Found in various tissues, particularly in four blood-clotting proteins including prothrombin, in kidney protein, in bone protein, and in the protein present in various ectopic calcifications.

Undercarboxylation of recombinant prothrombin revealed by analysis of gamma-carboxyglutamic acid using capillary electrophoresis and laser-induced fluorescence. (1/185)

The gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) content of several variants of human prothrombin has been measured by using capillary electrophoresis and laser-induced fluorescence (CE-LIF). Both plasma-derived prothrombin and recombinant prothrombin contain ten residues of Gla per molecule of protein. In contrast, a variant of human prothrombin (containing the second kringle domain of bovine prothrombin) was separated into two populations that differed in their Gla content. Direct measurement of the Gla content showed an association with the presence or absence of the calcium-dependent conformational change that is required for prothombinase function. Thus, the CE-LIF assay is useful in determining the carboxylation status of recombinant proteins.  (+info)

A conotoxin from Conus textile with unusual posttranslational modifications reduces presynaptic Ca2+ influx. (2/185)

Cone snails are gastropod mollusks of the genus Conus that live in tropical marine habitats. They are predators that paralyze their prey by injection of venom containing a plethora of small, conformationally constrained peptides (conotoxins). We report the identification, characterization, and structure of a gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-containing peptide, conotoxin epsilon-TxIX, isolated from the venom of the molluscivorous cone snail, Conus textile. The disulfide bonding pattern of the four cysteine residues, an unparalleled degree of posttranslational processing including bromination, hydroxylation, and glycosylation define a family of conotoxins that may target presynaptic Ca2+ channels or act on G protein-coupled presynaptic receptors via another mechanism. This conotoxin selectively reduces neurotransmitter release at an Aplysia cholinergic synapse by reducing the presynaptic influx of Ca2+ in a slow and reversible fashion. The three-dimensional structure, determined by two-dimensional 1H NMR spectroscopy, identifies an electronegative patch created by the side chains of two gamma-carboxyglutamic acid residues that extend outward from a cavernous cleft. The glycosylated threonine and hydroxylated proline enclose a localized hydrophobic region centered on the brominated tryptophan residue within the constrained intercysteine region.  (+info)

Calcium binding mode of gamma-carboxyglutamic acids in conantokins. (3/185)

Conantokin-T (con-T) and conantokin-G (con-G) are two highly homologous peptide toxins found in Conus venom. The former is a 21-residue peptide with four gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) residues (at positions 3, 4, 10 and 14), while the latter is a 17-residue peptide with five gamma-carboxyglutamic acid residues (at positions 3, 4, 7, 10 and 14). Despite the apparent similarity in number and relative positions of the gamma-carboxyglutamic acid residues, (113)Cd-NMR studies indicated a distinct metal binding behavior for con-G and con-T. There appears to be four binding sites in con-G in contrast to one metal binding site in con-T. To elucidate the mode of calcium binding by the gamma-carboxyglutamic acid residues in these conantokins, we designed various analogous peptides with their gamma-carboxyglutamic acid replaced by other amino acid residues. (113)Cd-NMR experiments on conantokin analogues reveal that the major difference in the number of metal binding sites between con-G and con-T is due to the residue at position 7. We also performed molecular simulations to calculate the relative binding free energies of several potential binding sites. Based on our theoretical and experimental results, we propose a 'four-site' binding model for conantokin-G and a 'single-site' binding model for conantokin-T.  (+info)

Expression of the gene encoding the matrix gla protein by mature osteoblasts in human fracture non-unions. (4/185)

BACKGROUND: Osteoblast phenotypic abnormality, namely the expression of collagen type III, has been shown previously in fracture non-union woven bone. AIMS: To investigate osteoblasts from fracture non-unions for evidence of gene expression of non-collagenous bone matrix proteins that have been implicated in mineralisation, namely matrix gla protein (MGP), osteonectin, osteopontin, and osteocalcin. MGP is a consistent component of bone matrix, but there are no reports of osteoblasts in the skeleton expressing the gene for MGP, and the site of synthesis of skeletal MGP (perhaps the liver) has yet to be determined. METHODS: Biopsies from normally healing human fractures and non-unions were examined by means of in situ hybridisation, using 35S labelled probes and autoradiography to disclose levels of gene expression. RESULTS: In normally healing fractures, mature osteoblasts on woven bone were negative for MGP mRNA, but positive for osteonectin, osteopontin, and osteocalcin mRNA molecules. In non-unions, osteoblasts displayed a novel phenotype: they were positive for MGP mRNA, in addition to osteonectin, osteopontin, and osteocalcin mRNA molecules. CONCLUSIONS: Mature osteoblasts in slowly healing fractures have an unusual phenotype: they express the gene encoding MGP, which indicates that control of osteoblast gene expression in non-unions is likely to be abnormal. This might be of importance in the pathogenesis of non-uniting human fractures, and is of current interest given the emerging status of MGP as an inhibitor of mineralisation.  (+info)

Matrix GLA protein is a developmental regulator of chondrocyte mineralization and, when constitutively expressed, blocks endochondral and intramembranous ossification in the limb. (5/185)

Matrix GLA protein (MGP), a gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (GLA)-rich, vitamin K-dependent and apatite-binding protein, is a regulator of hypertrophic cartilage mineralization during development. However, MGP is produced by both hypertrophic and immature chondrocytes, suggesting that MGP's role in mineralization is cell stage-dependent, and that MGP may have other roles in immature cells. It is also unclear whether MGP regulates the quantity of mineral or mineral nature and quality as well. To address these issues, we determined the effects of manipulations of MGP synthesis and expression in (a) immature and hypertrophic chondrocyte cultures and (b) the chick limb bud in vivo. The two chondrocyte cultures displayed comparable levels of MGP gene expression. Yet, treatment with warfarin, a gamma-carboxylase inhibitor and vitamin K antagonist, triggered mineralization in hypertrophic but not immature cultures. Warfarin effects on mineralization were highly selective, were accompanied by no appreciable changes in MGP expression, alkaline phosphatase activity, or cell number, and were counteracted by vitamin K cotreatment. Scanning electron microscopy, x-ray microanalysis, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that mineral forming in control and warfarin-treated hypertrophic cell cultures was similar and represented stoichiometric apatite. Virally driven MGP overexpression in cultured chondrocytes greatly decreased mineralization. Surprisingly, MGP overexpression in the developing limb not only inhibited cartilage mineralization, but also delayed chondrocyte maturation and blocked endochondral ossification and formation of a diaphyseal intramembranous bone collar. The results show that MGP is a powerful but developmentally regulated inhibitor of cartilage mineralization, controls mineral quantity but not type, and appears to have a previously unsuspected role in regulating chondrocyte maturation and ossification processes.  (+info)

Identification of organic phosphorus covalently bound to collagen and non-collagenous proteins of chicken-bone matrix. The presence of O-phosphoserine and O-phosphothreonine in non-collagenous proteins, and their absence from phosporylated collagen. (6/185)

Non-collagenous phosphoproteins, almost all of which can be extracted in EDTA at neutral pH in the presence of proteinase inhibitors, are identified in the matrix of chicken bone, and are therefore not covalently bound to collagen. Similarly, all the peptides containing gamma-carboxyglutamic acid are present in the EDTA extract and none in the insoluble residue, confirming that none is covalently linked to chicken bone collagen. However, organic phosphorus is also found to be present in chicken bone collagen, principally in the alpha2-chains. Of the total protein-bound organic phosphorus present in chicken bone matrix, approx. 80% is associated with the non-collagenous proteins and 20% with collagen. The soluble non-collagenous proteins contain both O-phosphoserine and O-phosphothreonine and these account for essentially of their organic phosphorus content. In contrast, collagen contains neither O-phosphoserine nor O-phosphothreonine. Indeed, no phosphorylated hydroxy amino acid, phosphoamidated amino acid or phosphorylated sugar could be identified in purified components of collagen, which contain approximately four to five atoms of organic phosphorus per molecule of collagen. Peptides containing organic phosphorus were isolated from partial acid hydrolysates and enzymic digests of purified collagen components, which contain an as-yet-unidentified cationic amino acid. These data, the very high concentrations of glutamic acid in the phosphorylated peptides, and the pH-stability of the organic phosphorus moiety in intact collagen chains strongly suggest that at least part of the organic phosphorus in collagen is present as phosphorylated glutamic acid. This would indicate that the two major chemically different protein fractions in chicken bone matrix that contain organic phosphorus may represent two distinct metabolic pools of organic phosphorus under separate biological control.  (+info)

Identification and purification of vitamin K-dependent proteins and peptides with monoclonal antibodies specific for gamma -carboxyglutamyl (Gla) residues. (7/185)

Novel monoclonal antibodies that specifically recognize gamma-carboxyglutamyl (Gla) residues in proteins and peptides have been produced. As demonstrated by Western blot and time-resolved immunofluorescence assays the antibodies are pan-specific for most or all of the Gla-containing proteins tested (factors VII, IX, and X, prothrombin, protein C, protein S, growth arrest-specific protein 6, bone Gla protein, conantokin G from a cone snail, and factor Xa-like proteins from snake venom). Only the Gla-containing light chain of the two-chain proteins was bound. Decarboxylation destroyed the epitope(s) on prothrombin fragment 1, and Ca(2+) strongly inhibited binding to prothrombin. In Western blot, immunofluorescence, and surface plasmon resonance assays the antibodies bound peptides conjugated to bovine serum albumin that contained either a single Gla or a tandem pair of Gla residues. Binding was maintained when the sequence surrounding the Gla residue(s) was altered. Replacement of Gla with glutamic acid resulted in a complete loss of the epitope. The utility of the antibodies was demonstrated in immunochemical methods for detecting Gla-containing proteins and in the immunopurification of a factor Xa-like protein from tiger snake venom. The amino acid sequences of the Gla domain and portions of the heavy chain of the snake protein were determined.  (+info)

Sequence requirements for the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist activity of conantokin-R. (8/185)

Conantokin-R (con-R), a gamma-carboxyglutamate-containing 27-residue peptide, is a natural peptide inhibitor of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) subtype glutamate receptor. Synthetic analogs of con-R were generated to evaluate the importance of the individual structural elements of this peptide in its NMDA receptor antagonist activity, measured by inhibition of the spermine-enhanced binding of the NMDA receptor-specific channel blocker, [(3)H]MK-801, to rat brain membranes. Progressive C-terminal truncations of the 27-residue peptide revealed stages of severe activity loss. These occurred at con-R[1-11] and con-R[1-7], corresponding to the deletions of Leu(12)-Pro(27) and Met(8)-Pro(27) respectively. A second set of analogs featured single Ala substitutions in the fully active con-R[1-17] fragment. The replacement of Met(8) and Leu(12) by Ala resulted in approximate 20- and 55-fold decreases of inhibitor potency, respectively. In addition to these two residues, the only other positions where a single Ala substitution led to substantial losses (from 11-fold to >1000-fold) of activity were those of the first five N-terminal amino acids. Based on the above findings, the binding epitope of con-R was localized to the N-terminal turn of the helix and other residues on one face along two subsequent turns. This contribution pattern of the side chains in activity closely resembles the results obtained with another member of this peptide family, conantokin-T. The secondary structure and metal ion binding properties of the con-R variants were also evaluated using circular dichroism spectroscopy. Divalent cation-dependent increases of alpha-helix content were observed in most analogs. However, analogs with replacement of Gla(11) and Gla(15), as well as truncation fragments shorter than 15 residues, lost the ability to be stabilized by metal ions. These results confirmed the location of the primary divalent cation binding locus at Gla(11) and Gla(15). Additional interactions were indicated by the reduced alpha-helix stability in the Ala analogs of Gla(4), Lys(7), and Arg(14).  (+info)

1-Carboxyglutamic acid, also known as γ-carboxyglutamic acid, is a post-translational modification found on certain blood clotting factors and other calcium-binding proteins. It is formed by the carboxylation of glutamic acid residues in these proteins, which enhances their ability to bind to calcium ions. This modification is essential for the proper functioning of many physiological processes, including blood coagulation, bone metabolism, and wound healing.

... (or the conjugate base, carboxyglutamate), is an uncommon amino acid introduced into proteins by a post- ... In the biosynthesis of γ-carboxyglutamic acid, the γ-proton on glutamic acid is abstracted, and CO2 is subsequently added. The ... Then CO2 is added to the γ-carbon to form γ-carboxyglutamic acid. A number of γ-carboxyglutamate residues are present in the γ- ... γ-Carboxyglutamic acid residues play an important role in coagulation. The high-affinity calcium binding sites in the GLA ...
Rigby AC, Baleja JD, Li L, Pedersen LG, Furie BC, Furie B (December 1997). "Role of gamma-carboxyglutamic acid in the calcium- ... It differs from Con-R mainly in the C-terminal amino acids and, like Con-R, it induces sleep-like symptoms in young mice, with ... a novel peptide antagonist to the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor". Neuroscience Letters. 118 (2): 241-4. doi:10.1016/ ... 101 (1-2): 109-16. doi:10.1016/S0304-3959(02)00303-2. PMID 12507705. S2CID 25950992. Jimenez EC, Donevan S, Walker C, Zhou LM, ...
In factors VII, IX and X, the two cbEGF modules are preceded by an N-terminal gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) containing ... It comprises about 30 to 40 amino-acid residues and has been found in a large number of mostly animal proteins. Most ... β-Hydroxylation appears in hEGF- and cEGF-like domains, the former is hydroxylated on an aspartic acid while the latter is ... Multiple cbEGF domains are often connected by one or two amino acids to form larger, repetitive arrays, here referred to as ' ...
Freedman SJ, Furie BC, Furie B, Baleja JD (Sep 1995). "Structure of the calcium ion-bound gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-rich ... Tranexamic acid may be of value in patients undergoing surgery who have inherited factor IX deficiency in order to reduce the ... 14 Suppl 1: S59-64. doi:10.1097/00001721-200306001-00014. PMID 14567539. Du X (May 2007). "Signaling and regulation of the ... 9 (1): 18577. Bibcode:2019NatSR...918577S. doi:10.1038/s41598-019-54976-4. PMC 6901466. PMID 31819097. Kurachi K, Davie EW (Nov ...
Deficiency of vitamin K or administration of the anticoagulant warfarin inhibits the production of gamma-carboxyglutamic acid ... vitamin K-dependent reaction that converts 10-12 glutamic acids in the N terminus of the molecule to gamma-carboxyglutamic acid ... 32 Suppl 1: 3-15. doi:10.1055/s-2006-939550. PMID 16673262. Huber R, Bode W (1978-03-01). "Structural basis of the activation ... 209 (1): 68-74. doi:10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2009.03.016. PMID 19651065. Greenhalgh DG, Gamelli RL, Collins J, Sood R, Mozingo DW ...
2004). "Processing and transport of matrix gamma-carboxyglutamic acid protein and bone morphogenetic protein-2 in cultured ... 48 (1): 106-13. doi:10.1053/j.ajkd.2006.03.083. PMID 16797392. v t e (CS1: long volume value, Articles with short description, ... J. 376 (Pt 1): 135-45. doi:10.1042/BJ20030676. PMC 1223762. PMID 12943536. Wajih N, Borras T, Xue W, et al. ( ... "Carbohydrate binding properties of the envelope glycoproteins of human immunodeficiency virus type 1". Glycoconj. J. 9 (6): 315 ...
2-aminoadipic acid MeSH D12.125.119.170 - aspartic acid MeSH D12.125.119.170.150 - d-aspartic acid MeSH D12.125.119.170.275 - ... aspartic acid MeSH D12.125.067.500.150 - d-aspartic acid MeSH D12.125.067.500.275 - isoaspartic acid MeSH D12.125.067.500.400 ... aspartic acid MeSH D12.125.427.300 - glutamic acid MeSH D12.125.481.100 - allylglycine MeSH D12.125.481.700 - n-substituted ... imino acids MeSH D12.125.072.401.200 - azetidinecarboxylic acid MeSH D12.125.072.401.623 - proline MeSH D12.125.072.401.623.270 ...
... quinic acid MeSH D02.241.511.852 - shikimic acid MeSH D02.241.511.902 - sugar acids MeSH D02.241.511.902.107 - ascorbic acid ... edetic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.455 - egtazic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.581 - iodoacetic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.581.400 - ... hexuronic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844.915.400.500 - iduronic acid MeSH D02.241.081.901.177 - aconitic acid MeSH D02.241.081.901. ... muramic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844.562 - neuraminic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844.562.668 - sialic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844. ...
Synthesis Of Y-Carboxyglutamic Acid". Critical Reviews in Biochemistry. 8 (2): 191-223. doi:10.3109/10409238009105469. PMID ... For example, it is needed to carboxylate specific glutamic acid residues on prothrombin. Without these residues carboxylated, ... Warfarin (Coumadin) Coumatetralyl Phenprocoumon Acenocoumarol Dicoumarol Tioclomarol Brodifacoum Another group of VKAs are 1,3- ...
Carboxyglutamic acid. Whereas glutamic acid possess one γ-carboxyl group, Carboxyglutamic acid possess two. Hydroxyproline. ... ic acid.) Most natural amino acids are α-amino acids in the L conformation, but some exceptions exist. Some non-α-amino acids ... Chemically synthesized amino acids can be called unnatural amino acids. Unnatural amino acids can be synthetically prepared ... and a carboxylic acid (-COOH) functional group is an amino acid. The proteinogenic amino acids are small subset of this group ...
Furie B, Bouchard BA, Furie BC (March 1999). "Vitamin K-dependent biosynthesis of gamma-carboxyglutamic acid". Blood. 93 (6): ... 2-methyl-3-phytyl-1,4-naphthoquinone-epoxidizing). This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction peptidyl-4- ...
Freedman SJ, Furie BC, Furie B, Baleja JD (1995). "Structure of the metal-free gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-rich membrane binding ... Kulman JD, Harris JE, Xie L, Davie EW (February 2001). "Identification of two novel transmembrane gamma-carboxyglutamic acid ... "Primary structure and tissue distribution of two novel proline-rich gamma-carboxyglutamic acid proteins". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ... The GLA domain binds calcium ions by chelating them between two carboxylic acid residues. These residues are part of a region ...
M. L. (1978). "Timed appearance of a calcium-binding protein containing gamma-carboxyglutamic acid in developing chick bone". ... 36 (1): 92-106. Bibcode:1978Icar...36...92F. doi:10.1016/0019-1035(78)90076-3. Rivest, R.; Shamir, A.; Adleman, L. (1978). "A ... November 1 - Helen Czerski, English physicist and science populariser. January 14 - Kurt Gödel (b. 1906), American ...
The light chain contains an N-terminal γ-carboxyglutamic acid domain (Gla domain) and two epidermal growth factor-like domains ... In Factor V Leiden, a G1691A nucleotide replacement results in an R506Q amino acid mutation. Factor V Leiden increases the risk ... "Complete cDNA and derived amino acid sequence of human factor V". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 84 (14): 4846-50. Bibcode: ... Meizothrombin contains fragment 1•2 A chain linked to the B chain by a disulfide bond. Subsequent cleavage of meizothrombin by ...
... , also known as bone gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-containing protein (BGLAP), is a small (49-amino-acid) ... Hauschka PV, Reid ML (August 1978). "Timed appearance of a calcium-binding protein containing gamma-carboxyglutamic acid in ... 396 (1-2): 66-9. doi:10.1016/j.cca.2008.07.001. PMID 18657532. Ba Y, Huang H, Yang Y, Cui L, Zhu J, Zhu C, et al. (November ... 382 (1): 521-526. doi:10.1016/j.mce.2013.10.008. PMC 3850748. PMID 24145129. Obri A, Khrimian L, Karsenty G, Oury F (March 2018 ...
... to gamma carboxyglutamic acid (Gla). There are controversial results in many studies that suggest the reduction of bone ... Many proteins in our body depends on vitamin K especially in the bone by carboxylating an amino acid glutamic acid (Glu) ... 12 (1): e1-e4. doi:10.1055/s-0041-1741055. ISSN 2474-5871. S2CID 246761908. Zhang M, Chen J, Wang CX, Lin NX, Li X (October ... 45 (1): 30. doi:10.1186/s13052-019-0625-y. PMC 6399912. PMID 30832683. Mladěnka P, Macáková K, Kujovská Krčmová L, Javorská L, ...
... while simultaneously adding CO2 to protein-bound glutamic acid (abbreviation = Glu) to form gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (also ... 54 (1): 459-77. doi:10.1146/annurev.bi.54.070185.002331. PMID 3896125. Presnell SR, Stafford DW (2002). "The vitamin K- ... 25 (1): 127-49. doi:10.1146/annurev.nutr.25.050304.092713. PMID 16011462. Zhang B, Ginsburg D (September 2004). "Familial ... ISBN 0-12-183492-1. glutamyl+carboxylase at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article ...
... is a gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) domain-containing protein thought to be involved in the stimulation of cell ... It is similar to the Protein S with the same domain organization and 43% amino acid identity. It was originally found as a gene ... 30 (1): 129-31. doi:10.1006/geno.1995.0027. PMID 8595896. Li R, Chen J, Hammonds G, Phillips H, Armanini M, Wood P, Bunge R, ... 415 (1): 59-63. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(97)01093-4. PMID 9326369. Nakano T, Ishimoto Y, Kishino J, Umeda M, Inoue K, Nagata K, ...
... in conversion of peptide-bound glutamic acid (Glu) to γ-carboxy glutamic acid (Gla) in these proteins). Carboxylation of these ... Oxygen, heme, and menaquinones are needed for many species of lactic acid bacteria to conduct respiration. Variations in ... Many bacteria synthesize menaquinones from chorismic acid. They use it as a part of the electron transport chain, playing a ... 1570 (1): 27-32. doi:10.1016/s0304-4165(02)00147-2. PMID 11960685. Hofbauer LC, Brueck CC, Shanahan CM, Schoppet M, Dobnig H ( ...
Esmon NL, DeBault LE, Esmon CT (May 1983). "Proteolytic formation and properties of gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-domainless ... 5) Multiple proteolytic cleavages of the polypeptide backbone to remove an 18 amino acid signal peptide, a 24 amino acid ... Inactive protein C comprises 419 amino acids in multiple domains:: 2383 one Gla domain (residues 43-88); a helical aromatic ... a 32 amino acid N-terminus signal peptide preceding a propeptide.: S11 Protein C is formed when a dipeptide of Lys198 and ...
Carboxyglutamic acid (or the conjugate base, carboxyglutamate), is an uncommon amino acid introduced into proteins by a post- ... In the biosynthesis of γ-carboxyglutamic acid, the γ-proton on glutamic acid is abstracted, and CO2 is subsequently added. The ... Then CO2 is added to the γ-carbon to form γ-carboxyglutamic acid. A number of γ-carboxyglutamate residues are present in the γ- ... γ-Carboxyglutamic acid residues play an important role in coagulation. The high-affinity calcium binding sites in the GLA ...
Localization of labile posttranslational modifications by electron capture dissociation: The case of γ-carboxyglutamic acid. ... Localization of labile posttranslational modifications by electron capture dissociation: The case of γ-carboxyglutamic acid. / ... Localization of labile posttranslational modifications by electron capture dissociation : The case of γ-carboxyglutamic acid. ... Localization of labile posttranslational modifications by electron capture dissociation: The case of γ-carboxyglutamic acid. ...
YLYQWLGAPVPYPDPL-Gla-PRR-Gla-VC-Gla-LNPDCDELADHIGFQEAYRRFYGPV (Gla=γ-Carboxyglutamic Acid; Disulfide bridge: 23-29) ... Copyright © AnaSpec - 34801 Campus Drive, Fremont, CA 94555, USA - [email protected] - T : 1-800-452-5530. All rights ... Thr28, Nle31]-Cholecystokinin (25-33), sulfated CCK-9 - 1 mg *RD-Y(SO3H)-TGW-Nle-DF-NH2 ... C-Type Natriuretic Peptide (32-53), human, porcine - 1 mg *GLSKGCFGLKLDRIGSMSGLGC (Disulfide bridge: 6-22) ...
Furie B, Bouchard BA, Furie BC (1999) Vitamin K-dependent biosynthesis of gamma-carboxyglutamic acid. Blood 93:1798-1808 ... The 24th Research-Aid Report in medical and health science of Meiji Yasuda Life Foundation of Health and Welfare 24:1-11 (in ... Faculty of Human Sciences, Taisei Gakuin University, 1060-1 Hirao, Mihara-ku, Sakai, Osaka, 587-8555, Japan ... Department of Human Life, Jin-ai University, 3-1-1 Ohdecho, Echizen, Fukui, 915-8586, Japan ...
K2 activates a protein called matrix Gla (carboxyglutamic acid) protein. It carboxylates the glutamate residues in matrix Gla ... Omega 3 fatty acids:. EPA eicosapentaenoic acid) - 850-1080 mg/day (in 2 tsp Quantum Cod Liver Oil). DHA (docosahexaenoic acid ... production of fatty acids, and metabolism of fats and amino acids; and it also plays a role in the citric acid cycle. During ... But conjugated linoleic acid, in eggs and animal fat (not in vegetable oils), is the only Omega-6 fatty acid that is worth ...
a residue of an amino acid (e.g. (-carboxyglutamic acid also known as GLA) - as a complex of amino acids (e.g. natural amino ... AMINO ACIDS An ingredient is classified as an amino acid if it is an essential or nonessential amino acid. It can exist in: - ... An ingredient would not be classified as amino acid but as "Other" if it is: - an alpha-keto acid (an amino acid with its amino ... Aspartic Acid Leucine Threonine Theanine Cysteine Lysine Tryptophan SAM-e Glutamic Acid Methionine Tyrosine N-acetyl-cysteine ...
Characterization of protein S, a gamma-carboxyglutamic acid containing protein from bovine and human plasma. Biochemistry. 1979 ...
The calcium binding unit is composed of a disordered part containing all ten gamma-carboxyglutamic acid residues and an ordered ... 2017) Nucleic Acids Res doi: 10.1093/nar/gkx922. Letunic et al. (2020) Nucleic Acids Res doi: 10.1093/nar/gkaa937 ... The amino acid and RNA sequences of HGF/SF and HGF1/MSP, the intron-exon organization of their genes and the predicted 3D ... The amino acid residues important in these kringle/ligand binding interactions have been proposed by structural determinations ...
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete ... phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.. ... Single-chain polypeptides of about 65 amino acids (7 kDa) from ... Each peptide chain contains 18 amino acid residues. In vivo, fibrinopeptide A is used as a marker to determine the rate of ... This study measured urea synthesis rate (Ra urea) directly to assess its role in determining the acid-base status in patients ...
... γ-carboxyglutamic acid; GPI, glycosylphosphatidylinositol; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; NMDA, N-methyl-D-aspartate; PAR-1, ... Although the cascade model1,2 for blood coagulation was described 70 years ago, the basic outline of sequential conversions of ... APC, activated protein C; apoER2, apolipoprotein E receptor 2; CD11b/CD18, Mac-1; EPCR, endothelial cell protein C receptor; ... protease-activated receptor-1; serpin, serine protease inhibitor; SHBG, sex hormone-binding globulin; TFPI, tissue factor ...
proline rich Gla (G-carboxyglutamic acid) 1 chr14_+_23874062 Show fit 0.27. ENSDART00000172149 sh3rf2 Links *NCBI ... MAM domain containing glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor 1 chr12_+_30367079 Show fit 0.30. ENSDART00000190112 ccdc186 Links * ... calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase) II gamma 1 chr18_+_7639401 Show fit 0.66. ENSDART00000092416 rabl2 ... Nedd4 family interacting protein 1 chr22_-_21897203 Show fit 0.42. ENSDART00000158501 ENSDART00000105566 ENSDART00000136795 ...
Characterization of protein S, a gamma-carboxyglutamic acid containing protein from bovine and human plasma. Biochemistry. 1979 ... patients with purpura fulminans require meticulous fluid management and may quickly develop electrolyte derangements and acid- ... 1] It may be classified as (1) neonatal, (2) idiopathic, or (3) acute infectious. Laboratory studies are the primary diagnostic ... ATIII deficiency is found in approximately 1 in 2000-5000 individuals. All family members should be tested if the family has a ...
... and cell survival because of the presence of gamma-linolenic acid-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) [115]. Functional studies suggest ... Table 1 The effects of the hypoxia pre-conditioning on the gene expression profile of MSCs (preclinical studies). Full size ... The role of zoledronic acid on tuning the epigenetic changes. J Cell Physiol. 2019;234(9):15108-22. ... The role of zoledronic acid on tuning the epigenetic changes. J Cell Physiol. 2019. ...
PCNs induced PAR-1/PAR-3 heterodimerization through EPCR occupation and PAR-1 activation, which resulted in Gα13-RhoA-mediated- ... A Double-chambered protein nanocage loaded with thrombin receptor agonist peptide (TRAP) and gamma-Carboxyglutamic acid of ... γ-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) domain and results in simultaneous activation of protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) signaling ... Polyamino acid layer-by-layer (LbL) constructed silica-supported mesoporous titania nanocarriers for stimuli-responsive ...
... carboxyglutamic acid protein (BGLAP), secreted protein acidic and cysteine-rich (SPARC), vitamin D receptor (VDR), and matrix ... Western blot and RT-qPCR were carried out to examine the expression of LC3 and Beclin 1. Forty Wistar rats were divided into 4 ... The expression of LC3 and Beclin 1 in rats was investigated by immunohistochemical staining in vivo. The data were analysed ... Regression analysis showed that fluoride dependently induced the expression of LC3 and Beclin 1 (P,0.05).Immunohistochemical ...
Kalafatis, M., Egan, J.O., vant Veer, C., and Mann, K.G. Regulation and regulatory role of g-carboxyglutamic acid containing ... Amino acid region 307-348 of factor V plays a critical role for factor Va cofactor function. J. Biol. Chem. 2001, 276, 18614- ... Amino acid residues 323-331 of factor V contain an interactive site for activated factor X. Biochemistry. 2002, 41, 12715-12728 ... Singh, L.S., Bukys, M.A., Beck, D.O., and Kalafatis, M. Amino acids Glu323, Tyr324, Glu330, and Val331 of factor Va heavy chain ...
Evolution of matrix and bone gamma-carboxyglutamic acid proteins in ...
Characterization of protein S, a gamma-carboxyglutamic acid containing protein from bovine and human plasma. Biochemistry. 1979 ... 1] is a rare syndrome of intravascular thrombosis and hemorrhagic infarction of the skin that is rapidly progressive and is ... ATIII deficiency is found in approximately 1 in 2000-5000 individuals. All family members should be tested if the family has a ... It may be classified as (1) neonatal, (2) idiopathic, or (3) acute infectious. ...
Replaced for 2013 by Fatty Acid Synthase, Type I) Fatty Acid Synthetase Complex, Type II D5.500.562.437.500 D5.500.562.444 ... D8.811.641.249 Acid-Base Equilibrium G7.700.360.110 G7.700.345.110 Acidulated Phosphate Fluoride D1.29.260.700.675.374.25 ... D12.125.119.409 Glutamic Acid D12.125.67.750 D12.125.67.625.349 D12.125.119.450 D12.125.119.409.349 Glycerol-3-Phosphate ... Replaced for 2013 by Fatty Acid Synthase, Type II) Fatty Liver, Alcoholic C25.100.87.645.390 C25.775.100.87.645.390 Feedback, ...
Replaced for 2013 by Fatty Acid Synthase, Type I) Fatty Acid Synthetase Complex, Type II D5.500.562.437.500 D5.500.562.444 ... D8.811.641.249 Acid-Base Equilibrium G7.700.360.110 G7.700.345.110 Acidulated Phosphate Fluoride D1.29.260.700.675.374.25 ... D12.125.119.409 Glutamic Acid D12.125.67.750 D12.125.67.625.349 D12.125.119.450 D12.125.119.409.349 Glycerol-3-Phosphate ... Replaced for 2013 by Fatty Acid Synthase, Type II) Fatty Liver, Alcoholic C25.100.87.645.390 C25.775.100.87.645.390 Feedback, ...
Replaced for 2013 by Fatty Acid Synthase, Type I) Fatty Acid Synthetase Complex, Type II D5.500.562.437.500 D5.500.562.444 ... D8.811.641.249 Acid-Base Equilibrium G7.700.360.110 G7.700.345.110 Acidulated Phosphate Fluoride D1.29.260.700.675.374.25 ... D12.125.119.409 Glutamic Acid D12.125.67.750 D12.125.67.625.349 D12.125.119.450 D12.125.119.409.349 Glycerol-3-Phosphate ... Replaced for 2013 by Fatty Acid Synthase, Type II) Fatty Liver, Alcoholic C25.100.87.645.390 C25.775.100.87.645.390 Feedback, ...
Replaced for 2013 by Fatty Acid Synthase, Type I) Fatty Acid Synthetase Complex, Type II D5.500.562.437.500 D5.500.562.444 ... D8.811.641.249 Acid-Base Equilibrium G7.700.360.110 G7.700.345.110 Acidulated Phosphate Fluoride D1.29.260.700.675.374.25 ... D12.125.119.409 Glutamic Acid D12.125.67.750 D12.125.67.625.349 D12.125.119.450 D12.125.119.409.349 Glycerol-3-Phosphate ... Replaced for 2013 by Fatty Acid Synthase, Type II) Fatty Liver, Alcoholic C25.100.87.645.390 C25.775.100.87.645.390 Feedback, ...
Replaced for 2013 by Fatty Acid Synthase, Type I) Fatty Acid Synthetase Complex, Type II D5.500.562.437.500 D5.500.562.444 ... D8.811.641.249 Acid-Base Equilibrium G7.700.360.110 G7.700.345.110 Acidulated Phosphate Fluoride D1.29.260.700.675.374.25 ... D12.125.119.409 Glutamic Acid D12.125.67.750 D12.125.67.625.349 D12.125.119.450 D12.125.119.409.349 Glycerol-3-Phosphate ... Replaced for 2013 by Fatty Acid Synthase, Type II) Fatty Liver, Alcoholic C25.100.87.645.390 C25.775.100.87.645.390 Feedback, ...
Replaced for 2013 by Fatty Acid Synthase, Type I) Fatty Acid Synthetase Complex, Type II D5.500.562.437.500 D5.500.562.444 ... D8.811.641.249 Acid-Base Equilibrium G7.700.360.110 G7.700.345.110 Acidulated Phosphate Fluoride D1.29.260.700.675.374.25 ... D12.125.119.409 Glutamic Acid D12.125.67.750 D12.125.67.625.349 D12.125.119.450 D12.125.119.409.349 Glycerol-3-Phosphate ... Replaced for 2013 by Fatty Acid Synthase, Type II) Fatty Liver, Alcoholic C25.100.87.645.390 C25.775.100.87.645.390 Feedback, ...
Replaced for 2013 by Fatty Acid Synthase, Type I) Fatty Acid Synthetase Complex, Type II D5.500.562.437.500 D5.500.562.444 ... D8.811.641.249 Acid-Base Equilibrium G7.700.360.110 G7.700.345.110 Acidulated Phosphate Fluoride D1.29.260.700.675.374.25 ... D12.125.119.409 Glutamic Acid D12.125.67.750 D12.125.67.625.349 D12.125.119.450 D12.125.119.409.349 Glycerol-3-Phosphate ... Replaced for 2013 by Fatty Acid Synthase, Type II) Fatty Liver, Alcoholic C25.100.87.645.390 C25.775.100.87.645.390 Feedback, ...
... carboxyglutamic acid (gla) residues located in the NH2-terminal portion of the molecule, which facilitate cell membrane binding ... hydroxyaspartic acid identified in factor VII is also located in the light chain region. The heavy chain region of factor VIIa ... Human factor VII is a single chain, vitamin K-dependent, plasma glycoprotein which is synthesized in the liver (1-3). Prior to ...
Abstract Gamma-Carboxyglutamic acid (Gla)-containing protein, synthesized in the presence of vitamin K, has been found in ... In contrast, the vitamin K2 treatment (1 to 10 mg/kg/day) suppressed the progression of atherosclerotic plaques, intima- ... 1) Muscle Spasm, Pain Tenderness Inflammation. The NightShades contain drug-like substances including solanine in potato and ... 1) Gluten-Free and Nightshade-Free Diet (may need Dairy-Free Diet as well). 2) Food Allergy Testing. We use the ALCAT test. 3) ...
5.98 youll get a 7 day supply sample Only 1 per order MK7 ComplexHand Made, Non-GMO, & Gluten Free Made with Wild-Crafted ... gamma carboxyglutamic acid) proteins, which play a part in coagulation and anti-coagulation of blood.. ... 1Includes the extract for potency and the whole plant for the cofactors lost at the extraction process. ... Directions: Take 1 capsule per day, with or without food, or as recommended by a healthcare practitioner. ...
99mTc-Dimercaptosuccinic Acid use Technetium Tc 99m Dimercaptosuccinic Acid 99mTc-DMSA use Technetium Tc 99m Dimercaptosuccinic ... 12-S-HETE use 12-Hydroxy-5.8,10,14-eicosatetraenoic Acid 12-S-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acid use 12-Hydroxy-5.8,10,14- ... 2-Amino-5-phosphonovaleric Acid use 2-Amino-5-phosphonovalerate 2-Amino-6-(1,2,3-trihydroxypropyl)-4(3H)-pteridinone use ... 3-Pyridinecarboxylic acid, 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-5-nitro-4-(2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-, Methyl ester ...
  • Carboxyglutamic acid (or the conjugate base, carboxyglutamate), is an uncommon amino acid introduced into proteins by a post-translational carboxylation of glutamic acid residues. (wikipedia.org)
  • A number of γ-carboxyglutamate residues are present in the γ-carboxyglutamic acid-rich ("GLA") domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • γ-Carboxyglutamic acid residues play an important role in coagulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) of 28 residue peptides harboring γ- carboxylated glutamic acid residues, a posttranslational modification of several proenzymes of the blood coagulation cascade, using either collisions or infrared photons results in complete ejection of the γ-CO 2 moieties (-44 Da) before cleavage of peptide-backbone bonds. (northwestern.edu)
  • The resulting HPlm contains a heavy chain of 561 amino acid residues, originating from the N-terminus of HPlg, doubly disulfide-linked to a light chain of 230 amino acid residues. (embl.de)
  • The heavy chain of HPlm consists of five repeating triple-disulfide-linked peptide regions, c. 80 amino acid residues in length, termed kringles (K), that are responsible for interactions of HPlg and HPlm with substrates, inhibitors and regulators of HPlg activation. (embl.de)
  • The amino acid residues important in these kringle/ligand binding interactions have been proposed by structural determinations, and their relative importance quantified by site-directed mutagenesis experimentation. (embl.de)
  • 3. Kalafatis, M., Takahashi, Y., Girma, J.P., and Meyer, D. Localization of a collagen interactive domain of human von Willebrand Factor between amino acid residues Gly 911 and Glu 1365. (csuohio.edu)
  • Prior to secretion into the blood, post translational modification by a vitamin K-dependent carboxylase produces ten -carboxyglutamic acid (gla) residues located in the NH2-terminal portion of the molecule, which facilitate cell membrane binding. (cellsystems.eu)
  • The NH2-terminal region contains 12 g-carboxyglutamic acid (gla) residues, which facilitate the calcium dependent binding of factor IX to negatively charged phospholipid surfaces. (prottech.com.cn)
  • 84 amino acid residues and 5 Gla(r γ-carboxyglutamic acid) residues.The activity is mainly due to the high affinity of their γ-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) residues for calcium ions. (bomiprot.org)
  • These residues are the result of γ-carboxylation of glutamic acid, a reaction catalyzed by γ-glutamyl carboxylase, in which vitamin K acts as a cofactor.A phosphorylation domain, in the N-terminal end of the signal peptide, contains 3 phosphorylated serine residues.A single, disulfide bond is observed between two conserved cysteines.The N-terminal end also includes the target site for γ-glutamyl carboxylase. (bomiprot.org)
  • The only known biological function of vitamin K is to serve as a co-factor for the γ-glutamyl carboxylase (GGCX), an enzyme responsible for the conversion of glutamic acid residues (GLU) into γ-carboxyglutamic acid (GLA) residues in specific secreted proteins. (umontreal.ca)
  • Human osteocalcin is a highly conserved, 46-50 amino acid, single chain protein that contains three vitamin K-dependent g-carboxyglutamic acid residues. (joplink.net)
  • A sequence of about forty amino-acid residues found in epidermal growth factor (EGF) has been shown [ ( PUBMED:2288911 ) ( PUBMED:6334307 ) ( PUBMED:3534958 ) ( PUBMED:6607417 ) ( PUBMED:3282918 ) ] to be present in a large number of membrane-bound and extracellular, mostly animal, proteins. (embl.de)
  • Bound to cysteine in place of sulfur and called the "21st amino acid," selenocysteine is the active site in some 35 proteins. (tahomaclinicblog.com)
  • Vitamin K's primary function in the body is to aid in the production of Gla (gamma carboxyglutamic acid) proteins, which play a part in coagulation and anti-coagulation of blood. (greenorganicsupplements.com)
  • Proteins consist of 20 types of amino acids, some of which are called standard and others are nonstandard. (uticahistoricalsociety.org)
  • In the blood coagulation cascade, vitamin K is required to introduce γ-carboxylation of clotting factors II, VII, IX, X and protein Z. In the biosynthesis of γ-carboxyglutamic acid, the γ-proton on glutamic acid is abstracted, and CO2 is subsequently added. (wikipedia.org)
  • Purpura fulminans, first described by Guelliot in 1884,[1] is a rare syndrome of intravascular thrombosis and hemorrhagic infarction of the skin that is rapidly progressive and is accompanied by vascular collapse and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). (medscape.com)
  • Vitamin K 1 Injection (Phytonadione Injectable Emulsion, USP) is indicated in the following coagulation disorders which are due to faulty formation of factors II, VII, IX and X when caused by vitamin K deficiency or interference with vitamin K activity. (pfizermedicalinformation.com)
  • Empiric administration of vitamin K 1 should not replace proper laboratory evaluation of the coagulation mechanism. (pfizermedicalinformation.com)
  • A prompt response (shortening of the prothrombin time in 2 to 4 hours) following administration of vitamin K 1 is usually diagnostic of hemorrhagic disease of the newborn, and failure to respond indicates another diagnosis or coagulation disorder. (pfizermedicalinformation.com)
  • Osteocalcin, also known as bone gamma carboxyglutamic acid and contains protein (BGLAP), is a non-collagenous protein found in bone and dentin. (meltmethod.com)
  • Fifty four women above 51 years old who are at least 1 year postmenopausal, underwent BMD (using DEXA examinations), BMI, and Osteocalcin. (walshmedicalmedia.com)
  • Bone gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) protein, known as BGLAP, BGP or osteocalcin, is an abundant, non-collagenous protein component of bone that is produced by osteoblasts. (joplink.net)
  • Furie B, Bouchard BA, Furie BC (1999) Vitamin K-dependent biosynthesis of gamma-carboxyglutamic acid. (springer.com)
  • Osteoporosis will cause mandible resorption, which in turn cause the failure of osteointegration between the implant and the jaw bone [ 1 ]. (walshmedicalmedia.com)
  • There is growing evidence that nutritional supplements-vitamins, minerals, amino acids, fatty acid nutrients, herbal and botanical products, and various other natural compounds like coenzyme Q10 and alpha lipoic acid-have specific health benefits, in addition to those provided by the right diet, daily exercise, reducing stress, and getting a good night's sleep. (tahomaclinicblog.com)
  • This hormone that can cross the blood-brain barrier and binds to neurons in different regions of our brain, binds to neurons and enhances the synthesis of key neurotransmitters and inhibits GABA synthesis (Gamma-amino butyric acid is an amino acid in the body that acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain that inhibits nerve transmission). (meltmethod.com)
  • We have also recently identified specific amino acids on prothrombin that are responsible for its activity. (csuohio.edu)
  • Data from my laboratory strongly suggest that amino acids Leu 480 and Gln 481 from prothrombin are crucial for proper recognition of the fVa-dependent site(s) for fXa within prothrombinase, thus modulating the enzymatic activity of fXa within the prothrombinase complex. (csuohio.edu)
  • For example, the amino acid g-carboxyglutamic acid is found in the blood-clotting protein prothrombin. (uticahistoricalsociety.org)
  • Several forms of vitamin K have been identified: VITAMIN K 1 (phytomenadione) derived from plants, VITAMIN K 2 (menaquinone) from bacteria, and synthetic naphthoquinone provitamins, VITAMIN K 3 (menadione). (lookformedical.com)
  • Human factor VII is a single chain, vitamin K-dependent, plasma glycoprotein which is synthesized in the liver (1-3). (cellsystems.eu)
  • Both MK-4 and the long-chain MKs are present in the diet in minute (mcg) amounts (see Table 1: Micrograms of Vitamin K Present in Foods). (vitamindwiki.com)
  • Vitamin K 1 Injection (Phytonadione Injectable Emulsion, USP) is a yellow, sterile, nonpyrogenic aqueous dispersion available for injection by the intravenous, intramuscular and subcutaneous routes. (pfizermedicalinformation.com)
  • Whenever possible, Vitamin K 1 Injection (Phytonadione Injectable Emulsion, USP) should be given by the subcutaneous route (See Box Warning ). (pfizermedicalinformation.com)
  • Vitamin K 1 Injection may be diluted with 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, 5% Dextrose Injection, or 5% Dextrose and Sodium Chloride Injection. (pfizermedicalinformation.com)
  • The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that vitamin K 1 be given to the newborn. (pfizermedicalinformation.com)
  • A single intramuscular dose of Vitamin K 1 Injection 0.5 to 1 mg within one hour of birth is recommended. (pfizermedicalinformation.com)
  • C': cysteine, involved in disulphide bond 'x': any amino acid. (embl.de)
  • Activated protein C exerts multiple protective homeostatic actions, including proteolytic inactivation of factors Va and VIIIa, as well as direct cell-signaling activities involving protease-activated receptors 1 and 3, endothelial cell protein C receptor, integrin CD11b/CD18, and apolipoprotein E receptor 2. (mhmedical.com)
  • Tranexamic acid may be of value in patients undergoing surgery who have inherited factor IX deficiency in order to reduce the perioperative risk of bleeding. (wikidoc.org)
  • In all cases, other therapeutic solutions may be considered, such as administration of desmopressin, tranexamic acid or activated factor VII. (bvsalud.org)
  • This occurs through the γ -carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) domain and results in simultaneous activation of protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) signaling via the thrombin receptor agonist peptide (TRAP) domain [ 12 , 13 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thèse de Doctorat de l'Université Paris VI en Biochimie ( Ph.D. University of Paris in Biochemistry) 1989. (csuohio.edu)
  • Tumor-associated blood vessels exhibit prominent structural and functional abnormalities [ 1 , 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have recently demonstrated convincingly in melanoma and triple negative breast cancer cell lines that recombinant (r) hTRAIL together with several natural compounds (Quercetin, Silibinin, Ursolic Acid) are efficient in inducing apoptosis in previously described TRAIL-resistant cancer cell lines. (csuohio.edu)
  • We have identified the molecular defect in factor V Leiden and we have delineated specific amino acid regions on the factor V/Va molecule that are crucial for their functions. (csuohio.edu)
  • A single -hydroxyaspartic acid identified in factor VII is also located in the light chain region. (cellsystems.eu)
  • A member of this class is citric acid which is the first product formed by reaction of pyruvate and oxaloacetate. (bvsalud.org)
  • Organic compounds that are acyclic and contain three acid groups. (bvsalud.org)
  • The expression of LC3 and Beclin 1 in rats was investigated by immunohistochemical staining in vivo. (fluoridealert.org)
  • and propionyl-L-carnitine, combined with acetyl-L-carnitine and alpha lipoic acid, each in a higher dose. (tahomaclinicblog.com)
  • The expression of LC3 and Beclin 1 were up-regulated in dose dependent manner after treatment with fluoride. (fluoridealert.org)
  • When intravenous administration is considered unavoidable, the drug should be injected very slowly, not exceeding 1 mg per minute. (pfizermedicalinformation.com)