Receptor, Melanocortin, Type 3: A melanocortin receptor subtype found primarily in BRAIN. It shows specificity for ALPHA-MSH; BETA-MSH; GAMMA-MSH and ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE.Arthritis, Gouty: Arthritis, especially of the great toe, as a result of gout. Acute gouty arthritis often is precipitated by trauma, infection, surgery, etc. The initial attacks are usually monoarticular but later attacks are often polyarticular.Receptors, Melanocortin: A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that have specificity for MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES and ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. There are several subtypes of melanocortin receptors, each having a distinct ligand specificity profile and tissue localization.Receptor, Melanocortin, Type 4: A melanocortin receptor subtype found primarily in BRAIN. It shows specificity for ALPHA-MSH; BETA-MSH and ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE.alpha-MSH: A 13-amino acid peptide derived from proteolytic cleavage of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE, the N-terminal segment of ACTH. ACTH (1-13) is amidated at the C-terminal to form ACTH (1-13)NH2 which in turn is acetylated to form alpha-MSH in the secretory granules. Alpha-MSH stimulates the synthesis and distribution of MELANIN in MELANOCYTES in mammals and MELANOPHORES in lower vertebrates.Receptor, Melanocortin, Type 1: A melanocortin receptor subtype found primarily in MELANOCYTES. It shows specificity for ALPHA-MSH and ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. Loss of function mutations of the type 1 melanocortin receptor account for the majority of red hair and fair skin recessive traits in human.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Receptor, Melanocortin, Type 2: A melanocortin receptor subtype found primarily in the ADRENAL CORTEX. It shows specificity for ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE.Receptors, Corticotropin: Cell surface receptors that bind CORTICOTROPIN; (ACTH, adrenocorticotropic hormone) with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes. Pharmacology suggests there may be multiple ACTH receptors. An ACTH receptor has been cloned and belongs to a subfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors. In addition to the adrenal cortex, ACTH receptors are found in the brain and immune systems.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormones: Peptides with the ability to stimulate pigmented cells MELANOCYTES in mammals and MELANOPHORES in lower vertebrates. By stimulating the synthesis and distribution of MELANIN in these pigmented cells, they increase coloration of skin and other tissue. MSHs, derived from pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), are produced by MELANOTROPHS in the INTERMEDIATE LOBE OF PITUITARY; CORTICOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY, and the hypothalamic neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS OF HYPOTHALAMUS.Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC 1.14.16.2.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus: Nucleus in the anterior part of the HYPOTHALAMUS.Agouti-Related Protein: A secreted protein of approximately 131 amino acids that is related to AGOUTI SIGNALING PROTEIN and is also an antagonist of MELANOCORTIN RECEPTOR activity. It is expressed primarily in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the ADRENAL GLAND. As a paracrine signaling molecule, AGRP is known to regulate food intake and body weight. Elevated AGRP has been associated with OBESITY.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Neuropeptides: Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.Substance P: An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Agouti Signaling Protein: A secreted protein of approximately 131 amino acids (depending on species) that regulates the synthesis of eumelanin (brown/black) pigments in MELANOCYTES. Agouti protein antagonizes the signaling of MELANOCORTIN RECEPTORS and has wide distribution including ADIPOSE TISSUE; GONADS; and HEART. Its overexpression in agouti mice results in uniform yellow coat color, OBESITY, and metabolic defects similar to type II diabetes in humans.gamma-MSH: An 11-amino acid peptide derived from the N-terminal fragment of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC). Gamma-MSH stimulates adrenal steroidogenesis and has an regulatory role in the cardiovascular and the renal systems.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Glucose Tolerance Test: A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Glucose Intolerance: A pathological state in which BLOOD GLUCOSE level is less than approximately 140 mg/100 ml of PLASMA at fasting, and above approximately 200 mg/100 ml plasma at 30-, 60-, or 90-minute during a GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST. This condition is seen frequently in DIABETES MELLITUS, but also occurs with other diseases and MALNUTRITION.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Glycolysis: A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Hair Color: Color of hair or fur.Deoxyglucose: 2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.Glucose Metabolism Disorders: Pathological conditions in which the BLOOD GLUCOSE cannot be maintained within the normal range, such as in HYPOGLYCEMIA and HYPERGLYCEMIA. Etiology of these disorders varies. Plasma glucose concentration is critical to survival for it is the predominant fuel for the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Glucose Transporter Type 1: A ubiquitously expressed glucose transporter that is important for constitutive, basal GLUCOSE transport. It is predominately expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and ERYTHROCYTES at the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and is responsible for GLUCOSE entry into the BRAIN.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Arcuate Nucleus: A nucleus located in the middle hypothalamus in the most ventral part of the third ventricle near the entrance of the infundibular recess. Its small cells are in close contact with the ependyma.Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Mice, Inbred C57BLbeta-MSH: An 18-amino acid peptide that is the C-terminal fragment of gamma-lipotropin which is the N-terminal fragment of BETA-LIPOTROPIN. Beta-MSH is shown to regulate skin pigmentation, steroid production, and feeding.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Glucose Transporter Type 4: A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.Hexokinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and a D-hexose to ADP and a D-hexose 6-phosphate. D-Glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose, sorbitol, and D-glucosamine can act as acceptors; ITP and dATP can act as donors. The liver isoenzyme has sometimes been called glucokinase. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.1.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.GlycogenSebaceous Gland Diseases: Diseases of the sebaceous glands such as sebaceous hyperplasia and sebaceous cell carcinoma (SEBACEOUS GLAND NEOPLASMS).Fluorodeoxyglucose F18: The compound is given by intravenous injection to do POSITRON-EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY for the assessment of cerebral and myocardial glucose metabolism in various physiological or pathological states including stroke and myocardial ischemia. It is also employed for the detection of malignant tumors including those of the brain, liver, and thyroid gland. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1162)Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.Neuropeptide Y: A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.Peptides, Cyclic: Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).Adrenocorticotropic Hormone: An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Monosaccharide Transport Proteins: A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.Glucokinase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and D-glucose to ADP and D-glucose 6-phosphate. They are found in invertebrates and microorganisms, and are highly specific for glucose. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.2.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Glucagon: A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)Appetite Regulation: Physiologic mechanisms which regulate or control the appetite and food intake.Glucose Oxidase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of beta-D-glucose and oxygen to D-glucono-1,5-lactone and peroxide. It is a flavoprotein, highly specific for beta-D-glucose. The enzyme is produced by Penicillium notatum and other fungi and has antibacterial activity in the presence of glucose and oxygen. It is used to estimate glucose concentration in blood or urine samples through the formation of colored dyes by the hydrogen peroxide produced in the reaction. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.3.4.Gluconeogenesis: Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.Glucose Transporter Type 2: A glucose transport facilitator that is expressed primarily in PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; LIVER; and KIDNEYS. It may function as a GLUCOSE sensor to regulate INSULIN release and glucose HOMEOSTASIS.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Islets of Langerhans: Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Pigmentation: Coloration or discoloration of a part by a pigment.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Nerve Tissue ProteinsFatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.Skin Pigmentation: Coloration of the skin.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Injections, Intraventricular: Injections into the cerebral ventricles.Tomography, Emission-Computed: Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.Hypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Receptors, Leptin: Cell surface receptors for obesity factor (LEPTIN), a hormone secreted by the WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Upon leptin-receptor interaction, the signal is mediated through the JAK2/STAT3 pathway to regulate food intake, energy balance and fat storage.Glucose-6-Phosphate: An ester of glucose with phosphoric acid, made in the course of glucose metabolism by mammalian and other cells. It is a normal constituent of resting muscle and probably is in constant equilibrium with fructose-6-phosphate. (Stedman, 26th ed)Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Mice, Obese: Mutant mice exhibiting a marked obesity coupled with overeating, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, marked insulin resistance, and infertility when in a homozygous state. They may be inbred or hybrid.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Dopaminergic Neurons: Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is DOPAMINE.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Positron-Emission Tomography: An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Metabolism: The chemical reactions that occur within the cells, tissues, or an organism. These processes include both the biosynthesis (ANABOLISM) and the breakdown (CATABOLISM) of organic materials utilized by the living organism.Pentose Phosphate Pathway: An oxidative decarboxylation process that converts GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE to D-ribose-5-phosphate via 6-phosphogluconate. The pentose product is used in the biosynthesis of NUCLEIC ACIDS. The generated energy is stored in the form of NADPH. This pathway is prominent in tissues which are active in the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS and STEROIDS.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Glucose 1-Dehydrogenase: A glucose dehydrogenase that catalyzes the oxidation of beta-D-glucose to form D-glucono-1,5-lactone, using NAD as well as NADP as a coenzyme.Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Glucose Transporter Type 3: A major glucose transporter found in NEURONS.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Glycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cosyntropin: A synthetic peptide that is identical to the 24-amino acid segment at the N-terminal of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. ACTH (1-24), a segment similar in all species, contains the biological activity that stimulates production of CORTICOSTEROIDS in the ADRENAL CORTEX.Ganglia, Spinal: Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Hypoglycemia: A syndrome of abnormally low BLOOD GLUCOSE level. Clinical hypoglycemia has diverse etiologies. Severe hypoglycemia eventually lead to glucose deprivation of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM resulting in HUNGER; SWEATING; PARESTHESIA; impaired mental function; SEIZURES; COMA; and even DEATH.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.TriglyceridesGABAergic Neurons: Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring: Self evaluation of whole blood glucose levels outside the clinical laboratory. A digital or battery-operated reflectance meter may be used. It has wide application in controlling unstable insulin-dependent diabetes.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Somatostatin: A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary GROWTH HORMONE release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE; PROLACTIN; INSULIN; and GLUCAGON besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, SRIF-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal.Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental: Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.PyruvatesMembrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Fructose: A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.Dendrites: Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Fluorine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of fluorine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. F atoms with atomic weights 17, 18, and 20-22 are radioactive fluorine isotopes.Glucose-6-Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of D-glucose 6-phosphate and water to D-glucose and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.9.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Citric Acid Cycle: A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Appetite: Natural recurring desire for food. Alterations may be induced by APPETITE DEPRESSANTS or APPETITE STIMULANTS.Hyperinsulinism: A syndrome with excessively high INSULIN levels in the BLOOD. It may cause HYPOGLYCEMIA. Etiology of hyperinsulinism varies, including hypersecretion of a beta cell tumor (INSULINOMA); autoantibodies against insulin (INSULIN ANTIBODIES); defective insulin receptor (INSULIN RESISTANCE); or overuse of exogenous insulin or HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS.GlucosephosphatesSensory Receptor Cells: Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.3-O-Methylglucose: A non-metabolizable glucose analogue that is not phosphorylated by hexokinase. 3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ systems. (J Neurochem 1993;60(4):1498-504)Liver Glycogen: Glycogen stored in the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Pyruvic Acid: An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Radiopharmaceuticals: Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Appetite Depressants: Agents that are used to suppress appetite.Insulin-Secreting Cells: A type of pancreatic cell representing about 50-80% of the islet cells. Beta cells secrete INSULIN.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Glucose Clamp Technique: Maintenance of a constant blood glucose level by perfusion or infusion with glucose or insulin. It is used for the study of metabolic rates (e.g., in glucose, lipid, amino acid metabolism) at constant glucose concentration.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.C-Peptide: The middle segment of proinsulin that is between the N-terminal B-chain and the C-terminal A-chain. It is a pancreatic peptide of about 31 residues, depending on the species. Upon proteolytic cleavage of proinsulin, equimolar INSULIN and C-peptide are released. C-peptide immunoassay has been used to assess pancreatic beta cell function in diabetic patients with circulating insulin antibodies or exogenous insulin. Half-life of C-peptide is 30 min, almost 8 times that of insulin.Deoxy SugarsChromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Glucosephosphate DehydrogenaseAging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Sebaceous Glands: Small, sacculated organs found within the DERMIS. Each gland has a single duct that emerges from a cluster of oval alveoli. Each alveolus consists of a transparent BASEMENT MEMBRANE enclosing epithelial cells. The ducts from most sebaceous glands open into a HAIR FOLLICLE, but some open on the general surface of the SKIN. Sebaceous glands secrete SEBUM.Melanocytes: Mammalian pigment cells that produce MELANINS, pigments found mainly in the EPIDERMIS, but also in the eyes and the hair, by a process called melanogenesis. Coloration can be altered by the number of melanocytes or the amount of pigment produced and stored in the organelles called MELANOSOMES. The large non-mammalian melanin-containing cells are called MELANOPHORES.Olfactory Receptor Neurons: Neurons in the OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM with proteins (RECEPTORS, ODORANT) that bind, and thus detect, odorants. These neurons send their DENDRITES to the surface of the epithelium with the odorant receptors residing in the apical non-motile cilia. Their unmyelinated AXONS synapse in the OLFACTORY BULB of the BRAIN.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
AMPK is a key regulator of both lipid and glucose metabolism. It has been referred to as a metabolic master switch, because its ... The receptors within the brain are in the hypothalamus and the solitary nucleus, where nesfatin-1 is believed to be produced ... It is also reported that magnocellular oxytocin neurons are activated during feeding, and ICV infusion of oxytocin antagonist ... Regulated Oxytocinergic Signaling in the Paraventricular Nucleus Causes Anorexia through a Leptin-Independent Melanocortin ...
It counteracts blood glucose concentration spikes by triggering increased insulin release from pancreas, following oral glucose ... This type of substance is now called a hormone, a term coined by Bayliss in 1905. Secretin is initially synthesized as a 120 ... Chu JY, Chung SC, Lam AK, Tam S, Chung SK, Chow BK (2007). "Phenotypes developed in secretin receptor-null mice indicated a ... This function of the peptide is mediated by the central melanocortin system. Secretin is used in a diagnostic tests for ...
In response to leptin, receptor neurons have been shown to remodel themselves, changing the number and types of synapses that ... "Diet-induced obesity causes severe but reversible leptin resistance in arcuate melanocortin neurons". Cell Metab. 5 (3): 181-94 ... Immunoreactive leptin has been found in human breast milk; and leptin from mother's milk has been found in the blood of ... Bone metabolism can be regulated by central sympathetic outflow, since sympathetic pathways innervate bone tissue. A number of ...
G-protein coupled receptor binding. • receptor binding. • protein N-terminus binding. Cellular component. • extracellular ... It counteracts blood glucose concentration spikes by triggering increased insulin release from pancreas, following oral glucose ... This type of substance is now called a hormone, a term coined by Bayliss in 1905.[12] ... Secretin is found in the magnocellular neurons of the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus and along the ...
Agouti-related protein (AgRP), also called agouti-related peptide, is a neuropeptide produced in the brain by the AgRP/NPY neuron. It is synthesised only in neuropeptide Y (NPY)-containing cell bodies located in the ventromedial part of the arcuate nucleus in the hypothalamus. AgRP is co-expressed with NPY and acts to increase appetite and decrease metabolism and energy expenditure. It is one of the most potent and long-lasting of appetite stimulators. In humans, the agouti-related peptide is encoded by the AGRP gene. AgRP is a paracrine signalling molecule made up of 112 amino acids (the gene product of 132 amino acids is processed by removal of the N-terminal 20-residue signal peptide domain). It was independently identified by two teams in 1997 based on its sequence similarity with agouti signalling peptide (ASIP), a protein synthesised in the skin that controls coat colour. AgRP is approximately 25% identical to ASIP. The murine homologue of AgRP consists of 111 amino acids (precursor is ...
E վիտամինն ունի բազմաթիվ կենսաբանական ֆունկցիաներ։ E վիտամինի ֆունկցիաներից ամենակարևորն անտիօքսիդանտն է և դրանով է E վիտամինն առավել կարևոր եւ հայտնի։[9] Լինելով ճարպալույծ, այն պարուրված է բջջային մեմբրանով, որը և պաշտպանում է նրան թթվեցման վտանգից։ Սակայն կան այլ ֆունկցիաներ ևս, որ նույնպես կարևոր են համարվում։ α-Տոկոֆերոլն ունի կարգավորող ներգործություն էնզիմային ռեակցիաների վրա։ Օրինակ, C պրոտեինկինասը (PKC), որը կարևոր է մկանների աճի համար, կարող է արգելակվի α-տոկոֆերոլի կողմից։ α-Տոկոֆերոլն ունի խթանիչ ազդեցություն դեֆոսֆորիլացիոն էնզիմի ...
Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals are associated with a range of clinical syndromes, which have been given various names, based upon which clinical symptoms or radiographic findings are most prominent.[11] A task force of the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) made recommendations on preferred terminology.[5] Accordingly, calcium pyrophosphate deposition (CPPD) is an umbrella term for the various clinical subsets, whose naming reflects an emphasis on particular features. For example, pseudogout refers to the acute symptoms of joint inflammation or synovitis: red, tender, and swollen joints that may resemble gouty arthritis (a similar condition in which monosodium urate crystals are deposited within the joints). Chondrocalcinosis,[2][3] on the other hand, refers to the radiographic evidence of calcification in hyaline and/or fibrocartilage. "Osteoarthritis (OA) with CPPD" reflects a situation where osteoarthritis features are the most apparent. Pyrophosphate arthropathy refers to ...
A tophus (Latin: "stone", plural tophi) is a deposit of monosodium urate crystals, in people with longstanding high levels of uric acid in the blood, a condition known as hyperuricemia. Tophi are pathognomonic for the disease gout. Most people with tophi have had previous attacks of acute arthritis, eventually leading to the formation of tophi. Chronic tophaceous gout is known as Harrison Syndrome. Tophi form in the joints, cartilage, bones, and other places throughout the body. Sometimes, tophi break through the skin and appear as white or yellowish-white, chalky nodules. Without treatment, tophi may develop on average about ten years after the onset of gout, although their first appearance can range from three to forty-two years. The development of gouty tophi can also limit joint function and cause bone destruction, leading to noticeable disabilities, especially when gout cannot successfully be treated.[1] When uric acid levels and gout symptoms cannot be controlled with standard gout ...
... , a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), has similar mode of action when compared to other drugs in this group. Indometacin is a nonselective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase (COX) 1 and 2, the enzymes that participate in prostaglandin synthesis from arachidonic acid. Prostaglandins are hormone-like molecules normally found in the body, where they have a wide variety of effects, some of which lead to pain, fever, and inflammation. By inhibiting the synthesis of prostaglandins, indometacin can reduce pain, fever, and inflammation.[6]. Besides, indometacin has logarithmic acid dissociation constant pKa of 3 to 4.5. Since the physiologic body pH is well above the pKa range of indometacin, most of the indometacin molecules will be dissociated into ionised form, leaving very little unionised form of indometacin to cross a cell membrane. If the pH gradient across a cell membrane is high, most of the indometacin molecules will be trapped in one side of the membrane with higher pH. This ...
... (INN, trade name Ilaris, previously ACZ885) is a human monoclonal antibody targeted at interleukin-1 beta. It has no cross-reactivity with other members of the interleukin-1 family, including interleukin-1 alpha. Canakinumab was approved for the treatment of cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in June 2009 and by the European Medicines Agency in October 2009. CAPS is a spectrum of autoinflammatory syndromes including familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome, Muckle-Wells syndrome, and neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease. In September 2016, FDA approved the use of canakinumab on 3 additional rare and serious auto-inflammatory diseases: Tumor necrosis factor receptor associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS), Hyperimmunoglobulin D syndrome (HIDS)/Mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD) and Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF). Canakinumab was being developed by Novartis for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, but this trial ...
Sgrifennir tudalennau Wicipedia ar bwnc iechyd er mwyn rhoi gwybodaeth sylfaenol, ond allen nhw ddim rhoi'r manylion sydd gan arbenigwyr i chi. Mae llawer o bobl yn cyfrannu gwybodaeth i Wicipedia. Er bod y mwyafrif ohonynt yn ceisio osgoi gwallau, nid ydynt i gyd yn arbenigwyr ac felly mae'n bosib bod peth o'r wybodaeth a gynhwysir ar y ddalen hon yn anghyflawn neu'n anghywir. Am wybodaeth lawn neu driniaeth ar gyfer afiechyd, cysylltwch â'ch meddyg neu ag arbenigwr cymwys arall! ...
Gaulton A, Bellis LJ, Bento AP, Chambers J, Davies M, Hersey A, Light Y, McGlinchey S, Michalovich D, Al-Lazikani B, Overington JP. (2012). "ChEMBL: a large-scale bioactivity database for drug discovery". Nucleic Acids Res 40 (Database issue): D1100-7. PMID 21948594. doi:10.1093/nar/gkr777. edit ...
Tisaprak mimiti didagangkeun ka pasar, MSG diproduksi kalawan tilu cara (1) hidrolisis protein nabati jeung asam hidroklorida pikeun megatkeun ikatan peptida (1909 -1962), (2) sintesis kimia langsung jeunf akrilonitril (1962 - 1973), sarta (3) fermentasi bakteri; metode anu digunakeun jaman ayeuna. [10] Mimitina mah, pikeun hidrolisis digunakeun gluten gandum lantaran ngandung leuwih ti 30 g glutamat jeung glutamin dina 100 g protein.[11] Tapi ku nambahanana produksi pikeun nyumponan paménta MSG nu makin nambahan, dipelajarilah proses-proses produksi anyar: sintesis kimia jeung fermentasi.[11] Industri fiber poliakrilik dimimitian di Jepang dina pertengahan 1950-an jeung akrilonitril tuluy diadopsi minangka bahan awal pikeun ngasintesis MSG. [11] Ayeuna, sabagian gedé produksi MSG dunya dilakukeun ku cara fermentasi bakteri kalawan proses anu mirip jeung produksi anggur, cuka, yoghurt, sarta cokelat.[11] Natrium (sodium) ditambahkeun dina tahap netralisasi.[12] Salila fermentasi, bakteri nu ...
... s pair off from the age of one year, and stay together in a usually monogamous relationship for life. An established pair's territory is defended year-round and maintained with little, if any, boundary change from year to year. The pair sit in cover on a branch close to a tree trunk during the day, and usually roost separately from July to October.[7] Roosting owls may be discovered and "mobbed" by small birds during the day, but they normally ignore the disturbance.[13]. The tawny owl typically nests in a hole in a tree, but will also use old European magpie nests, squirrel drey or holes in buildings, and readily takes to nest boxes. It nests from February onwards in the south of its range, but rarely before mid-March in Scandinavia.[7] The glossy white eggs are 48 mm × 39 mm (1.9 in × 1.5 in) in size and weigh 39.0 g (1.38 oz) of which 7% is shell. The typical clutch of two or three eggs is incubated by the female alone for 30 days to hatching, and the altricial, downy chicks fledge ...
Agouti-related protein (AgRP), also called agouti-related peptide, is a neuropeptide produced in the brain by the AgRP/NPY neuron. It is synthesised only in neuropeptide Y (NPY)-containing cell bodies located in the ventromedial part of the arcuate nucleus in the hypothalamus. AgRP is co-expressed with NPY and acts to increase appetite and decrease metabolism and energy expenditure. It is one of the most potent and long-lasting of appetite stimulators. In humans, the agouti-related peptide is encoded by the AGRP gene. AgRP is a paracrine signalling molecule made up of 112 amino acids (the gene product of 132 amino acids is processed by removal of the N-terminal 20-residue signal peptide domain). It was independently identified by two teams in 1997 based on its sequence similarity with agouti signalling peptide (ASIP), a protein synthesised in the skin that controls coat colour. AgRP is approximately 25% identical to ASIP. The murine homologue of AgRP consists of 111 amino acids (precursor is ...
For 2006, the consumption is given as 28% for General Electric, 28% Rolls-Royce plc and 12% Pratt & Whitney, all for superalloys, whereas the use for catalysts only accounts for 14% and the remaining applications use 18%.[42] In 2006, 77% of the rhenium consumption in the United States was in alloys.[43] The rising demand for military jet engines and the constant supply made it necessary to develop superalloys with a lower rhenium content. For example, the newer CFM International CFM56 high-pressure turbine (HPT) blades will use Rene N515 with a rhenium content of 1.5% instead of Rene N5 with 3%.[50][51]. Rhenium improves the properties of tungsten. Tungsten-rhenium alloys are more ductile at low temperature, allowing them to be more easily machined. The high-temperature stability is also improved. The effect increases with the rhenium concentration, and therefore tungsten alloys are produced with up to 27% of Re, which is the solubility limit.[52] Tungsten-rhenium wire was originally created in ...
Melanokortin 1 receptor (MC1R), takođe poznat kao melanocit-stimulišući hormon receptor (MSHR'), melanin-aktivirajući peptidni receptor, ili melanotropin receptor, jeste G protein-spregnuti receptor koji vezuje klasu pituitarni peptidnih hormona koji su poznati kao melanokortini.[1] U ovu grupu hormona se ubrajaju adrenokortikotropski hormon (ACTH) i različite forme melanocit-stimulišućih hormona (MSH). MC1R je jedan od ključnih proteina koji učestvuju u regulaciji sisarske boje kože i kose. On je lociran na membrani plazme specijalizovanih ćelija koje se zovu melanociti. Te ćelije proizvode pigment melanin procesom melanogeneze. Ovaj receptor kontroliše tip proizvedenog melanina. Aktivacija ovog receptor uzrokuje da melanociti pređu sa generisanja žutog ili crvenog feomelanina na smeđi ili crni eumelanin.. ...
... and adiponectin which are considered to take part in inflammation and both lipid and glucose metabolism in diabetic patients as ... such as acute coronary syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). BDNF is also expressed in several nonneuronal tissues, and ... melanocortin 4 receptor; TrkB: tropomyosin receptor kinase B; IL-6: interleukin 6; TNF-α: tumor necrosis factor alpha; CRP: c- ... W. J. Friedman, "Neurotrophins induce death of hippocampal neurons via the p75 receptor," Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 20, pp ...
POMC neurons in the lateral ARC (where we find glucose-excited neurons) have both NPY receptors and melanocortin autoreceptors ... two types of intrinsically glucose-sensing neurons were found that were similar to the glucose-excited and glucose-inhibited ... Finally, ARC glucose-excited neurons were not POMC immunoreactive, despite their location in the lateral ARC (4). Most glucose- ... Thus, glucokinase may confer the ability to sense glucose by allowing intracellular metabolism to fluctuate with extracellular ...
... we asked whether it lowers fasting blood glucose levels or improves glucose tolerance in melanocortin-4 receptor-deficient ( ... As the melanocortin pathway is implicated in central regulation of glucose metabolism by leptin (18, 19), insulin (20, 21), and ... Amelioration of type 2 diabetes by antibody-mediated activation of fibroblast growth factor receptor 1. Sci Transl Med. 2011;3( ... Direct leptin action on POMC neurons regulates glucose homeostasis and hepatic insulin sensitivity in mice. J Clin Invest. 2012 ...
... of age and long-term ovariectomy on the estrogen-receptor containing subpopulations of beta-endorphin-immunoreactive neurons in ... Serotonin 2C receptor agonists improve type 2 diabetes via melanocortin-4 receptor signaling pathways. Cell Metab. 2007;6:398- ... Central nervous system melanocortin-3 receptors are required for synchronizing metabolism during entrainment to restricted ... Neurons expressing melanocortin receptors receive inputs from POMC neurons and NPY/AgRPneurons to regulate energy and glucose ...
... the leptin receptor (Clement et al., 1998), a mutation of the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) gene Administering GLU to newborn ... Metabolism 31, 1224-1228.. melanocortinergic neurons in feeding and the agouti obesity Murphy TH, Schnaar RL, Coyle JT (1990). ... domain in NMDA receptor modulation. J Mol Graph Model 23 (4), methyl-D-aspartate receptor-, glutamate- and aspartate-immuno- ... 2000) found a shift in glucose interested in? Obesity results from a nutritional imbalance.. metabolism towards lipid synthesis ...
OLETF rats have a deficit in their ability to limit the size of meals and in contrast to CCK1 receptor knock-out mice, do not ... of the DMH in rats and mice and elucidated previously unappreciated roles for DMH NPY in energy balance and glucose homeostasis ... OLETF rats have a deficit in their ability to limit the size of meals and in contrast to CCK1 receptor knock-out mice, do not ... of the DMH in rats and mice and elucidated previously unappreciated roles for DMH NPY in energy balance and glucose homeostasis ...
Transient serotonin-immunoreactive neurons coincide with a critical period of neural development in coho salmon (Oncorhyncus ... 2010. Individual saturated fatty acids are associated with different components of insulin resistance and glucose metabolism: ... 2015. Functional divergence of type 2 deiodinase paralogs in the Atlantic salmon. Current Biology. 936-941. Show author(s) ... 2019. Phylogenetic Reclassification of Vertebrate Melatonin Receptors To Include Mel1d. G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics. 3225-3238 ...
AMPK is a key regulator of both lipid and glucose metabolism. It has been referred to as a metabolic master switch, because its ... The receptors within the brain are in the hypothalamus and the solitary nucleus, where nesfatin-1 is believed to be produced ... It is also reported that magnocellular oxytocin neurons are activated during feeding, and ICV infusion of oxytocin antagonist ... Regulated Oxytocinergic Signaling in the Paraventricular Nucleus Causes Anorexia through a Leptin-Independent Melanocortin ...
... and metabolism has been a focus of intense study since its discovery in 1979 (Crine et al. 1979; Hill and Faulkner 2016).... ... The role of the melanocortin system in energy homeostasis, feeding behavior, ... receptor immunoreactivity in corticotrophin releasing factor and in growth hormone releasing factor immunoreactive neurons of ... melanocortin systems influence on circulating glucose levels suggests it could also be targeted to treat obesity-related type ...
... and metabolism: nutrient sensors, neuropeptide hormones, and peripheral hormones.... ... Insulin action in AgRP-expressing neurons is required for suppression of hepatic glucose production. Cell Metabolism, 438-449. ... The full-length leptin receptor has signaling capabilities of interleukin 6-type cytokine receptors. Proceedings of the ... da Silva, A. A., Kuo, J. J., & Hall, J. E. (2004). Role of hypothalamic melanocortin 3/4-receptors in mediating chronic ...
2002). The melanocortin receptors: lessons from knockout models. Neuropeptides 36, 77-84. doi:10.1054/npep.2002.0890. ... energy balance and glucose homeostasis: agouti-related peptide/neuropeptide Y (AgRP/NPY) neurons are orexigenic (promote ... 2002). Effects of dietary fat types on body fatness, leptin, and ARC leptin receptor, NPY, and AgRP mRNA expression. Am. J. ... 2014). Hypothalamus-adipose tissue crosstalk: neuropeptide Y and the regulation of energy metabolism. Nutr. Metab. 11, 27. doi: ...
Dudas, B. & Merchenthaler, I. (2002). Close juxtapositions between LHRH immunoreactive neurons and substance P immunoreactive ... Comparative distribution of receptor types in the mammalian brain. In S.H.Buck (Ed.), The tachykinin receptors (pp. 101-123). ... Lechan, R. M. & Fekete, C. (2006). The TRH neuron: a hypothalamic integrator of energy metabolism. Prog.Brain Res., 153, 209- ... 2000). Long-term orexigenic effects of AgRP-(83---132) involve mechanisms other than melanocortin receptor blockade. Am.J. ...
... and clinical studies related to type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The journal welcomes submissions focusing on the epidemiology, ... neurons express leptin receptors [148]. Leptin inhibits NPY/AgRP neurons and activates POMC/CART neurons [149, 150], resulting ... Conventionally, glucose sensing is thought to involve glucokinase-dependent metabolism of glucose to ATP, which then alters ... which binds to melanocortin-3 receptor (MC3R) and melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) to suppress food intake [167]. The MC4R is ...
... insulin receptor (InsR), ghrelin receptor (GSHR), melanocortin receptor (MCR4), leptin receptor (Ob-Rb) and suppressor of ... Keywords: Heart control; Command Neuron Peptide; Snail; Mollusk; Helix; C-type natriuretic peptide effects on cardiovascular ... Amy is a peptide that has a role in lowering blood glucose levels and therefore its receptors represent potential drug targets ... Here, we describe for the first time the CNPs-immunoreactive neural fibers in walls of both auricle and ventricle of the snail ...
It counteracts blood glucose concentration spikes by triggering increased insulin release from pancreas, following oral glucose ... This type of substance is now called a hormone, a term coined by Bayliss in 1905. Secretin is initially synthesized as a 120 ... Chu JY, Chung SC, Lam AK, Tam S, Chung SK, Chow BK (2007). "Phenotypes developed in secretin receptor-null mice indicated a ... This function of the peptide is mediated by the central melanocortin system. Secretin is used in a diagnostic tests for ...
BalthasarNCoppariRMcMinnJLiuSMLeeCETangVKennyCDMcGovernRAChuaSCJrElmquistJK2004Leptin receptor signaling in POMC neurons is ... such as hyperlipidemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus (Tremblay et al. 1985). Exercise stimulates glucose uptake by skeletal ... ShuklaCKochLGBrittonSLCaiMHrubyVJBednarekMNovakCM2015Contribution of regional brain melanocortin receptor subtypes to elevated ... expressing neurons, located in the ARC area, is a key regulator of energy metabolism. Genetic ablation of Pomc neurons causes ...
... receptors. CB receptor agonists, namely, the phytocannabinoid Δ9-THC and the endocannabinoid anandamide,... ... Effects of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716 on oxygen consumption and soleus muscle glucose uptake in Lep(ob)/ ... Expression of cannabinoid CB1 receptors by vagal afferent neurons is inhibited by cholecystokinin. J Neurosci 24:2708-2715 ... Wittmann G, Deli L, Kallo I, Hrabovszky E, Watanabe M, Liposits Z, Fekete C (2007) Distribution of type 1 cannabinoid receptor ...
A Major Role for Perifornical Orexin Neurons in the Control of Glucose Metabolism in Rats. DIABETES 2009;58 (9):1998-2005 [ ... SILJEE-WONG, J., U.A. UNMEHOPA, A. KALSBEEK, D.F. SWAAB, E. FLIERS, A. ALKEMADE - Melanocortin-4 Receptor distribution in the ... KREIER, F., KALSBEEK, A., SAUERWEIN, H.P., FLIERS, E., ROMIJN, J.A. and R.M. BUIJS - "Diabetes of the elderly" and type 2 ... Effects of illumination and enucleation on Substance P-immunoreactive structures in subcortical visual centers of the Golden ...
LRb, Long leptin receptor isoform.G-I, Neurons immunoreactive for hypocretin (HCRT) in the perifornical region (PeF) of a ... this raises the possibility that hypocretin neurons themselves may express both glucose and leptin receptors; this remains to ... 1998) Leptin receptor signal transduction: ONRa and OBRb of fa type. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 246:752-759. ... These cells make melanocortin, β-endorphin, and ACTH from the same precursor, and all three peptides are coexpressed in the ...
Loss of melanocortin-4 receptor function attenuates HPA responses to psychological stress. Psychoneuroendocrinology . 2014; 42 ... Liang Q, Zhong L, Zhang J, Wang Y, Bornstein SR, Triggle CR, Ding H, Lam KSL, Xu A. FGF21 maintains glucose homeostasis by ... FGF21 regulates metabolism and circadian behavior by acting on the nervous system. Nat Med . 2013; 19( 9): 1147- 1152. Google ... Adult, male FGF21-deficient [knockout (KO)] and wild-type (WT) control mice were bred in-house as previously described (33) and ...
The full-length leptin receptor has signaling capabilities of interleukin 6-type cytokine receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. ... evidence suggests that leptin regulates energy homeostasis through direct actions on peripheral lipid and glucose metabolism. ... Selective deletion of leptin receptor in neurons leads to obesity. J Clin Invest. 2001; 108: 1113-1121. ... and causes inhibition of agouti-related peptide that restrain melanocortin-3 and -4 receptor signaling.55,56 ...
... neurons express leptin receptors [148]. Leptin inhibits NPY/AgRP neurons and activates POMC/CART neurons [149, 150], resulting ... Conventionally, glucose sensing is thought to involve glucokinase-dependent metabolism of glucose to ATP, which then alters ... which binds to melanocortin-3 receptor (MC3R) and melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) to suppress food intake [167]. The MC4R is ... There are three types of leptin receptors identified: long, short, and secreted form [153]. Among those, Ob-Rb receptor, which ...
... high glucose, and refeeding. A melanocortin receptor (see 155555) agonist, a potent anorexigen, decreased AMPK activity in ... Leptin receptor signaling in POMC neurons is required for normal body weight homeostasis.. Neuron 42 983-991 (2004). ... Glucose metabolism rather than insulin is a main determinant of leptin secretion in humans.. J. Clin. Endocr. Metab. 85 1267- ... Using sibship data obtained from 32 low-income Mexican American pedigrees ascertained on the basis of a type II (NIDDM) ...
... serotonin receptors and PSA-NCAM dependent remodeling of the hypothalamus. Altogether these data reveal that maternal WD, ... A dopaminergic neuron was defined as a NeuN(+)/TH(+) immunoreactive cell body with clearly visible nucleus. Using the NIH Image ... Plasma leptin, insulin, glucose, and NEFA concentrations were measured at P25, P45, and P95. At all ages, plasma glucose, NEFA ... Sophie Marie Steculorum, Max Planck Institute for Metabolism Research Group of Neuronal Control of Metabolism, Germany. Susanne ...
2013). Serotonin 2C receptors in pro-opiomelanocortin neurons regulate energy and glucose homeostasis. J. Clin. Invest. 123, ... 2008). Serotonin 5-HT 2C receptor agonist promotes hypophagia via downstream activation of melanocortin 4 receptors. ... 1972). Changes in brain serotonin metabolism associated with fasting and satiation in rats. Life Sci. 11, 31-39. doi:10.1016/ ... Double-labelled cells were recorded if α-MSH-immunoreactive (IR) cell bodies were overlaid with a [35S]Htr2a signal greater ...
  • 1983). Peptide-induced excessive grooming in the rat - The role of opiate receptors. (springer.com)
  • Fowlicidin-1 is a newly identified α-helical cathelicidin host defense peptide. (chemweb.com)
  • Relative to the full-length peptide, fowl-1(6-26), an analog with omission of five amino-terminal amino acid residues, maintained the antibacterial potency against a range of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria including antibiotic-resistant strains. (chemweb.com)
  • [ 1 ] In humans, the secretin peptide is encoded by the SCT gene. (meddic.jp)
  • Nevertheless, the antibodies targeting calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) or its receptor are the only prophylactic treatment developed specifically for migraine. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ins1+/+:Ins2-/- and Ins1+/-:Ins2-/- on CR also exhibited increased plasma leptin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide, subcutaneous white and intrascapular brown adipose tissue size compared to the AL controls. (ubc.ca)
  • It was found that central nesfatin-1 resulted in a marked suppression of hepatic PEPCK mRNA and protein levels in both standard diet (SD) and high fat diet (HFD) rats but failed to alter glucose 6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase) activity and protein expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bensaid M, Gary-Bobo M, Esclangon A, Maffrand JP, Le Fur G, Oury-Donat F, Soubrie P (2003) The cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716 increases Acrp30 mRNA expression in adipose tissue of obese fa/fa rats and in cultured adipocyte cells. (springer.com)
  • The expression of oxytocin and oxytocin receptor (OXTR) was assessed at the mRNA and protein levels by quantitative real-time PCR and immunoblotting respectively. (bioscientifica.com)
  • Arnone M, Maruani J, Chaperon F, Thiebot MH, Poncelet M, Soubrie P, Le Fur G (1997) Selective inhibition of sucrose and ethanol intake by SR 141716, an antagonist of central cannabinoid (CB1) receptors. (springer.com)
  • 2. In experiment 1, chicken received intracerebroventricular (ICV) injections of a control solution, SCH 23 390 (D1 receptors antagonist, 5 nmol), N/OFQ (16 nmol) or their combination (SCH23 390 + N/OFQ). (bvsalud.org)
  • In experiment 2, a control solution, AMI-193 (D2 receptors antagonist, 5 nmol), N/OFQ (16 nmol) or their combination (AMI-193 + N/OFQ) were ICV injected into chickens. (bvsalud.org)
  • In experiment 3, birds received ICV injections of a control solution, NGB2904 (D3 receptors antagonist, 6.4 nmol), N/OFQ (16 nmol) and co-injection of NGB2904 + N/OFQ. (bvsalud.org)
  • In experiment 4, ICV injections of the control solution, L-741,742 (D4 receptors antagonist, 6 nmol), N/OFQ (16 nmol) or their combination (L-741,742 + N/OFQ) were applied to broilers. (bvsalud.org)
  • Co-injection of N/OFQ and D1 receptor antagonist (SCH 23390) amplified hyperphagic effect of N/OFQ (P (bvsalud.org)
  • The N/OFQ-induced feed intake was increased by the D2 receptor antagonist (P (bvsalud.org)
  • In rodents, an acute-phase protein, α-1-acid-glycoprotein (AGP), was shown to provide a link between inflammation and suppression of feed intake by acting as a leptin receptor agonist. (bvsalud.org)
  • 1. The aim of the current study was to determine the effects of the central dopaminergic system on N/OFQ-induced feed intake in 3-h feed-deprived neonatal broilers. (bvsalud.org)
  • 4. These results suggested that an interaction exists between dopamine and N/OFQ via D1 and D2 receptors on central feed intake in neonatal broiler chickens. (bvsalud.org)
  • It regulates the synaptic activity, neurotransmission, neuronal repair, and plasticity in many groups of mature neurons both in peripheral nervous system and CNS [ 14 - 16 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • It promotes development and differentiation of neurons, cell survival, and synaptic plasticity [ 22 - 24 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Magno-cellular neurons are of two classes: those that secrete arginine vasopressin (AVP) and neurophysin II, and those that secrete oxytocin and neurophysin I. AVP often is colocalized with dynorphin or angiotensin II, whereas oxytocin frequently is colocalized with cholecystokinin (CCK), corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), metenkephalin, or proenkephalin. (wordpress.com)
  • 2017). These adverse effects are due to other systemic and central functions of the melanocortin system. (springer.com)
  • Activation of these neurons promotes the release of adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) into systemic circulation, which acts on the adrenal cortex to release glucocorticoids (i.e., corticosterone in rodents and cortisol in humans). (deepdyve.com)
  • 17 In addition to its actions in the CNS, leptin receptors (Ob-Rs) are found in multiple peripheral tissue types and affect many systemic processes, such as reproduction, immunity, and cardiovascular functions. (ahajournals.org)
  • Gluteal-femoral adipose tissues of women may simply provide a safe lipid reservoir for excess energy, or they may directly regulate systemic metabolism via release of metabolic products or adipokines. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition, an intraperitoneal administration of 10 mg/kg of fowl-1(6-26)-NH 2 led to a 50% increase in the survival of neutropenic mice over a 7-day period from a lethal dose of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), concomitant with a reduction in the bacterial titer in both peritoneal fluids and spleens of mice 24 h post-infection. (chemweb.com)
  • We used neuron-specific SOCS3 knock-out mice to elucidate this and the effects on regional hypothalamic leptin resistance. (jneurosci.org)
  • While female wild-type mice became infertile after 4 months of HCD feeding, infertility onset in knock-out females was delayed by 4 weeks. (jneurosci.org)
  • Although only 20% of control HCD-mice experienced a preovulatory-like LH surge, LH surges could be induced in almost all neuron-specific SOCS3 knock-out mice on this diet. (jneurosci.org)
  • As expected, mice on CR had lower fasting, fed plasma glucose and improved glucose tolerance when compared to AL controls. (ubc.ca)
  • We observed a more rapid return to baseline glucose post-insulin injection in mice on CR and no difference in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion compared to AL littermates. (ubc.ca)
  • Due to the ability of PACAP38 to induce migraine-like attacks, its location in structures previously associated with migraine pathophysiology and the 100-fold selectivity for the PAC 1 receptor when compared to VIP, new attention has been drawn to this pathway and its potential role as a novel target for migraine treatment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • If these antibodies prove to be effective for the treatment of migraine, several considerations should be addressed, for instance, the potential side effects of long-term blockade of the PACAP (receptor) pathway. (biomedcentral.com)
  • which contains the ARC and the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus [VMN]) vary from 0.2 to 4.5 mmol/l as plasma glucose levels increase from 2 to 18 mmol/l, with steady-state levels being ∼2.5 mmol/l ( 10 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Ubiquitin (Ub) is a highly conserved small protein that functions as a key signaling molecule in multiple proteolytic and nonproteolytic pathways in all eukaryotic cells ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • Ub signaling is initiated by covalent ligation of one or more Ub molecules to amino groups on target proteins and is terminated by hydrolysis of these isopeptide bonds ( 1 ⇓ - 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • To achieve this, we probed the role of increased leptin action as a result of insulin therapy, determined the function of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 (IGFBP2) in the glucose lowering actions of leptin, investigated the necessity of insulin for leptin treatment and glucagon suppression therapy, and explored the potential of glucagon suppression therapy via glucagon receptor (Gcgr) small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) delivered by lipid nanoparticle (LNP) technology. (ubc.ca)