, they can independently detect and kill pathogens as part of ... They also phagocytose antigen-antibody complexes.. Patients with parasitic infections, allergic reactions or some autoimmune ... Basophils contain histamine granules and cause local inflammatory responses through their interaction with IgE. Their role in ... Lymphocytes. Lymphocytes are agranular leukocytes which form from the lymphoid cell line within the bone marrow. They respond ...
These include the heterogeneity of the antigen-specific T-cell response to intestinal infection, the prominence of microbial ... Together, these different issues challenge an overly simplistic view of host-pathogen interaction during mucosal infection, but ... keywords = "Bacterial immunity, Immune evasion, Lymphocyte tracking, Non-cognate activation",. author = "Mcsorley, {Stephen J ... and the contribution of non-cognate pathways for elicitation of T-cell effector functions. Together, these different issues ...
Comparing T-lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood, the analysis showed the ratio of CD3+, CD4+, CD4+CD8+ and CD3+CD4+ T cells ... lymphocyte reactivity to mitogens, NK cell activity and neutrphil and monocyte phagocytic functions in patients with bladder ... It has been demonstrated that cytotoxicity against tumor is dependent on an appropriate CD4+ and CD8+ T cell interaction. The ... AFP is currently widely recognized as a tumor-related prognosis antigen for HCC. HCC patients with high levels of HBV-DNA and ...
... which is expressed on all mature T lymphocytes (approximately 60-80% of normal human peripheral blood lymphocytes), NK-T cells ... This regional over-representation indicates thats apt to be from the function of this sub-network.1 Indeed and unsurprisingly ... with the T-cell receptor a/b or g/d dimer also plays a role in T-cell activation and signal transduction during antigen ... High-throughput options for identifying protein-protein interactions produce complicated and complex interaction. Posted by ...
... the structure and function of antigen receptors, the cell biology of antigen processing and presentation, including molecular ... Antibodies and Antigens, Development of Lymphocytes, Activation of Lymphocytes, B cell activation and antibody production, ... structure and assembly of MHC molecules, the biology of cytokines, leukocyte-endothelial interactions, and the pathogenesis. ... Immunology charts, measures, and contextualizes the physiological functioning of the immune system in states of both health and ...
Employing an artificial Antigen Presenting Cell lines, which allows for higher density loading of the tumor antigen peptides ; ... Maintaining the natural structure of TCR for proper interaction with cofactors, not only maintains the strength of activation ... to make the cells especially useful in neural function adjustment and nerve injury repairing. Because of at the stage of embryo ... of CD8 T cells by Antigen Presenting Cells (APC) loaded with tumor antigen peptide(s); 3) expanding CD8 toxic T cells (CTL) ; 4 ...
... a potent antigen, was used to stimulate human DCs. The antigen-pulsed DCs were obtained by incubating normal DC in KLH (10 g/ml ... Upon the interaction of surface receptors with their cognate ligands, such proteins would participate in a fine-tuned mechanism ... The scholarly research of such a Nobiletin molecule can not only establish the physiological function of DEDDl, but also ... Fresh peripheral bloodstream from regular adults was separated with lymphocyte parting mass media (?=?1.077, Sigma). The cells ...
一)串口:1.接口规定:RS232全双工同时方式,RS485半双工的方式(RS232/RS485主要表示电 ... Perivascular cuffing with lymphocytes is a conventional finding in brain series from patients with GA but is also seen in ... As the invulnerable procedure takes up a kismet of dash in repairing and recharging the band, the functioning of this ... Secondly, they obviously usher a singular outcome as a follow of platelet-neutrophil interactions. In contrast to
H-2 D region control of H-7.1-specific stimulator function in mixed lymphocyte culture and susceptibility to lysis by H-7.1- ... The impact of these observations on the proposed models for H-2 restriction of non-H-2 histocornpatibility antigen-specific ... H-2 D region control of H-7.1-specific stimulator function in mixed lymphocyte culture and susceptibility to lysis by H-7.1- ... H-2 D region control of H-7.1-specific stimulator function in mixed lymphocyte culture and susceptibility to lysis by H-7.1- ...
... which is supposed the interaction of genetic and environmental factors have a role in its pathogenesis. ... IL7Ra is involved in the improvement and homeostasis of B and T-lymphocytes [5].. The (C) allele of rs6897932 synthesis the ... It is supposed that MS is caused by the interaction of genetic and environmental factors, for example, infection agents [1]. ... that IL-7 is an essential cytokine for development and maturation of T-cells and also has a role in proliferation and function ...
The Function of NFATC1. Plays a role in the inducible expression of cytokine genes in T-cells, especially in the induction of ... Only isoforms A are inducibly expressed in T lymphocytes upon activation of the T-cell receptor (TCR) complex. Induced after co ... expressed in naive T-cells after first antigen exposure and isoforms A are expressed in effector T-cells after second antigen ... Molecular Function:. *Rna Polymerase Ii Distal Enhancer Sequence-Specific Dna Binding. *Rna Polymerase Ii Transcription Factor ...
Their main function is to process antigen material and present it on the cell surface to the T cells of the immune system. They ... T cells (also called T lymphocytes) are one of the major components of the adaptive immune system. Their roles include directly ... but more recently attributed also to a specific interaction with the bacterial cell wall and extended to viruses and parasites; ... Their main function is to process antigen material and present it on the cell surface to the T cells of the immune system. They ...
T-lymphocyte-epithelial-cell interactions: integrin alpha(E)(CD103)beta(7), LEEP-CAM and chemokines. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 12 ... A new surface antigen on intraepithelial lymphocytes in the intestine. Eur. J. Immunol. 20: 2201-2207. ... We next examined functions of E-cadherin and αEβ7 integrin in activation of DETCs. Cross-linking of E-cadherin or αEβ7 integrin ... Recognition of self antigens by skin-derived T cells with invariant gamma delta antigen receptors. Science 252: 1430-1432. ...
"Role of dendritic cell subsets and extracellular vesicles in antigen transfer and activation of B lymphocytes" in our ... Manon Depierre started her PhD in September 2020 to study how human rhinoviruses modify the macrophages functions ... Team C. Berlioz, S. Emiliani Host-Virus interactions * Team M. Bomsel Mucosal entry of HIV and mucosal immunity ... Team A. Hosmalin, R. Cheynier Dendritic cells, B lymphocytes and cytokines in their microenvironment during viral infections ...
Molecular Function:. *Receptor Activity. Biological Processes:. *Adaptive Immune Response. *Lymphocyte Homeostasis. *Signal ... hypothetical protein, A306_05947, AS27_15082, AS28_14499, B cell maturation antigen, B-cell maturation factor, B-cell ... The Function of TNFRSF17. Receptor for TNFSF13B/BLyS/BAFF and TNFSF13/APRIL. Promotes B-cell survival and plays a role in the ... This receptor is preferentially expressed in mature B lymphocytes, and may be important for B cell development and autoimmune ...
  • Lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) is an integrin found on lymphocytes and other leukocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • LFA-1 belongs to the integrin superfamily of adhesion molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • LFA-1, a leukocyte integrin, was first discovered by Timothy Springer in mice in the 1980s. (wikipedia.org)
  • The results demonstrate the importance of integrin extension in rolling, and suggest that rolling and firm adhesion are mediated by extended conformations of alpha(L)beta(2) that differ in the affinity of the alpha(L) I domain for ICAM-1. (nih.gov)
  • One such target, the integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), has been shown previously to be inhibited by isoflurane. (rcsb.org)
  • These results suggest that the allosteric modulation of protein function by isoflurane, as demonstrated for the integrin LFA-1, might represent a unified mechanism shared by the interactions of volatile anesthetics with targets in the CNS. (rcsb.org)
  • Initial TCR signaling up-regulates integrin affinity and avidity, stabilizing the T cell:APC interaction ( 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • These morphological changes are accompanied by the recruitment to the cell:cell interface of a number of cell surface receptors such as the TCR, CD4, and the integrin LFA-1, as well as signaling molecules such as protein kinase Cθ ( 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • ICAM proteins are ligands for the leukocyte adhesion protein LFA-1 (integrin alpha-L/beta-2). (genecards.org)
  • JAM-1 is a ligand of the beta(2) integrin LFA-1 involved in transendothelial migration of leukocytes. (nih.gov)
  • We have identified the IgSF member junctional adhesion molecule 1 (JAM-1) as a ligand of the beta(2) integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1). (nih.gov)
  • Integrin crosstalk allows CD4+ T lymphocytes to continue migrating in the upstream direction after flow. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We have investigated the distribution, activity, and cytoskeletal linkage of the integrin lymphocyte function associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) on human T lymphocytes migrating on endothelial cells and on ligand intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). (rupress.org)
  • Disruption of the talin-integrin link leads to loss of zone integrity and a substantial decrease in speed of migration on ICAM-1. (rupress.org)
  • Thus, migration is a key aspect of T cell function and the integrin LFA-1 is implicated in this activity. (rupress.org)
  • The cell type specificity of LtxA arises from its reported targeting of the lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) integrin, which is only expressed by human white blood cells. (aiche.org)
  • It binds to the integrin LFA-1 (lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1), a cell surface protein found on leukocytes, and blocks the interaction of LFA-1 with its cognate ligand ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule-1). (drugs.com)
  • The integrin CD11b/CD18 (also known as Mac-1), which is a heterodimer of the α M (CD11b) and β 2 (CD18) subunits, is critical for leukocyte adhesion and migration and for immune functions. (sciencemag.org)
  • LIFITEGRAST, a small-molecule integrin antagonist, is believed to work by reducing inflammation through binding inhibition of the proteins lymphocyte function - associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), influencing T-cell activation and cytokine (protein) release. (bio-medicine.org)
  • This I-domain containing alpha integrin combines with the beta 2 chain (ITGB2) to form the integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), which is expressed on all leukocytes. (cancerindex.org)
  • Clone REA596 recognizes the rat CD11a antigen, a single-pass type I membrane protein, also known as integrin α-L (ITGAL). (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • 1991) Characterization of the rat leukocyte integrin, CD11/CD18, by the use of LFA-1 subunit-specific monoclonal antibodies. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • Although many adhesion molecules have been identified, various in vitro studies have shown that during hepatic I/R the β 2 integrin CD11b/CD18 (Mac-1) as well as their counterreceptor, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) ( 5 ), play a critical role in neutrophil transendothelial migration ( 9 , 28 ) and adherence to hepatocytes ( 24 ). (physiology.org)
  • Likewise, antibodies may not block all the adhesive interactions of the targeted molecule, especially in the case of ICAM-1, which has multiple integrin binding sites ( 32 ). (physiology.org)
  • Recognition by integrin proteins on the cell surface regulates the adhesive interactions between cells and their surroundings. (rcsb.org)
  • However, the only integrin ligands for which structures are known, namely fibronectin and VCAM-1, are recognized by integrins that lack I domains. (rcsb.org)
  • The intercellular adhesion molecules ICAM-1, 2 and 3 are, like VCAM-1, members of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF), but they are recognized by an I domain-containing integrin, lymphocyte-function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1, or CD11a/CD18). (rcsb.org)
  • Elevated surface expression of ICAM-1 enhances the potential for melanocytes to interact with circulating lymphocytes via interactions with the integrin molecule lymphocyte function associated antigen-1, thus potentially providing a means by which melanomas undergo metastatic spread. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Integrin, alpha L (antigen CD11A, lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1) is also known as ITGAL or CD11a. (allergycases.org)
  • Macrophage-1 antigen, MAC-1 (integrin alphaMbeta2) is a complement receptor (CR3) consisting of CD11b and CD18. (allergycases.org)
  • Integrin alpha M (ITGAM) is one protein subunit that forms the heterodimeric integrin alpha-M beta-2 (αMβ2) molecule, also known as macrophage-1 antigen (Mac-1) or complement receptor 3 (CR3) ITGAM is also known as CR3A, and cluster of differentiation molecule 11B (CD11B). (allergycases.org)
  • For example, beta 2 combines with the alpha L chain to form the integrin LFA-1, and combines with the alpha M chain to form the integrin Mac-1. (allergycases.org)
  • The integrin superfamily consists of 30 proteins that promote cell-cell or cell-matrix interactions. (allergycases.org)
  • CD18 is the β2 chain (β-2 integrin subunit) common to LFA-1 and MAC-1. (allergycases.org)
  • 9,10 Studies on leukocyte function are also inconsistent, showing a severalfold increase in the leukocyte integrin-epitope CD18 after hemodilution of whole blood with dextran and HES, 11 whereas no changes in leukocyte adhesion molecules were reported in another comparative study examining lactated Ringer's solution, albumin, gelatin, and HES. (asahq.org)
  • 14,15,25,26 CD11a/CD18 (lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 [LFA-1]) and CD11b/CD18 (Mac-1) are the most important members of the β 2 integrin family. (asahq.org)
  • The lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) is a member of the beta2-integrin family and plays a pivotal role for T cell activation and leukocyte trafficking under inflammatory conditions. (mdpi.com)
  • Primary structure of the leukocyte function-associated molecule-1 alpha subunit: an integrin with an embedded domain defining a protein superfamily. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Protumoral neutrophils expressing the lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) integrin may mediate cancer metastasis, and TGFβ1 is the major chemoattractant for neutrophils. (zfin.org)
  • Interactions between cytotoxic lymphocytes and their targets require the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) and the integrin lymphocyte function-associated molecule-1 (LFA-1, CD11a/CD18). (sciencemag.org)
  • OBJECTIVE: The leukocyte integrin Mac-1 (alphaMbeta2, CD11b/CD18) binds a number of ligands and counter-receptors and thereby is a major determinant in regulation of leukocyte adhesion and extravasation. (edu.au)
  • Introduction of a GFFKR deletion in the alphaM subunit of Mac-1, which increases the constitutive activation of the integrin, led to increased adhesion on VN. (edu.au)
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results show that there is a specific integrin-affinity-regulated interaction between Mac-1 and the matrix form but not the plasma form of VN that may significantly participate in leukocyte adhesion and extravasation. (edu.au)
  • These results indicate that IFN-gamma-induced expression of endothelial VCAM-1 and its binding to alpha4beta1 integrin on CD8(+) T cells is important for recruitment of the T cells into the brain during the chronic stage of T. gondii infection, although LFA-1/ICAM-1 interaction may also be involved in this process. (nih.gov)
  • Integrin-mediated adhesion between alloreactive T cells and antigen-presenting cells is essential for allorejection. (asm.org)
  • In this context, T cell function depends on integrin-mediated adhesion and migration. (asm.org)
  • Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is a member of the Ig superfamily, contains five Ig-like domains comprising the extracellular portion of the molecule, and interacts with lymphocyte function-associated molecule-1 (LFA-1), a member of the beta 2-integrin family. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Using in vitro assays and an experimental orthotopic in vivo model of liver metastasis, we aimed to elucidate the role of tumor LFA-1 in the metastatic progression by means of the partial depletion of the β 2 subunit of LFA-1, required for integrin activation, firm adhesion and signaling. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Taken together, our findings uncovered the modulatory role for the tumor β 2 subunit of the LFA-1 integrin in the metastatic progression of colorectal cancer to the liver by impairing activation of liver endothelium and thus, the local immune response in the liver. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These data support a therapeutical potential of the integrin LFA-1 as a target for the treatment of colorectal liver metastasis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • LFA-1 is the main ligand for intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 [ 10 , 11 ] to which the integrin binds with the highest affinity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Even though recent studies have shown a relationship between LFA-1 expression and the metastatic progression [ 12 ], up to date the functional role of this integrin in the development of liver metastasis is poorly characterized. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Lifitegrast is a novel topical integrin antagonist that works by binding to the integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), a protein on lymphocytes, and blocking the interaction or adhesion of LFA-1 with its intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). (modernmedicine.com)
  • Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1, α L β 2 , CD11a/CD18) is a member of the β 2 -integrin subfamily of cell surface receptors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The bulk of each integrin subunit is extracellular, where it typically functions as a receptor for extracellular matrix molecules or as a counterreceptor for surface proteins of apposed cells [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • S1P regulates diverse physiological processes by binding to specific G protein-binding receptors, S1P receptors (S1PRs) 1-5, through a process coined as "inside-out signaling. (hindawi.com)
  • Many of the actions of S1P in innate and adaptive immunity are mediated by its binding to five specific G protein-coupled receptors, S1P receptors (S1PRs) 1-5. (hindawi.com)
  • The direction of migration of T-lymphocytes under flow depends upon which adhesion receptors are engaged. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Recent advances in cancer treatment have emerged from new immunotherapies targeting T-cell inhibitory receptors, including cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated antigen (CTLA)-4 and programmed cell death (PD)-1. (frontiersin.org)
  • The action of sedation is expressed via α 2 -adrenergic receptors for dexmedetomidine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors for midazolam and propofol ( 1 - 4 ). (medsci.org)
  • Coxsackievirus A21 (a common cold virus) targets and destroys susceptible cells via specific viral capsid interactions with surface-expressed virus receptors comprising ICAM-1 and DAF. (aacrjournals.org)
  • T cell triggering through T-cell antigen receptors (TCRs) results in spatial assembly of the receptors on multiple length scales. (biologists.org)
  • T cells are activated when their T-cell antigen receptors (TCRs) are triggered by interactions with antigen peptide-major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) proteins on antigen-presenting cell (APC) surfaces. (biologists.org)
  • Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) inhibit the cytotoxic activity of natural killer (NK) cells by recruitment of the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 to immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motif (ITIM) sequences in the KIR cytoplasmic tail [1]. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These results suggest that other ITIM-bearing receptors, many of which have no known function, may regulate adhesion in a wide variety of cell types. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 1988). "Chromosomal location of the genes encoding the leukocyte adhesion receptors LFA-1, Mac-1 and p150,95. (thefullwiki.org)
  • LFA-1 is not constitutively avid for its counter-receptors, intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAMs)-1 and -2. (sciencemag.org)
  • Role of lymphocyte adhesion receptors in transient interactions and cell locomotion. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The CD2 and LFA-1 adhesion receptors appear to have distinct roles in the regulation of adhesion and modulation of T lymphocyte activation. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Tumor cells in this disease are cradled within the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment by an array of adhesive interactions between the BM cellular residents, the surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM) components such as fibronectin (FN), laminin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), proteoglycans, collagens and hyaluronan, and a variety of adhesion molecules on the surface of MM cells including integrins, hyaluronan receptors (CD44 and RHAMM) and heparan sulfate proteoglycans. (eurekaselect.com)
  • LAD1, a subtype of LAD, is caused by a lack of integrins that contain the beta subunit, including LFA-1. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vivo, beta(2) integrins and particularly alpha(L)beta(2) (LFA-1) robustly support firm adhesion of leukocytes, but can also cooperate with other molecules in supporting rolling adhesion. (nih.gov)
  • Inflammatory recruitment of leukocytes is governed by dynamic interactions between integrins and endothelial immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) proteins. (nih.gov)
  • In contrast, little is known about the organization of integrins on the highly motile T lymphocyte. (rupress.org)
  • ICAM-5 ectodomain cleavage decreased or increased when the interaction between ICAM-5 and β1 integrins was potentiated or weakened, respectively, using antibodies. (biologists.org)
  • These results suggest that the interaction between ICAM-5 and β1 integrins is important in formation of functional synapses. (biologists.org)
  • Adhesion/costimulatory molecules, mainly lymphocyte-function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1, CD11a/CD18 or α L /β 2 ) and CD103 (α E /β 7 ) integrins, on CTL play a critical role in TCR-mediated killing by interacting with their cognate ligands, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (or CD54) and E-cadherin, respectively, and directing exocytosis of lytic granules to the cancer cell surface at the IS ( 2 , 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Integrins are heterodimeric adhesion molecules comprised of α- and β-subunits that participate in immune cell interactions as well as in immune cell-extracellular matrix interactions. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • LFA-1 is part of the family of leukocyte integrins which are recognised by their common β-chains (CD18). (allergycases.org)
  • The β2 integrins are also known as the LFA-1 family or CD11a-cCD18. (allergycases.org)
  • These rolling interactions are mandatory for initial leukocyte-endothelial interactions under shear and subsequent activation of leukocyte integrins. (asahq.org)
  • The alphaV integrins have varied functions in development, stimulation/activation and homeostasis. (merckmillipore.com)
  • The identity of the signaling events needed for the activation of integrins such as LFA-1 is poorly understood. (asm.org)
  • The β2 integrins are preferentially expressed among the 12 integrins on lymphocytes. (asm.org)
  • Cycles of avidity change are also observed for other T lymphocyte integrins which bind to extracellular matrix components. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Integrins consist of a 120 to 180 kDa α subunit (CD11a in this case) and a 90 to 110 kDa β subunit that are noncovalently associated single-pass transmembrane proteins [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We conclude that ICAM-1 is a regulated ligand for lymphocyte-endothelial cell adhesion, but at least two other major adhesion pathways exist. (rupress.org)
  • The process of activating LFA-1 is known as inside out signaling, which causes LFA-1 to shift from low affinity to high affinity by opening the ligand-binding site. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we describe the crystal structure of the LFA-1 ligand-binding domain (I domain) in complex with isoflurane at 1.6 A. We discovered that isoflurane binds to an allosteric cavity previously implicated as critical for the transition of LFA-1 from the low- to the high-affinity state. (rcsb.org)
  • All these events are influenced by interactions mediated by intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), (CD54) and its primary ligand, lymphocyte function-associated antigen (LFA)-1. (pnas.org)
  • Pubmed ID: 11731799 To initiate an immune response, key receptor-ligand pairs must cluster in "immune synapses" at the T cell-antigen-presenting cell (APC) interface. (jove.com)
  • MICA, a ligand for NKG2D, facilitated the ring junction formation at lower surface densities of ICAM-1. (washington.edu)
  • Immuno ligand interactions - If available, a table of immuno-relevant ligands is shown. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • This was related to the abrogation of RNA expression of inflammatory and angiogenic cytokines by C26 cells after their activation with sICAM-1, the main ligand of β 2 α L . Furthermore, in vivo tumor cell retention and metastasis were profoundly reduced, along with a decrease in the recruitment and infiltration of myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and lymphocytes to the liver. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ligand of the T-lymphocyte CD2 glycoprotein. (abcam.com)
  • The two most potent effector mechanisms used by these cell types are: i) the triggering of the Fas-mediated death pathway by the ligation ofFasL (Fas Ligand) on effector cells with cell surface Fas on target tumor cells, or ii) the use of the Perforin-Granzyme cell death pathway, which is focused to the site of effector-target interaction and mediates apoptosis of the target cell (the tumor cell). (thermofisher.com)
  • Recent studies suggest that interaction between the chemokine receptor CXCR4 and its ligand, stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1), plays a critical role in these processes. (nih.gov)
  • The release occurs in the setting of conjunctival and lacrimal gland inflammation, potentially mediated by the interaction between lymphocyte function- associated antigen (LFA)-1, a cell surface protein found on lymphocytes, and its cognate ligand intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1. (elsevier.com)
  • T cell receptor diversity in CTLs specific for the CTT-1 and CTT-2 minor histocompatibility antigens. (jimmunol.org)
  • Cocapping of the leukoadhesin molecules complement receptor type 3 and lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 with Fc gamma receptor III on human neutrophils. (nih.gov)
  • Interaction of Fc gamma receptor type IIIB with complement receptor type 3 in fibroblast transfectants: evidence from lateral diffusion and resonance energy transfer studies. (nih.gov)
  • Intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 is the main counter-receptor for the lymphocyte function associated antigen (LFA)-1. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Previously, we showed that mannose receptor (ManR) stimulation on liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) resulted in a reduced cytotoxic potential of liver infiltrating lymphocytes (LIL) towards C26 murine colon carcinoma cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We find that B cell maturation antigen (BCMA), a predicted member of the TNF receptor family expressed primarily in mature B cells, is a receptor for BAFF. (rupress.org)
  • Among its related pathways are Class I MHC mediated antigen processing and presentation and ECM-receptor interaction . (genecards.org)
  • Thus, JAM-1 is a counter-receptor for LFA-1 that is ideally situated to guide and control transmigration during leukocyte recruitment. (nih.gov)
  • and Dectin-1, which is a receptor for fungal beta-glucan [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • CD8 + T lymphocytes play a central role in immunity to cancer through their capacity to kill malignant cells upon recognition by T-cell receptor (TCR) of specific antigenic peptides presented on the surface of target cells by human leukocyte antigen class I (HLA-I)/beta-2-microglobulin (β2m) complexes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Conjugated Bilirubin Differentially Regulates CD4+ T Effector Cells and T Regulatory Cell Function through Outside-In and Inside-Out Mechanisms: The Effects of HAV Cell Surface Receptor and Intracellular Signaling Mediators of inflammation, 2016, 1759027. (unam.mx)
  • Strategies to inhibit the OmpA-Gp96 interaction would be helpful to develop new treatment options for preventing inflammation resulting from gut mucosa invasion by AIEC but also by virulent bacteria using Gp96 as a host cell receptor. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • CD11b - Subunit of MAC-1, a complement receptor (CR3). (allergycases.org)
  • One of the receptor-mediated pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic models which was developed describes the dynamic interaction of hu1124 binding to CD11a, resulting in the removal of hu1124 from the circulation and reduction of cell surface CD11a. (springer.com)
  • The exact outcomes of the association of TCRs with a dynamic and fluctuating actin network across these length scales are not well characterized, but it is clear that weak and transient interactions at the single-molecule level sum to yield significant receptor rearrangements at the plasma membrane. (biologists.org)
  • Among these approaches, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy is the most promising star, based on the results of previous success in B-cell neoplasms. (springer.com)
  • In this immunotherapy, autologous T cells are engineered to express an artificial receptor which targets a tumor-associated antigen and initiates the T-cell killing procedure. (springer.com)
  • 2016. T cells expressing an anti-B-cell maturation antigen chimeric antigen receptor cause remissions of multiple myeloma. (springer.com)
  • Our laboratory continues to work on fundamental processes by which T lymphocytes recognize foreign pathogens including viruses such as smallpox, vaccinia, HIV, and influenza A. We have analyzed the basic function and structure of the T cell receptor (TCR) components: TCRalphabeta heterodimer, CD3epsilongamma and CD3epsilondelta heterodimers, and CD3zetazeta homodimer. (dana-farber.org)
  • Interaction of the TNF homologues BLyS and APRIL with the TNF receptor homologues BCMA and TACI. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Involvement of a leukocyte adhesion receptor (LFA-1) in HIV-induced syncytium formation. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Immunological synapses are organized cell-cell junctions between T lymphocytes and APCs composed of an adhesion ring, the peripheral supramolecular activation cluster (pSMAC), and a central T cell receptor cluster, the central supramolecular activation cluster (cSMAC). (washington.edu)
  • Until now, only an indirect interaction between Mac-1 and VN via the urokinase receptor (urokinase plasminogen activator receptor) was known. (edu.au)
  • Immunosuppressive effects induced by LFA-1 antagonists are of substantial interest, since ligation of a T cell receptor (TCR) generates intracellular signals leading to activation of LFA-1-mediated cell adhesion, a process termed "inside-out" signaling. (asm.org)
  • Adhesion mediated by interaction of CD2 with LFA-3 is dramatically altered by surface charge and adhesion receptor density in such a way that this pathway is latent in resting T lymphocytes but becomes active over a period of hours following T-cell activation. (ox.ac.uk)
  • CD2 ligation can mediate or enhance T-cell activation, suggesting that signals from CD2/LFA-3 adhesive interactions are integrated with signals from the T-cell antigen receptor during immunological recognition. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The NK cells adhere to tumor cells by adhesion molecules like LFA1 (Lymphocyte Function-Associated Antigen-1), which are recognized by their receptor ICAM1 (Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1) expressed on the tumor cell surface [3,4]. (thermofisher.com)
  • Stimulation of the Fas receptor results in recruitment and activation of the initiator Caspase, Caspase8, through interaction with the adaptor molecule FADD (Fas-Associated Death Domain Protein). (thermofisher.com)
  • The major function of the T-cell receptor is to confer antigen specificity to T cells. (begellhouse.com)
  • Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) interaction with intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is one of at least three mechanisms for lymphocyte adhesion to cultured endothelial cells. (rupress.org)
  • Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) on the surface of cultured umbilical vein and saphenous vein endothelial cells was upregulated between 2.5- and 40-fold by rIL-1, rTNF, LPS and rIFN gamma corresponding to up to 5 X 10(6) sites/cell. (rupress.org)
  • Endothelial cell ICAM-1 was a single band of 90 kD in SDS-PAGE. (rupress.org)
  • Purified endothelial cell ICAM-1 reconstituted into liposomes and bound to plastic was an excellent substrate for both JY B lymphoblastoid cell and T lymphoblast adhesion. (rupress.org)
  • Adhesion to endothelial cell ICAM-1 in planar membranes was blocked completely by monoclonal antibodies to lymphocyte function associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) or ICAM-1. (rupress.org)
  • Adhesion to artificial membranes was most sensitive to ICAM-1 density within the physiological range found on resting and stimulated endothelial cells. (rupress.org)
  • Adhesion of JY B lymphoblastoid cells, normal and genetically LFA-1 deficient T lymphoblasts and resting peripheral blood lymphocytes to endothelial cell monolayers was also assayed. (rupress.org)
  • In summary, LFA-1 dependent (60-90% of total adhesion) and LFA-1-independent basal adhesion was observed and the use of both adhesion pathways by different interacting cell pairs was increased by monokine or lipopolysaccharide stimulation of endothelial cells. (rupress.org)
  • S1PR1 in T and B cells as well as Spns2 in endothelial cells contributes to lymphocyte trafficking. (hindawi.com)
  • We investigated the effect of Egfl7 on endothelial cell intercellular adhesion molecule 1 expression in response to H/R injury. (ahajournals.org)
  • Conclusions- Our study reveals the novel observation that hypoxia upregulates human coronary artery endothelial cells expression of Egfl7 and that Egfl7 inhibits expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 subsequent to H/R injury. (ahajournals.org)
  • Hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R), which simulates ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in a cell culture model, is known to injure endothelial cells through oxidant production, 1 which leads to the production of inflammatory cytokines 2,3 and activates inflammatory cell signaling pathways. (ahajournals.org)
  • 4 This endothelial inflammatory response includes the expression of cell adhesion molecules, such as intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), that allow circulating neutrophils to adhere to sites of endothelial injury. (ahajournals.org)
  • Junctional adhesion molecule-1 (JAM-1) forms part of the tight junction between adjacent endothelial cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • JAM-1 is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of adhesion molecules that form tight junctions between adjacent endothelial cells and, therefore, form a part of the blood-brain barrier. (ahajournals.org)
  • 15,16 JAM-1 has other functions, such as promotion of leukocyte-endothelial adhesion and subsequent inflammation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Differential regulation of LFA-1 in the interaction between lymphocytes and high endothelial cells. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • The chronological expression (over 24 h) of two adhesion molecules [intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and CD11b/CD18 (Mac-1)] and the extent of liver damage, including injury to sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs) and hepatocyte apoptosis, were investigated under two conditions of rat liver ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury: reversible (30 min) and fatal I/R (60 min). (physiology.org)
  • The adult quiescent blood-brain barrier (BBB), a structure organised by endothelial cells through interactions with pericytes, astrocytes, neurons and microglia in the neurovascular unit, is highly regulated but fragile at the same time. (springer.com)
  • In this study, we determined whether MCP-1 synthesis was induced by the cellular interaction between monocytes and endothelial cells during the process of transendothelial migration. (ahajournals.org)
  • This finding suggests that the monocyte-endothelial cell adhesive interaction results in an MCP-1-inductive signal to each cell type. (ahajournals.org)
  • Takeya et al 10 observed MCP-1 expression in endothelial cells and subendothelial macrophages of human atherosclerotic lesions. (ahajournals.org)
  • Apart from their hemodynamic properties, it has been repeatedly suggested that synthetic colloids interfere with endothelial dysfunction, 1-7 but the results of various studies are inconsistent. (asahq.org)
  • Expression of functionally intact adhesion molecules is essential for leukocyte-endothelial interactions under flow. (asahq.org)
  • L-selectin mediates rolling of lymphocytes in high endothelial venules (HEVs) of peripheral lymph nodes (PLNs). (semanticscholar.org)
  • Transendothelial migration of lymphocytes across high endothelial venules into lymph nodes is affected by metalloproteinases. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A functional role for circulating mouse L-selectin in regulating leukocyte/endothelial cell interactions in vivo. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Importance of IFN-gamma-mediated expression of endothelial VCAM-1 on recruitment of CD8+ T cells into the brain during chronic infection with Toxop. (nih.gov)
  • We examined the role of IFNgamma on lymphocyte and endothelial adhesion molecule expression and T cell recruitment into the brain during chronic infection with T. gondii in IFNgamma knockout (IFNgamma(-/-)) and wild-type (WT) mice. (nih.gov)
  • We did not detect endothelial E-selectin, P-selectin, MAdCAM-1, or PNAd in any of the brains. (nih.gov)
  • The ligands ICAM-1 and -2 are expressed on endothelial cells that line blood vessels on the surface of APCs ( 3 ). (asm.org)
  • PMN production of ROS (L-012/dihydrorhodamine-123 oxidation), degranulation (release of elastase), and PMN rolling, adhesion, and migration to/across human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were assessed in the presence or absence of CORM-3 (1-100 μM). (physiology.org)
  • In fact, the reciprocal interaction between liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) and cancer cells through these adhesion molecules also triggers an acute inflammatory response [ 2 , 4 ] which helps in the creation of a suitable microenvironment favoring the metastatic progression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The liver is a complex organ composed of hepatic parenchymal cells and a variety of non-parenchymal cells that consist of hepatocytes, endothelial cells (also known as LSECs (Liver Sinusoidal Endothelial Cells)), Kupffer cells, and several subsets of resident lymphocytes, including NK Cells/Pit cells and T-cells (Tumor Metastases). (thermofisher.com)
  • CD11a - Subunit of LFA-1, a membrane glycoprotein that provides cell-cell adhesion by interaction with ICAM-1. (allergycases.org)
  • Lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) consists of an alpha-chain (CD11a) and beta-chain (CD18). (allergycases.org)
  • LFA-1 also has a distinct α-chain (CD11a). (allergycases.org)
  • CD11a is one of the two components, along with CD18, which form lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1. (allergycases.org)
  • CD11a is a subunit of LFA-1, a cell surface molecule involved in T cell mediated immune responses. (springer.com)
  • In addition, treatment with hu1124 caused a rapid reduction in the level of CD11a expression on CD3-positive lymphocytes (T cells) to about 25% of pretreatment levels. (springer.com)
  • CD11a has been shown to interact with ICAM-1 . (thefullwiki.org)
  • Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1, CD11a/CD18, alpha L beta 2) is required for many cellular adhesive interactions during the immune response. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For first-strand cDNA synthesis, and according to the sequence of bovine CD11a available [GenBank: AY267467], gene-specific primers were designed which were expected to give non overlapping ~1 kb RACE products: a sense primer for the 3'-RACE PCR : 5'-TGCAATGTRAGCTCTCCCATCTTC-3' (corresponding to nt 2572 to nt 2595) and an antisense primer for the 5'-RACE PCR : 5'-CCGGCCTCCTCTCTGCTCCCCATAG-3' (nt 1470 to nt 1446). (biomedcentral.com)
  • As of 2007, LFA-1 has 6 known ligands: ICAM-1, ICAM-2, ICAM-3, ICAM-4, ICAM-5, and JAM-A. LFA-1/ICAM-1 interactions have recently been shown to stimulate signaling pathways that influence T cell differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD154/CD40 and CD70/CD27 interactions have different and sequential functions in T cell-dependent B cell responses: enhancement of plasma cell differentiation by CD27 signaling. (jimmunol.org)
  • Intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 functions to enhance the strength of antigenic stimulation, extend the duration of contact with antigen-presenting cells, and augment cytokine signals, which are all factors that influence peripheral CD8 T-cell differentiation. (pnas.org)
  • Interactions governed by ICAM-1 can influence T-cell differentiation by promoting long duration contacts with APCs ( 3 ) and by facilitating asymmetric cell division ( 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • Although ICAM-1 plays a prominent role in multiple events that influence CD8 T-cell differentiation, the requirements for ICAM-1-mediated interactions in the development of CD8 T-cell memory to infection are not well studied. (pnas.org)
  • They are expressed in practically all cells, where they contribute to diverse functions including secretion, gene expression, and cell differentiation. (stanford.edu)
  • The human lymphocyte function-associated (HLFA) antigen and a related macrophage differentiation antigen (HMac-1): Functional effects of subunit-specific monoclonal antibodies. (springer.com)
  • Immunologic tolerance is a state of immune unresponsiveness specific to a particular antigen or set of antigens induced by previous exposure to that antigen or set. (medscape.com)
  • In this review, we summarize previous findings and new discoveries about the importance of S1P and S1PR signaling in the recruitment of immune cells and lymphocyte retention in inflamed tissues. (hindawi.com)
  • Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid mediator involved in many physiological processes including angiogenesis and immune responses [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In this review, we summarize current research findings on the functions of S1P in the recruitment of immune cells into inflamed tissues and discuss its role in inflammatory diseases and wound healing. (hindawi.com)
  • Immune response to the hepatitis B antigen in the RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine, and co-administration with pneumococcal conjugate and rotavirus vaccines in African children: a randomized controlled trial. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Many members of the TNF family fulfill important roles related to the organization, function, and/or homeostasis of the immune system ( 1 ). (rupress.org)
  • We characterize the BAFF-BCMA interaction and show that injection of soluble BCMA-Ig fusion protein into mice leads to a dramatic reduction in the total number of B cells in the peripheral immune organs. (rupress.org)
  • T-lymphocyte migration is important for homing, cell trafficking, and immune surveillance. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Intercellular adhesion molecule-5 (ICAM-5) is a dendrite-specific adhesion molecule, which functions in both the immune and nervous systems. (biologists.org)
  • A SOC called the Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ channel, or CRAC channel, is particularly important in T cells, where it generates sustained Ca2+ signals that are essential for triggering T cells to proliferate and carry out immune functions. (stanford.edu)
  • PD-1-expressing CD8 + T lymphocytes appear to play a major role in the response to these immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI). (frontiersin.org)
  • TCR and associated signaling molecules thus become clustered at the center of the T cell/tumor cell contact area, resulting in formation of a so-called immune synapse (IS) ( 1 ) and initiation of a transduction cascade, leading to execution of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) effector functions. (frontiersin.org)
  • Hence bacteriophage local control of inflammation and immune responses may be an additional immunological defense mechanism that exploits bacteriophage-mucin glycoprotein interactions that controls bacterial diversity and abundance in the mucin layers of the gut. (frontiersin.org)
  • These studies include investigations of the mechanisms whereby eosinophils may function as antigen-presenting cells in governing T-lymphocyte dependent immune responses, and include investigations of the in vivo migration and function of eosinophils and of the regulated expression of cell surface proteins involved in collaborative interactions between eosinophils and other cell types. (bidmc.org)
  • This laboratory is currently studying the cellular immune response against JCV mediated by both CD8+ and CD4+ T lymphocytes in patients with PML, and they are characterizing genetic markers of the host associated with clinical outcome of PML. (bidmc.org)
  • Response of psoriasis to a lymphocyte-selective toxin (DAB 389 IL-2) suggests a primary immune, but not keratinocyte, pathogenic basis. (springer.com)
  • DDX41 selectively upregulated the expression levels of five antigen processing and presentation genes (HSPA1A, HSPA1B, HSPA6, HLA‑DMB and HLA‑G) and downregulated other immune‑response genes in HeLa cells. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • We are currently pursuing new mass spectrometry approaches to identify peptides arrayed on individual types of antigen-presenting cells, and defining at a molecular level the extent of T cell recognition of individual immunodominant epitopes as well as non-immunodominant epitopes.In the next year, we expect to apply these tools and approaches for characterizing human immune recognition to the area of tumor immunology. (dana-farber.org)
  • also known as ITGAL , is a human gene which functions in the immune system. (thefullwiki.org)
  • LFA-1 as a key regulator of immune function: approaches toward the development of LFA-1-based therapeutics. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Thus, E 2 can regulate immune/cancer cell interactions in tumor microenvironments. (zfin.org)
  • Thus, immune cells can produce histamine, prostaglandins, and noradrenaline by themselves and modulate the cell-cell interaction between monocytes and other cells. (elsevier.com)
  • The regulation of interaction mediated by adhesion molecules may provide a new target for controlling inflammatory and immune responses. (elsevier.com)
  • Nishibori, M , Takahashi, HK & Mori, S 2003, ' The regulation of ICAM-1 and LFA-1 interaction by autocoids and statins: A novel strategy for controlling inflammation and immune responses ', Journal Pharmacological Sciences , vol. 92, no. 1, pp. 7-12. (elsevier.com)
  • These include (1) modulating the cholesterol content and thus reducing the stability of lipid raft formation and subsequent effects on the activation and regulation of immune cells, and (2) preventing the prenylation of signalling molecules and subsequent downregulation of gene expression, both resulting in reduced expression of cytokines, chemokines, and adhesion molecules with effects on cell apoptosis or proliferation. (bmj.com)
  • DCs are heterogeneous population of antigen-presenting cells that are crucial to initiate and polarize the immune response. (intechopen.com)
  • There is information on the structure and function of blood and blood cells, immune system, innate and acquired immunity and its regulation, the use of immunochemistry in analytic chemistry and medicine, on hemostasis and thrombosis and hematological and immunological disorders. (vscht.cz)
  • This is achieved by the intervention of the hepatic NK (Natural Killer) cells, which have the ability to mediate spontaneous cytotoxicity both against the intrinsic tumor cells and metastases, and thus participate in the innate immune response against tumor cells in vivo [1,2]. (thermofisher.com)
  • Other gliadin peptides activate an innate immune response characterized by increased production of IL-15 by epithelial and antigen-presenting cells, which activate the effector function and cytotoxic activity of intraepithelial lymphocytes ( 15 ). (asm.org)
  • It mediates adhesive interactions important for antigen-specific immune response, NK-cell mediated clearance, lymphocyte recirculation, and other cellular interactions important for immune response and surveillance. (uniprot.org)
  • These glycoproteins serve as a critical component of the immune system when the host fails to activate alternative compliment pathways or phagocytic cells in response to invading microorganisms or other antigens . (proteopedia.org)
  • [2] [3] All of these functions rely heavily on accurate antigen binding and communication with other immune effector cells. (proteopedia.org)
  • MAC-1 consists of an alpha-chain (CD11b) and beta-chain (CD18). (allergycases.org)
  • The inherited molecular defect in patients with LAD type 1 is a defect in CD18. (allergycases.org)
  • The leukocyte adhesion glycoprotein CD18 participates in HIV-1-induced syncytia formation in monocytoid and T cells. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Therefore, along with the caprine CD18-encoding cDNA, which has been available for a few months, the sequence data revealed here will allow the Capra hircus LFA-1 expression in vitro as a tool to explore the specificities of inflammation in the caprine species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The antigen that bound to the monoclonal antibodies was identified as an important molecule in cellular recognition processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1949, Billingham and Medawar came across Owen's work in a monograph by Frank Macfarlane Burnet and Frank Fenner entitled "The Function of Antibodies. (medscape.com)
  • Furthermore, the germline variants of mutated broadly neutralizing antibodies to influenza virus and HIV show surprisingly low binding affinities to their cognate antigens. (rupress.org)
  • In this context, anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibodies have demonstrated survival benefits in numerous cancers, including melanoma and non-small-cell lung carcinoma. (frontiersin.org)
  • In vivo studies ( 7 , 12 , 18 ) have revealed that Mac-1 and ICAM-1 monoclonal antibodies given intravenously before and/or during reperfusion reduce liver injury in I/R and in endotoxic shock models ( 6 , 17 ). (physiology.org)
  • Anti-interleukin (IL)-1α/β and anti-tumor necrosis factor-α antibodies, or anti-lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 and very late antigen-4 antibodies, had little or no inhibitory effects on MCP-1 secretion by cocultures. (ahajournals.org)
  • While most immunogens generate antibodies that neutralize a subset of T-cell-line-adapted strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), none so far have generated a potent, broadly cross-reactive response against primary isolates of the virus. (asm.org)
  • To facilitate this, full-length gp160 genes were cloned from acute and early subtype B infections and characterized for use as reference reagents to assess neutralizing antibodies against clade B HIV-1. (asm.org)
  • The development of an effective human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine is believed to require the induction of both virus-specific CD8 + T cells and neutralizing antibodies (Abs) ( 56 , 63 ). (asm.org)
  • Crown antibodies pass additional stringent quality requirements, including extended control sets, uniform results against multiple biologically relevant cell lines and tissues, and function in multiple applications. (abgent.com)
  • Analysis of Sodium Chloride Intake and Treg/Th17 Lymphocytes in Healthy Individuals and Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis or Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Journal of Immunology Research, 2018, 9627806. (unam.mx)
  • An alternative mode of CD43 signal transduction activates pro-survival pathways of T lymphocytes Immunology, 150, 87-99. (unam.mx)
  • Dr. Barouch's laboratory focuses on studying the immunology and virology of HIV-1 infection and developing novel vaccine strategies. (bidmc.org)
  • These studies show that T cells mobilize individual cytoskeletal components in response to distinct and specific cell surface interactions. (jimmunol.org)
  • Abstract B10: LFA-1/ICAM-1 interaction switches on an orchestrated prometastatic microenvironmental shift during experimental liver metastasis of colon C26 cancer cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, the role this interaction plays during liver metastasis of colorectal cancer cells and its underlying mechanisms remain unclear. (aacrjournals.org)
  • On the contrary, significant higher numbers of lymphocytic cells were observed in mice with reduced ICAM-1. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Therefore, an orchestrated prometastatic program might be switched on in the liver microenvironment by LFA-1/ICAM-1 interaction which, in turn, could lead not only to a reduced antitumor citotoxicity but, also, to activation of the stromal compartment favoring tumor progression, and, opening liver's doors to tumor cells to aggressively metastasize. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, splenic B cells from transgenic or control mice were found to proliferate at the same rate ( 6 ), suggesting that BAFF, in addition to its ability to costimulate B cell proliferation in vitro, may have alternative functions. (rupress.org)
  • Human embryonic 293 cells carrying the EBNA-1 gene were cultured in DMEM plus 10% FCS, glutamine, pen-strep, and 250 μg/ml G418. (rupress.org)
  • Here we show that, following a prototypic acute viral infection, the formation and maintenance of memory-phenotype CD127 hi , KLRG-1 lo CD8 T cells does not require ICAM-1. (pnas.org)
  • Nevertheless, ICAM-1 expression on nonlymphocytes dictates the phenotypic and functional attributes of the antiviral CD8 T-cell populations that develop and promotes the gradual attrition of residual effector-like CD127 lo , KLRG-1 hi CD8 T cells during the memory phase of the response. (pnas.org)
  • Although memory T cells do emerge and are maintained if ICAM-1 expression is abolished, the secondary proliferative capacity of these T cells is severely curtailed. (pnas.org)
  • Collectively, these studies reveal potential dual roles for ICAM-1 in both promoting the decay of effector responses and programming the sensitivity of memory CD8 T cells to secondary stimuli. (pnas.org)
  • Among the early commands that T cells receive, the strength of antigenic stimulation, the duration of contact with antigen-presenting cells (APCs), and cytokine signals have been proposed to instruct their subsequent development ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • As the responding cells swarm, LFA-1 and ICAM-1 expressed upon T cells mediates T-cell-T-cell interactions and facilitates the directional secretion of IL-2 from one responding cell to another ( 8 , 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • ICAM-1-LFA-1 interactions have also been proposed to enhance IL-2 production by CD8 T cells, particularly during the early stages of the response ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • Moreover, the priming of T cells to soluble peptide or protein antigens appears critically dependent upon ICAM-1, because after initial expansion both CD4 and CD8 T cells are not maintained in ICAM-1 deficient animals ( 3 , 12 ). (pnas.org)
  • Under static and physiological flow conditions, JAM-1 contributed to LFA-1-dependent transendothelial migration of T cells and neutrophils as well as LFA-1-mediated arrest of T cells. (nih.gov)
  • The interaction with antigen-presenting cells is also a dynamic one in which the T cell crawls across the cell surface in an LFA-1-dependent manner, scanning for antigenic peptides. (rupress.org)
  • Random migration can be modeled in vitro by direct activation of LFA-1 on T cells. (rupress.org)
  • We have found that positive selection is associated with Ca2+ oscillations, which immobilize the cells at locations of self-antigen recognition to promote gene activation. (stanford.edu)
  • During GC colonization, B cells engage in long-lasting interactions with T follicular helper (Tfh) cells, a process that depends on antigen uptake and antigen presentation to the Tfh cells. (rupress.org)
  • We find that intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and ICAM-2 on B cells are essential for long-lasting cognate Tfh-B cell interactions and efficient selection of low-affinity B cell clones for proliferative clonal expansion. (rupress.org)
  • Our data demonstrate that CD40 triggering on XG2 cells induced a myeloma cell growth arrest mediated by lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 and intercellular adhesion molecule 2 interactions. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Moreover, functional studies indicated that these CTL mediate human leukocyte antigen class I-restricted cytotoxic activity toward autologous tumor cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Abnormalities in the expression and function of cell adhesion molecules may account for the patterns of intra-nodal growth and hematogenous spread of the malignant cells. (cancerindex.org)
  • Changes in SECs have been reported ( 1 , 15 ) to occur early in reperfusion, so these cells are thought to be the primary targets of this injury. (physiology.org)
  • A potential biological target on the surface of malignant melanoma cells is the up-regulated expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and decay-accelerating factor (DAF), relative to surrounding benign tissue. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Results: In vitro studies established that human melanoma cells endogenously express elevated levels of ICAM-1/DAF and were highly susceptible to rapid viral oncolysis by CAV21 infection, whereas ICAM-1/DAF-expressing peripheral blood lymphocytes were refractile to infection. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Immunohistochemistry on tissue arrays showed that, together with CEACAM6 (carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 6) or the ER stress protein Grp78, Gp96 is also strongly expressed at the apical plasma membrane of the ileal epithelial cells of 50% of patients with CD. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 5.0×10 5 cells) were cocultured for 5 hours, 7.9 ng/mL MCP-1 was secreted into the medium, whereas when the two were cultured separately, MCP-1 levels were 1.0 and 0.9 ng/mL, respectively. (ahajournals.org)
  • It binds to ICAM-1 on antigen-presenting cells and functions as an adhesion molecule. (allergycases.org)
  • VLA ("very late antigens") received their name because α1β1 and α2β1 were expressed on T cells 2 to 4 weeks after repetitive stimulation in vitro in the early experiments. (allergycases.org)
  • LFA-1 antibody treatment severely enhanced leukocyte infiltration, in particular infiltration of CD11b+ monocytes, F4/80+ macrophages, CD4+ T cells, Ly6G+ neutrophils, and CD133+ progenitor cells at peak of inflammation which was accompanied by an increased heart weight/body weight ratio. (mdpi.com)
  • We used the hybrid live cell-nanopatterned supported lipid bilayer system to quantitatively probe the actin-TCR interaction in primary T cells. (biologists.org)
  • In order to determine the function of DDX41, the human DDX41 gene was cloned and overexpressed in HeLa cells. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Here, we have studied whether the initial step of adhesion molecule LFA-1-dependent adhesion to target cells was altered by the inhibitory signal. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Inhibition of adhesion to target cells was mediated by a chimeric KIR molecule carrying catalytically active SHP-1 in place of its cytoplasmic tail. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We have investigated the interaction of human CTLs and helper T cells with supported planar bilayers containing ICAM-1. (washington.edu)
  • In zebrafish, in the presence of E 2 , neutrophils increased dissemination of ER + breast cancer cells via LFA-1 and TGFβ1, thus causing noninvasive cancer cells to be highly metastatic. (zfin.org)
  • Time-lapse imaging in zebrafish revealed close interactions of neutrophils with cancer cells, which drove breast cancer metastasis. (zfin.org)
  • Some EBOV infections generate a cytokine storm, which hinders peripheral natural killer cells (NK) and T and B lymphocytes. (cdc.gov)
  • Mac-1-expressing but not untransfected Chinese hamster ovary cells adhered strongly on VN. (edu.au)
  • Treatment of infected IFNgamma(-/-) mice with recombinant IFN-gamma restored the expression of VCAM-1 on their cerebral vessels and recruitment of CD8(+) T cells into their brains, confirming an importance of this cytokine for upregulation of VCAM-1 expression and CD8(+) T cell trafficking. (nih.gov)
  • To study the adhesive properties of the LFA-1 I domain, we stably expressed a GPI-anchored form of this I domain (I-GPI) on the surface of baby hamster kidney cells. (nih.gov)
  • I-GPI cells bound soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1) with a low avidity and affinity. (nih.gov)
  • Flow cell experiments demonstrated a specific rolling interaction of I-GPI cells on bilayers containing purified full length ICAM-1 or ICAM-3. (nih.gov)
  • The LFA-1 activating antibody MEM-83, or its Fab fragment, decreased the rolling velocity of I-GPI cells on ICAM-1-containing membranes. (nih.gov)
  • In contrast, the interaction of I-GPI cells with ICAM-3 was blocked by MEM-83. (nih.gov)
  • d) ICAM-1 GPI-transfected cells. (nih.gov)
  • Therefore, adhesion of I-GPI E6 cells to a glass-supported planar bilayer reconstituted with 500 molecules/μm2 purified ICAM-1 or 1,000 molecules/μm2 purified ICAM-3 was examined in a parallel plate flow cell. (nih.gov)
  • The I-GPI E6 cells were allowed a 2-min static period to settle onto the bilayer before starting flow at a shear stress of 1 dyn/cm2. (nih.gov)
  • In contrast, mock transfected cells showed neither rolling nor stable interaction with ICAM-1 in the glass-supported bilayer (Fig. 3 C and Table 1), whereas ICAM-1 GPI cells attached stably to bilayers containing 500 molecules/μm2 of purified LFA-1 (Fig. 3 D and Table 1). (nih.gov)
  • Competition of sICAM-1 with 125I TS1/22 Fab fragments for binding to I-GPI (A) and static adhesion assay of SKW3 cells and I-GPI cells to ICAM-1 coated on plates (B). (A) I-GPI E6 cells were incubated with the indicated concentrations of sICAM-1 and 125I TS1/22 Fab fragments (2 nM) for 20 min at room temperature. (nih.gov)
  • B) Unstimulated SKW3 cells (open squares), SKW3 cells preincubated with 50 ng/ml PMA (filled squares), and I-GPI E6 cells (closed circles) or I-GPI E5 cells (open circles) were tested for adhesion to ICAM-1-coated plastic at 37°C in RPMI-1640, 2% BSA. (nih.gov)
  • In initial experiments to determine the affinity of the I domain, the binding of radiolabeled sICAM-1 dimers to I-GPI E6 cells was not detectable (data not shown). (nih.gov)
  • Subsequently, we measured the inhibition of binding of radiolabeled TS1/22 Fab fragments to I-GPI E6 cells by titrating in sICAM-1 (Fig. 2 A). Half maximal reduction of TS1/22 Fab binding was achieved at ∼150 μM sICAM-1. (nih.gov)
  • This result indicates that the affinity between sICAM-1 and the I domain is low and similar to the affinity of sICAM-1 and intact LFA-1 on unstimulated T cells (∼100 μM) (33). (nih.gov)
  • Upon alloactivation, SHP-1 activity is reduced, resulting in an increase in LFA-1 adhesion compared to that for syngeneically activated T cells. (asm.org)
  • The importance of these differential activation properties was further indicated by small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of SHP-1 in syngeneically and allogeneically stimulated T cells. (asm.org)
  • Recipient-derived antigen-presenting cells (APCs) are pivotal for the induction of alloresponses ( 1 ). (asm.org)
  • Following the initial adhesive interaction between potentially alloreactive T cells and allogeneic APCs such as dendritic cells (DCs), LFA-1 facilitates the stable formation of the "immunological synapse," which enhances T cell activation and subsequent effector functions ( 4 , 5 ). (asm.org)
  • Here, we identified the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) SHP-1 as a key regulator of LFA-1-mediated adhesion in primary murine T cells, with particular involvement in alloactivation. (asm.org)
  • We demonstrate for the first time in vitro and in vivo that SHP-1 activity is significantly reduced upon alloactivation, resulting in an increase in the allogeneic activation of T cells and their adhesion to major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-mismatched APCs. (asm.org)
  • In addition to its function as the key trans-activator of viral transcription, Tat is also secreted by the infected cell and taken up by neighboring cells where it has an effect both on infected and uninfected cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This resulted in a recovery of the cytotoxic potential of liver lymphocytes which is compromised by LSECs activated by C26 cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It plays a role in regulating the CD28 responsive element in T cells, and may also function as a regulator of polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1), a protein which is overexpressed in multiple tumor types. (umbc.edu)
  • This interaction is important in mediating thymocyte interactions with thymic epithelial cells, antigen-independent and -dependent interactions of T-lymphocytes with target cells and antigen-presenting cells and the T-lymphocyte rosetting with erythrocytes. (abcam.com)
  • In addition, the LFA-3/CD2 interaction may prime response by both the CD2+ and LFA-3+ cells. (abcam.com)
  • Lymphocytes adhere to other cells and extracellular matrix in the process of immunological recognition and lymphocyte recirculation. (ox.ac.uk)
  • As filtration of blood is one of the main functions of Liver, cancer cells from other parts of the body have easy access to the liver. (thermofisher.com)
  • Thus, the NK cells use the FasL and the Perforin-Granzyme pathway to kill the target cells [1]. (thermofisher.com)
  • Pharmacodynamics were assessed by measuring the ability of SAR 1118 to inhibit Jurkat T-cell binding with recombinant human ICAM-1 and to inhibit cytokine release from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) stimulated by staphylococcal enterotoxin B. For the assessment of clinical efficacy, 10 dogs diagnosed with idiopathic KCS were treated with SAR 1118 1% topical ophthalmic solution three times daily for 12 weeks. (elsevier.com)
  • Gliadin peptides also induce upregulation of the zonulin innate immunity pathway, which leads to increased intestinal permeability and enables paracellular translocation of gliadin and its subsequent interaction with antigen-presenting cells within the intestinal submucosa ( 11 ). (asm.org)
  • Lifitegrast tested in vitro inhibited T-cell adhesion to ICAM-1 expressing cells and inhibited secretion of key inflammatory cytokines and other pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, all of which are associated with dry eye disease, according to Dr. Donnenfeld. (modernmedicine.com)
  • Several signaling responses are activated by these interactions, affecting the survival, proliferation and migration of MM cells. (eurekaselect.com)
  • An important consequence of these direct adhesive interactions between the BM/ECM and MM cells is the development of drug resistance. (eurekaselect.com)
  • However, nascent TCR proteins that are not assembled into functional heterodimers may be processed and displayed with self MHC molecules on the T-cell surface, and are thought to be the genesis of autoregulatory T cells that can limit inflammatory responses through T-T network interactions. (begellhouse.com)
  • When a foreign antigen binds to a B-lymphocyte ( B-cell ), it activates the B-cell, and upon stimulation by helper T-cells , undergoes clonal proliferation and B-cell maturation into antibody forming plasma cells . (proteopedia.org)
  • Patients with LAD also have poorly functioning neutrophils. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human Neutrophils Will Crawl Upstream on ICAM-1 If Mac-1 Is Blocked. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Moreover, experimental techniques designed to remove neutrophils from the circulation or to inhibit their function have measurably reduced the extent of I/R injury to the liver ( 19 ). (physiology.org)
  • 1) the immunobiology of eosinophilic leukocytes and 2) the intracellular regulation and compartmentalization of inducible mediators of inflammation in neutrophils and other leukocytes. (bidmc.org)
  • We found that E 2 increased the number of LFA-1 + neutrophils recruited to the invasive edge of mouse tumors, increased TGFβ1 secretion and promoted neutrophil infiltration in mammospheres, and induced overexpression of LFA-1 in neutrophils. (zfin.org)
  • Peripheral human blood neutrophils adhered and migrated on multimeric VN in a Mac-1-dependent manner. (edu.au)
  • Between December 2010 and May 2015, 41 PD patients with different levels of cognitive functions and 29 healthy volunteers underwent peripheral blood sampling to quantify systemic oxidative stress, as well as T1W volumetric and resting state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) scans. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The MTLs are the vulnerable areas associated with peripheral lymphocyte infiltration, and disruptions of the MTL functional network in both architecture and functional connectivity might result in cognitive impairments in Parkinson's disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Tumor-specific CTL have been isolated from tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of patients with varied cancers. (frontiersin.org)
  • Real time RT-PCR revealed that JAM-1 mRNA was upregulated in multiple regions of the brain and all of the peripheral vascular beds studied. (ahajournals.org)
  • LFA-1 plays a key role in emigration, which is the process by which leukocytes leave the bloodstream to enter the tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • LFA-1 also mediates firm arrest of leukocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transfectants expressing JAM-1 supported LFA-1-mediated adhesion of leukocytes, which required the membrane-proximal Ig-like domain 2 of JAM-1. (nih.gov)
  • Lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) is found on leukocytes is involved in recruitment to the site of infection. (allergycases.org)
  • The association between polymorphisms of the gene encoding intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1) and gene-environment interactions with childhood asthma has not been fully investigated. (mdpi.com)
  • α4β1), which bind to their cognate ligands, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). (semanticscholar.org)
  • One of them was junctional adhesion molecule (JAM)-1. (ahajournals.org)
  • The lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 I domain is a transient binding module for intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and ICAM-3 in hydrodynamic flow. (nih.gov)
  • The I domain of lymphocyte function-associated antigen (LFA)-1 contains an intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and ICAM-3 binding site, but the relationship of this site to regulated adhesion is unknown. (nih.gov)
  • Characterization of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 ectodomain (sICAM-1) as an inhibitor of lymphocyte function-associated molecule-1 interaction with ICAM-1. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In addition to class II molecules bearing the appropriate peptide, adhesive and costimulatory interactions are required to induce T cell proliferation and effector function ( 1 , 2 , 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • After the initial encounter with an APC, low affinity adhesive interactions facilitate T cell sampling of the APC surface for the presence of specific peptide-MHC complexes recognized by the clonally distributed TCR. (jimmunol.org)
  • 1 2 3 4 5 Although the mechanisms of monocyte infiltration are not fully understood, it involves the adhesive interaction of blood monocytes with the vascular endothelium and subsequent migration into the subendothelial space. (ahajournals.org)
  • Leukocyte adhesion deficiency is an immunodeficiency caused by the absence of key adhesion surface proteins, including LFA-1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Leukocyte adhesion deficiency Lifitegrast, a drug that blocks LFA-1 from binding to ICAM-1 Lackie JM (2010). (wikipedia.org)
  • All ICAM proteins are type I transmembrane glycoproteins, contain 2-9 immunoglobulin-like C2-type domains, and bind to the leukocyte adhesion LFA-1 protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although hydroxyethyl starches (HESs) attenuated capillary leakage, soluble adhesion molecules, leukocyte adhesion, and cytokine concentrations in vivo and in vitro , 1-3,7-9 HES was also reported to be less potent than dextrans or even without beneficial effects on leukocyte-related reperfusion injury in other studies. (asahq.org)
  • LFA-1 plays a central role in leukocyte intercellular adhesion through interactions with its ligands, ICAMs 1-3 (intercellular adhesion molecules 1 through 3), and also functions in lymphocyte costimulatory signaling. (cancerindex.org)
  • Chemokines stimulate the activation process of LFA-1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Predictive value of Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen activation for Streptococcus pneumoniae infection and severity in pediatric lobar pneumonia. (bioportfolio.com)
  • This is an unprecedented mechanism for channel activation, in which a stimulus acts to bring a channel and its activator/sensor together for interaction across apposed membrane compartments. (stanford.edu)
  • LFA-1/ICAM-1 interaction contributes to the formation of immunological synapses resulting in T-cell activation and migration to target tissues. (drugs.com)
  • May play a significant role in antigen presentation or the cellular interactions that follow lymphocyte activation. (abcam.com)
  • Their function is largely controlled by qualitative changes in affinity and avidity after activation, whereas quantitative changes in expression play a minor role. (asahq.org)
  • In addition, we have derived further detail about CD4 and CD8 coreceptors and their binding to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules of class II and class I, respectively.Recently, we have shown that agonist mAbs footprint to the membrane distal CD3epsilon lobe which they approach diagonally, adjacent to the lever-like Cbeta FG loop that facilitates antigen (pMHC)-triggered activation. (dana-farber.org)
  • So far, the molecular processes underlying the signaling events between TCR activation and LFA-1 clustering are not fully understood. (asm.org)
  • LFA-1/ICAM-1 interaction is important in a variety of cellular events including Ag-specific T cell activation and leukocyte transendothelial migration. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Interaction of LFA-1 with ICAMs is also regulated by cell activation but in a different way than in interaction of CD2 with LFA-3. (ox.ac.uk)
  • LFA-1 avidity for ICAMs is transiently increased by T-cell activation over a period of minutes. (ox.ac.uk)
  • This prompts CytoC (Cytochrome-C) release and the activation of Caspase9 through interaction with the adaptor molecule APAF1(Apoptotic Protease-Activating Factor-1). (thermofisher.com)
  • SAR 1118 demonstrated concentration-dependent inhibition of Jurkat T-cell attachment, inhibition of lymphocyte activation, and release of inflammatory cytokines, particularly the Th1, Th2, and Th17 T-cell cytokines IFN-γ, IL-2, and IL-17F, respectively. (elsevier.com)
  • Additionally, LFA-1 is involved in the process of cytotoxic T cell mediated killing as well as antibody mediated killing by granulocytes and monocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conditioned medium had transendothelial chemotactic activity for monocytes, and this activity was completely abolished by addition of anti-MCP-1 antibody. (ahajournals.org)
  • To investigate the effect of LFA-1 in myocarditis, mice with experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) were treated with a function blocking anti-LFA-1 antibody from day 1 of disease until day 21, the peak of inflammation. (mdpi.com)
  • Role of the LFA-1 molecule in cellular interactions required for antibody production in humans. (springer.com)
  • Humanization of an anti-lymphocyte function-associated antigen (LFA)-1 monoclonal antibody and reengineering of the humanized antibody for binding to rhesus LFA-1. (springer.com)
  • Antibody solution is stable at 2-8°C for 1 year. (cellsciences.com)
  • Each antibody is crafted with care according to rigorous protocols for immunogen design and preparation, presentation to host animal, and high-affinity purification against the antigen. (abgent.com)
  • which seperates the lobes of the antibody from one another and provides ample flexibility to bind antigens effectively. (proteopedia.org)
  • [4] Both domains, heavy and light, contain variable and constant regions that are crucial to antibody function. (proteopedia.org)
  • Fragment, Antigen Binding region) is composed of one constant and one variable domain from each heavy and light chain of the antibody. (proteopedia.org)
  • Loss of function of the CRAC channel by a single mutation in its structural gene leads to a devastating severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in humans. (stanford.edu)
  • This polarization process is thought to affect T cell signaling by organizing a specialized domain on the T cell surface and to direct T cell effector function toward the appropriate APC. (jimmunol.org)
  • The interaction of the CD43 sialomucin with the mycobacterium tuberculosis cpn60.2 chaperonin mediates macrophage TNF-alpha production Infection and Immunity, 85, e00915-16. (unam.mx)
  • Advancement in our understanding of how neuroimmune processes mediates behavioral, affective, and neurochemical functions offers a new perspective for understanding the etiology of psychiatric disorders. (nature.com)
  • Pubmed ID: 11859198 The area of contact between a T cell and an antigen-presenting cell (APC) is known as the immunological synapse. (jove.com)
  • Although a significant role for actin in the immunological synapse is clear, many physical aspects of actin-TCR interactions are still relegated to the imagination. (biologists.org)
  • In CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes, the immunological synapse is thought to facilitate specific killing by confining cytotoxic agents to the synaptic cleft. (washington.edu)
  • Adhesion molecules : function and inhibition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neutrophil recruitment at sites of inflammation is mediated by a variety of adhesion molecules, which are cell-surface glycoproteins involved in cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. (physiology.org)
  • 1988). "Human memory T lymphocytes express increased levels of three cell adhesion molecules (LFA-3, CD2, and LFA-1) and three other molecules (UCHL1, CDw29, and Pgp-1) and have enhanced IFN-gamma production. (thefullwiki.org)
  • the regulation of the expression of costimulatory adhesion molecules such as ICAM-1 and B7 antigens on monocytes/macrophages. (elsevier.com)
  • The regulation of the expression of adhesion molecules by these agonists in turn leads to the modulation of subsequent cytokine production mediated by cell-cell interaction under different stimuli. (elsevier.com)
  • The bilayer membranes contained 500 molecules/μm2 ICAM-1 (a-c) or 500 molecules/μm2 LFA-1 (d). (nih.gov)
  • The cell-surface glycoprotein Mo1 is a member of the family of leukocyte cell adhesion molecules (Leu-CAMs) that includes lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) and p150,95. (elsevier.com)
  • We suggest that whereas SDF-1 directly acts to upregulate CXCR4 expression in HSCs, dextran sulfate acts via multiple pathways involved in the induction of various homing-related molecules, in addition to SDF-1. (nih.gov)
  • Although previous studies suggest that ICAM-1 is essential for establishing memory T-cell populations following peptide immunization, the roles of ICAM-1 in antiviral cellular immunity are less well understood. (pnas.org)
  • 26 Recently, it has been reported that unstimulated human monocytes express MCP-1 mRNA in relation to their cellular density but not to their adherence to a substrate. (ahajournals.org)
  • Moreover, novel functions of RNA helicases include their activity as transcriptional coregulators and regulators of post-translational modifications, and their ability to modulate cellular signaling pathways such as Wnt-ß-catenin, NF-κB and MAPK ( 6 - 9 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Cross-linking of the TCR transiently converts LFA-1 to a high avidity state and thus provides a mechanism for regulating cellular adhesion and de-adhesion in an antigen-specific manner. (sciencemag.org)
  • Thus, Tat fulfills a role in HIV-1 pathogenesis not only as an essential protein for HIV-1 replication, but also as an extra-cellular toxin [ 32 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As a consequence, it is unlikely that sICAM-1 would antagonize ICAM-1/LFA-1-mediated cellular events in vivo. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The interaction between these two proteins plays a key role in the chronic inflammation associated with dry eye. (bio-medicine.org)
  • LFA-1 has two subunits designated as the alpha subunit and beta subunit. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, LFA-1 binding to ICAM-1 was found to be regulated by the cytoplasmic domain of the beta subunit of LFA-1. (sciencemag.org)
  • Other members of the LFA-1 family include CD11bCD18 (Mac-1 or CR3) and CD11cCD18 (p150,95 or CR4), both of which have the same β subunit as LFA-1. (allergycases.org)
  • Truncation of the cytoplasmic domain of the beta, but not the alpha, subunit of LFA-1 eliminated binding to ICAM-1 and sensitivity to phorbol esters. (sciencemag.org)
  • The LFA-1-dependent adhesion could be further subdivided into an LFA-1/ICAM-1-dependent component which was increased by cytokines and a basal LFA-1-dependent, ICAM-1-independent component which did not appear to be affected by cytokines. (rupress.org)
  • In an inactive state, LFA-1 rests in a bent conformation and has a low affinity for ICAM binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • We have investigated the contribution of TCR, CD28, and LFA-1 signaling to T cell cytoskeletal polarization by assaying the response of an Ag-specific Th1 clone toward a panel of transfected APCs expressing MHC class II alone or in combination with ICAM-1 or B7-1. (jimmunol.org)
  • Using ICAM-1 specific siRNAs in vivo, we aimed to study the role of hepatic ICAM-1 in the prometastatic shift of the liver microenvironment. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Based on these results, LFA-1/ICAM-1 interaction arises as a potential therapeutic target in cancer treatment. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Expression of ICAM-1 by the APCs also lowers the concentration of antigen required to activate a naïve T cell ( 5 ), thereby enhancing the strength of antigenic stimulation, and engagement of LFA-1 by ICAM-1 has been proposed to have a costimulatory role ( 6 , 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • Several previous studies have harnessed ICAM-1-deficient mice with targeted deletions in exons 4 and 5, in which soluble or membrane-bound splice variants, respectively, may still be expressed ( 13 ⇓ - 15 ), thus potentially complicating their interpretation. (pnas.org)
  • In the current report, we have used ICAM-1 −/− (Icam1 tm1A1b ) mice, in which the entire coding region of the ICAM1 gene has been deleted ( 16 , 17 ), as well as experimental systems in which ICAM-1 expression is restricted to specific cell types. (pnas.org)
  • However, high affinity, clustered LFA-1 is restricted to a mid-cell zone that remains stable over time and over a range of ICAM-1 densities. (rupress.org)
  • ICAM-1 is over-expressed in corneal and conjunctival tissues in dry eye disease. (drugs.com)
  • The chronological profiles of upregulation of ICAM-1 on hepatocytes and Mac-1 showed changes in parallel with the other liver damage parameters, and the extent of upregulation and various parameters of liver injury were more advanced in the 60-min I/R group. (physiology.org)
  • Paradoxically, the degree of ICAM-1 upregulation of SECs decreased significantly in the 60-min I/R group vs. the 30-min I/R group. (physiology.org)
  • A bend between domains 1 and 2 of ICAM-2 and a tripod-like arrangement of N-linked glycans in the membrane-proximal region of domain 2 may be important for presenting the recognition surface to LFA-1. (rcsb.org)
  • A model of ICAM-1 based on the ICAM-2 structure provides a framework for understanding its recognition by pathogens. (rcsb.org)
  • We found that cytotoxic T lymphocytes form a ring junction similar to a pSMAC in response to high surface densities of ICAM-1 in the planar bilayer. (washington.edu)
  • ICAM-1 and MICA are upregulated in tissues by inflammation- and stress-associated signaling, respectively. (washington.edu)
  • in contrast, numbers of ICAM-1(+) vessels did not differ between strains. (nih.gov)
  • Some of the inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase were shown to bind to the ICAM-1-binding domain of LFA-1, reducing the interaction mediated by ICAM-1/LFA-1. (elsevier.com)
  • This suggests that the I domain acts as a transient, Mg2+-dependent binding module that cooperates with another Mn2+-stimulated site in LFA-1 to give rise to the stable interaction of intact LFA-1 with ICAM-1. (nih.gov)
  • Surprisingly, upon starting flow, the I-GPI E6 began to roll on planar bilayers containing ICAM-1 (Fig. 3, A and B and Table 1) or ICAM-3 (not shown), in a manner reminiscent of selectin- or VLA-4-mediated rolling. (nih.gov)
  • Purified ICAM-1 was coated on polystyrene at the indicated density as determined by immunometric assay. (nih.gov)
  • Using the formula of Chen and Prusoff (29), the Kd for the I domain/ ICAM-1 interaction was calculated to be in the range of 100-200 μM, as determined in three independent experiments. (nih.gov)
  • Recently, a soluble circulating form of ICAM-1 has been detected in human serum that appears to result from the proteolytic cleavage of membrane ICAM-1. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Native and recombinant soluble forms of ICAM-1 have been reported to inhibit LFA-1/ICAM-mediated adhesion in vitro, and it is conceivable that circulating forms of soluble ICAM-1 are regulators of LFA-1/ICAM-1-mediated cell-cell interaction in vivo. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We have investigated the properties of the ICAM-1 ectodomain (sICAM453) as an inhibitor of LFA-1 interaction with ICAM-1 in cell- and molecule-based systems. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The results show clearly that recombinant sICAM453 can inhibit LFA-1/ICAM-1 interaction. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Soluble ICAM-1 inhibited LFA-1-mediated cell adhesion to immobilized sICAM453 and homotypic T-cell aggregation with IC50 in the 20 to 40 microM range. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Definitive evidence that sICAM-1 can inhibit LFA-1 interaction with ICAM-1 was obtained by showing that the sICAM-1 inhibited the interaction between LFA-1 protein micelles and ICAM-1 immobilized on plastic. (ox.ac.uk)
  • These results clearly show that sICAM453 can bind to LFA-1 and competitively inhibit ICAM-1/LFA-1-mediated cell-cell interaction, albeit at concentrations much greater than found in plasma. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Recent observations on recirculation of T lymphocyte subpopulations are discussed in the context of general lessons learned from study of the CD2/LFA-3 and LFA-1/ICAM adhesion mechanisms. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In patients with dry eye disease, ICAM-1 is over-expressed in the corneal and conjunctival tissues. (modernmedicine.com)
  • Abstract Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, or monocyte chemotactic and activating factor) plays important roles in the recruitment of monocytes and thus in the development of atherosclerosis. (ahajournals.org)
  • 6 7 8 Among several cytokines and other factors with chemotactic activity for monocytes, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, or monocyte chemotactic and activating factor) may be especially important in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. (ahajournals.org)
  • A cDNA clone of identical size was isolated from a human monocyte/lymphocyte cDNA library by using the guinea pig clone as a probe. (elsevier.com)
  • LFA-1 is a heterodimeric glycoprotein with non-covalently linked subunits. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1991) Molecular mechanisms underlying lymphocyte recirculation. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • ICAM2 may play a role in lymphocyte recirculation by blocking LFA-1-dependent cell adhesion. (uniprot.org)
  • B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is marked by the accumulation of CD5+ B lymphocytes within the blood, bone marrow (BM), and secondary lymphoid tissues. (cancerindex.org)
  • This result has specific implications for the mechanism of effective CTL hunting for antigen in tissues. (washington.edu)
  • J Cell Biol (1988) 107 (1): 321-331. (rupress.org)
  • Regulation of memory CD4 T cell adhesion by CD4-MHC class II interaction. (jimmunol.org)
  • Costimulatory interactions such as CD28:B7 synergize with TCR signaling to transduce full activating signals to the T cell ( 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • In addition to these well-studied events, T cell:APC interactions result in dramatic changes in T cell shape and cytoarchitecture. (jimmunol.org)
  • Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid metabolite involved in many critical cell processes. (hindawi.com)
  • It may be a critical component in neuron-microglial cell interactions in the course of normal development or as part of neurodegenerative diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • B cell maturation antigen (BCMA) was first identified as part of a translocation event in a malignant T cell lymphoma patient ( 7 ). (rupress.org)
  • This may be due to a B cell survival function of BAFF. (rupress.org)
  • The induction and properties of these responses are governed by a series of integrated processes that rely heavily on cell-cell interactions. (pnas.org)
  • For the migrating T cell, the connection between LFA-1 and the cytoskeleton has yet to be elucidated. (rupress.org)
  • How long-lasting T-B interactions and B cell clonal expansion are regulated by antigen presentation remains unclear. (rupress.org)
  • Several of them recognize truly tumor-specific antigens encoded by mutated genes, also known as neoantigens, which likely play a key role in antitumor CD8 T-cell immunity. (frontiersin.org)
  • Accordingly, it has been shown that the presence of T lymphocytes directed toward tumor neoantigens is associated with patient response to immunotherapies, including ICI, adoptive cell transfer, and dendritic cell-based vaccines. (frontiersin.org)
  • Moreover, interneurons and perivascular microglia also make contacts with ECs, pericytes and astrocytes to establish a neuro-vascular unit (NVU) (Fig. 1 a), a term that reflects both morphological relationships as well as molecular interactions between these various cell types. (springer.com)
  • We visualized the accumulation of a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecule, I-E(k), at a T cell-B cell interface and found it was dependent on both antigen recognition and costimulation. (jove.com)
  • The rapid induction of message suggests that cell contact between monocytes and HUVECs induces the de novo synthesis of MCP-1 protein. (ahajournals.org)
  • These functions include mitogen- and cell adhesion-induced signalling events and probable roles in transformation by various oncogenes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • A human lymphocyte-associated antigen involved in cell-mediated lympholysis. (springer.com)
  • Tisagenlecleucel and Axicabtagene, targeting the CD19 antigen, are the two pacesetters of CAR T-cell products. (springer.com)
  • In this review article, we summarize six promising candidate antigens in MM that can be targeted by CARs and discuss some noteworthy studies of the safety profile of current CAR T-cell therapy. (springer.com)
  • The DDX41 regulatory network predicted the biological function of DDX41 in suppressing tumor cell growth and regulating cancer immunity, which may be important for developing anticancer therapeutics. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Cell (United States) 112 (1): 99-111. (thefullwiki.org)
  • The role of E 2 in neutrophil-ER + breast cancer cell interactions is unknown. (zfin.org)
  • This novel key role of SHP-1 in the regulation of LFA-1-mediated adhesion may provide a new insight into T cell-mediated alloresponses and may pave the way to the development of new immunosuppressive pharmaceutical agents. (asm.org)
  • Leu-CAMs play crucial roles in cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. (elsevier.com)
  • The purpose of this review is to outline the evidence for the anti-inflammatory properties of statins using observations from ex vivo and in vitro cell function, from experimental disease models, and clinical trials, and to suggest how these may be applicable to therapeutic advances for inflammatory lung disease. (bmj.com)
  • Immunocompromised tumor-bearing mice show a selective loss of STAT5a/b expression in T and B lymphocytes. (jimmunol.org)
  • Lymphocyte homing and leukocyte rolling and migration are impaired in L-selectin-deficient mice. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In addition, dextran sulfate increases plasma SDF-1 levels in mice and nonhuman primates. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, we examined the effects of preconditioning with SDF-1 and dextran sulfate on the homing efficiency of HSCs following BM transplantation in mice. (nih.gov)
  • We found that the preconditioning of donor mice with either SDF-1 or dextran sulfate enhanced the homing efficiency of infused HSCs in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we identified a novel role of the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 in the regulation of murine LFA-1-mediated adhesion in an allograft setting. (asm.org)
  • Strikingly, a small molecule alpha/beta I-like allosteric antagonist, XVA143, inhibits LFA-1-dependent firm adhesion, while at the same time it enhances adhesion in shear flow and rolling both in vitro and in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • The authors postulated that the age of the animal at the time of its first encounter with a foreign body was the critical factor in determining its responsiveness and, hence, its recognition of nonself antigens. (medscape.com)
  • We have identified a cholesterol recognition amino acid consensus (CRAC) motif in the toxin that regulates the interaction of the toxin with cholesterol. (aiche.org)
  • this Glu 37 is surrounded by a relatively flat recognition surface and lies in a beta-strand, whereas the critical aspartic acid residue in VCAM-1 and fibronectin lie in protruding loops. (rcsb.org)
  • 1 Despite accumulating evidence that gene expression profiles are altered in essential hypertension, 2,3 prohypertensive genes remain unclear. (ahajournals.org)
  • Additionally, DDX41‑regulated oncogenes and antigen processing and presentation genes were associated with patient survival rates. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Moreover, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that SDF-1 and dextran sulfate increased transcription of a variety of homing-related genes, including those for CXCR4, lymphocyte function associated antigen-1, matrix metalloproteinase-9, very late antigen-4/5, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1. (nih.gov)
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: In an in vitro system with purified components, Mac-1 specifically bound the multimeric matrix form of VN but not the monomeric plasma form. (edu.au)
  • This in turn facilitates formation of the lower affinity TCR:MHC interactions, allowing for serial engagement of the TCR ( 8 , 9 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • To determine whether L-selectin shedding regulates lymphocyte migration, a mutant form that resists shedding (LdDeltaP-selectin) was engineered. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The kinetic analysis shows that the interaction between GH-RIH and secretin affecting pancreatic bicarbonate secretion possesses the characteristics of competitive inhibition. (jci.org)
  • 4, 5 The beneficial effects of statins have been attributed to reduced cholesterol biosynthesis through competitive inhibition of the enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase (fig 1). (bmj.com)
  • The human BCMA-hIgG1 (BCMA-Ig) expression vector was created using a murine κ light chain signal sequence, a PCR fragment generated to BCMA amino acids 1-48 (second Met), and a hIgG1 SalI + NotI fragment ( 11 ). (rupress.org)
  • The mid seventeenth century ushered the beginning of a new era in medicine with the discovery of a microscopic world of bacteria and fungi ( 1 ) that in the twenty-first century these entities have been demonstrated to play a crucial role in shaping human immunity and maintaining immunological and metabolic tolerance throughout a lifetime ( 2 , 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • 9 10 11 12 13 In support of this notion, Ylä-Herttuala et al 9 demonstrated MCP-1 in macrophage-rich areas of human and rabbit atherosclerotic lesions. (ahajournals.org)
  • Nelken et al 11 also reported the expression of MCP-1 mRNA in human atheromatous plaques. (ahajournals.org)
  • Recombinant fragment within Human CD83 aa 1-150. (abcam.com)
  • 1991). "CD27 expression by a distinct subpopulation of human B lymphocytes. (thefullwiki.org)
  • We studied the relationship between KIR-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) combinations and the clinical outcomes of patients with Ebola virus disease (EVD). (cdc.gov)
  • Southern analysis of DNA from hamster-human hybrids localized the human Mo1 alpha chain to chromosome 16, which has been shown to contain the gene for the alpha chain of lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1. (elsevier.com)
  • The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) trans-activator of transcription protein Tat is an important factor in viral pathogenesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) exhibits high genetic variability, with strains divided into three main groups: major (M), which are the cause of most HIV-1 infections worldwide, outlier (O) and new (N) that are non M and non O [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • [1] Each domain (2 heavy and 2 light) contain between 70-110 amino acids and are classified into different categories according to size and function. (proteopedia.org)
  • Development of clickable monophosphoryl lipid As towards semi-synthetic conjugates with tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Contains 1 Ig-like C2-type (immunoglobulin-like) domain. (abcam.com)