An alpha-glucosidase inhibitor with antiviral action. Derivatives of deoxynojirimycin may have anti-HIV activity.
Enzymes that catalyze the exohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glucosidic linkages with release of alpha-glucose. Deficiency of alpha-1,4-glucosidase may cause GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE TYPE II.
Glucosamine is a naturally occurring amino sugar that plays a crucial role in the formation and maintenance of various tissues, particularly in the synthesis of proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans, which are essential components of cartilage and synovial fluid in joints.
Indolizines are organic compounds that consist of a condensed pyridine and pyrrole ring structure, which can be found in certain natural and synthetic substances, and have been studied for their potential biological activities.
A plant genus of the family MORACEAE that is widely planted for shade.
An indolizidine alkaloid from the plant Swainsona canescens that is a potent alpha-mannosidase inhibitor. Swainsonine also exhibits antimetastatic, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory activity.
Enzymes that hydrolyze O-glucosyl-compounds. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.2.1.-.
Glycoside hydrolases that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha or beta linked MANNOSE.
An enzyme that catalyzes the HYDROLYSIS of terminal, non-reducing alpha-D-mannose residues in alpha-D-mannosides. The enzyme plays a role in the processing of newly formed N-glycans and in degradation of mature GLYCOPROTEINS. There are multiple isoforms of alpha-mannosidase, each having its own specific cellular location and pH optimum. Defects in the lysosomal form of the enzyme results in a buildup of mannoside intermediate metabolites and the disease ALPHA-MANNOSIDOSIS.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
Five-carbon furanose sugars in which the OXYGEN is replaced by a NITROGEN atom.
Six-carbon pyranose sugars in which the OXYGEN is replaced by a NITROGEN atom.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal 1,4-linked alpha-D-glucose residues successively from non-reducing ends of polysaccharide chains with the release of beta-glucose. It is also able to hydrolyze 1,6-alpha-glucosidic bonds when the next bond in sequence is 1,4.
Sugars in which the OXYGEN is replaced by a NITROGEN atom. This substitution prevents normal METABOLISM resulting in inhibition of GLYCOSIDASES and GLYCOSYLTRANSFERASES.
An inhibitor of ALPHA-GLUCOSIDASES that retards the digestion and absorption of DIETARY CARBOHYDRATES in the SMALL INTESTINE.
Monosaccharide transport proteins that function as active symporters. They utilize SODIUM or HYDROGEN IONS to transport GLUCOSE across CELL MEMBRANES.
A group of related enzymes responsible for the endohydrolysis of the di-N-acetylchitobiosyl unit in high-mannose-content glycopeptides and GLYCOPROTEINS.
Organic nitrogenous bases. Many alkaloids of medical importance occur in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, and some have been synthesized. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of N-acylhexosamine residues in N-acylhexosamides. Hexosaminidases also act on GLUCOSIDES; GALACTOSIDES; and several OLIGOSACCHARIDES.
A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Structurally, they include polypeptide, protein, and glycoprotein molecules.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
An exocellulase with specificity for a variety of beta-D-glycoside substrates. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing residues in beta-D-glucosides with release of GLUCOSE.
Plasma glycoprotein member of the serpin superfamily which inhibits TRYPSIN; NEUTROPHIL ELASTASE; and other PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
Glycoside Hydrolases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of glycosidic bonds, resulting in the breakdown of complex carbohydrates and oligosaccharides into simpler sugars.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.

Trypanosoma cruzi calreticulin is a lectin that binds monoglucosylated oligosaccharides but not protein moieties of glycoproteins. (1/366)

Trypanosoma cruzi is a protozoan parasite that belongs to an early branch in evolution. Although it lacks several features of the pathway of protein N-glycosylation and oligosaccharide processing present in the endoplasmic reticulum of higher eukaryotes, it displays UDP-Glc:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase and glucosidase II activities. It is herewith reported that this protozoan also expresses a calreticulin-like molecule, the third component of the quality control of glycoprotein folding. No calnexin-encoding gene was detected. Recombinant T. cruzi calreticulin specifically recognized free monoglucosylated high-mannose-type oligosaccharides. Addition of anti-calreticulin serum to extracts obtained from cells pulse-chased with [35S]Met plus [35S]Cys immunoprecipitated two proteins that were identified as calreticulin and the lysosomal proteinase cruzipain (a major soluble glycoprotein). The latter but not the former protein disappeared from immunoprecipitates upon chasing cells. Contrary to what happens in mammalian cells, addition of the glucosidase II inhibitor 1-deoxynojirimycin promoted calreticulin-cruzipain interaction. This result is consistent with the known pathway of protein N-glycosylation and oligosaccharide processing occurring in T. cruzi. A treatment of the calreticulin-cruzipain complexes with endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H either before or after addition of anti-calreticulin serum completely disrupted calreticulin-cruzipain interaction. In addition, mature monoglucosylated but not unglucosylated cruzipain isolated from lysosomes was found to interact with recombinant calreticulin. It was concluded that the quality control of glycoprotein folding appeared early in evolution, and that T. cruzi calreticulin binds monoglucosylated oligosaccharides but not the protein moiety of cruzipain. Furthermore, evidence is presented indicating that glucosyltransferase glucosylated cruzipain at its last folding stages.  (+info)

Delayed symptom onset and increased life expectancy in Sandhoff disease mice treated with N-butyldeoxynojirimycin. (2/366)

Sandhoff disease is a neurodegenerative disorder resulting from the autosomal recessive inheritance of mutations in the HEXB gene, which encodes the beta-subunit of beta-hexosaminidase. GM2 ganglioside fails to be degraded and accumulates within lysosomes in cells of the periphery and the central nervous system (CNS). There are currently no therapies for the glycosphingolipid lysosomal storage diseases that involve CNS pathology, including the GM2 gangliosidoses. One strategy for treating this and related diseases is substrate deprivation. This would utilize an inhibitor of glycosphingolipid biosynthesis to balance synthesis with the impaired rate of catabolism, thus preventing storage. One such inhibitor is N-butyldeoxynojirimycin, which currently is in clinical trials for the potential treatment of type 1 Gaucher disease, a related disease that involves glycosphingolipid storage in peripheral tissues, but not in the CNS. In this study, we have evaluated whether this drug also could be applied to the treatment of diseases with CNS storage and pathology. We therefore have treated a mouse model of Sandhoff disease with the inhibitor N-butyldeoxynojirimycin. The treated mice have delayed symptom onset, reduced storage in the brain and peripheral tissues, and increased life expectancy. Substrate deprivation therefore offers a potentially general therapy for this family of lysosomal storage diseases, including those with CNS disease.  (+info)

Cellobiose transport by mixed ruminal bacteria from a Cow. (3/366)

The transport of cellobiose in mixed ruminal bacteria harvested from a holstein cow fed an Italian ryegrass hay was determined in the presence of nojirimycin-1-sulfate, which almost inhibited cellobiase activity. The kinetic parameters of cellobiose uptake were 14 microM for the Km and 10 nmol/min/mg of protein for the Vmax. Extracellular and cell-associated cellobiases were detected in the rumen, with both showing higher Vmax values and lower affinities than those determined for cellobiose transport. The proportion of cellobiose that was directly transported before it was extracellularly degraded into glucose increased as the cellobiose concentration decreased, reaching more than 20% at the actually observed levels of cellobiose in the rumen, which were less than 0.02 mM. The inhibitor experiment showed that cellobiose was incorporated into the cells mainly by the phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase system and partially by an ATP-dependent and proton-motive-force-independent active transport system. This finding was also supported by determinations of phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase-dependent NADH oxidation with cellobiose and the effects of artificial potentials on cellobiose transport. Cellobiose uptake was sensitive to a decrease in pH (especially below 6.0), and it was weakly but significantly inhibited in the presence of glucose.  (+info)

Molecular chaperones stimulate the functional expression of the cocaine-sensitive serotonin transporter. (4/366)

The serotonin transporter (SERT) is an N-glycosylated integral membrane protein that is predicted to contain 12 transmembrane regions. SERT is the major binding site in the brain for antidepressant drugs, and it also binds amphetamines and cocaine. The ability of various molecular chaperones to interact with a tagged version of SERT (Myc-SERT) was investigated using the baculovirus expression system. Overexpression of Myc-SERT using the baculovirus system led to substantial quantities of inactive transporter, together with small amounts of fully active and, therefore, correctly folded molecules. The high levels of inactive Myc-SERT probably arose because folding was rate-limiting due, perhaps, to insufficient molecular chaperones. Therefore, Myc-SERT was co-expressed with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) molecular chaperones calnexin, calreticulin and immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein (BiP), and the foldase, ERp57. The expression of functional Myc-SERT, as determined by an inhibitor binding assay, was enhanced nearly 3-fold by co-expressing calnexin, and to a lesser degree on co-expression of calreticulin and BiP. Co-expression of ERp57 did not increase the functional expression of Myc-SERT. A physical interaction between Myc-SERT-calnexin and Myc-SERT-calreticulin was demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation. These associations were inhibited in vivo by deoxynojirimycin, an inhibitor of N-glycan precusor trimming that is known to prevent the calnexin/calreticulin-N-glycan interaction. Functional expression of the unglycosylated SERT mutant, SERT-QQ, was also increased on co-expression of calnexin, suggesting that the interaction between calnexin and SERT is not entirely dictated by the N-glycan. SERT is the first member of the neurotransmitter transporter family whose folding has been shown to be assisted by the molecular chaperones calnexin, calreticulin, and BiP.  (+info)

Temporal association of the N- and O-linked glycosylation events and their implication in the polarized sorting of intestinal brush border sucrase-isomaltase, aminopeptidase N, and dipeptidyl peptidase IV. (5/366)

The temporal association between O-glycosylation and processing of N-linked glycans in the Golgi apparatus as well as the implication of these events in the polarized sorting of three brush border proteins has been the subject of the current investigation. O-Glycosylation of pro-sucrase-isomaltase (pro-SI), aminopeptidase N (ApN), and dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) is drastically reduced when processing of the mannose-rich N-linked glycans is blocked by deoxymannojirimycin, an inhibitor of the Golgi-located mannosidase I. By contrast, O-glycosylation is not affected in the presence of swainsonine, an inhibitor of Golgi mannosidase II. The results indicate that removal of the outermost mannose residues by mannosidase I from the mannose-rich N-linked glycans is required before O-glycosylation can ensue. On the other hand, subsequent mannose residues in the core chain impose no sterical constraints on the progression of O-glycosylation. Reduction or modification of N- and O-glycosylation do not affect the transport of pro-SI, ApN, or DPPIV to the cell surface per se. However, the polarized sorting of two of these proteins, pro-SI and DPPIV, to the apical membrane is substantially altered when O-glycans are not completely processed, while the sorting of ApN is not affected. The processing of N-linked glycans, on the other hand, has no influence on sorting of all three proteins. The results indicate that O-linked carbohydrates are at least a part of the sorting mechanism of pro-SI and DPPIV. The sorting of ApN implicates neither O-linked nor N-linked glycans and is driven most likely by carbohydrate-independent mechanisms.  (+info)

VIP36 localisation to the early secretory pathway. (6/366)

VIP36, an integral membrane protein previously isolated from epithelial MDCK cells, is an intracellular lectin of the secretory pathway. Overexpressed VIP36 had been localised to the Golgi complex, plasma membrane and endocytic structures suggesting post-Golgi trafficking of this molecule (Fiedler et al., 1994). Here we provide evidence that endogenous VIP36 is localised to the Golgi apparatus and the early secretory pathway of MDCK and Vero cells and propose that retention is easily saturated. High resolution confocal microscopy shows partial overlap of VIP36 with Golgi marker proteins. Punctate cytoplasmic structures colocalise with coatomer and ERGIC-53, labeling ER-Golgi intermediate membrane structures. Cycling of VIP36 is suggested by colocalisation with anterograde cargo trapped in pre-Golgi structures and modification of its N-linked carbohydrate by glycosylation enzymes of medial Golgi cisternae. Furthermore, after brefeldin A treatment VIP36 is segregated from resident Golgi proteins and codistributes with ER-Golgi recycling proteins.  (+info)

Effects of N-butyldeoxynojirimycin and the Lec3.2.8.1 mutant phenotype on N-glycan processing in Chinese hamster ovary cells: application to glycoprotein crystallization. (7/366)

Heterologous gene expression in either (1) the glycosylation-defective, mutant Chinese hamster ovary cell line, Lec3.2.8.1, or (2) the presence of the alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, N-butyldeoxynojirimycin facilitates the trimming of N-linked glycans of glycoproteins to single N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) residues with endoglycosidase H (endo H). Both approaches are somewhat inefficient, however, with as little as 12% of the total protein being rendered fully endo H-sensitive under these conditions. It is shown here that the combined effects of these approaches on the restriction of oligosaccharide processing are essentially additive, thereby allowing the production of glycoproteins that are essentially completely endo H-sensitive. The preparation of a soluble chimeric form of CD58, the ligand of the human T-cell surface recognition molecule CD2, illustrates the usefulness of the combined approach when expression levels are low or the deglycosylated protein is unstable at low pH. The endo H-treated chimera produced crystals of space group P3(1)21 or P3(2)21, and unit cell dimensions a = b = 116.4 A, c = 51.4 A alpha = beta = 90 degrees , gamma = 120 degrees , that diffract to a maximum resolution of 1.8 A.  (+info)

High-mannose type oligosaccharide-dependent apoptosis in U937 cells induced by pradimicin, a mannose-binding antibiotic. (8/366)

Cell surface oligosaccharides play a role in a variety of biological events such as cell adhesion and signal transduction. We have shown that BMY-28864, a semi-synthetic analog of pradimicin, induced apoptosis of U937 cells which had been incubated with 1-deoxymannojirimycin, an inhibitor of mannosidase I. BMY-28864 was not cytotoxic to the cells which had been cultivated with other glycosidase inhibitors such as castanospermine and swainsonine. We thus propose that BMY-28864 induces apoptosis by acting on a specific mannose-rich oligosaccharide, presumably (Man)9(GlcNAc)2+.  (+info)

1-Deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) is an antagonist of the enzyme alpha-glucosidase, which is involved in the digestion of carbohydrates. DNJ is a naturally occurring compound found in some plants, including mulberry leaves and the roots of the African plant Moringa oleifera. It works by binding to the active site of alpha-glucosidase and inhibiting its activity, which can help to slow down the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates in the small intestine. This can help to reduce postprandial glucose levels (the spike in blood sugar that occurs after a meal) and may have potential benefits for the management of diabetes and other metabolic disorders. DNJ is also being studied for its potential anti-cancer effects.

Alpha-glucosidases are a group of enzymes that break down complex carbohydrates into simpler sugars, such as glucose, by hydrolyzing the alpha-1,4 and alpha-1,6 glycosidic bonds in oligosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides. These enzymes are located on the brush border of the small intestine and play a crucial role in carbohydrate digestion and absorption.

Inhibitors of alpha-glucosidases, such as acarbose and miglitol, are used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes to slow down the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates, which helps to reduce postprandial glucose levels and improve glycemic control.

Glucosamine is a natural compound found in the body, primarily in the fluid around joints. It is a building block of cartilage, which is the tissue that cushions bones and allows for smooth joint movement. Glucosamine can also be produced in a laboratory and is commonly sold as a dietary supplement.

Medical definitions of glucosamine describe it as a type of amino sugar that plays a crucial role in the formation and maintenance of cartilage, ligaments, tendons, and other connective tissues. It is often used as a supplement to help manage osteoarthritis symptoms, such as pain, stiffness, and swelling in the joints, by potentially reducing inflammation and promoting cartilage repair.

There are different forms of glucosamine available, including glucosamine sulfate, glucosamine hydrochloride, and N-acetyl glucosamine. Glucosamine sulfate is the most commonly used form in supplements and has been studied more extensively than other forms. While some research suggests that glucosamine may provide modest benefits for osteoarthritis symptoms, its effectiveness remains a topic of ongoing debate among medical professionals.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Indolizines" is not a medical term. It is a chemical term that refers to a class of heterocyclic organic compounds which contain a seven-membered ring with two nitrogen atoms and a carbon-carbon double bond. They are used in the synthesis of various pharmaceuticals and natural products, but they are not a medical condition or diagnosis.

"Morus" is not a term commonly used in medical terminology. However, it may refer to "Morus alba," which is the scientific name for the white mulberry tree. Some studies suggest that certain compounds found in the leaves of this tree may have potential health benefits, but more research is needed. It's important to note that supplements containing these compounds should not be used as a substitute for medical treatment, and individuals should consult with their healthcare provider before taking them.

Swainsonine is not a medical condition or disease, but rather a toxin that can cause a medical condition known as "locoism" in animals. Swainsonine is produced by certain plants, including some species of the genera Swainsona and Astragalus, which are commonly known as locoweeds.

Swainsonine inhibits an enzyme called alpha-mannosidase, leading to abnormal accumulation of mannose-rich oligosaccharides in various tissues and organs. This can result in a range of clinical signs, including neurological symptoms such as tremors, ataxia (loss of coordination), and behavioral changes; gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea, weight loss, and decreased appetite; and reproductive problems.

Locoism is most commonly seen in grazing animals such as cattle, sheep, and horses that consume large quantities of locoweeds over an extended period. It can be difficult to diagnose and treat, and prevention through management practices such as rotational grazing and avoiding the introduction of toxic plants into pastures is often the best approach.

Glucosidases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of glycosidic bonds, specifically at the non-reducing end of an oligo- or poly saccharide, releasing a single sugar molecule, such as glucose. They play important roles in various biological processes, including digestion of carbohydrates and the breakdown of complex glycans in glycoproteins and glycolipids.

In the context of digestion, glucosidases are produced by the pancreas and intestinal brush border cells to help break down dietary polysaccharides (e.g., starch) into monosaccharides (glucose), which can then be absorbed by the body for energy production or storage.

There are several types of glucosidases, including:

1. α-Glucosidase: This enzyme is responsible for cleaving α-(1→4) and α-(1→6) glycosidic bonds in oligosaccharides and disaccharides, such as maltose, maltotriose, and isomaltose.
2. β-Glucosidase: This enzyme hydrolyzes β-(1→4) glycosidic bonds in cellobiose and other oligosaccharides derived from plant cell walls.
3. Lactase (β-Galactosidase): Although not a glucosidase itself, lactase is often included in this group because it hydrolyzes the β-(1→4) glycosidic bond between glucose and galactose in lactose, yielding free glucose and galactose.

Deficiencies or inhibition of these enzymes can lead to various medical conditions, such as congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency (an α-glucosidase deficiency), lactose intolerance (a lactase deficiency), and Gaucher's disease (a β-glucocerebrosidase deficiency).

Mannosidases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of mannose residues from glycoproteins, oligosaccharides, and glycolipids. These enzymes play a crucial role in the processing and degradation of N-linked glycans, which are carbohydrate structures attached to proteins in eukaryotic cells.

There are several types of mannosidases, including alpha-mannosidase and beta-mannosidase, which differ in their specificity for the type of linkage they cleave. Alpha-mannosidases hydrolyze alpha-1,2-, alpha-1,3-, alpha-1,6-mannosidic bonds, while beta-mannosidases hydrolyze beta-1,4-mannosidic bonds.

Deficiencies in mannosidase activity can lead to various genetic disorders, such as alpha-mannosidosis and beta-mannosidosis, which are characterized by the accumulation of unprocessed glycoproteins and subsequent cellular dysfunction.

Alpha-Mannosidase is an enzyme that belongs to the glycoside hydrolase family 47. It is responsible for cleaving alpha-1,3-, alpha-1,6-mannosidic linkages in N-linked oligosaccharides during the process of glycoprotein degradation. A deficiency or malfunction of this enzyme can lead to a lysosomal storage disorder known as alpha-Mannosidosis.

Oligosaccharides are complex carbohydrates composed of relatively small numbers (3-10) of monosaccharide units joined together by glycosidic linkages. They occur naturally in foods such as milk, fruits, vegetables, and legumes. In the body, oligosaccharides play important roles in various biological processes, including cell recognition, signaling, and protection against pathogens.

There are several types of oligosaccharides, classified based on their structures and functions. Some common examples include:

1. Disaccharides: These consist of two monosaccharide units, such as sucrose (glucose + fructose), lactose (glucose + galactose), and maltose (glucose + glucose).
2. Trisaccharides: These contain three monosaccharide units, like maltotriose (glucose + glucose + glucose) and raffinose (galactose + glucose + fructose).
3. Oligosaccharides found in human milk: Human milk contains unique oligosaccharides that serve as prebiotics, promoting the growth of beneficial bacteria in the gut. These oligosaccharides also help protect infants from pathogens by acting as decoy receptors and inhibiting bacterial adhesion to intestinal cells.
4. N-linked and O-linked glycans: These are oligosaccharides attached to proteins in the body, playing crucial roles in protein folding, stability, and function.
5. Plant-derived oligosaccharides: Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and galactooligosaccharides (GOS) are examples of plant-derived oligosaccharides that serve as prebiotics, promoting the growth of beneficial gut bacteria.

Overall, oligosaccharides have significant impacts on human health and disease, particularly in relation to gastrointestinal function, immunity, and inflammation.

Imino furanoses are not a recognized medical term, but they may be referred to in the field of biochemistry and carbohydrate research. In this context, imino furanoses are a type of sugar ring structure that contains an imine group (-C=N-) instead of the usual oxygen atom in the furanose form of sugars. Imino furanoses can be formed under certain conditions during chemical reactions involving carbohydrates, but they are not typically found in biological systems.

Imino pyranoses are not a recognized medical term or concept. However, in the field of chemistry, imino pyranoses refer to a class of compounds that are derived from pyranose sugars through a chemical reaction known as the Amadori rearrangement. In this reaction, the carbonyl group (aldehyde or ketone) of a reducing sugar reacts with an amine to form a new compound with a carbon-nitrogen double bond (imine).

In the case of pyranose sugars, which are cyclic forms of monosaccharides with six members in the ring, the Amadori rearrangement leads to the formation of imino pyranoses. These compounds can undergo further reactions and modifications, leading to a variety of chemical structures that have been studied for their potential biological activity.

Therefore, while not directly related to medical definitions, imino pyranoses are an area of interest in biochemistry and may have implications for understanding the chemistry of certain biological processes or developing new therapeutic agents.

Glucan 1,4-alpha-glucosidase, also known as amyloglucosidase or glucoamylase, is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-glycosidic bonds in starch and other oligo- and polysaccharides, breaking them down into individual glucose molecules. This enzyme specifically acts on the alpha (1->4) linkages found in amylose and amylopectin, two major components of starch. It is widely used in various industrial applications, including the production of high fructose corn syrup, alcoholic beverages, and as a digestive aid in some medical supplements.

Iminosugars are a class of naturally occurring compounds that are structural analogs of simple sugars (monosaccharides), in which the oxygen atom in the furan ring is replaced by a nitrogen atom. This small change in structure gives iminosugars unique biological properties, particularly their ability to inhibit carbohydrate-processing enzymes such as glycosidases and glycosyltransferases.

Iminosugars are found in various plants, animals, and microorganisms, and have been studied for their potential therapeutic applications in a variety of diseases, including diabetes, viral infections, and cancer. Some iminosugars have been shown to act as potent inhibitors of glycosidases involved in the replication of certain viruses, such as HIV and hepatitis C virus, making them promising candidates for antiviral therapy.

In addition, iminosugars have been investigated for their potential to modulate the immune system and reduce inflammation, which has led to interest in their use as therapeutic agents for autoimmune diseases and other inflammatory conditions. However, further research is needed to fully understand the mechanisms of action and safety profiles of iminosugars before they can be widely used in clinical settings.

Acarbose is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called alpha-glucosidase inhibitors. It is used in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Acarbose works by slowing down the digestion of carbohydrates in the small intestine, which helps to prevent spikes in blood sugar levels after meals.

By blocking the enzyme alpha-glucosidase, acarbose prevents the breakdown of complex carbohydrates into simple sugars, such as glucose, in the small intestine. This results in a slower and more gradual absorption of glucose into the bloodstream, which helps to prevent postprandial hyperglycemia (high blood sugar levels after meals).

Acarbose is typically taken orally three times a day, before meals containing carbohydrates. Common side effects include gastrointestinal symptoms such as bloating, flatulence, and diarrhea. It is important to note that acarbose should be used in conjunction with a healthy diet and regular exercise to effectively manage blood sugar levels in individuals with type 2 diabetes.

Sodium-glucose transport proteins (SGLTs) are a group of membrane transporters that facilitate the active transport of glucose across cell membranes in various tissues, including the kidneys and intestines. They function by coupling the movement of glucose molecules with sodium ions, using the energy generated by the sodium gradient across the membrane.

The two main types of SGLTs are:

1. SGLT1: This transporter is primarily found in the intestines and plays a crucial role in glucose absorption from food. It has a high affinity for glucose and transports it along with sodium ions, which helps create an electrochemical gradient that drives the transport process.

2. SGLT2: This transporter is mainly located in the early proximal tubules of the kidneys and is responsible for reabsorbing about 90% of the filtered glucose back into the bloodstream. It has a lower affinity for glucose compared to SGLT1 but operates at a higher transport rate, allowing it to efficiently reabsorb large amounts of glucose.

Inhibitors of SGLT2, known as SGLT2 inhibitors or gliflozins, have been developed for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. By blocking SGLT2-mediated glucose reabsorption in the kidneys, these medications promote urinary glucose excretion and help lower blood glucose levels. Examples of SGLT2 inhibitors include canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and empagliflozin.

Mannosyl-glycoprotein endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase (MGNAG) is an enzyme that is involved in the breakdown and recycling of glycoproteins, which are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains attached to them. The enzyme's primary function is to cleave the beta-N-acetylglucosaminyl linkages in the chitobiose core of N-linked glycans, which are complex carbohydrates that are attached to many proteins in eukaryotic cells.

MGNAG is a lysosomal enzyme, meaning it is located within the lysosomes, which are membrane-bound organelles found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. Lysosomes contain hydrolytic enzymes that break down various biomolecules, including glycoproteins, lipids, and nucleic acids, into their constituent parts for recycling or disposal.

Deficiency in MGNAG activity can lead to a rare genetic disorder known as alpha-mannosidosis, which is characterized by the accumulation of mannose-rich oligosaccharides in various tissues and organs throughout the body. This condition can result in a range of symptoms, including developmental delays, intellectual disability, coarse facial features, skeletal abnormalities, hearing loss, and immune dysfunction.

Alkaloids are a type of naturally occurring organic compounds that contain mostly basic nitrogen atoms. They are often found in plants, and are known for their complex ring structures and diverse pharmacological activities. Many alkaloids have been used in medicine for their analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and therapeutic properties. Examples of alkaloids include morphine, quinine, nicotine, and caffeine.

Hexosaminidases are a group of enzymes that play a crucial role in the breakdown of complex carbohydrates, specifically glycoproteins and glycolipids, in the human body. These enzymes are responsible for cleaving the terminal N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) residues from these molecules during the process of glycosidase digestion.

There are several types of hexosaminidases, including Hexosaminidase A and Hexosaminidase B, which are encoded by different genes and have distinct functions. Deficiencies in these enzymes can lead to serious genetic disorders, such as Tay-Sachs disease and Sandhoff disease, respectively. These conditions are characterized by the accumulation of undigested glycolipids and glycoproteins in various tissues, leading to progressive neurological deterioration and other symptoms.

Mannose is a simple sugar (monosaccharide) that is similar in structure to glucose. It is a hexose, meaning it contains six carbon atoms. Mannose is a stereoisomer of glucose, meaning it has the same chemical formula but a different structural arrangement of its atoms.

Mannose is not as commonly found in foods as other simple sugars, but it can be found in some fruits, such as cranberries, blueberries, and peaches, as well as in certain vegetables, like sweet potatoes and turnips. It is also found in some dietary fibers, such as those found in beans and whole grains.

In the body, mannose can be metabolized and used for energy, but it is also an important component of various glycoproteins and glycolipids, which are molecules that play critical roles in many biological processes, including cell recognition, signaling, and adhesion.

Mannose has been studied as a potential therapeutic agent for various medical conditions, including urinary tract infections (UTIs), because it can inhibit the attachment of certain bacteria to the cells lining the urinary tract. Additionally, mannose-binding lectins have been investigated for their potential role in the immune response to viral and bacterial infections.

Glycosylation is the enzymatic process of adding a sugar group, or glycan, to a protein, lipid, or other organic molecule. This post-translational modification plays a crucial role in modulating various biological functions, such as protein stability, trafficking, and ligand binding. The structure and composition of the attached glycans can significantly influence the functional properties of the modified molecule, contributing to cell-cell recognition, signal transduction, and immune response regulation. Abnormal glycosylation patterns have been implicated in several disease states, including cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Anterior pituitary hormones are a group of six major hormones that are produced and released by the anterior portion (lobe) of the pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. These hormones play crucial roles in regulating various bodily functions and activities. The six main anterior pituitary hormones are:

1. Growth Hormone (GH): Also known as somatotropin, GH is essential for normal growth and development in children and adolescents. It helps regulate body composition, metabolism, and bone density in adults.
2. Prolactin (PRL): A hormone that stimulates milk production in females after childbirth and is also involved in various reproductive and immune functions in both sexes.
3. Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH): FSH regulates the development, growth, and maturation of follicles in the ovaries (in females) and sperm production in the testes (in males).
4. Luteinizing Hormone (LH): LH plays a key role in triggering ovulation in females and stimulating testosterone production in males.
5. Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH): TSH regulates the function of the thyroid gland, which is responsible for producing and releasing thyroid hormones that control metabolism and growth.
6. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH): ACTH stimulates the adrenal glands to produce cortisol, a steroid hormone involved in stress response, metabolism, and immune function.

These anterior pituitary hormones are regulated by the hypothalamus, which is located above the pituitary gland. The hypothalamus releases releasing and inhibiting factors that control the synthesis and secretion of anterior pituitary hormones, creating a complex feedback system to maintain homeostasis in the body.

Glucosyltransferases (GTs) are a group of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a glucose molecule from an activated donor to an acceptor molecule, resulting in the formation of a glycosidic bond. These enzymes play crucial roles in various biological processes, including the biosynthesis of complex carbohydrates, cell wall synthesis, and protein glycosylation. In some cases, GTs can also contribute to bacterial pathogenesis by facilitating the attachment of bacteria to host tissues through the formation of glucans, which are polymers of glucose molecules.

GTs can be classified into several families based on their sequence similarities and catalytic mechanisms. The donor substrates for GTs are typically activated sugars such as UDP-glucose, TDP-glucose, or GDP-glucose, which serve as the source of the glucose moiety that is transferred to the acceptor molecule. The acceptor can be a wide range of molecules, including other sugars, proteins, lipids, or small molecules.

In the context of human health and disease, GTs have been implicated in various pathological conditions, such as cancer, inflammation, and microbial infections. For example, some GTs can modify proteins on the surface of cancer cells, leading to increased cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Additionally, GTs can contribute to bacterial resistance to antibiotics by modifying the structure of bacterial cell walls or by producing biofilms that protect bacteria from host immune responses and antimicrobial agents.

Overall, Glucosyltransferases are essential enzymes involved in various biological processes, and their dysregulation has been associated with several human diseases. Therefore, understanding the structure, function, and regulation of GTs is crucial for developing novel therapeutic strategies to target these enzymes and treat related pathological conditions.

Beta-glucosidase is an enzyme that breaks down certain types of complex sugars, specifically those that contain a beta-glycosidic bond. This enzyme is found in various organisms, including humans, and plays a role in the digestion of some carbohydrates, such as cellulose and other plant-based materials.

In the human body, beta-glucosidase is produced by the lysosomes, which are membrane-bound organelles found within cells that help break down and recycle various biological molecules. Beta-glucosidase is involved in the breakdown of glycolipids and gangliosides, which are complex lipids that contain sugar molecules.

Deficiencies in beta-glucosidase activity can lead to certain genetic disorders, such as Gaucher disease, in which there is an accumulation of glucocerebrosidase, a type of glycolipid, within the lysosomes. This can result in various symptoms, including enlargement of the liver and spleen, anemia, and bone pain.

Alpha 1-antitrypsin (AAT, or α1-antiproteinase, A1AP) is a protein that is primarily produced by the liver and released into the bloodstream. It belongs to a group of proteins called serine protease inhibitors, which help regulate inflammation and protect tissues from damage caused by enzymes involved in the immune response.

Alpha 1-antitrypsin is particularly important for protecting the lungs from damage caused by neutrophil elastase, an enzyme released by white blood cells called neutrophils during inflammation. In the lungs, AAT binds to and inhibits neutrophil elastase, preventing it from degrading the extracellular matrix and damaging lung tissue.

Deficiency in alpha 1-antitrypsin can lead to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and liver disease. The most common cause of AAT deficiency is a genetic mutation that results in abnormal folding and accumulation of the protein within liver cells, leading to reduced levels of functional AAT in the bloodstream. This condition is called alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) and can be inherited in an autosomal codominant manner. Individuals with severe AATD may require augmentation therapy with intravenous infusions of purified human AAT to help prevent lung damage.

Enzyme inhibitors are substances that bind to an enzyme and decrease its activity, preventing it from catalyzing a chemical reaction in the body. They can work by several mechanisms, including blocking the active site where the substrate binds, or binding to another site on the enzyme to change its shape and prevent substrate binding. Enzyme inhibitors are often used as drugs to treat various medical conditions, such as high blood pressure, abnormal heart rhythms, and bacterial infections. They can also be found naturally in some foods and plants, and can be used in research to understand enzyme function and regulation.

A "carbohydrate sequence" refers to the specific arrangement or order of monosaccharides (simple sugars) that make up a carbohydrate molecule, such as a polysaccharide or an oligosaccharide. Carbohydrates are often composed of repeating units of monosaccharides, and the sequence in which these units are arranged can have important implications for the function and properties of the carbohydrate.

For example, in glycoproteins (proteins that contain carbohydrate chains), the specific carbohydrate sequence can affect how the protein is processed and targeted within the cell, as well as its stability and activity. Similarly, in complex carbohydrates like starch or cellulose, the sequence of glucose units can determine whether the molecule is branched or unbranched, which can have implications for its digestibility and other properties.

Therefore, understanding the carbohydrate sequence is an important aspect of studying carbohydrate structure and function in biology and medicine.

Glycoside hydrolases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of glycosidic bonds found in various substrates such as polysaccharides, oligosaccharides, and glycoproteins. These enzymes break down complex carbohydrates into simpler sugars by cleaving the glycosidic linkages that connect monosaccharide units.

Glycoside hydrolases are classified based on their mechanism of action and the type of glycosidic bond they hydrolyze. The classification system is maintained by the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (IUBMB). Each enzyme in this class is assigned a unique Enzyme Commission (EC) number, which reflects its specificity towards the substrate and the type of reaction it catalyzes.

These enzymes have various applications in different industries, including food processing, biofuel production, pulp and paper manufacturing, and biomedical research. In medicine, glycoside hydrolases are used to diagnose and monitor certain medical conditions, such as carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome, a rare inherited disorder affecting the structure of glycoproteins.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Deoxynojirimycin. Chaluntorn Vichasilp; et al. (2012). "Development of high 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) content mulberry tea and ... 1-Deoxynojirimycin (DNJ or 1-DNJ), also called duvoglustat or moranolin, is an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, most commonly found ... 1-Deoxynojirimycin is a polyhydroxylated piperidine alkaloid produced from D-Glucose in various plants, such as Commelina ... 138 (1): 516-23. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.11.012. PMID 23265519. Gomollon-Bel, Fernando; Delso, Ignacio; Tejero, Tomas; ...
... produces deoxynojirimycin, deoxymannonojirimycin and hydroxystreptomycin. List of Streptomyces species ... "The biosynthesis of deoxynojirimycin and deoxymannonojirimycin in Streptomyces subrutilus". Journal of the Chemical Society, ... 194 (1): 93-8. doi:10.1016/s0378-1097(00)00514-0. PMID 11150672. Nemr, El Sayed H. El Ashry, Ahmed El (2007). Synthesis of ... ISBN 978-1-4051-4479-7.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) al.], Senior reporter, R.J. Ferrier ; ...
187 (1): 377-82. doi:10.1016/0042-6822(92)90331-I. PMID 1736542. Murphy CI, Lennick M, Lehar SM, Beltz GA, Young E (Oct 1990 ... 141 (1): 33-8. doi:10.1016/S0006-291X(86)80330-8. PMID 3099781. Usuki F, Ishiura S, Nonaka I, Sugita H (Apr 1988). "alpha- ... 181 (1): 180-92. doi:10.1016/0042-6822(91)90483-R. PMID 1704656. Dedera DA, Gu RL, Ratner L (Mar 1992). "Role of asparagine- ... 1 (1): 17-23. doi:10.1093/glycob/1.1.17. PMID 2136376. Land A, Braakman I (Aug 2001). "Folding of the human immunodeficiency ...
1 (1): 17-23. doi:10.1093/glycob/1.1.17. PMID 2136376. Reuser AJ, Kroos MA, Hermans MM, Bijvoet AG, Verbeet MP, Van Diggelen OP ... 187 (1): 377-82. doi:10.1016/0042-6822(92)90331-I. PMID 1736542. Hermans MM, Kroos MA, van Beeumen J, Oostra BA, Reuser AJ ( ... 181 (1): 180-92. doi:10.1016/0042-6822(91)90483-R. PMID 1704656. Dedera DA, Gu RL, Ratner L (March 1992). "Role of asparagine- ... Acid alpha-glucosidase, also called α-1,4-glucosidase and acid maltase, is an enzyme (EC 3.2.1.20) that helps to break down ...
ISBN 978-1-4051-1922-1. Baechle D, Flad T, Cansier A, Steffen H, Schittek B, Tolson J, et al. (March 2006). "Cathepsin D is ... 9 (1): 1-9. doi:10.1089/dna.1990.9.1. PMID 2180427. Capony F, Rougeot C, Montcourrier P, Cavailles V, Salazar G, Rochefort H ( ... 46 (1): 23-38. doi:10.2478/v10042-008-0003-x. PMID 18296260. Briozzo P, Morisset M, Capony F, Rougeot C, Rochefort H (July 1988 ... 42 Suppl 1: 79-85. PMID 9337526. Benes P, Vetvicka V, Fusek M (October 2008). "Cathepsin D-many functions of one aspartic ...
122 (1): 39-51. doi:10.1083/jcb.122.1.39. PMC 2119607. PMID 8314846. Misago M, Liao YF, Kudo S, Eto S, Mattei MG, Moremen KW, ... 67 (1): 150-60. doi:10.1128/jvi.67.1.150-160.1993. PMC 237347. PMID 8093218. Yeh JC, Seals JR, Murphy CI, van Halbeek H, ... 141 (1): 33-8. doi:10.1016/S0006-291X(86)80330-8. PMID 3099781. Montefiori DC, Robinson WE, Mitchell WM (Dec 1988). "Role of ... 187 (1): 377-82. doi:10.1016/0042-6822(92)90331-I. PMID 1736542. Moremen KW, Touster O, Robbins PW (Sep 1991). "Novel ...
181 (1): 180-92. doi:10.1016/0042-6822(91)90483-R. PMID 1704656. Dedera DA, Gu RL, Ratner L (1992). "Role of asparagine-linked ... 187 (1): 377-82. doi:10.1016/0042-6822(92)90331-I. PMID 1736542. Murphy CI, Lennick M, Lehar SM, Beltz GA, Young E (1991). " ... 1 (1): 17-23. doi:10.1093/glycob/1.1.17. PMID 2136376. Land A, Braakman I (2001). "Folding of the human immunodeficiency virus ... 141 (1): 33-8. doi:10.1016/S0006-291X(86)80330-8. PMID 3099781. Montefiori DC, Robinson WE, Mitchell WM (1988). "Role of ...
1-deoxynojirimycin or duvoglustat 1-deoxygalactonojirimycin or migalastat, a drug for the treatment of Fabry disease Inouye, S ...
181 (1): 180-92. doi:10.1016/0042-6822(91)90483-R. PMID 1704656. Dedera DA, Gu RL, Ratner L (1992). "Role of asparagine-linked ... 1 (1): 17-23. doi:10.1093/glycob/1.1.17. PMID 2136376. Land A, Braakman I (2001). "Folding of the human immunodeficiency virus ... 187 (1): 377-82. doi:10.1016/0042-6822(92)90331-I. PMID 1736542. Murphy CI, Lennick M, Lehar SM, et al. (1991). "Temporal ... 141 (1): 33-8. doi:10.1016/S0006-291X(86)80330-8. PMID 3099781. Montefiori DC, Robinson WE, Mitchell WM (1988). "Role of ...
36 (1): 40-5. doi:10.1038/ng1285. PMID 14702039. Oh JH, Yang JO, Hahn Y, et al. (2005). "Transcriptome analysis of human ... 200 (1-2): 149-56. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(97)00411-3. PMID 9373149. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, et al. (2004). "The ... 16 (1): 55-65. doi:10.1101/gr.4039406. PMC 1356129. PMID 16344560. Suzuki Y, Yoshitomo-Nakagawa K, Maruyama K, et al. (1997). " ... 93 (1): 35-41. doi:10.1007/BF00218910. PMID 7505766. S2CID 22998633. Venter JC, Adams MD, Myers EW, et al. (2001). "The ...
67 (1): 150-60. doi:10.1128/jvi.67.1.150-160.1993. PMC 237347. PMID 8093218. Yeh JC, Seals JR, Murphy CI, et al. (1993). "Site- ... Alpha-1,6-mannosyl-glycoprotein 2-beta-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MGAT2 gene ... 141 (1): 33-8. doi:10.1016/S0006-291X(86)80330-8. PMID 3099781. Montefiori DC, Robinson WE, Mitchell WM (1988). "Role of ... 406 (1-2): 191-5. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(97)00273-1. PMID 9109416. S2CID 17660. GeneReviews/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on Congenital ...
6 (1): 63-70. doi:10.1093/dnares/6.1.63. PMID 10231032. Park C, Meng L, Stanton LH, Collins RE, Mast SW, Yi X, Strachan H, ... 67 (1): 150-60. doi:10.1128/jvi.67.1.150-160.1993. PMC 237347. PMID 8093218. Yeh JC, Seals JR, Murphy CI, et al. (1993). "Site- ... 406 (1-2): 191-5. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(97)00273-1. PMID 9109416. S2CID 17660. Hiramoto S, Tamba M, Kiuchi S, et al. (1998). " ... 141 (1): 33-8. doi:10.1016/S0006-291X(86)80330-8. PMID 3099781. Montefiori DC, Robinson WE, Mitchell WM (1988). "Role of ...
67 (1): 150-60. doi:10.1128/jvi.67.1.150-160.1993. PMC 237347. PMID 8093218. Yeh JC, Seals JR, Murphy CI, et al. (1993). "Site- ... 141 (1): 33-8. doi:10.1016/S0006-291X(86)80330-8. PMID 3099781. Montefiori DC, Robinson WE, Mitchell WM (1988). "Role of ... 406 (1-2): 191-5. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(97)00273-1. PMID 9109416. S2CID 17660. Tremblay LO, Campbell Dyke N, Herscovics A ( ... 187 (1): 377-82. doi:10.1016/0042-6822(92)90331-I. PMID 1736542. Kalyanaraman VS, Rodriguez V, Veronese F, et al. (1990). " ...
Mannosyl-oligosaccharide 1,2-alpha-mannosidase IA is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAN1A1 gene. This gene encodes ... 67 (1): 150-60. doi:10.1128/JVI.67.1.150-160.1993. PMC 237347. PMID 8093218. Yeh JC, Seals JR, Murphy CI, et al. (1993). "Site- ... 406 (1-2): 191-5. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(97)00273-1. PMID 9109416. S2CID 17660. Bieberich E, Treml K, Völker C, et al. (1997 ... 141 (1): 33-8. doi:10.1016/S0006-291X(86)80330-8. PMID 3099781. Montefiori DC, Robinson WE, Mitchell WM (1988). "Role of ...
"Inhibition of Major Virulence Pathways of Streptococcus mutans by Quercitrin and Deoxynojirimycin: A Synergistic Approach of ... 49 (1): 118-119. doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2016.10.001. PMID 28244375. Liu, Yi-Yun; Wang, Yang; Walsh, Timothy R; Yi, Ling-Xian ... 60 (1): 356-360. doi:10.1128/AAC.01194-15. PMC 4704196. PMID 26525789. Khan, Shahper N; Khan, Asad U (2016). "Breaking the ... 15 (1): 1. doi:10.1186/s12866-014-0320-5. PMC 4316655. PMID 25591663. Danishuddin, Mohd; Khan, Asad U (2015). "Structure based ...
Retrieved 1 March 2012. Yoshimizu, M.; Tajima, Y; Matsuzawa, F; Aikawa, S; Iwamoto, K; Kobayashi, T; Edmunds, T; Fujishima, K; ... 391 (1-2): 68-73. doi:10.1016/j.cca.2008.02.014. PMID 18328816. Bischoff H (August 1995). "The mechanism of α-glucosidase ... 306 (1): 188-94. doi:10.1006/abbi.1993.1499. PMID 8215402. Tadera K, Minami Y, Takamatsu K, Matsuoka T (April 2006). " ... It was shown that 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) would bind the strongest of the sugars tested and blocked the active site of the ...
Depending on the mutation, the EC50 is between 0.8 μM and over 1 mM in cellular models. The enzyme alpha-galactosidase A (α- ... 1 April 2016. "Public summary of opinion on orphan designation". European Medicines Agency. 29 April 2014. "Amicus Therapeutics ... 1 April 2016. Asano, N (2007). "Naturally occurring iminosugars and related alkaloids: structure, activity and applications". ... Migalastat was isolated as a fermentation product of the bacterium Streptomyces lydicus (strain PA-5726) in 1988 and called 1- ...
The 1-deoxy analogs of iminosugars are C-glycosides, with the nitrogen as part of an ordinary amine linkage. Their piperidine, ... The first iminosugar to be isolated from a natural source, 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), found in Mulberry, was reported in 1976, ... In terms of biochemical activity for medicinal applications, DNJ and 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-arabinitol (DAB, another early ...
1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-5-nitro-4-(2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-, methyl ester MeSH D03.383.725.210 - dimethindene MeSH D03.383. ... 2-ethyl-1,3,4,6,7,11b-hexahydro-3-isobutyl-9,10-dimethoxy- MeSH D03.438.834.775 - sparteine MeSH D03.438.834.850 - ... 5-dihydro-1-(3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-1h-pyrazol-3-amine MeSH D03.383.129.539.200 - epirizole MeSH D03.383.129.539.487 - ... 1,2,4-oxadiazole MeSH D03.383.312.649.290 - fanft MeSH D03.383.312.649.308 - furagin MeSH D03.383.312.649.313 - furazolidone ...
The molecular formula C6H13NO4 (molar mass: 163.17 g/mol, exact mass: 163.0845 u) may refer to: Bicine 1-Deoxynojirimycin, or ...
Nitrogen-containing, 'sugar-shaped' heterocycles have been found in nature, including deoxynojirimycin, swainsonine, australine ... Retrieved 1 August 2021. "Lactose Intolerance". NIDDK. June 2014. Archived from the original on 25 October 2016. Retrieved 25 ... 3 (1): 26-44. doi:10.2174/22115501113026660041. Fleming, Derek; Rumbaugh, Kendra P. (2017-04-01). "Approaches to Dispersing ... Glycoside hydrolases are classified into EC 3.2.1 as enzymes catalyzing the hydrolysis of O- or S-glycosides. Glycoside ...
Currently the government is testing several treatments including N-butyl-deoxynojirimycin in mice, as well as stem cell ... 318 (1-2): 133-7. doi:10.1016/S0009-8981(02)00002-5. PMID 11880123. Kuliev A, Rechitsky S, Laziuk K, Verlinsky O, Tur-Kaspa I, ... 3 (1): 139-145. doi:10.1093/hmg/3.1.139. PMID 8162015. "From a parents perspective: Parents view of Sandhoff". sandhoffdisease. ... 107 (1): 12-17. doi:10.1007/s004390050003. PMID 10982028. Cantor RM, Kaback MM (1985). "Sandhoff disease (SHD) heterozygote ...
Deoxynojirimycin. Chaluntorn Vichasilp; et al. (2012). "Development of high 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) content mulberry tea and ... 1-Deoxynojirimycin (DNJ or 1-DNJ), also called duvoglustat or moranolin, is an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, most commonly found ... 1-Deoxynojirimycin is a polyhydroxylated piperidine alkaloid produced from D-Glucose in various plants, such as Commelina ... "Identification of the genes involved in 1-deoxynojirimycin synthesis in Bacillus subtilis MORI 3K-85". The Journal of ...
Product References: 1-Deoxynojirimycin , 19130-96-2 , In stock , Aktin Chemicals, Inc. ...
Gross, U., Stütz, A., & Wrodnigg, T. (2009). Synthesis of N-Modified 1-Deoxynojirimycin Derivatives with Potential as Active ... Gross, U, Stütz, A & Wrodnigg, T 2009, Synthesis of N-Modified 1-Deoxynojirimycin Derivatives with Potential as Active Site ... Synthesis of N-Modified 1-Deoxynojirimycin Derivatives with Potential as Active Site Specific Chaperones in the Treatment of ... Synthesis of N-Modified 1-Deoxynojirimycin Derivatives with Potential as Active Site Specific Chaperones in the Treatment of ...
Kim, J. Y., Kwon, H. J., Jung, J. Y., Kwon, H. Y., Baek, J. G., Kim, Y. S., & Kwon, O. (2010). Comparison of absorption of 1- ... Kim, JY, Kwon, HJ, Jung, JY, Kwon, HY, Baek, JG, Kim, YS & Kwon, O 2010, Comparison of absorption of 1-deoxynojirimycin from ... Comparison of absorption of 1-deoxynojirimycin from mulberry water extract in rats. / Kim, Ji Yeon; Kwon, Hye Jin; Jung, Ji ... keywords = "1-Deoxynojirimycin, Absorption, Bioavailability, Caco-2, Mulberry leaves",. author = "Kim, {Ji Yeon} and Kwon, {Hye ...
i,Methods,/i,. The method we developed includes three steps: (1) identification of candidate ancient terms; (2) systemic search ... 1Yin Li. ,2Xinfeng Guo. ,3Brian H. May. ,4Charlie C. L. Xue. ,4Lihong Yang. ,3and Xusheng Liu. 1 ... 1 ("kidney") #2 ("glucose") #3 ("nephropathy") #4 ("diabetic nephropathy") #5 ("diabetes") #6 ("Bombyx"[Mesh] OR "chymotrypsin ... P. Chen, Q. Shi, X. Xu, Y. Wang, W. Chen, and H. Wang, "Quercetin suppresses NF-κB and MCP-1 expression in a high glucose- ...
1-Deoxynojirimycin Standard] .We manufacture and distribute chemical reagents for research use only or various antibodies. ...
2(5H)-Furanone,5-methyl-3-[(2R,8R,13R)-2,8,13-trihydroxy-13-[(2R,5R)-tetrahydro-5-[(1R)-1-hydroxytridecyl]-2-furanyl]tridecyl ... 10:1 cherry extract/10:1 cherry powder/10:1 acerola cherry extract ...
187 (1): 377-82. doi:10.1016/0042-6822(92)90331-I. PMID 1736542. Murphy CI, Lennick M, Lehar SM, Beltz GA, Young E (Oct 1990 ... 141 (1): 33-8. doi:10.1016/S0006-291X(86)80330-8. PMID 3099781. Usuki F, Ishiura S, Nonaka I, Sugita H (Apr 1988). "alpha- ... 181 (1): 180-92. doi:10.1016/0042-6822(91)90483-R. PMID 1704656. Dedera DA, Gu RL, Ratner L (Mar 1992). "Role of asparagine- ... 1 (1): 17-23. doi:10.1093/glycob/1.1.17. PMID 2136376. Land A, Braakman I (Aug 2001). "Folding of the human immunodeficiency ...
1-Deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) was identified to rescue mitochondrial function by targeting optic atrophy protein 1 (OPA1) to promote ... 1-Deoxynojirimycin promotes cardiac function and rescues mitochondrial cristae in mitochondrial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. ... 1-Deoxynojirimycin promotes cardiac function and rescues mitochondrial cristae in mitochondrial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. ...
Deoxynojirimycin and its hexosaminyl derivatives bind to natural killer cell receptors rNKR-P1A and hCD69. Catelani G, DAndrea ...
synthesized the xylobio-deoxynojirimycin analogue (a xylanase inhibitor and xylose-moranoline conjugate) and demonstrated that ... synthesized (glucose)n-deoxynojirimycin (n = 1-8) conjugates by the transglucosylation action of bacterial saccharifying ... Ki of 5.8 μM for xylobio-deoxynojirimycin analogue and 4,800 μM for xylobiose) (Williams et al., 2000). Arai et al. ... Synthesis and α-amylase Inhibitory Activity of Glucose-Deoxynojirimycin Conjugates. Tetrahedron 67, 7692-7702. doi:10.1016/j. ...
... is a neurovisceral atypical lysosomal lipid storage disorder with an estimated minimal incidence of 1/120,000 live births. The ... 1 Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Unité 820, Faculté de Médecine Lyon-Est Claude Bernard, 7 Rue G, ... is a neurovisceral atypical lysosomal lipid storage disorder with an estimated minimal incidence of 1/120,000 live births. The ...
Standardized to contain 5% (m/m) of DNJ (1-deoxynojirimycin). *Recommended dose of 250mg (=12.5mg DNJ) for supplement and food ...
FDA Approves Orphan Drug Status for Type 1 Diabetes Stem Cell Therapy The FDA has approved orphan drug designation for a stem ... New FDA Orphan Drugs The FDA has granted orphan drug designation for mifepristone for the treatment of Cushings syndrome, 1- ... deoxynojirimycin hydrochloride for the treatment of Pompe disease, and cetuximab for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. News, ... The FDA has approved orphan drug status for the humanized Fc-engineered anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody hOKT3-gamma-1 (Ala-Ala; ...
1. Croat Med J. 2006 October; 47(5): 709-13.. 2. J Biol Chem. 2001 Sep 21;276(38):36000-7.. 3. J Med Food. 2011 Jul-Aug;14(7-8 ... 2012;40(1):163-75.. 12. Cell Metab. 2007 Apr;5(4):237-52.. 13. Nutr Res. 2011 Nov;31(11):848-54.. 14. Phytochemistry. 2010 Jun; ... White mulberry extract (leaf) [providing 7.5 mg 1-deoxynojirimycin]. 150 mg. Phloridzin [from apple extract (root bark)]. 50 mg ... Even if we eat right and stay active, these blood sugar levels can rise for a variety of reasons:1,2 ...
1-Deoxyfuconojirimycin HCl. £109.00. - £281.00. exc. VAT Select options. * 1-Deoxynojirimycin. £109.00. - £281.00. exc. VAT ... 1,4-Dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-mannitol hydrochloride. Read more. * 2,5-Dideoxy-2,5-imino-D-mannitol. £64.00. - £290.00. exc. VAT ... 1-Deoxy-L-idonojirimycin HCl. £109.00. - £281.00. exc. VAT Select options. * ... 1,4-Dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-arabitol HCl. Read more. * ...
Panguna nga mga sangkap: α-pinene, 1,8-ineole, verbenone, bearol, camphene, camphor, β-pinene. ...
1,2-Benzoquinones use Benzoquinones 1,2-Cyclic-Inositol-Phosphate Phosphodiesterase use Glycerophosphoinositol ... 1-Acylglycerol-3-Phosphate O-Acyltransferase 1-Acylglycerophosphocholine Acyltransferase use 1-Acylglycerophosphocholine O- ... 3-Phosphoshikimate 1-Carboxyvinyltransferase 3-Pyridinecarboxylic acid, 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-5-nitro-4-(2-(trifluoromethyl) ... 6-Phosphofructokinase, Liver Type use Phosphofructokinase-1, Liver Type 6-Phosphofructokinase, Muscle Type use ...
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Large scale synthesis of 2,3,4,6-Tetra-O-Benzyl-1-Deoxynojirimycin - Damien Hazelard, Mathieu L. Lepage, Jeremy P. Schneider, ...
1 from Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis ML? and the Construction of a New Shuttle Vector for Lactic Acid Bacteria dbpia.co.kr. ... Enhancement of 1-deoxynojirimycin content in leaf extracts of Morus alba L. by lactic acid bacteria fermentation. search. ... 뽕잎추출물의 유산균 발효시 1-Deoxynojirimycin 함량 및 α-Glucosidase 저해 활성 변화 db.koreascholar.com. 2017. ... Modulation of Th1/Th2 Balance by Lactobacillus Strains Isolated from Kimchi via Stimulation of Macrophage Cell Line J774A.1 In ...
1,2-Benzoquinones use Benzoquinones 1,2-Cyclic-Inositol-Phosphate Phosphodiesterase use Glycerophosphoinositol ... 1-Acylglycerol-3-Phosphate O-Acyltransferase 1-Acylglycerophosphocholine Acyltransferase use 1-Acylglycerophosphocholine O- ... 3-Phosphoshikimate 1-Carboxyvinyltransferase 3-Pyridinecarboxylic acid, 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-5-nitro-4-(2-(trifluoromethyl) ... 6-Phosphofructokinase, Liver Type use Phosphofructokinase-1, Liver Type 6-Phosphofructokinase, Muscle Type use ...
1,2-Benzoquinones use Benzoquinones 1,2-Cyclic-Inositol-Phosphate Phosphodiesterase use Glycerophosphoinositol ... 1-Acylglycerol-3-Phosphate O-Acyltransferase 1-Acylglycerophosphocholine Acyltransferase use 1-Acylglycerophosphocholine O- ... 3-Phosphoshikimate 1-Carboxyvinyltransferase 3-Pyridinecarboxylic acid, 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-5-nitro-4-(2-(trifluoromethyl) ... 6-Phosphofructokinase, Liver Type use Phosphofructokinase-1, Liver Type 6-Phosphofructokinase, Muscle Type use ...
1,2-Benzoquinones use Benzoquinones 1,2-Cyclic-Inositol-Phosphate Phosphodiesterase use Glycerophosphoinositol ... 1-Acylglycerol-3-Phosphate O-Acyltransferase 1-Acylglycerophosphocholine Acyltransferase use 1-Acylglycerophosphocholine O- ... 3-Phosphoshikimate 1-Carboxyvinyltransferase 3-Pyridinecarboxylic acid, 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-5-nitro-4-(2-(trifluoromethyl) ... 6-Phosphofructokinase, Liver Type use Phosphofructokinase-1, Liver Type 6-Phosphofructokinase, Muscle Type use ...
1,2-Benzoquinones use Benzoquinones 1,2-Cyclic-Inositol-Phosphate Phosphodiesterase use Glycerophosphoinositol ... 1-Acylglycerol-3-Phosphate O-Acyltransferase 1-Acylglycerophosphocholine Acyltransferase use 1-Acylglycerophosphocholine O- ... 3-Phosphoshikimate 1-Carboxyvinyltransferase 3-Pyridinecarboxylic acid, 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-5-nitro-4-(2-(trifluoromethyl) ... 6-Phosphofructokinase, Liver Type use Phosphofructokinase-1, Liver Type 6-Phosphofructokinase, Muscle Type use ...
1,2-Benzoquinones use Benzoquinones 1,2-Cyclic-Inositol-Phosphate Phosphodiesterase use Glycerophosphoinositol ... 1-Acylglycerol-3-Phosphate O-Acyltransferase 1-Acylglycerophosphocholine Acyltransferase use 1-Acylglycerophosphocholine O- ... 3-Phosphoshikimate 1-Carboxyvinyltransferase 3-Pyridinecarboxylic acid, 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-5-nitro-4-(2-(trifluoromethyl) ... 6-Phosphofructokinase, Liver Type use Phosphofructokinase-1, Liver Type 6-Phosphofructokinase, Muscle Type use ...
1,2-Benzoquinones use Benzoquinones 1,2-Cyclic-Inositol-Phosphate Phosphodiesterase use Glycerophosphoinositol ... 1-Acylglycerol-3-Phosphate O-Acyltransferase 1-Acylglycerophosphocholine Acyltransferase use 1-Acylglycerophosphocholine O- ... 3-Phosphoshikimate 1-Carboxyvinyltransferase 3-Pyridinecarboxylic acid, 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-5-nitro-4-(2-(trifluoromethyl) ... 6-Phosphofructokinase, Liver Type use Phosphofructokinase-1, Liver Type 6-Phosphofructokinase, Muscle Type use ...
1,2-Benzoquinones use Benzoquinones 1,2-Cyclic-Inositol-Phosphate Phosphodiesterase use Glycerophosphoinositol ... 1-Acylglycerol-3-Phosphate O-Acyltransferase 1-Acylglycerophosphocholine Acyltransferase use 1-Acylglycerophosphocholine O- ... 3-Phosphoshikimate 1-Carboxyvinyltransferase 3-Pyridinecarboxylic acid, 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-5-nitro-4-(2-(trifluoromethyl) ... 6-Phosphofructokinase, Liver Type use Phosphofructokinase-1, Liver Type 6-Phosphofructokinase, Muscle Type use ...
1,2-Benzoquinones use Benzoquinones 1,2-Cyclic-Inositol-Phosphate Phosphodiesterase use Glycerophosphoinositol ... 1-Acylglycerol-3-Phosphate O-Acyltransferase 1-Acylglycerophosphocholine Acyltransferase use 1-Acylglycerophosphocholine O- ... 3-Phosphoshikimate 1-Carboxyvinyltransferase 3-Pyridinecarboxylic acid, 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-5-nitro-4-(2-(trifluoromethyl) ... 6-Phosphofructokinase, Liver Type use Phosphofructokinase-1, Liver Type 6-Phosphofructokinase, Muscle Type use ...
  • N-Butyl-l-deoxynojirimycin (l-NBDNJ): Synthesis of an Allosteric Enhancer of α-Glucosidase Activity for the Treatment of Pompe Disease. (ox.ac.uk)
  • 2000) In vitro inhibition and intracellular enhancement of lysosomal alpha-galactosidase A activity in Fabry lymphoblasts by 1-deoxygalactonojirimycin and its derivatives. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • 4. Lesur B, Ducep J-B, Lalloz M-N, Ehrhard A, Danzin C. (1997) New deoxynojirimycin derivatives as potent inhibitors of intestinal α-glucohydrolases. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • Compound uptake occurred in less than 1 min, as shown by the complete inhibition of GSL labelling in cells treated with all the DNJ analogues. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Mulberry leaf tea's health benefits are attributed to its naturally occurring compound, 1-deoxynojirimycin, or DNJ. (livestrong.com)
  • It contains high levels of the active compound Deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) found in Mulberry Leaf, which along with Chromium Nicotinate, supports healthy blood sugar levels and helps to balance sugar cravings. (ibuypharmacy.co.nz)
  • New FDA Orphan Drugs The FDA has granted orphan drug designation for mifepristone for the treatment of Cushing's syndrome, 1-deoxynojirimycin hydrochloride for the treatment of Pompe disease, and cetuximab for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. (medscape.com)
  • 1-Deoxynojirimycin (DNJ or 1-DNJ), also called duvoglustat or moranolin, is an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, most commonly found in mulberry leaves. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bioactive compounds involved are α-amylase inhibitor in the white kidney beans and 1-deoxynojirimycin in mulberry leaves. (nutraingredients-asia.com)
  • DNJ has a structure similar to α-1, 4-glucose and is a powerful α -glucosidase inhibitor, which has been found to have good hypoglycemic, hypidemic and antioxidant effects. (rainbowextract.com)
  • Mulberry leaves have 1-deoxynojirimycin, which prevents the absorption of carbs in the gut and supplies several compounds that combat diabetes. (botanichealthcare.net)
  • Biosynthesis of the azasugar 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) critically involves a transamination in the first committed step. (unipr.it)
  • Cellular effects of deoxynojirimycin analogues: uptake, retention and inhibition of glycosphingolipid biosynthesis. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) analogues are inhibitors of ceramide glucosyltransferase (CGT), which catalyses the first step in the glucosphingolipid (GSL) biosynthetic pathway. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We have synthesized a series of DNJ analogues to study the contribution of N-alk(en)yl side chains (C4, C9 or C18) to the behaviour of these analogues in cultured HL60 cells. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Surprisingly, the uptake of all three of the DNJ analogues was extremely rapid and was not dependent upon the length of the N-alk(en)yl moiety. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In addition to Mulberry, 1-DNJ and its analogues were also found in the plants of Commelinaceae, hyacinth, and Psammophyllum, but their contents were lower than those of Mulberry. (rainbowextract.com)
  • Deoxynojirimycin (1-DNJ) is a piperidine-like polyhydroxy alkaloid extracted from mulberry leaves. (rainbowextract.com)
  • Some scholars used microwave-assisted extraction to extract 1-DNJ from Mulberry leaves. (rainbowextract.com)
  • 1-Deoxynojirimycin is a polyhydroxylated piperidine alkaloid produced from D-Glucose in various plants, such as Commelina communis, and in the Streptomyces and Bacillus bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 2010, 4(10), 947-953) discloses the antioxidant activity of Artocarpus lakoocha heartwood extract, investigated from ethanol extraction by 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) decolorization, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and H2O2 scavenging assay. (trea.com)
  • This enzyme hydrolyses terminal, non-reducing 1,4-linked alpha-D-glucose residues and releases alpha-D-glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lysozyme (EC 3.2.1.17) is an enzyme that hydrolyzes the β-1,4-glycosidic bond between N -acetylmuramic acid and N -acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) in peptidoglycan, a major structural component of the bacterial cell wall ( Jollès and Jollès, 1984 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Lca showed potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects on THP-1 derived macrophages upon LPS stimulation. (bvsalud.org)
  • Nata a Fiesole (Firenze) nel 1984, Camilla Matassini è dal 1 Marzo 2020 Ricercatore a tempo determinato di tipo A (RTD A) presso il Dipartimento di Chimica "Ugo Schiff" dell'Università degli Studi di Firenze. (unifi.it)
  • We tested the iminosugars N-butyl-deoxynojirimycin (NB-DNJ) and N-(9-methoxynonyl)-1deoxynojirimycin (MON-DNJ) for safety in uninfected animals, and for antiviral efficacy in animals infected with a lethal dose of guinea pig adapted EBOV. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The protective effect of FAO activator L-carnitine (Lca, 50, 500, or 5 mg/mL) was evaluated by cell counting kit 8 (CCK-8) assay, real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR), ELISA, immunoblotting, fluorescence imaging, and fluorescence plate reader detection in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (100 ng/mL)-stimulated THP-1-derived macrophages. (bvsalud.org)
  • In the Streptomyces subrutilus species, a secondary pathway branching from the manojirimycin precursor results in 1-deoxymanojirimycin via dehydration and reduction of the isomer. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1-Deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) was identified to rescue mitochondrial function by targeting optic atrophy protein 1 (OPA1) to promote its oligomerization, leading to reconstruction of the mitochondrial cristae. (jci.org)
  • Are plentiful, including oats and barley, and other prominent foods include vegetable-based margarine, 1-Deoxynojirimycin web almonds, and soy protein. (urat1inhibitor.com)
  • The Mulberry leafs uniquely contain a chemical DNJ (1-Deoxynojirimycin). (tiger-teas.com)
  • The extraction of 1-DNJ was affected by microwave treatment time, power, solid-liquid ratio and extraction times. (rainbowextract.com)
  • The optimal extraction process was as follows: the extraction rate of 1-DNJ was 0.024%, the microwave treatment time was 1.5min, the power was 406W, the solid-liquid ratio was 1∶40 and the extraction times was 2. (rainbowextract.com)
  • FDA Approves Orphan Drug Status for Type 1 Diabetes Stem Cell Therapy The FDA has approved orphan drug designation for a stem cell therapy in patients with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus. (medscape.com)
  • He commonest helminthic infection of the central nervous system and one of the most important causes of secondary epilepsy worldwide.1,2 The disease is reported to cause between 20 and 50 of all late-onset epilepsy cases globally1,3? (urat1inhibitor.com)
  • verify the test instrument using measurement system analysis software , (inproveing)practicing 1/4 test up to 1/9 test gradually. (dissertationtopic.net)
  • 1,3-Dipolar Cycloadditions: A Regio and Stereoselective Tool to Reach Unnatural Quaternary Amino Acids , Dujardin, G , Zhang X , Py Sandrine , Poisson Jean-François , Laurent M Y. , and Martel A , J. Pept. (univ-grenoble-alpes.fr)
  • The present study further characterizes the properties of N-alk(en)ylated DNJs, and demonstrates that increasing the length of the side chain is a simple way of improving imino sugar retention and therefore inhibitory efficacy for CGT in cultured cells. (ox.ac.uk)
  • A pilot study treating infected animals three times within an 8 hour period was promising with 1 of 4 infected NB-DNJ treated animals surviving and the remaining three showing improved clinical signs. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Natural products used in traditional medicine have historically been invaluable for drug development [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Therefore, assisted methods such as microwave and ultrasound are conducive to the extraction of 1-DNJ. (rainbowextract.com)