1-Carboxyglutamic Acid: Found in various tissues, particularly in four blood-clotting proteins including prothrombin, in kidney protein, in bone protein, and in the protein present in various ectopic calcifications.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Blood Coagulation: The process of the interaction of BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS that results in an insoluble FIBRIN clot.Prothrombin: A plasma protein that is the inactive precursor of thrombin. It is converted to thrombin by a prothrombin activator complex consisting of factor Xa, factor V, phospholipid, and calcium ions. Deficiency of prothrombin leads to hypoprothrombinemia.Factor IXa: Activated form of factor IX. This activation can take place via the intrinsic pathway by the action of factor XIa and calcium, or via the extrinsic pathway by the action of factor VIIa, thromboplastin, and calcium. Factor IXa serves to activate factor X to Xa by cleaving the arginyl-leucine peptide bond in factor X.Factor X: Storage-stable glycoprotein blood coagulation factor that can be activated to factor Xa by both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. A deficiency of factor X, sometimes called Stuart-Prower factor deficiency, may lead to a systemic coagulation disorder.Factor IX: Storage-stable blood coagulation factor acting in the intrinsic pathway. Its activated form, IXa, forms a complex with factor VIII and calcium on platelet factor 3 to activate factor X to Xa. Deficiency of factor IX results in HEMOPHILIA B (Christmas Disease).Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Vitamin K: A lipid cofactor that is required for normal blood clotting. Several forms of vitamin K have been identified: VITAMIN K 1 (phytomenadione) derived from plants, VITAMIN K 2 (menaquinone) from bacteria, and synthetic naphthoquinone provitamins, VITAMIN K 3 (menadione). Vitamin K 3 provitamins, after being alkylated in vivo, exhibit the antifibrinolytic activity of vitamin K. Green leafy vegetables, liver, cheese, butter, and egg yolk are good sources of vitamin K.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular: NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Hyperparathyroidism: A condition of abnormally elevated output of PARATHYROID HORMONE (or PTH) triggering responses that increase blood CALCIUM. It is characterized by HYPERCALCEMIA and BONE RESORPTION, eventually leading to bone diseases. PRIMARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is caused by parathyroid HYPERPLASIA or PARATHYROID NEOPLASMS. SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is increased PTH secretion in response to HYPOCALCEMIA, usually caused by chronic KIDNEY DISEASES.Hyperparathyroidism, Primary: A condition of abnormally elevated output of PARATHYROID HORMONE due to parathyroid HYPERPLASIA or PARATHYROID NEOPLASMS. It is characterized by the combination of HYPERCALCEMIA, phosphaturia, elevated renal 1,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D3 synthesis, and increased BONE RESORPTION.Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary: Abnormally elevated PARATHYROID HORMONE secretion as a response to HYPOCALCEMIA. It is caused by chronic KIDNEY FAILURE or other abnormalities in the controls of bone and mineral metabolism, leading to various BONE DISEASES, such as RENAL OSTEODYSTROPHY.Knowledge Bases: Collections of facts, assumptions, beliefs, and heuristics that are used in combination with databases to achieve desired results, such as a diagnosis, an interpretation, or a solution to a problem (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed).Parathyroid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PARATHYROID GLANDS.Parathyroidectomy: Excision of one or more of the parathyroid glands.Parathyroid Glands: Two pairs of small oval-shaped glands located in the front and the base of the NECK and adjacent to the two lobes of THYROID GLAND. They secrete PARATHYROID HORMONE that regulates the balance of CALCIUM; PHOSPHORUS; and MAGNESIUM in the body.Parathyroid Hormone: A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.Hypercalcemia: Abnormally high level of calcium in the blood.Vitamin K Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN K in the diet, characterized by an increased tendency to hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGIC DISORDERS). Such bleeding episodes may be particularly severe in newborn infants. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1182)Vitamin K 1: A family of phylloquinones that contains a ring of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone and an isoprenoid side chain. Members of this group of vitamin K 1 have only one double bond on the proximal isoprene unit. Rich sources of vitamin K 1 include green plants, algae, and photosynthetic bacteria. Vitamin K1 has antihemorrhagic and prothrombogenic activity.Calcinosis: Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Coronary Artery Disease: Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.Vitamin K 2: A group of substances similar to VITAMIN K 1 which contains a ring of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinione and an isoprenoid side chain of varying number of isoprene units. In vitamin K 2, each isoprene unit contains a double bond. They are produced by bacteria including the normal intestinal flora.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Vascular Calcification: Deposition of calcium into the blood vessel structures. Excessive calcification of the vessels are associated with ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES formation particularly after MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION (see MONCKEBERG MEDIAL CALCIFIC SCLEROSIS) and chronic kidney diseases which in turn increase VASCULAR STIFFNESS.Vitamin K Epoxide Reductases: OXIDOREDUCTASES which mediate vitamin K metabolism by converting inactive vitamin K 2,3-epoxide to active vitamin K.Warfarin: An anticoagulant that acts by inhibiting the synthesis of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors. Warfarin is indicated for the prophylaxis and/or treatment of venous thrombosis and its extension, pulmonary embolism, and atrial fibrillation with embolization. It is also used as an adjunct in the prophylaxis of systemic embolism after myocardial infarction. Warfarin is also used as a rodenticide.Mixed Function Oxygenases: Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.Vitamin A: Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.Vitamin A Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN A in the diet, characterized by NIGHT BLINDNESS and other ocular manifestations such as dryness of the conjunctiva and later of the cornea (XEROPHTHALMIA). Vitamin A deficiency is a very common problem worldwide, particularly in developing countries as a consequence of famine or shortages of vitamin A-rich foods. In the United States it is found among the urban poor, the elderly, alcoholics, and patients with malabsorption. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1179)Carbon-Carbon Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-carbon bond. These are the carboxylating enzymes and are mostly biotinyl-proteins. EC 6.4.Protein S Deficiency: An autosomal dominant disorder showing decreased levels of plasma protein S antigen or activity, associated with venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. PROTEIN S is a vitamin K-dependent plasma protein that inhibits blood clotting by serving as a cofactor for activated PROTEIN C (also a vitamin K-dependent protein), and the clinical manifestations of its deficiency are virtually identical to those of protein C deficiency. Treatment with heparin for acute thrombotic processes is usually followed by maintenance administration of coumarin drugs for the prevention of recurrent thrombosis. (From Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 12th ed, p1511; Wintrobe's Clinical Hematology, 9th ed, p1523)Protein S: The vitamin K-dependent cofactor of activated PROTEIN C. Together with protein C, it inhibits the action of factors VIIIa and Va. A deficiency in protein S; (PROTEIN S DEFICIENCY); can lead to recurrent venous and arterial thrombosis.Protein C: A vitamin-K dependent zymogen present in the blood, which, upon activation by thrombin and thrombomodulin exerts anticoagulant properties by inactivating factors Va and VIIIa at the rate-limiting steps of thrombin formation.Factor VIIIa: Activated form of factor VIII. The B-domain of factor VIII is proteolytically cleaved by thrombin to form factor VIIIa. Factor VIIIa exists as a non-covalent dimer in a metal-linked (probably calcium) complex and functions as a cofactor in the enzymatic activation of factor X by factor IXa. Factor VIIIa is similar in structure and generation to factor Va.Complement Inactivator Proteins: Serum proteins that negatively regulate the cascade process of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Uncontrolled complement activation and resulting cell lysis is potentially dangerous for the host. The complement system is tightly regulated by inactivators that accelerate the decay of intermediates and certain cell surface receptors.Protein C Deficiency: An absence or deficiency in PROTEIN C which leads to impaired regulation of blood coagulation. It is associated with an increased risk of severe or premature thrombosis. (Stedman's Med. Dict., 26th ed.)Factor V: Heat- and storage-labile plasma glycoprotein which accelerates the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin in blood coagulation. Factor V accomplishes this by forming a complex with factor Xa, phospholipid, and calcium (prothrombinase complex). Deficiency of factor V leads to Owren's disease.Thrombophilia: A disorder of HEMOSTASIS in which there is a tendency for the occurrence of THROMBOSIS.Ribosomal Protein S6: A ribosomal protein that may play a role in controlling cell growth and proliferation. It is a major substrate of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES and plays a role in regulating the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of RNAs that contain an RNA 5' TERMINAL OLIGOPYRIMIDINE SEQUENCE.Factor Va: Activated form of factor V. It is an essential cofactor for the activation of prothrombin catalyzed by factor Xa.Intervertebral Disc: Any of the 23 plates of fibrocartilage found between the bodies of adjacent VERTEBRAE.Osteocytes: Mature osteoblasts that have become embedded in the BONE MATRIX. They occupy a small cavity, called lacuna, in the matrix and are connected to adjacent osteocytes via protoplasmic projections called canaliculi.Intervertebral Disc Displacement: An INTERVERTEBRAL DISC in which the nucleus pulposus has protruded through surrounding fibrocartilage. This occurs most frequently in the lower lumbar region.Intervertebral Disc Degeneration: Degenerative changes in the INTERVERTEBRAL DISC due to aging or structural damage, especially to the vertebral end-plates.High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing: Techniques of nucleotide sequence analysis that increase the range, complexity, sensitivity, and accuracy of results by greatly increasing the scale of operations and thus the number of nucleotides, and the number of copies of each nucleotide sequenced. The sequencing may be done by analysis of the synthesis or ligation products, hybridization to preexisting sequences, etc.Lumbar Vertebrae: VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Osteoblasts: Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.Diskectomy: Excision, in part or whole, of an INTERVERTEBRAL DISC. The most common indication is disk displacement or herniation. In addition to standard surgical removal, it can be performed by percutaneous diskectomy (DISKECTOMY, PERCUTANEOUS) or by laparoscopic diskectomy, the former being the more common.Receptors, Prolactin: Labile proteins on or in prolactin-sensitive cells that bind prolactin initiating the cells' physiological response to that hormone. Mammary casein synthesis is one of the responses. The receptors are also found in placenta, liver, testes, kidneys, ovaries, and other organs and bind and respond to certain other hormones and their analogs and antagonists. This receptor is related to the growth hormone receptor.Prolactin: A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.STAT3 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.Mammary Glands, Animal: MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.Hyperprolactinemia: Increased levels of PROLACTIN in the BLOOD, which may be associated with AMENORRHEA and GALACTORRHEA. Relatively common etiologies include PROLACTINOMA, medication effect, KIDNEY FAILURE, granulomatous diseases of the PITUITARY GLAND, and disorders which interfere with the hypothalamic inhibition of prolactin release. Ectopic (non-pituitary) production of prolactin may also occur. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch36, pp77-8)Placental Lactogen: A polypeptide hormone of approximately 25 kDa that is produced by the SYNCYTIOTROPHOBLASTS of the PLACENTA, also known as chorionic somatomammotropin. It has both GROWTH HORMONE and PROLACTIN activities on growth, lactation, and luteal steroid production. In women, placental lactogen secretion begins soon after implantation and increases to 1 g or more a day in late pregnancy. Placental lactogen is also an insulin antagonist.Bromocriptine: A semisynthetic ergotamine alkaloid that is a dopamine D2 agonist. It suppresses prolactin secretion.STAT5 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to a variety of CYTOKINES. Stat5 activation is associated with transcription of CELL CYCLE regulators such as CYCLIN KINASE INHIBITOR P21 and anti-apoptotic genes such as BCL-2 GENES. Stat5 is constitutively activated in many patients with acute MYELOID LEUKEMIA.Growth Hormone: A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.Lactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Pro-Opiomelanocortin: A 30-kDa protein synthesized primarily in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND and the HYPOTHALAMUS. It is also found in the skin and other peripheral tissues. Depending on species and tissues, POMC is cleaved by PROHORMONE CONVERTASES yielding various active peptides including ACTH; BETA-LIPOTROPIN; ENDORPHINS; MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES; and others (GAMMA-LPH; CORTICOTROPIN-LIKE INTERMEDIATE LOBE PEPTIDE; N-terminal peptide of POMC or NPP).Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Reindeer: A genus of deer, Rangifer, that inhabits the northern parts of Europe, Asia, and America. Caribou is the North American name; reindeer, the European. They are often domesticated and used, especially in Lapland, for drawing sleds and as a source of food. Rangifer is the only genus of the deer family in which both sexes are antlered. Most caribou inhabit arctic tundra and surrounding arboreal coniferous forests and most have seasonal shifts in migration. They are hunted extensively for their meat, skin, antlers, and other parts. (From Webster, 3d ed; Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1397)Alphaherpesvirinae: A subfamily of HERPESVIRIDAE characterized by a short replication cycle. The genera include: SIMPLEXVIRUS; VARICELLOVIRUS; MAREK'S DISEASE-LIKE VIRUSES; and ILTOVIRUS.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
(1/185) Undercarboxylation of recombinant prothrombin revealed by analysis of gamma-carboxyglutamic acid using capillary electrophoresis and laser-induced fluorescence.

The gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) content of several variants of human prothrombin has been measured by using capillary electrophoresis and laser-induced fluorescence (CE-LIF). Both plasma-derived prothrombin and recombinant prothrombin contain ten residues of Gla per molecule of protein. In contrast, a variant of human prothrombin (containing the second kringle domain of bovine prothrombin) was separated into two populations that differed in their Gla content. Direct measurement of the Gla content showed an association with the presence or absence of the calcium-dependent conformational change that is required for prothombinase function. Thus, the CE-LIF assay is useful in determining the carboxylation status of recombinant proteins.  (+info)

(2/185) A conotoxin from Conus textile with unusual posttranslational modifications reduces presynaptic Ca2+ influx.

Cone snails are gastropod mollusks of the genus Conus that live in tropical marine habitats. They are predators that paralyze their prey by injection of venom containing a plethora of small, conformationally constrained peptides (conotoxins). We report the identification, characterization, and structure of a gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-containing peptide, conotoxin epsilon-TxIX, isolated from the venom of the molluscivorous cone snail, Conus textile. The disulfide bonding pattern of the four cysteine residues, an unparalleled degree of posttranslational processing including bromination, hydroxylation, and glycosylation define a family of conotoxins that may target presynaptic Ca2+ channels or act on G protein-coupled presynaptic receptors via another mechanism. This conotoxin selectively reduces neurotransmitter release at an Aplysia cholinergic synapse by reducing the presynaptic influx of Ca2+ in a slow and reversible fashion. The three-dimensional structure, determined by two-dimensional 1H NMR spectroscopy, identifies an electronegative patch created by the side chains of two gamma-carboxyglutamic acid residues that extend outward from a cavernous cleft. The glycosylated threonine and hydroxylated proline enclose a localized hydrophobic region centered on the brominated tryptophan residue within the constrained intercysteine region.  (+info)

(3/185) Calcium binding mode of gamma-carboxyglutamic acids in conantokins.

Conantokin-T (con-T) and conantokin-G (con-G) are two highly homologous peptide toxins found in Conus venom. The former is a 21-residue peptide with four gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) residues (at positions 3, 4, 10 and 14), while the latter is a 17-residue peptide with five gamma-carboxyglutamic acid residues (at positions 3, 4, 7, 10 and 14). Despite the apparent similarity in number and relative positions of the gamma-carboxyglutamic acid residues, (113)Cd-NMR studies indicated a distinct metal binding behavior for con-G and con-T. There appears to be four binding sites in con-G in contrast to one metal binding site in con-T. To elucidate the mode of calcium binding by the gamma-carboxyglutamic acid residues in these conantokins, we designed various analogous peptides with their gamma-carboxyglutamic acid replaced by other amino acid residues. (113)Cd-NMR experiments on conantokin analogues reveal that the major difference in the number of metal binding sites between con-G and con-T is due to the residue at position 7. We also performed molecular simulations to calculate the relative binding free energies of several potential binding sites. Based on our theoretical and experimental results, we propose a 'four-site' binding model for conantokin-G and a 'single-site' binding model for conantokin-T.  (+info)

(4/185) Expression of the gene encoding the matrix gla protein by mature osteoblasts in human fracture non-unions.

BACKGROUND: Osteoblast phenotypic abnormality, namely the expression of collagen type III, has been shown previously in fracture non-union woven bone. AIMS: To investigate osteoblasts from fracture non-unions for evidence of gene expression of non-collagenous bone matrix proteins that have been implicated in mineralisation, namely matrix gla protein (MGP), osteonectin, osteopontin, and osteocalcin. MGP is a consistent component of bone matrix, but there are no reports of osteoblasts in the skeleton expressing the gene for MGP, and the site of synthesis of skeletal MGP (perhaps the liver) has yet to be determined. METHODS: Biopsies from normally healing human fractures and non-unions were examined by means of in situ hybridisation, using 35S labelled probes and autoradiography to disclose levels of gene expression. RESULTS: In normally healing fractures, mature osteoblasts on woven bone were negative for MGP mRNA, but positive for osteonectin, osteopontin, and osteocalcin mRNA molecules. In non-unions, osteoblasts displayed a novel phenotype: they were positive for MGP mRNA, in addition to osteonectin, osteopontin, and osteocalcin mRNA molecules. CONCLUSIONS: Mature osteoblasts in slowly healing fractures have an unusual phenotype: they express the gene encoding MGP, which indicates that control of osteoblast gene expression in non-unions is likely to be abnormal. This might be of importance in the pathogenesis of non-uniting human fractures, and is of current interest given the emerging status of MGP as an inhibitor of mineralisation.  (+info)

(5/185) Matrix GLA protein is a developmental regulator of chondrocyte mineralization and, when constitutively expressed, blocks endochondral and intramembranous ossification in the limb.

Matrix GLA protein (MGP), a gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (GLA)-rich, vitamin K-dependent and apatite-binding protein, is a regulator of hypertrophic cartilage mineralization during development. However, MGP is produced by both hypertrophic and immature chondrocytes, suggesting that MGP's role in mineralization is cell stage-dependent, and that MGP may have other roles in immature cells. It is also unclear whether MGP regulates the quantity of mineral or mineral nature and quality as well. To address these issues, we determined the effects of manipulations of MGP synthesis and expression in (a) immature and hypertrophic chondrocyte cultures and (b) the chick limb bud in vivo. The two chondrocyte cultures displayed comparable levels of MGP gene expression. Yet, treatment with warfarin, a gamma-carboxylase inhibitor and vitamin K antagonist, triggered mineralization in hypertrophic but not immature cultures. Warfarin effects on mineralization were highly selective, were accompanied by no appreciable changes in MGP expression, alkaline phosphatase activity, or cell number, and were counteracted by vitamin K cotreatment. Scanning electron microscopy, x-ray microanalysis, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that mineral forming in control and warfarin-treated hypertrophic cell cultures was similar and represented stoichiometric apatite. Virally driven MGP overexpression in cultured chondrocytes greatly decreased mineralization. Surprisingly, MGP overexpression in the developing limb not only inhibited cartilage mineralization, but also delayed chondrocyte maturation and blocked endochondral ossification and formation of a diaphyseal intramembranous bone collar. The results show that MGP is a powerful but developmentally regulated inhibitor of cartilage mineralization, controls mineral quantity but not type, and appears to have a previously unsuspected role in regulating chondrocyte maturation and ossification processes.  (+info)

(6/185) Identification of organic phosphorus covalently bound to collagen and non-collagenous proteins of chicken-bone matrix. The presence of O-phosphoserine and O-phosphothreonine in non-collagenous proteins, and their absence from phosporylated collagen.

Non-collagenous phosphoproteins, almost all of which can be extracted in EDTA at neutral pH in the presence of proteinase inhibitors, are identified in the matrix of chicken bone, and are therefore not covalently bound to collagen. Similarly, all the peptides containing gamma-carboxyglutamic acid are present in the EDTA extract and none in the insoluble residue, confirming that none is covalently linked to chicken bone collagen. However, organic phosphorus is also found to be present in chicken bone collagen, principally in the alpha2-chains. Of the total protein-bound organic phosphorus present in chicken bone matrix, approx. 80% is associated with the non-collagenous proteins and 20% with collagen. The soluble non-collagenous proteins contain both O-phosphoserine and O-phosphothreonine and these account for essentially of their organic phosphorus content. In contrast, collagen contains neither O-phosphoserine nor O-phosphothreonine. Indeed, no phosphorylated hydroxy amino acid, phosphoamidated amino acid or phosphorylated sugar could be identified in purified components of collagen, which contain approximately four to five atoms of organic phosphorus per molecule of collagen. Peptides containing organic phosphorus were isolated from partial acid hydrolysates and enzymic digests of purified collagen components, which contain an as-yet-unidentified cationic amino acid. These data, the very high concentrations of glutamic acid in the phosphorylated peptides, and the pH-stability of the organic phosphorus moiety in intact collagen chains strongly suggest that at least part of the organic phosphorus in collagen is present as phosphorylated glutamic acid. This would indicate that the two major chemically different protein fractions in chicken bone matrix that contain organic phosphorus may represent two distinct metabolic pools of organic phosphorus under separate biological control.  (+info)

(7/185) Identification and purification of vitamin K-dependent proteins and peptides with monoclonal antibodies specific for gamma -carboxyglutamyl (Gla) residues.

Novel monoclonal antibodies that specifically recognize gamma-carboxyglutamyl (Gla) residues in proteins and peptides have been produced. As demonstrated by Western blot and time-resolved immunofluorescence assays the antibodies are pan-specific for most or all of the Gla-containing proteins tested (factors VII, IX, and X, prothrombin, protein C, protein S, growth arrest-specific protein 6, bone Gla protein, conantokin G from a cone snail, and factor Xa-like proteins from snake venom). Only the Gla-containing light chain of the two-chain proteins was bound. Decarboxylation destroyed the epitope(s) on prothrombin fragment 1, and Ca(2+) strongly inhibited binding to prothrombin. In Western blot, immunofluorescence, and surface plasmon resonance assays the antibodies bound peptides conjugated to bovine serum albumin that contained either a single Gla or a tandem pair of Gla residues. Binding was maintained when the sequence surrounding the Gla residue(s) was altered. Replacement of Gla with glutamic acid resulted in a complete loss of the epitope. The utility of the antibodies was demonstrated in immunochemical methods for detecting Gla-containing proteins and in the immunopurification of a factor Xa-like protein from tiger snake venom. The amino acid sequences of the Gla domain and portions of the heavy chain of the snake protein were determined.  (+info)

(8/185) Sequence requirements for the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist activity of conantokin-R.

Conantokin-R (con-R), a gamma-carboxyglutamate-containing 27-residue peptide, is a natural peptide inhibitor of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) subtype glutamate receptor. Synthetic analogs of con-R were generated to evaluate the importance of the individual structural elements of this peptide in its NMDA receptor antagonist activity, measured by inhibition of the spermine-enhanced binding of the NMDA receptor-specific channel blocker, [(3)H]MK-801, to rat brain membranes. Progressive C-terminal truncations of the 27-residue peptide revealed stages of severe activity loss. These occurred at con-R[1-11] and con-R[1-7], corresponding to the deletions of Leu(12)-Pro(27) and Met(8)-Pro(27) respectively. A second set of analogs featured single Ala substitutions in the fully active con-R[1-17] fragment. The replacement of Met(8) and Leu(12) by Ala resulted in approximate 20- and 55-fold decreases of inhibitor potency, respectively. In addition to these two residues, the only other positions where a single Ala substitution led to substantial losses (from 11-fold to >1000-fold) of activity were those of the first five N-terminal amino acids. Based on the above findings, the binding epitope of con-R was localized to the N-terminal turn of the helix and other residues on one face along two subsequent turns. This contribution pattern of the side chains in activity closely resembles the results obtained with another member of this peptide family, conantokin-T. The secondary structure and metal ion binding properties of the con-R variants were also evaluated using circular dichroism spectroscopy. Divalent cation-dependent increases of alpha-helix content were observed in most analogs. However, analogs with replacement of Gla(11) and Gla(15), as well as truncation fragments shorter than 15 residues, lost the ability to be stabilized by metal ions. These results confirmed the location of the primary divalent cation binding locus at Gla(11) and Gla(15). Additional interactions were indicated by the reduced alpha-helix stability in the Ala analogs of Gla(4), Lys(7), and Arg(14).  (+info)

*  Carboxyglutamic acid
... (or the conjugate base, carboxyglutamate), is an uncommon amino acid introduced into proteins by a post- ... carboxyglutamic acid, the γ {\displaystyle \gamma } -proton on glutamic acid is abstracted, and CO2 is subsequently added. The ... Gamma-carboxyglutamic acid residues play an important role in coagulation. The high-affinity calcium binding sites in the GLA ... "Gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-rich (GLA) domain (IPR000294) < InterPro < EMBL-EBI". www.ebi.ac.uk. Retrieved 2015-12-22. Rawala- ...
*  List of MeSH codes (D12.125)
... aspartic acid MeSH D12.125.067.500.150 --- d-aspartic acid MeSH D12.125.067.500.275 --- isoaspartic acid MeSH D12.125.067.500. ... 2-aminoadipic acid MeSH D12.125.119.170 --- aspartic acid MeSH D12.125.119.170.150 --- d-aspartic acid MeSH D12.125.119.170.275 ... imino acids MeSH D12.125.072.401.200 --- azetidinecarboxylic acid MeSH D12.125.072.401.623 --- proline MeSH D12.125.072.401. ... gamma-aminobutyric acid MeSH D12.125.190.350.900 --- vigabatrin MeSH D12.125.213.075 --- 6-aminocaproic acid MeSH D12.125. ...
*  List of MeSH codes (D02)
... edetic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.455 --- egtazic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.581 --- iodoacetic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.581.400 ... muramic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844.562 --- neuraminic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844.562.668 --- sialic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844. ... quinic acid MeSH D02.241.511.852 --- shikimic acid MeSH D02.241.511.902 --- sugar acids MeSH D02.241.511.902.107 --- ascorbic ... muramic acids MeSH D02.241.511.902.562 --- neuraminic acids MeSH D02.241.511.902.562.668 --- sialic acids MeSH D02.241.511.902. ...
*  EGF-like domain
In factors VII, IX and X, the two cbEGF modules are preceded by an N-terminal gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) containing ... It comprises about 30 to 40 amino-acid residues and has been found in a large number of mostly animal proteins. Most ... β-Hydroxylation appears in hEGF- and cEGF-like domains, the former is hydroxylated on an aspartic acid while the latter is ... Multiple cbEGF domains are often connected by one or two amino acids to form larger, repetitive arrays, here referred to as ' ...
*  Vitamin K
Urinary γ-carboxyglutamic acid responds to changes in dietary vitamin K intake. Several days are required before any change can ... Furie, B.; Bouchard, B. A.; Furie, B. C. (Mar 1999). "Vitamin K-dependent biosynthesis of gamma-carboxyglutamic acid". Blood. ... The function of vitamin K2 in the animal cell is to add a carboxylic acid functional group to a glutamate (Glu) amino acid ... Identification of gamma-carboxyglutamic acid as a component of prothrombin" (PDF). Journal of Biological Chemistry. 249 (19): ...
*  Fetuin-B
2004). "Processing and transport of matrix gamma-carboxyglutamic acid protein and bone morphogenetic protein-2 in cultured ... J. 376 (Pt 1): 135-45. doi:10.1042/BJ20030676. PMC 1223762 . PMID 12943536. Wajih N, Borras T, Xue W, et al. ( ... "Carbohydrate binding properties of the envelope glycoproteins of human immunodeficiency virus type 1". Glycoconj. J. 9 (6): 315 ...
*  Thrombin
Deficiency of vitamin K or administration of the anticoagulant warfarin inhibits the production of gamma-carboxyglutamic acid ... vitamin K-dependent reaction that converts 10-12 glutamic acids in the N terminus of the molecule to gamma-carboxyglutamic acid ... 1 (3): 29-51. ,access-date= requires ,url= (help) Andrew M, Paes B, Milner R, Johnston M, Mitchell L, Tollefsen DM, Powers P ( ... 209 (1): 68-74. doi:10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2009.03.016. PMID 19651065. Greenhalgh DG, Gamelli RL, Collins J, Sood R, Mozingo DW ...
*  Vitamin K antagonist
Synthesis Of Y-Carboxyglutamic Acid". Critical Reviews in Biochemistry. 8 (2): 191-223. doi:10.3109/10409238009105469. Olmos V ... For example, it is needed to carboxylate specific glutamic acid residues on prothrombin. Without these residues carboxylated, ... Warfarin (Coumadin) Coumatetralyl Phenprocoumon Acenocoumarol Dicoumarol Tioclomarol Brodifacoum Another group of VKAs are 1,3- ...
*  Non-proteinogenic amino acids
Carboxyglutamic acid. Whereas glutamic acid possess one γ-carboxyl group, Carboxyglutamic acid possess two. Hydroxyproline. ... ic acid.) Most natural amino acids are α-amino acids in the L conformation, but some exceptions exist. Some non-α amino acids ... There are various groups of amino acids: 20 standard amino acids 22 proteinogenic amino acids over 80 amino acids created ... and a carboxylic acid (-COOH) functional group is an amino acid. The proteinogenic amino acids are small subset of this group ...
*  Gla domain
Freedman SJ, Furie BC, Furie B, Baleja JD (1995). "Structure of the metal-free gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-rich membrane binding ... The GLA domain binds calcium ions by chelating them between two carboxylic acid residues. These residues are part of a region ... Vitamin K-dependent carboxylation/gamma-carboxyglutamic (GLA) domain is a protein domain that contains post-translational ... 19 (1): 1-7. doi:10.1016/0020-711X(87)90116-9. PMID 3106112. Vermeer C (1990). "Gamma-carboxyglutamate-containing proteins and ...
*  Factor IX
Freedman SJ, Furie BC, Furie B, Baleja JD (Sep 1995). "Structure of the calcium ion-bound gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-rich ... Tranexamic acid may be of value in patients undergoing surgery who have inherited factor IX deficiency in order to reduce the ... 14 Suppl 1: S59-64. doi:10.1097/00001721-200306001-00014. PMID 14567539. Du X (May 2007). "Signaling and regulation of the ... 67 (1): 63-5. PMID 1615485. "Home: BeneFIX Coagulation Factor IX (Recombinant) Official Site". EMA: Idelvion "Home: Alprolix [ ...
*  Peptidyl-glutamate 4-carboxylase
Furie, B.; Bouchard, B.A.; Furie, B.C. (1999). "Vitamin K-dependent biosynthesis of γ-carboxyglutamic acid". Blood. 93 (6): ... 2-methyl-3-phytyl-1,4-naphthoquinone-epoxidizing). This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction peptidyl-4- ...
*  Protein C
Esmon NL, DeBault LE, Esmon CT (May 1983). "Proteolytic formation and properties of gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-domainless ... Inactive protein C comprises 419 amino acids in multiple domains: one Gla domain (residues 43-88); a helical aromatic segment ( ... a 32 amino acid N-terminus signal peptide preceding a propeptide. Protein C is formed when a dipeptide of Lys198 and Arg199 is ... Nucleic Acids Research. 13 (14): 5233-47. doi:10.1093/nar/13.14.5233. PMC 321861 . PMID 2991859. Taylor FB, Chang A, Esmon CT, ...
*  Direct Xa inhibitor
... that are catalytically inactive and lack the membrane-binding γ-carboxyglutamic acid domain of native fXa but retain the ... 2013 (1): 464-470. doi:10.1182/asheducation-2013.1.464. Siegal, D. M.; Cuker, A (2013). "Reversal of novel oral anticoagulants ...
*  Gamma-glutamyl carboxylase
... while simultaneously adding CO2 to protein-bound glutamic acid (abbreviation = Glu) to form gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (also ... 54 (1): 459-77. doi:10.1146/annurev.bi.54.070185.002331. PMID 3896125. Presnell SR, Stafford DW (2002). "The vitamin K- ... 25 (1): 127-49. doi:10.1146/annurev.nutr.25.050304.092713. PMID 16011462. Zhang B, Ginsburg D (September 2004). "Familial ... ISBN 0-12-183492-1. glutamyl carboxylase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article ...
*  Prothrombinase
The light chain contains an N-terminal γ-carboxyglutamic acid domain (Gla domain) and two epidermal growth factor-like domains ... In Factor V Leiden, a G1691A nucleotide replacement results in an R506Q amino acid mutation. Factor V Leiden increases the risk ... "Complete cDNA and derived amino acid sequence of human factor V". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 84 (14): 4846-50. doi:10.1073/ ... Meizothrombin contains fragment 1•2 A chain linked to the B chain by a disulfide bond. Subsequent cleavage of meizothrombin by ...
*  Osteocalcin
... , also known as bone gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-containing protein (BGLAP), is a noncollagenous protein hormone ... 396 (1-2): 66-9. doi:10.1016/j.cca.2008.07.001. PMID 18657532. Ba Y, Huang H, Yang Y, Cui L, Zhu J, Zhu C, Liu J, Zhang Y (Nov ... 1173 Suppl 1: E60-3. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.04953.x. PMID 19751416. Born AK, Rottmar M, Lischer S, Pleskova M, Bruinink A ... 1173 Suppl 1: E64-7. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.04955.x. PMID 19751417. Kanazawa I, Yamaguchi T, Yamamoto M, Yamauchi M, Yano ...
*  GAS6
... is a gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) domain-containing protein thought to be involved in the stimulation of cell ... It is similar to the Protein S with the same domain organization and 43% amino acid identity. It was originally found as a gene ... 30 (1): 129-31. doi:10.1006/geno.1995.0027. PMID 8595896. Li R, Chen J, Hammonds G, Phillips H, Armanini M, Wood P, Bunge R, ... 415 (1): 59-63. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(97)01093-4. PMID 9326369. Nakano T, Ishimoto Y, Kishino J, Umeda M, Inoue K, Nagata K, ...
*  Vitamin K2
... in conversion of peptide-bound glutamic acid (Glu) to γ-carboxy glutamic acid (Gla) in these proteins). Carboxylation of these ... 1570 (1): 27-32. doi:10.1016/s0304-4165(02)00147-2. Hofbauer, L. C.; Brueck, C. C.; Shanahan, C. M.; Schoppet, M.; Dobnig, H. ( ...
Gamma-carboxyglutamic acid residues play an important role in coagulation. The high-affinity calcium binding sites in the GLA domain of factor IX, which is a serine protease of the coagulation system, were found to partially mediate the binding of factor IXa to platelets and in factor-X activation.[4] In addition, upon mechanical injury to the blood vessel wall, a cell-associated tissue factor becomes exposed and initiates a series of enzymatic reactions localized on a membrane surface generally provided by cells and accumulating platelets. Gla residues partly govern the activation and binding of circulating blood-clotting enzymes and zymogens to this exposed cell membrane surface. Specifically, gla residues are needed in calcium binding and in exposing hydrophobic membrane binding regions to the cell bilayer. Lack of these gla residues results in impaired coagulation or even anticoagulation, which may lead to bleeding diathesis or thrombosis.[5]. ...
Matrix gla protein (MGP) is member of a family of vitamin-K2 dependent, Gla-containing proteins. MGP has a high affinity binding to calcium ions, similar to other Gla-containing proteins. The protein acts as an inhibitor of vascular mineralization and plays a role in bone organization. MGP is found in number body tissues in mammals, birds, and fish. Its mRNA is present in bone, cartilage, heart, and kidney. It is present in bone together with the related vitamin K2-dependent protein osteocalcin. In bone, its production is increased by vitamin D. The MGP was linked to the short arm of chromosome 12 in 1990. Its mRNA sequence length is 585 bases long in humans. MGP and osteocalcin are both calcium-binding proteins that may participate in the organisation of bone tissue. Both have glutamate residues that are post-translationally carboxylated by the enzyme gamma-glutamyl carboxylase in a reaction that requires Vitamin K hydroquinone. This process also occurs with a number of proteins involved in ...
1CFH: Structure of the metal-free gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-rich membrane binding region of factor IX by two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy.
PAA471Ra01, Polyclonal Antibody to Osteocalcin (OC), 骨钙素(OC)多克隆抗体, BGLAP; OT; BGP; Bone Gla Protein; Bone Gamma-Carboxyglutamate Protein; Gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-containing protein | 仅供体外研究使用,不用于临床诊断!请索取进口关税税单及报关单!
TY - JOUR. T1 - Structure of Ca+2 -free Gla diomain shed light on membrane binding of blood coagulation proteins. AU - Sunnerhagen, Maria. AU - Forsen, Sture. AU - Hoffren, Anna-Marja. AU - Drakenberg, Torbjörn. AU - Teleman, Olle. AU - Stenflo, Johan. N1 - Project code: B5SU00139. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - Reversible membrane binding of γ-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla)-containing coagulation factors requires Ca2+-binding to 10-12 Gla residues. Here we describe the solution structure of the Ca2+-free Gla-EGF domain pair of factor X which reveals a striking difference between the Ca2+-free and Ca2+-loaded forms. In the Ca2+-free form Gla residues are exposed to solvent and Phe 4, Leu 5 and Val 8 form a hydrophobic cluster in the interior of the domain. In the Ca2+-loaded form Gla residues ligate Ca22+ in the core of the domain pushing the side-chains of the three hydrophobic residues into the solvent. We propose that the Ca2+-induced exposure of hydrophobic side chains is crucial for membrane ...
Introduction. Vitamin K-dependent γ-glutamylcarboxylase (GGCX) is the integral transmembrane protein, which catalyzes the posttranslational carboxylation of glutamic acid to γ-carboxyglutamic acid molecules in the vitamin K-dependent proteins that are synthesized in the liver (clotting factors II, VII, IX, X, protein S, C, and Z), and in other tissues (osteocalcin, protein S, Gas6 and four transmembrane proteins: PRGP1, PRGP2, TmG3, and TmG4). Taking into account importance of coagulant status in the development of coronary disorders, polymorphism of GGCX gene may be associated with them. The data in literature concerning these issues are limited and inconsistent, and absent for Slavic populations. Purpose. Our aim was to establish the frequency of allelic variants of the GGCX gene for Arg325Gln polymorphism in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), who has normal and high blood pressure. Materials and Methods. We used venous blood of 118 patients with ACS (22 % women and 78 % men) aged ...
Vadivel, K., Agah, S., Messer, A.S., Cascio, D., Bajaj, M.S., Krishnaswamy, S., Esmon, C.T., Padmanabhan, K. and Bajaj, S.P.: Structural and Functional Studies of -Carboxyglutamic Acid Domains of Factor VIIa and Activated Protein C: Role of Magnesium at Physiological Calcium. J. Mol. Biol. 425: 1961-1981, 2013 ...
Matrix -carboxyglutamic acid protein (MGP) genotypes (G- 7A and T-138C) were determined in 266 individuals from three Mexican populations. Mexicans showed increased frequencies of the G-7A G allele and the G7-A GG genotype compared to Europeans. For the T-138C genotype, we found differences among the Mexicans. This study could help to define the significance of MGP polymorphisms as genetic markers in Amerindian populations.
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Osteocalcin antibody (bone gamma-carboxyglutamate (gla) protein) for ICC/IF. Anti-Osteocalcin pAb (GTX39512) is tested in Human, Dog, Monkey, Bovine samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
THE COAGULATION CASCADE CONSISTS OF A NUMBER OF MULTIDOMAIN SERINE PROTEASES AND PROTEIN COFACTORS. AMONG THESE ARE FACTORS IX, X, AND PROTHROMBIN. PROTEIN C DOWNREGULATES THE INTRINSIC COAGULATION PATHWAY BY INACTIVATING FACTORS VAAND VIIIA. FACTORS IX, X, AND PROTEIN C ARE HIGHLY HOMOLOGOUS PROTEINS. EACH CONTAINS TWO EGF-HOMOLOGOUS DOMAINS AND A N-TERMINAL DOMAIN BEARING MULTIPLE -CARBOXYGLUTAMIC ACID RESIDUES, THE SO-CALLED GLA DOMAIN. COMPETITIVE BINDING EXPERIMENTS HAVE ESTABLISHED THAT FACTORS IX AND X BIND TO RECEPTORS ON ACTIVATED ENDOTHELIAL CELLS THROUGH INTERACTIONS OF THE EGF AND GLA DOMAINS, A PHYSIOLOGICAL MECHANISM FOR DIRECTING COAGULATION TO REGIONS OF DAMAGED ENDOTHELIUM. THE OBJECTIVE IS TO IMPROVE RECOMBINANT PROTEIN C FOR USE ASA SAFE ANTICOAGULANT/ANTITHROMBOTIC AGENT FOR SUPPRESSION OF CLOTTING IN A NUMBER OF VENOUS THROMBOTIC CONDITIONS. SPECIFICALLY, A PROTEIN C VARIANT WITH A HIGH BINDING AFFINITY FOR DAMAGED ENDOTHELIUM WILL BE DESIGNED. THE EGF-HOMOLOGOUS DOMAINS OF ...
The structure of a large molecular fragment of factor Xa that lacks only a Gla (gamma-carboxyglutamic acid) domain (N-terminal 45 residues) has been solved by X-ray crystallography and refined at 2.2 A resolution to a crystallographic R-value of 0.168. The fragment identity was clearly established by automated Edman degradation. X-ray structure analysis confirmed the biochemical characterization and also revealed that the N-terminal epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domain is flexibly disordered in crystals. The second EGF module, however, is positionally ordered making contacts with the catalytic domain. The overall folding of the catalytic domain is similar to that of alpha-thrombin, excluding the insertion loops of the latter with respect to simpler serine proteinases. The C-terminal arginine of the A-chain interacts in a substrate-like manner with the S1 specificity site of the active site of a crystallographically neighboring molecule. Based on this interaction and the structure of ...
van Beusekom, J. and Jonge, V. N. (2010): Dissolved Organic Phosphorus (DOP):an indicator of organic matter turn-over? , The Wadden Sea:Changes and Challenges in a World Heritage Site. SyltMai 2010 ...
PMF1-BGLAP, 0.5 mg. This locus represents naturally occurring read-through transcription between the neighboring PMF1 (polyamine-modulated factor 1) and BGLAP (bone gamma-carboxyglutamate Gla protein) genes on chromosome 1.
ADGRE3 overexpression lysate, 0.1 mg. Transient overexpression lysate of egf-like module containing, mucin-like, hormone receptor-like 3 (EMR3)
Phytonadione aqueous colloidal solution of vitamin K1 for parenteral injection, possesses the same type and degree of activity as does naturally-occurring vitamin K, which is necessary for the production via the liver of active prothrombin (factor II), proconvertin (factor VII), plasma thromboplastin component (factor IX), and Stuart factor (factor X). The prothrombin test is sensitive to the levels of three of these four factors-II, VII, and X. Vitamin K is an essential cofactor for a microsomal enzyme that catalyzes the post-translational carboxylation of multiple, specific, peptide-bound glutamic acid residues in inactive hepatic precursors of factors II, VII, IX, and X. The resulting gamma-carboxyglutamic acid residues convert the precursors into active coagulation factors that are subsequently secreted by liver cells into the blood.. Phytonadione is readily absorbed following intramuscular administration. After absorption, phytonadione is initially concentrated in the liver, but the ...
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ADGRE3 - EMR3 (untagged)-Human egf-like module containing, mucin-like, hormone receptor-like 3 (EMR3) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
endoplasmic reticulum sites of Gla protein synthesis. In the case of the blood coagulation proteins, the sole site of synthesis is the liver. Each carboxylated protein has a C-terminal propeptide sequence that binds the carboxylase enzyme, and directs a coordinated series of carboxylations of the recipient gluta-myl residues, before the propeptide is removed and the fully carboxylated protein is then secreted into the extracellular space for transport into the plasma.. Vitamin K acts as the essential recycling cofactor (or cosubstrate) for all protein carboxylation, Gla-forming reactions (Figure 3). In its dihydro or quinol form, the vitamin reacts with molecular oxygen, thereby creating a highly reactive, high-energy carba-nion at the Glu site for insertion of carbon dioxide, creating a new Gla residue. This vitamin K quinol oxidation step provides the essential energy for the endothermic carboxylation step. The other product of the reaction is the epoxide of vitamin K, comprising a ...
A growing interest has manifested itself within the past two or three years in phytin and phytic acid, and in some of the compounds of the latter. Posternak first isolated this substance from the seeds of the red fir, pumpkin, pea, bean, white and yellow lupine and potato. Patten and Hart obtained the substance from wheat bran, and Hart and Tottingham found it in corn meal, oats and barley. The organic phosphorus materials obtained by alcoholic precipitations of aqueous or dilute acid extracts from these various sources are not identical, but ultimate analyses show a fair degree of similarity. Thus the phosphorus varies between 14 and 17 per cent, and they all contain varying amounts of magnesium, potassium and calcium. There has been prepared also, from the phytin from most of these sources, the free phytic acid, corresponding to the formula C2H8P2O9, (an-hydro-oxy-methylene-phosphoric acid, Posternak), or C6H24P6O27, (Neuberg, Starkenstein).
EMR3 antibody (egf-like module containing, mucin-like, hormone receptor-like 3) for IHC-P. Anti-EMR3 pAb (GTX12974) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Homo sapiens egf-like module containing, mucin-like, hormone receptor-like 2 (EMR2), transcript variant 4, mRNA. (H00030817-R04) - Products - Abnova
Homo sapiens egf-like module containing, mucin-like, hormone receptor-like 2 (EMR2), transcript variant 2, mRNA. (H00030817-R02) - Products - Abnova
A method of labeling a sulfenic acid (-SOH) group of a cysteine residue in a protein; or peptide, comprises contacting said protein or peptide with a beta-ketoester to covalently couple said beta-keto
Sales, means the sales volume of Human Prothrombin Complex Revenue, means the sales value of Human Prothrombin Complex This report studies sales (consumption) of Human Prothrombin Complex in United States market, focuses on the top players, with sales, price, revenue and market share for each player, covering Baxter CSL Bayer Grifols Octapharma Shanghai RAAS Hualan Bio
|p||strong|Prothrombin|/strong| (coagulation factor II) (H2N-Tyr-Ile-His-Pro-OH) is produced in the liver and is post-translationally modified in a vitamin K-dependent reaction that converts ten glutamic acids on prothrombin into gamma-carboxyglutamic aci
The invention provides vitamin k-dependent polypeptides with enhanced membrane binding affinity. These polypeptides can be used to modulate clot formation in mammals. Methods of modulating clot formation in mammals are also described.
Buy our Natural Human Protein C. Ab62448 is a full length protein produced in Nativesyntheticaly and has been validated in FuncS, SDS-PAGE. Abcam provides free…
[127 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Organic Phosphorus Flame Retardant Sales Market Report 2016 report by QYResearch Group. Notes: Sales, means the sales volume of Organic Phosphorus Flame...
ADGRE2 - EMR2 (Myc-DDK-tagged)-Human egf-like module containing, mucin-like, hormone receptor-like 2 (EMR2), transcript variant 1 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Protein C is a vitamin K-dependent serine protease that regulates blood coagulation by inactivating factors Va and VIIIa in the presence of calcium ions and phospholipids. Exerts a protective effect on the endothelial cell barrier function.
A sound prediction of soil organic phosphorus (Po) mineralization would be helpful to improve fertilizer recommendations. However, in most mineral soils expensive and time consuming isotopic dilution experiments are required to assess Po mineralization. A proposed method to estimate Po mineralization is the quantification of P in the coarse fraction (CF, ,53 μm) of the soil. The aim of this study was to evaluate if P in the CF can effectively predict Po mineralization. Soil samples from three North American long-term arable field experiments (,10 years) with different textures (sand content 15-82%) and different fertilization treatments (non-P-fertilized, mineral P fertilizer, poultry litter) were analyzed. Soil samples were physically fractioned into CF and fine fraction (FF, ,53 μm). Total P (Pt), Po, and total carbon (Ct) were determined in each fraction. Gross and net Po mineralization rates as well as soil respiration were determined in a 13-day-incubation experiment. The cumulative gross ...
Organic phosphorus (P) in grazed pastures/grasslands could sustain production systems that historically relied on inorganic P fertiliser. Interactions between inorganic P, plants and soils have been studied extensively. However, less is known about the transformation of organic P to inorganic orthophosphate. This paper investigates what is known about organic P in pasture/grassland soils used for agriculture, as well as the research needed to utilise organic P for sustainable plant production. Organic P comprises , 50% of total soil P in agricultural systems depending on location, soil type and land use. Organic P hydrolysis and release of orthophosphate by phosphatase enzymatic activity is affected by a range of factors including: (a) the chemical nature of the organic P and its ability to interact with the soil matrix; (b) microorganisms that facilitate mineralisation; (c) soil mineralogy; (d) soil water electrolytes; and (e) soil physicochemical properties. Current biogeochemical ...
1LMJ: Solution Structure and Dynamics of a Calcium Binding Epidermal Growth Factor-like Domain Pair from the Neonatal Region of Human Fibrillin-1.
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Assaypro \ Factor IX, anti_human \ 12222-05011 for more molecular products just contact us
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We congratulate Bohm et al. (1) for their interesting study regarding the effects of warfarin or dabigatran etexilate (DE) on renal function in the patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) receiving oral anticoagulation, showing a decline in renal function that was greater in those taking warfarin compared with DE, which was amplified by diabetes and previous vitamin K antagonist use. The authors propose this adverse renal outcome may be due to inhibition by warfarin of vitamin K-dependent matrix gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla/MPG) and resulting in renal vascular calcification and arterial damage.. Recent data showed that excessive anticoagulation with warfarin can result in acute kidney injury (AKI) by causing glomerular hemorrhage and renal tubular obstruction by red blood cell (RBC) casts in some patients, especially in those with chronic kidney disease (CKD), which was described as warfarin-related nephropathy (WRN) (2). Brodsky et al. (3) was the first to describe this entity through kidney ...
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Goose feces are high in organic phosphorus, which can contribute to excessive algae growth in lakes. Increased development in Lake County has inadvertently created ideal habitat for goose populations.
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A vitamin K-dependent carboxylation converts glutamate residues on prothrombin, which are weak chelators of Ca2+, into gamma-carboxyglutamate, a much stronger chelator. The binding of Ca2+ by prothrombin anchors it to the phospholipid membranes derived from blood platlets following injury. This binding of prothrombin brings it into close contact with two enzymes which regulate its conversion into thrombin, which can then activate fibrinogen in the plasma to fill the breach.. Sources:. Vitamin K is found in green leafy vegetables.. Fascinating Fact: To prevent excessive clotting after an operation the vitamin K antagonist, Warfarin (rat poison) is administered in carefully controlled doses.. ...
Monoclonal Anti-Bovine Osteocalcin Antibody (Clones OC4-30,OCG2, OCG3 and OCG4) is raised against bovine osteocalcin and recognizes both bovine and human osteocalcins. Clone OC4-30 is specific for position 17 gamma-carboxylated osteocalcin and does not recognize decarboxylated osteocalcin. Osteocalcin epitopes used to generate Clones OCG2, OCG3 and OCG4 are amino acids 45-49, amino acids 21-31 and amino acids 4-9, respectively. This collection of osteocalcin antibody clones facilitates osteocalcin immunohistochemistry studies which can also be performed on paraffin-embedded tissues (as described in the Resources). In addition to cross-reactivity with bovine and human osteocalcin, clones OCG4-30, OCG3 and OCG4 are also capable of recognizing osteocalcin in several other species as listed. For species-specific osteocalcin detection, Takara Bio offers additional osteocalcin antibody products. ...
Monoclonal Anti-Bovine Osteocalcin Antibody (Clones OC4-30,OCG2, OCG3 and OCG4) is raised against bovine osteocalcin and recognizes both bovine and human osteocalcins. Clone OC4-30 is specific for position 17 gamma-carboxylated osteocalcin and does not recognize decarboxylated osteocalcin. Osteocalcin epitopes used to generate Clones OCG2, OCG3 and OCG4 are amino acids 45-49, amino acids 21-31 and amino acids 4-9, respectively. This collection of osteocalcin antibody clones facilitates osteocalcin immunohistochemistry studies which can also be performed on paraffin-embedded tissues (as described in the Resources). In addition to cross-reactivity with bovine and human osteocalcin, clones OCG4-30, OCG3 and OCG4 are also capable of recognizing osteocalcin in several other species as listed. For species-specific osteocalcin detection, Takara Bio offers additional osteocalcin antibody products. ...
Matrix Gla protein (MGP) belongs to the family of vitamin K dependent, Gla containing proteins and, in mammals, birds and Xenopus, its mRNA has been previously detected in bone, cartilage and soft...
Sixty septic patients with plasma protein C activity , 60 % will be enrolled in the study. Patients will be randomly allocated to be treated with either a) a continuous infusion of human Protein C concentrate at 3 UI/Kg/hr for 72 hours to reach plasma protein C activity between 70 and 120 % b)to a continuous infusion of activated protein C at 24 micrograms/Kg/hr for 96 hours, c) a standard teatment(control; each n = 20). In all groups, norepinephrine will be titrated to achieve a mean arterial pressure (MAP) between 65 and 75 mmHg. Data from right heart catheterization, from microcirculation (SDF imaging) and from organ function as well as norepinephrine requirements will be obtained at baseline and after 24, 48, 72 hours ...
Learn about BeneFIX (Coagulation Factor IX Recombinant for Injection) may treat, uses, dosage, side effects, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, and related medications.
Prevents the return of vitamin K to its reduced form, and therefore the gamma-carboxylation of vitamin-K dependent clotting factors (II, VII, IX, X), as well as Protein C and Protein S ...
购买我们的天然人Factor IXa蛋白。Ab81594从天然组织中纯化得来,经过Functional Studies, SDS-PAGE实验验证。Abcam提供免费的实验方案,操作技巧及专业的支持。
Prothrombin and thrombin are involved in diverse biological functions. The structure of prothrombin has been studied extensively and its cDNA has been cloned fr...
United States Organic Phosphorus Flame Retardant Market Report 2017 is a market research report available at US $3800 for a Single User PDF License from RnR Market Research Reports Library.
article{cc46aab3-9097-4281-9882-554963bfe958, abstract = {Protein C (PC), a 62 kDa multi-modular zymogen, is activated to an anticoagulant serine protease (activated PC or APC) by thrombin bound to thrombomodulin on the surface of endothelial cells. PC/APC interacts with many proteins and the characterisation of these interactions is not trivial. However, molecular modelling methods help to study these complex biological processes and provide basis for rational experimental design and interpretation of the results. PC/APC consists of a Gla domain followed by two EGF modules and a serine protease domain. In this report, we present two structural models for full-length APC and two equivalent models for full-length PC, based on the X-ray structures of Gla-domainless APC and of known serine protease zymogens. The overall elongated shape of the models is further cross-validated using size exclusion chromatography which allows evaluation of the Stokes radius (rs for PC = 33.15 A; rs for APC = 34.19 ...
The WikiPremed MCAT Course is an open access, comprehensive learning program for college physics, chemistry, biology, and organic chemistry within a unified, spiraling curriculum.
A new study led by investigators at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) has shown that a protein used to heal fractured bones is effective in repairing and reversing chronic renal disease, a leading cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the U.S. These findings, which are reported in the July 2003 issue of Nature Medicine, could help lead to the development of a therapeutic alternative for the nearly 300,000 kidney disease patients who are currently undergoing dialysis.
Copyright 2012 by Brandon Whitman. This material is copyrighted and any further reproduction or distribution is prohibited without the permission of the copyright owner ...
Copyright 2012 by Brandon Whitman. This material is copyrighted and any further reproduction or distribution is prohibited without the permission of the copyright owner ...
PROTHROMBINEX-VF is a freeze-dried preparation of proteins called human prothrombin complex. PROTHROMBINEX-VF contains concentrated factor IX, factor II, factor X and low level of factor VII.
PROTHROMBINEX-VF is a freeze-dried preparation of proteins called human prothrombin complex. PROTHROMBINEX-VF contains concentrated factor IX, factor II, factor X and low level of factor VII.
Learn how RIXUBIS [Coagulation Factor IX (Recombinant)] can be tailored to you. See Detailed Important Risk Information and full PI.
BeneFIX® Coagulation Factor IX (Recombinant) offers flexible dosing options with a wide range of vial sizes including a 3000-IU option
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Molecular Innovations \ Anti Mouse Factor IX and IXa \ MA-MFIX-2 for more molecular products just contact us
Full text] Effect of vitamin K supplementation on insulin sensitivity: a meta-ana | DMSO  Full text] Effect of vitamin K supplementation on insulin sensitivity: a meta-ana | DMSO
1 Nalinee Poolsup,2 Htoo Darli Ko Ko1 1Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand; ... Bone γ-carboxyglutamic acid protein can increase energy expenditure and adiponectin secretion from adipocytes.25-28 Clinical ... It has been postulated that vitamin K-dependent bone protein osteocalcin, also known as bone γ-carboxyglutamic acid protein, ... 46 and the amount of vitamin K required for carboxylation of proteins with glutamic acid domains may be higher in older ...
more infohttps://www.dovepress.com/effect-of-vitamin-k-supplementation-on-insulin-sensitivity-a-meta-anal-peer-reviewed-fulltext-article-DMSO
What rhymes with 1-carboxyglutamic acid?  What rhymes with 1-carboxyglutamic acid?
... Lookup it up at Rhymes.net - the most comprehensive rhyming words dictionary on the ... Discuss this 1-carboxyglutamic acid rhyme with the community:. Citation. Use the citation below to add this rhymes to your ... Weve got 0 rhyming words for 1-carboxyglutamic acid ». What rhymes with 1-carboxyglutamic acid?. This page is about the ... We couldnt find any rhymes for the word 1-carboxyglutamic acid.. Maybe you were looking for one of these terms?. *twirled, - ...
more infohttps://www.rhymes.net/rhyme/1-carboxyglutamic%20acid
Micrographs of confluent immature cultures grown in med | Open-i  Micrographs of confluent immature cultures grown in med | Open-i
Matrix GLA protein (MGP), a gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (GLA)-rich, vitamin K-dependent and apatite-binding protein, is a ... Matrix GLA protein (MGP), a gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (GLA)-rich, vitamin K-dependent and apatite-binding protein, is a ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC2169349_JCB9907006.f2&req=4
Osteocalcin ELISA Kit | Osteogenic Marker | Gla-Type Osteocalcin (Gla-OC) EIA Kit  Osteocalcin ELISA Kit | Osteogenic Marker | Gla-Type Osteocalcin (Gla-OC) EIA Kit
Three gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) residues at positions 17, 21, and 24 of the protein are responsible for binding calcium ... also known as gamma-carboxyglutamic acid protein, is a small (5.9 kDa), vitamin K-dependent, hydroxyapatite (Ca2+)-binding ... 1. Tsukamoto, Y. et al. (2000) J. Bone Miner. Metab. 18(4):216-22. ...
more infohttp://www.clontech.com/US/Products/Cell_Biology_and_Epigenetics/Bone_Research/Osteocalcin_Carboxylated_Gla-OC?sitex=10020:22372:US&PEBCL1=AZY8N9X5EHqpmUla9kMKJoEmvK&PEBCL1_pses=ZG4C2D53E47B27CA7314D5E4BFA9F84264A47B0387896AE862F72D89ABACCC2B39473892D1B137E4476D0195B86347C192F4BF47487F9F6C05
Vitamin K2 (menaquinone-7) Reduces Risk of Prostate Cancer - Us Smart Publications  Vitamin K2 (menaquinone-7) Reduces Risk of Prostate Cancer - Us Smart Publications
It is necessary to have vitamin K2 present in our bodies so that it can activate Matrix y-carboxyglutamic acid protein or MGP. ...
more infohttps://smart-publications.com/articles/vitamin-k2-menaquinone-7-reduces-risk-of-prostate-cancer/
Chapter 14: Perioperative Bleeding Disorders - Liposuction 101 Liposuction Training  Chapter 14: Perioperative Bleeding Disorders - Liposuction 101 Liposuction Training
The resulting γ-carboxyglutamic acid residue is secreted by hepatocytes into the blood. Liver disease may impair vitamin K ... It is thought to inhibit the synthesis of arachidonic acid, a precursor of prostaglandins. In a manner similar to the effects ... Johannson BW, Nilsson IM: The effect of heparin and є-aminocaproic acid on the coagulation in hypothermic dogs, Acta Physiol ... Willow bark, derived from the white willow tree (Salix species), contains the precursor to acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) and ...
more infohttps://liposuction101.com/liposuction-textbook/chapter-14-perioperative-bleeding-disorders/
Docphin | Medical Research Articles Published in August 1979 | Page 7 of 7  Docphin | Medical Research Articles Published in August 1979 | Page 7 of 7
Identification of O-phosphoserine, O-phosphothreonine and gamma-carboxyglutamic acid in the non-collagenous proteins of bovine ... Pulmonary phosphatidic acid phosphatase. Properties of membrane-bound phosphatidate-dependent phosphatidic acid phosphatase in ... A simple, sensitive method for measuring 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and homovanillic acid in rat brain tissue using high- ... The tentative amino acid sequencing of lactate dehydrogenase C4 by X-ray diffraction analysis. (PubMedID: 468774) The Journal ...
more infohttps://www.docphin.com/medical-research-articles-published-in-month?month=8&year=1979&page=7
PeptideMass - Peptide Characterisation Software  PeptideMass - Peptide Characterisation Software
... gamma-carboxyglutamic acid, O-GlcNac, hydroxylation, methylation, myristoylation, palmitoylation, phosphorylation, pyrrolidone ... If there is a residue conflict that is a missing amino acid, it will be represented as, for example: 168-169 MISS. Refer to the ... Microwave-assisted formic acid hydrolysis (C-term to D). C-terminal side of D. ... The letter code of the amino acids within any particular affected peptide are not shown. If you wish to perform a theoretical ...
more infohttps://web.expasy.org/peptide_mass/peptide-mass-doc.html
US6320029B1 - Methods of production and use of liquid formulations of plasma proteins 
        - Google Patents  US6320029B1 - Methods of production and use of liquid formulations of plasma proteins - Google Patents
The "gla" domains consist of the first 40 to 45 amino acid residues with multiple γ-carboxyglutamic acid residues that are ... amino acids, such as glycine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, histidine, lysine, or arginine; monosaccharides, disaccharides, and ... Preferably, the pH buffering compound used in the aqueous liquid formulation is an amino acid or mixture of amino acids; more ... Preferably, when the pH buffering compound is an amino acid, the concentration of the amino acid is between 0.1 millimole/liter ...
more infohttps://patents.google.com/patent/US6320029B1/en
Transcript #00015138 - Whole genome datasets  Transcript #00015138 - Whole genome datasets
PRRG1 (proline rich Gla (G-carboxyglutamic acid) 1). Chromosome. X. Transcript - NCBI ID. NM_000950.2. ...
more infohttp://databases.lovd.nl/whole_genome/transcripts/00015138
Carboxyglutamic acid - Wikipedia  Carboxyglutamic acid - Wikipedia
carboxyglutamic acid, the γ. {\displaystyle \gamma }. -proton on glutamic acid is abstracted, and CO2 is subsequently added. ... Carboxyglutamic acid (or the conjugate base, carboxyglutamate), is an uncommon amino acid introduced into proteins by a post- ... "Gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-rich (GLA) domain (IPR000294) , InterPro , EMBL-EBI". www.ebi.ac.uk. Retrieved 2015-12-22.. ... Gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-rich (GLA) domain[edit]. A number of gamma-carboxyglutamate (Gla) residues are present in the gamma- ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%CE%93-carboxyglutamate
Thrombosis Research Videos | BIDMC of Boston  Thrombosis Research Videos | BIDMC of Boston
Role of Vitamin K in the Synthesis of Gamma Carboxyglutamic Acid * Cell Adhesion and the Role of P-selectin and PSGL-1 in ... Call 1-800-667-5356, Monday-Friday, 8:30am-5:00pm or Find a Doctor ...
more infohttps://www.bidmc.org/research/research-by-department/medicine/hemostasis-and-thrombosis/thrombosis-research-videos
SMART: Secondary literature for EGF domain  SMART: Secondary literature for EGF domain
The domainsexchanged were the 4-carboxyglutamic acid plus aromatic stack domain(gla), the first epidermal growth factor-like ... 2014) Nucleic Acids Res doi: 10.1093/nar/gku949. Letunic et al. (2017) Nucleic Acids Res doi: 10.1093/nar/gkx922 ... Coagulation factor X is a serine protease containing three noncatalyticdomains: an N-terminal gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla)1 ... However,HB-EGFTM-II, a 24-kDa protein, was N-terminally sequenced and found to beinitiated at Asp63 in the 208-amino acid ...
more infohttp://smart.embl.de/smart/show_secondary.cgi?domain=EGF
Carboxyglutamic acid - Wikipedia  Carboxyglutamic acid - Wikipedia
Carboxyglutamic acid (or the conjugate base, carboxyglutamate), is an uncommon amino acid introduced into proteins by a post- ... carboxyglutamic acid, the γ {\displaystyle \gamma } -proton on glutamic acid is abstracted, and CO2 is subsequently added. The ... Gamma-carboxyglutamic acid residues play an important role in coagulation. The high-affinity calcium binding sites in the GLA ... "Gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-rich (GLA) domain (IPR000294) < InterPro < EMBL-EBI". www.ebi.ac.uk. Retrieved 2015-12-22. Rawala- ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carboxyglutamic_acid
RCSB PDB 









- 1CFH: STRUCTURE OF THE METAL-FREE GAMMA-CARBOXYGLUTAMIC ACID-RICH MEMBRANE BINDING REGION OF FACTOR IX BY...  RCSB PDB - 1CFH: STRUCTURE OF THE METAL-FREE GAMMA-CARBOXYGLUTAMIC ACID-RICH MEMBRANE BINDING REGION OF FACTOR IX BY...
Structure of the metal-free gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-rich membrane binding region of factor IX by two-dimensional NMR ... STRUCTURE OF THE METAL-FREE GAMMA-CARBOXYGLUTAMIC ACID-RICH MEMBRANE BINDING REGION OF FACTOR IX BY TWO-DIMENSIONAL NMR ...
more infohttp://www.rcsb.org/pdb/explore/explore.do?structureId=1CFH
WikiGenes - HRPT1 - hyperparathyroidism 1  WikiGenes - HRPT1 - hyperparathyroidism 1
Serum bone gamma carboxyglutamic acid-containing protein in primary hyperparathyroidism and in malignant hypercalcemia. ... Serum bone gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-containing (Gla) protein (sBGP), a sensitive and specific marker of bone turnover, was ... Reduced binding of [3H]1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in the parathyroid glands of patients with renal failure. Korkor, A.B. N. Engl ... The importance of circulating 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in the pathogenesis of hypercalciuria and renal-stone formation in ...
more infohttps://www.wikigenes.org/e/gene/e/3278.html
Matrix Gla Protein Is Associated With Risk Factors for Atherosclerosis but not With Coronary Artery Calcification |...  Matrix Gla Protein Is Associated With Risk Factors for Atherosclerosis but not With Coronary Artery Calcification |...
A polymorphism of the human matrix gamma-carboxyglutamic acid protein promoter alters binding of an activating protein-1 ... The overall mean±SD (range) CHD risk scores were 17.3±12.1 (2 to 53) and 8.8±6.7 (1 to 27) for men and women, respectively. ... Baseline CHD risk factors in men and women are shown according to MGP quartiles in Table 1. In age-adjusted linear regression ... TABLE 1. Coronary Disease Risk Factors* by Quartiles of Serum Matrix Gla Protein (MGP), Study A ...
more infohttp://atvb.ahajournals.org/content/26/12/2769
Quantitative prediction of NF-κB DNA- protein interactions | Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences  Quantitative prediction of NF-κB DNA- protein interactions | Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
p50RHRs/p65RHRs heterodimer expressing construct (containing amino acids 39-350 of p50 and 19-291 of p65) (21) was kindly ... 1 i.e., the minimum of the distance between Si and Sj or its reverse complement. For example, GGGATGGCCC and GGAATTGCCC differ ... Metric scaling (19, 20) projects sequence i to a point xi in n-1-dimensional space (where n is the number of sequences) such ... 1B. With both dimers, we observed up to a 1,000-fold reproducible variation in binding among the sites (published as supporting ...
more infohttp://www.pnas.org/content/99/12/8167
anti-Prolactin Regulatory Element Binding Primary Antibodies  anti-Prolactin Regulatory Element Binding Primary Antibodies
anti-Proline Rich Gla (G-Carboxyglutamic Acid) 1 Anticorps * anti-Proline Rich Gla (G-Carboxyglutamic Acid) 3 (Transmembrane) ... The transcriptional factor PREB mediates MCP-1 transcription induced by cytokines in human vascular endothelial cells. ... This gene overlaps the abhydrolase domain containing 1 (ABHD1) gene on the opposite strand. ...
more infohttps://www.anticorps-enligne.fr/er-nucleus-signaling-pathway-80/preb-antibody-6273/
Melatonin and Vitamin D Orchestrate Adipose Derived Stem Cell Fate by Modulating Epigenetic Regulatory Genes  Melatonin and Vitamin D Orchestrate Adipose Derived Stem Cell Fate by Modulating Epigenetic Regulatory Genes
... bone 0gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-containing protein BGLAP), Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP2) and peroxisome proliferator- ... In particular, our group previously demonstrated the capability of butyric acid, acting as an inhibitor of HDAC, in a mixture ... Epigenetic modulators as for example butyric acid have been previously used to orchestrate stem cell fate. ... 2009;5(1):17-26 2. Bianchi F. et al. A new nonenzymatic method and device to obtain a fat tissue derivative highly enriched in ...
more infohttp://www.medsci.org/v15p1631.htm
  • 1 , 2 Its noncollagenous skeleton hormone named osteocalcin has been positively associated with physical activity 3 and insulin sensitivity. (dovepress.com)
  • ADSCs were cultured in a specific adipogenic conditioned media, in the presence of melatonin alone or with vitamin D. The expression of specific osteogenic related genes was evaluated at different time points, together with the histone deacetylases epigenetic regulators, HDAC1 and Sirtuins (SIRT) 1 and 2. (medsci.org)
  • Our results show that melatonin and vitamin D are able to modulate ADSCs commitment towards osteogenic phenotype through the upregulation of HDAC1, SIRT 1 and 2, unfolding an epigenetic regulation in stem cell differentiation and opening novel strategies for future therapeutic balancing of stem cell fate toward adipogenic or osteogenic phenotype. (medsci.org)
  • A comparative study of vitamin K(1) 2,3-epoxide reductase (VKOR) activity in vitro was conducted across species. (embl.de)
  • Overall, this study indicates that there are interspecies differences regarding the in vitro reduction of vitamin K(1) 2,3-epoxide by the warfarin-sensitive enzyme vitamin K(1) 2,3-epoxide reductase. (embl.de)
  • Intraperitoneal administration of vitamin K1 revealed that 80 microg vitamin K1 kg(-1) bodyweight was sufficient to restore normal blood clotting activity in deficient rats, while 60 microg vitamin K1 kg(-1) bodyweight was insufficient. (embl.de)
  • In chicks, 1,25 dihydroxy vitamin D (1,25-OH(2)D), the biologically active form of vitamin D, increases the phosphocholine (PC) content of the brush border concomitantly with a modification of the PC acyl chains, which together increase the fluidity of the membrane. (medjournal.com)
  • Fifteen healthy Japanese males aged 25.0 years (median) and not currently taking natto (fermented soybean, which has a high concentration of vitamin K) or medications were screened a week before Day 1. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Over a lifetime, Caucasian females lose about 35% of their peak cortical bone and 50% of their trabecular bone (1). (medjournal.com)
  • In organic chemistry , Acyclic Acids (Ethanoic Acids) , as organic compounds are 2 carbon straight-chain saturated carboxylic acids , that have an open-chain molecular structures as opposed to ring-shaped structures. (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • and ciraparantag, or PER977 (Perosphere Inc., Danbury, CT), a potential reversal agent for both direct and indirect FXa inhibitors as well as factor IIa (FIIa) inhibitors ( Table 1 ). (drugsonlinepharmacy.info)
  • The potentiating effect of tissue factor disappeared by removal of y-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) -domain from factor VIIa, whereas the esterase activity in the absence of tissue factor was not affected by this modification, suggesting that the Gla-domain is required as the potent determinants on factor VIIa for the interaction with tissue factor, even if phospholipids are absent in the reaction mixture. (nii.ac.jp)
  • γ-Carboxyglutamic Acid (Gla)-Domainless Blood Coagulation Factor IXa Species:Preparation and Properties. (nii.ac.jp)
  • 1 This disease has high incidence and prevalence rates, and it is a global health problem, with high public healthcare costs of approximately R$ 1.4 billion/year in Brazil. (bjn.org.br)
  • Huang, Cao, Liu, Zou, Li, Yin: MAPK/ERK signal pathway involved expression of COX-2 and VEGF by IL-1β induced in human endometriosis stromal cells in vitro. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Eukaryotic genes are regulated largely through the interactions of transcription factors and their assembly into multicomponent enhancer complexes ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Human mesenchymal stem cells are undifferentiated cells exhibiting some main feature as self-renewal and differentiation capability, they are located in different areas of our body, organized in specific places called niches, which capture and integrate the environmental signals, influencing stem cell behavior [ 1 ]. (medsci.org)
  • Data suggest that (1) cell membrane/lipid bilayer binding of PRLR and (2) tyrosine phosphorylation of PRLR intracellular domain are independent. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Over the 5-week non-placebo-controlled study, subjects received no capsules on Days 1 to 7. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 1 Department of Lymphoma and Myeloma, Division of Cancer Medicine, Center for Cancer Immunology Research, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA. (sciencemag.org)
  • inhibits osteopontin expression in human decidual stromal cells and can be attenuated by 1? (antibodies-online.com)
  • Localization of the dopamine receptors of types 1 and 2 on the bodies of POMC -expressing neurons of the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus in mice and rats. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Prior to plating cells, the hexamethyldisilazane/PEG substrates were first incubated with solutions of extracellular matrix, consisting of fibronectin (FN), collagen types I and IV, or laminin-1, to allow adsorption on hexamethyldisilazane. (ahajournals.org)