1-Carboxyglutamic Acid: Found in various tissues, particularly in four blood-clotting proteins including prothrombin, in kidney protein, in bone protein, and in the protein present in various ectopic calcifications.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Blood Coagulation: The process of the interaction of BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS that results in an insoluble FIBRIN clot.Prothrombin: A plasma protein that is the inactive precursor of thrombin. It is converted to thrombin by a prothrombin activator complex consisting of factor Xa, factor V, phospholipid, and calcium ions. Deficiency of prothrombin leads to hypoprothrombinemia.Factor IXa: Activated form of factor IX. This activation can take place via the intrinsic pathway by the action of factor XIa and calcium, or via the extrinsic pathway by the action of factor VIIa, thromboplastin, and calcium. Factor IXa serves to activate factor X to Xa by cleaving the arginyl-leucine peptide bond in factor X.Factor X: Storage-stable glycoprotein blood coagulation factor that can be activated to factor Xa by both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. A deficiency of factor X, sometimes called Stuart-Prower factor deficiency, may lead to a systemic coagulation disorder.Factor IX: Storage-stable blood coagulation factor acting in the intrinsic pathway. Its activated form, IXa, forms a complex with factor VIII and calcium on platelet factor 3 to activate factor X to Xa. Deficiency of factor IX results in HEMOPHILIA B (Christmas Disease).Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular: NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Osteocalcin: Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.Calcitriol: The physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.24,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D 3: A physiologically active metabolite of VITAMIN D. The compound is involved in the regulation of calcium metabolism, alkaline phosphatase activity, and enhances the calcemic effect of CALCITRIOL.Dihydroxycholecalciferols: Cholecalciferols substituted with two hydroxy groups in any position.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Vitamin D Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN D in the diet, insufficient production of vitamin D in the skin, inadequate absorption of vitamin D from the diet, or abnormal conversion of vitamin D to its bioactive metabolites. It is manifested clinically as RICKETS in children and OSTEOMALACIA in adults. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1406)Bioprosthesis: Prosthesis, usually heart valve, composed of biological material and whose durability depends upon the stability of the material after pretreatment, rather than regeneration by host cell ingrowth. Durability is achieved 1, mechanically by the interposition of a cloth, usually polytetrafluoroethylene, between the host and the graft, and 2, chemically by stabilization of the tissue by intermolecular linking, usually with glutaraldehyde, after removal of antigenic components, or the use of reconstituted and restructured biopolymers.Heart Valve Prosthesis: A device that substitutes for a heart valve. It may be composed of biological material (BIOPROSTHESIS) and/or synthetic material.Aortic Valve: The valve between the left ventricle and the ascending aorta which prevents backflow into the left ventricle.Calcinosis: Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.Heart Valve Diseases: Pathological conditions involving any of the various HEART VALVES and the associated structures (PAPILLARY MUSCLES and CHORDAE TENDINEAE).Aortic Valve Stenosis: A pathological constriction that can occur above (supravalvular stenosis), below (subvalvular stenosis), or at the AORTIC VALVE. It is characterized by restricted outflow from the LEFT VENTRICLE into the AORTA.Mitral Valve: The valve between the left atrium and left ventricle of the heart.Intervertebral Disc: Any of the 23 plates of fibrocartilage found between the bodies of adjacent VERTEBRAE.Osteocytes: Mature osteoblasts that have become embedded in the BONE MATRIX. They occupy a small cavity, called lacuna, in the matrix and are connected to adjacent osteocytes via protoplasmic projections called canaliculi.Intervertebral Disc Displacement: An INTERVERTEBRAL DISC in which the nucleus pulposus has protruded through surrounding fibrocartilage. This occurs most frequently in the lower lumbar region.Intervertebral Disc Degeneration: Degenerative changes in the INTERVERTEBRAL DISC due to aging or structural damage, especially to the vertebral end-plates.High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing: Techniques of nucleotide sequence analysis that increase the range, complexity, sensitivity, and accuracy of results by greatly increasing the scale of operations and thus the number of nucleotides, and the number of copies of each nucleotide sequenced. The sequencing may be done by analysis of the synthesis or ligation products, hybridization to preexisting sequences, etc.Lumbar Vertebrae: VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Enprostil: A synthetic PGE2 analog that has an inhibitory effect on gastric acid secretion, a mucoprotective effect, and a postprandial lowering effect on gastrin. It has been shown to be efficient and safe in the treatment of gastroduodenal ulcers.Cefaclor: Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum antibiotic derivative of CEPHALEXIN.Pneumonia, Bacterial: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by bacterial infections.Amoxicillin: A broad-spectrum semisynthetic antibiotic similar to AMPICILLIN except that its resistance to gastric acid permits higher serum levels with oral administration.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Ranitidine: A non-imidazole blocker of those histamine receptors that mediate gastric secretion (H2 receptors). It is used to treat gastrointestinal ulcers.Pneumonia: Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.Orthotic Devices: Apparatus used to support, align, prevent, or correct deformities or to improve the function of movable parts of the body.Andorra: A principality in the Pyrenees between France and Spain. Its capital is also called Andorra. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p50)IllinoisOsteoarthritis: A progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis, especially in older persons. The disease is thought to result not from the aging process but from biochemical changes and biomechanical stresses affecting articular cartilage. In the foreign literature it is often called osteoarthrosis deformans.Injections, Intra-Articular: Methods of delivering drugs into a joint space.Osteoarthritis, Knee: Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the knee joint consisting of three large categories: conditions that block normal synchronous movement, conditions that produce abnormal pathways of motion, and conditions that cause stress concentration resulting in changes to articular cartilage. (Crenshaw, Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics, 8th ed, p2019)Platelet-Rich Plasma: A preparation consisting of PLATELETS concentrated in a limited volume of PLASMA. This is used in various surgical tissue regeneration procedures where the GROWTH FACTORS in the platelets enhance wound healing and regeneration.Warfarin: An anticoagulant that acts by inhibiting the synthesis of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors. Warfarin is indicated for the prophylaxis and/or treatment of venous thrombosis and its extension, pulmonary embolism, and atrial fibrillation with embolization. It is also used as an adjunct in the prophylaxis of systemic embolism after myocardial infarction. Warfarin is also used as a rodenticide.Thrombin: An enzyme formed from PROTHROMBIN that converts FIBRINOGEN to FIBRIN.Prothrombin Time: Clotting time of PLASMA recalcified in the presence of excess TISSUE THROMBOPLASTIN. Factors measured are FIBRINOGEN; PROTHROMBIN; FACTOR V; FACTOR VII; and FACTOR X. It is used for monitoring anticoagulant therapy with COUMARINS.International Normalized Ratio: System established by the World Health Organization and the International Committee on Thrombosis and Hemostasis for monitoring and reporting blood coagulation tests. Under this system, results are standardized using the International Sensitivity Index for the particular test reagent/instrument combination used.Anticoagulants: Agents that prevent clotting.

Undercarboxylation of recombinant prothrombin revealed by analysis of gamma-carboxyglutamic acid using capillary electrophoresis and laser-induced fluorescence. (1/185)

The gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) content of several variants of human prothrombin has been measured by using capillary electrophoresis and laser-induced fluorescence (CE-LIF). Both plasma-derived prothrombin and recombinant prothrombin contain ten residues of Gla per molecule of protein. In contrast, a variant of human prothrombin (containing the second kringle domain of bovine prothrombin) was separated into two populations that differed in their Gla content. Direct measurement of the Gla content showed an association with the presence or absence of the calcium-dependent conformational change that is required for prothombinase function. Thus, the CE-LIF assay is useful in determining the carboxylation status of recombinant proteins.  (+info)

A conotoxin from Conus textile with unusual posttranslational modifications reduces presynaptic Ca2+ influx. (2/185)

Cone snails are gastropod mollusks of the genus Conus that live in tropical marine habitats. They are predators that paralyze their prey by injection of venom containing a plethora of small, conformationally constrained peptides (conotoxins). We report the identification, characterization, and structure of a gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-containing peptide, conotoxin epsilon-TxIX, isolated from the venom of the molluscivorous cone snail, Conus textile. The disulfide bonding pattern of the four cysteine residues, an unparalleled degree of posttranslational processing including bromination, hydroxylation, and glycosylation define a family of conotoxins that may target presynaptic Ca2+ channels or act on G protein-coupled presynaptic receptors via another mechanism. This conotoxin selectively reduces neurotransmitter release at an Aplysia cholinergic synapse by reducing the presynaptic influx of Ca2+ in a slow and reversible fashion. The three-dimensional structure, determined by two-dimensional 1H NMR spectroscopy, identifies an electronegative patch created by the side chains of two gamma-carboxyglutamic acid residues that extend outward from a cavernous cleft. The glycosylated threonine and hydroxylated proline enclose a localized hydrophobic region centered on the brominated tryptophan residue within the constrained intercysteine region.  (+info)

Calcium binding mode of gamma-carboxyglutamic acids in conantokins. (3/185)

Conantokin-T (con-T) and conantokin-G (con-G) are two highly homologous peptide toxins found in Conus venom. The former is a 21-residue peptide with four gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) residues (at positions 3, 4, 10 and 14), while the latter is a 17-residue peptide with five gamma-carboxyglutamic acid residues (at positions 3, 4, 7, 10 and 14). Despite the apparent similarity in number and relative positions of the gamma-carboxyglutamic acid residues, (113)Cd-NMR studies indicated a distinct metal binding behavior for con-G and con-T. There appears to be four binding sites in con-G in contrast to one metal binding site in con-T. To elucidate the mode of calcium binding by the gamma-carboxyglutamic acid residues in these conantokins, we designed various analogous peptides with their gamma-carboxyglutamic acid replaced by other amino acid residues. (113)Cd-NMR experiments on conantokin analogues reveal that the major difference in the number of metal binding sites between con-G and con-T is due to the residue at position 7. We also performed molecular simulations to calculate the relative binding free energies of several potential binding sites. Based on our theoretical and experimental results, we propose a 'four-site' binding model for conantokin-G and a 'single-site' binding model for conantokin-T.  (+info)

Expression of the gene encoding the matrix gla protein by mature osteoblasts in human fracture non-unions. (4/185)

BACKGROUND: Osteoblast phenotypic abnormality, namely the expression of collagen type III, has been shown previously in fracture non-union woven bone. AIMS: To investigate osteoblasts from fracture non-unions for evidence of gene expression of non-collagenous bone matrix proteins that have been implicated in mineralisation, namely matrix gla protein (MGP), osteonectin, osteopontin, and osteocalcin. MGP is a consistent component of bone matrix, but there are no reports of osteoblasts in the skeleton expressing the gene for MGP, and the site of synthesis of skeletal MGP (perhaps the liver) has yet to be determined. METHODS: Biopsies from normally healing human fractures and non-unions were examined by means of in situ hybridisation, using 35S labelled probes and autoradiography to disclose levels of gene expression. RESULTS: In normally healing fractures, mature osteoblasts on woven bone were negative for MGP mRNA, but positive for osteonectin, osteopontin, and osteocalcin mRNA molecules. In non-unions, osteoblasts displayed a novel phenotype: they were positive for MGP mRNA, in addition to osteonectin, osteopontin, and osteocalcin mRNA molecules. CONCLUSIONS: Mature osteoblasts in slowly healing fractures have an unusual phenotype: they express the gene encoding MGP, which indicates that control of osteoblast gene expression in non-unions is likely to be abnormal. This might be of importance in the pathogenesis of non-uniting human fractures, and is of current interest given the emerging status of MGP as an inhibitor of mineralisation.  (+info)

Matrix GLA protein is a developmental regulator of chondrocyte mineralization and, when constitutively expressed, blocks endochondral and intramembranous ossification in the limb. (5/185)

Matrix GLA protein (MGP), a gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (GLA)-rich, vitamin K-dependent and apatite-binding protein, is a regulator of hypertrophic cartilage mineralization during development. However, MGP is produced by both hypertrophic and immature chondrocytes, suggesting that MGP's role in mineralization is cell stage-dependent, and that MGP may have other roles in immature cells. It is also unclear whether MGP regulates the quantity of mineral or mineral nature and quality as well. To address these issues, we determined the effects of manipulations of MGP synthesis and expression in (a) immature and hypertrophic chondrocyte cultures and (b) the chick limb bud in vivo. The two chondrocyte cultures displayed comparable levels of MGP gene expression. Yet, treatment with warfarin, a gamma-carboxylase inhibitor and vitamin K antagonist, triggered mineralization in hypertrophic but not immature cultures. Warfarin effects on mineralization were highly selective, were accompanied by no appreciable changes in MGP expression, alkaline phosphatase activity, or cell number, and were counteracted by vitamin K cotreatment. Scanning electron microscopy, x-ray microanalysis, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that mineral forming in control and warfarin-treated hypertrophic cell cultures was similar and represented stoichiometric apatite. Virally driven MGP overexpression in cultured chondrocytes greatly decreased mineralization. Surprisingly, MGP overexpression in the developing limb not only inhibited cartilage mineralization, but also delayed chondrocyte maturation and blocked endochondral ossification and formation of a diaphyseal intramembranous bone collar. The results show that MGP is a powerful but developmentally regulated inhibitor of cartilage mineralization, controls mineral quantity but not type, and appears to have a previously unsuspected role in regulating chondrocyte maturation and ossification processes.  (+info)

Identification of organic phosphorus covalently bound to collagen and non-collagenous proteins of chicken-bone matrix. The presence of O-phosphoserine and O-phosphothreonine in non-collagenous proteins, and their absence from phosporylated collagen. (6/185)

Non-collagenous phosphoproteins, almost all of which can be extracted in EDTA at neutral pH in the presence of proteinase inhibitors, are identified in the matrix of chicken bone, and are therefore not covalently bound to collagen. Similarly, all the peptides containing gamma-carboxyglutamic acid are present in the EDTA extract and none in the insoluble residue, confirming that none is covalently linked to chicken bone collagen. However, organic phosphorus is also found to be present in chicken bone collagen, principally in the alpha2-chains. Of the total protein-bound organic phosphorus present in chicken bone matrix, approx. 80% is associated with the non-collagenous proteins and 20% with collagen. The soluble non-collagenous proteins contain both O-phosphoserine and O-phosphothreonine and these account for essentially of their organic phosphorus content. In contrast, collagen contains neither O-phosphoserine nor O-phosphothreonine. Indeed, no phosphorylated hydroxy amino acid, phosphoamidated amino acid or phosphorylated sugar could be identified in purified components of collagen, which contain approximately four to five atoms of organic phosphorus per molecule of collagen. Peptides containing organic phosphorus were isolated from partial acid hydrolysates and enzymic digests of purified collagen components, which contain an as-yet-unidentified cationic amino acid. These data, the very high concentrations of glutamic acid in the phosphorylated peptides, and the pH-stability of the organic phosphorus moiety in intact collagen chains strongly suggest that at least part of the organic phosphorus in collagen is present as phosphorylated glutamic acid. This would indicate that the two major chemically different protein fractions in chicken bone matrix that contain organic phosphorus may represent two distinct metabolic pools of organic phosphorus under separate biological control.  (+info)

Identification and purification of vitamin K-dependent proteins and peptides with monoclonal antibodies specific for gamma -carboxyglutamyl (Gla) residues. (7/185)

Novel monoclonal antibodies that specifically recognize gamma-carboxyglutamyl (Gla) residues in proteins and peptides have been produced. As demonstrated by Western blot and time-resolved immunofluorescence assays the antibodies are pan-specific for most or all of the Gla-containing proteins tested (factors VII, IX, and X, prothrombin, protein C, protein S, growth arrest-specific protein 6, bone Gla protein, conantokin G from a cone snail, and factor Xa-like proteins from snake venom). Only the Gla-containing light chain of the two-chain proteins was bound. Decarboxylation destroyed the epitope(s) on prothrombin fragment 1, and Ca(2+) strongly inhibited binding to prothrombin. In Western blot, immunofluorescence, and surface plasmon resonance assays the antibodies bound peptides conjugated to bovine serum albumin that contained either a single Gla or a tandem pair of Gla residues. Binding was maintained when the sequence surrounding the Gla residue(s) was altered. Replacement of Gla with glutamic acid resulted in a complete loss of the epitope. The utility of the antibodies was demonstrated in immunochemical methods for detecting Gla-containing proteins and in the immunopurification of a factor Xa-like protein from tiger snake venom. The amino acid sequences of the Gla domain and portions of the heavy chain of the snake protein were determined.  (+info)

Sequence requirements for the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist activity of conantokin-R. (8/185)

Conantokin-R (con-R), a gamma-carboxyglutamate-containing 27-residue peptide, is a natural peptide inhibitor of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) subtype glutamate receptor. Synthetic analogs of con-R were generated to evaluate the importance of the individual structural elements of this peptide in its NMDA receptor antagonist activity, measured by inhibition of the spermine-enhanced binding of the NMDA receptor-specific channel blocker, [(3)H]MK-801, to rat brain membranes. Progressive C-terminal truncations of the 27-residue peptide revealed stages of severe activity loss. These occurred at con-R[1-11] and con-R[1-7], corresponding to the deletions of Leu(12)-Pro(27) and Met(8)-Pro(27) respectively. A second set of analogs featured single Ala substitutions in the fully active con-R[1-17] fragment. The replacement of Met(8) and Leu(12) by Ala resulted in approximate 20- and 55-fold decreases of inhibitor potency, respectively. In addition to these two residues, the only other positions where a single Ala substitution led to substantial losses (from 11-fold to >1000-fold) of activity were those of the first five N-terminal amino acids. Based on the above findings, the binding epitope of con-R was localized to the N-terminal turn of the helix and other residues on one face along two subsequent turns. This contribution pattern of the side chains in activity closely resembles the results obtained with another member of this peptide family, conantokin-T. The secondary structure and metal ion binding properties of the con-R variants were also evaluated using circular dichroism spectroscopy. Divalent cation-dependent increases of alpha-helix content were observed in most analogs. However, analogs with replacement of Gla(11) and Gla(15), as well as truncation fragments shorter than 15 residues, lost the ability to be stabilized by metal ions. These results confirmed the location of the primary divalent cation binding locus at Gla(11) and Gla(15). Additional interactions were indicated by the reduced alpha-helix stability in the Ala analogs of Gla(4), Lys(7), and Arg(14).  (+info)

Gamma-carboxyglutamic acid residues play an important role in coagulation. The high-affinity calcium binding sites in the GLA domain of factor IX, which is a serine protease of the coagulation system, were found to partially mediate the binding of factor IXa to platelets and in factor-X activation.[4] In addition, upon mechanical injury to the blood vessel wall, a cell-associated tissue factor becomes exposed and initiates a series of enzymatic reactions localized on a membrane surface generally provided by cells and accumulating platelets. Gla residues partly govern the activation and binding of circulating blood-clotting enzymes and zymogens to this exposed cell membrane surface. Specifically, gla residues are needed in calcium binding and in exposing hydrophobic membrane binding regions to the cell bilayer. Lack of these gla residues results in impaired coagulation or even anticoagulation, which may lead to bleeding diathesis or thrombosis.[5]. ...
Matrix gla protein (MGP) is member of a family of vitamin-K2 dependent, Gla-containing proteins. MGP has a high affinity binding to calcium ions, similar to other Gla-containing proteins. The protein acts as an inhibitor of vascular mineralization and plays a role in bone organization. MGP is found in number body tissues in mammals, birds, and fish. Its mRNA is present in bone, cartilage, heart, and kidney. It is present in bone together with the related vitamin K2-dependent protein osteocalcin. In bone, its production is increased by vitamin D. The MGP was linked to the short arm of chromosome 12 in 1990. Its mRNA sequence length is 585 bases long in humans. MGP and osteocalcin are both calcium-binding proteins that may participate in the organisation of bone tissue. Both have glutamate residues that are post-translationally carboxylated by the enzyme gamma-glutamyl carboxylase in a reaction that requires Vitamin K hydroquinone. This process also occurs with a number of proteins involved in ...
1CFH: Structure of the metal-free gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-rich membrane binding region of factor IX by two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy.
PAA471Ra01, Polyclonal Antibody to Osteocalcin (OC), 骨钙素(OC)多克隆抗体, BGLAP; OT; BGP; Bone Gla Protein; Bone Gamma-Carboxyglutamate Protein; Gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-containing protein | 仅供体外研究使用,不用于临床诊断!请索取进口关税税单及报关单!
TY - JOUR. T1 - Structure of Ca+2 -free Gla diomain shed light on membrane binding of blood coagulation proteins. AU - Sunnerhagen, Maria. AU - Forsen, Sture. AU - Hoffren, Anna-Marja. AU - Drakenberg, Torbjörn. AU - Teleman, Olle. AU - Stenflo, Johan. N1 - Project code: B5SU00139. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - Reversible membrane binding of γ-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla)-containing coagulation factors requires Ca2+-binding to 10-12 Gla residues. Here we describe the solution structure of the Ca2+-free Gla-EGF domain pair of factor X which reveals a striking difference between the Ca2+-free and Ca2+-loaded forms. In the Ca2+-free form Gla residues are exposed to solvent and Phe 4, Leu 5 and Val 8 form a hydrophobic cluster in the interior of the domain. In the Ca2+-loaded form Gla residues ligate Ca22+ in the core of the domain pushing the side-chains of the three hydrophobic residues into the solvent. We propose that the Ca2+-induced exposure of hydrophobic side chains is crucial for membrane ...
Vadivel, K., Agah, S., Messer, A.S., Cascio, D., Bajaj, M.S., Krishnaswamy, S., Esmon, C.T., Padmanabhan, K. and Bajaj, S.P.: Structural and Functional Studies of -Carboxyglutamic Acid Domains of Factor VIIa and Activated Protein C: Role of Magnesium at Physiological Calcium. J. Mol. Biol. 425: 1961-1981, 2013 ...
Matrix -carboxyglutamic acid protein (MGP) genotypes (G- 7A and T-138C) were determined in 266 individuals from three Mexican populations. Mexicans showed increased frequencies of the G-7A G allele and the G7-A GG genotype compared to Europeans. For the T-138C genotype, we found differences among the Mexicans. This study could help to define the significance of MGP polymorphisms as genetic markers in Amerindian populations.
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
THE COAGULATION CASCADE CONSISTS OF A NUMBER OF MULTIDOMAIN SERINE PROTEASES AND PROTEIN COFACTORS. AMONG THESE ARE FACTORS IX, X, AND PROTHROMBIN. PROTEIN C DOWNREGULATES THE INTRINSIC COAGULATION PATHWAY BY INACTIVATING FACTORS VAAND VIIIA. FACTORS IX, X, AND PROTEIN C ARE HIGHLY HOMOLOGOUS PROTEINS. EACH CONTAINS TWO EGF-HOMOLOGOUS DOMAINS AND A N-TERMINAL DOMAIN BEARING MULTIPLE -CARBOXYGLUTAMIC ACID RESIDUES, THE SO-CALLED GLA DOMAIN. COMPETITIVE BINDING EXPERIMENTS HAVE ESTABLISHED THAT FACTORS IX AND X BIND TO RECEPTORS ON ACTIVATED ENDOTHELIAL CELLS THROUGH INTERACTIONS OF THE EGF AND GLA DOMAINS, A PHYSIOLOGICAL MECHANISM FOR DIRECTING COAGULATION TO REGIONS OF DAMAGED ENDOTHELIUM. THE OBJECTIVE IS TO IMPROVE RECOMBINANT PROTEIN C FOR USE ASA SAFE ANTICOAGULANT/ANTITHROMBOTIC AGENT FOR SUPPRESSION OF CLOTTING IN A NUMBER OF VENOUS THROMBOTIC CONDITIONS. SPECIFICALLY, A PROTEIN C VARIANT WITH A HIGH BINDING AFFINITY FOR DAMAGED ENDOTHELIUM WILL BE DESIGNED. THE EGF-HOMOLOGOUS DOMAINS OF ...
The structure of a large molecular fragment of factor Xa that lacks only a Gla (gamma-carboxyglutamic acid) domain (N-terminal 45 residues) has been solved by X-ray crystallography and refined at 2.2 A resolution to a crystallographic R-value of 0.168. The fragment identity was clearly established by automated Edman degradation. X-ray structure analysis confirmed the biochemical characterization and also revealed that the N-terminal epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domain is flexibly disordered in crystals. The second EGF module, however, is positionally ordered making contacts with the catalytic domain. The overall folding of the catalytic domain is similar to that of alpha-thrombin, excluding the insertion loops of the latter with respect to simpler serine proteinases. The C-terminal arginine of the A-chain interacts in a substrate-like manner with the S1 specificity site of the active site of a crystallographically neighboring molecule. Based on this interaction and the structure of ...
This gene encodes a gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla)-containing protein thought to be involved in the stimulation of cell proliferation. This gene is frequently overexpressed in many cancers and has been implicated as an adverse prognostic marker. Elevated protein levels are additionally associated with a variety of disease states, including venous thromboembolic disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, chronic renal failure, and preeclampsia. ...
van Beusekom, J. and Jonge, V. N. (2010): Dissolved Organic Phosphorus (DOP):an indicator of organic matter turn-over? , The Wadden Sea:Changes and Challenges in a World Heritage Site. SyltMai 2010 ...
PMF1-BGLAP, 0.5 mg. This locus represents naturally occurring read-through transcription between the neighboring PMF1 (polyamine-modulated factor 1) and BGLAP (bone gamma-carboxyglutamate Gla protein) genes on chromosome 1.
ADGRE3 overexpression lysate, 0.1 mg. Transient overexpression lysate of egf-like module containing, mucin-like, hormone receptor-like 3 (EMR3)
TY - JOUR. T1 - The dichotomy in the effects of 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on bone γ-carboxyglutamic acid-containing protein in serum and bone in vitamin D-deficient rats. AU - Wientroub, Shlomo. AU - Price, Paul A.. AU - Reddi, A Hari. PY - 1987/5. Y1 - 1987/5. N2 - Vitamin D-deficient, second generation, rachitic rats showed significant decrease in bone Gla protein (BGP) levels in circulation and in the skeleton. 1,25 dehydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25 (OH)2D3) exhibited the most potent influence on serum BGP levels in a dose-dependent manner. At a dose 25 ng/100 g body weight 1,25 (OH)2D3 showed a cumulative effect, i.e., the longer the treatment, the more circulating BGP was detected 24,25 dehydroxyvitamin D3 (24,25(OH)2D3) at the same doses did not show similar effect on the serum BGP levels, regardless of the serum calcium levels. Bone BGP levels assayed at various sites representing endochondral and intramenbranous ossification demonstrated an opposite pattern. ...
Phytonadione aqueous colloidal solution of vitamin K1 for parenteral injection, possesses the same type and degree of activity as does naturally-occurring vitamin K, which is necessary for the production via the liver of active prothrombin (factor II), proconvertin (factor VII), plasma thromboplastin component (factor IX), and Stuart factor (factor X). The prothrombin test is sensitive to the levels of three of these four factors-II, VII, and X. Vitamin K is an essential cofactor for a microsomal enzyme that catalyzes the post-translational carboxylation of multiple, specific, peptide-bound glutamic acid residues in inactive hepatic precursors of factors II, VII, IX, and X. The resulting gamma-carboxyglutamic acid residues convert the precursors into active coagulation factors that are subsequently secreted by liver cells into the blood.. Phytonadione is readily absorbed following intramuscular administration. After absorption, phytonadione is initially concentrated in the liver, but the ...
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Buy our Natural Human Prothrombin protein. Ab62502 is a protein fragment produced in Nativesyntheticaly and has been validated in FuncS, SDS-PAGE. Abcam…
TY - JOUR. T1 - Models for protein binding to calcium oxalate surfaces. AU - Gul, Asiya. AU - Rez, Peter. PY - 2007/4. Y1 - 2007/4. N2 - It is widely believed that proteins rich in Asp, Glu or Gla (γ carboxyglutamic acid) interact strongly with calcium oxalate surfaces and inhibit calcium oxalate crystal growth. An alternative hypothesis would be that the interaction of Asp, Glu and Gla residues with surfaces could facilitate nucleation and crystal aggregation. Prothrombin fragment 1 and bikunin have been studied extensively as inhibitors, β-microglobulin, transferrin and antitrypsin have been found in stone matrix and tubulin has been observed in the attachment of crystals to cell surfaces. The aim of this study is to examine how well carboxylate groups in proteins found either in stone matrix, or proposed as inhibitors, could fit with the calcium ion sub-lattice of both calcium oxalate monohydrate and dihydrate surfaces. The carboxylate groups in the acidic Asp, Glu and Gla residues were ...
endoplasmic reticulum sites of Gla protein synthesis. In the case of the blood coagulation proteins, the sole site of synthesis is the liver. Each carboxylated protein has a C-terminal propeptide sequence that binds the carboxylase enzyme, and directs a coordinated series of carboxylations of the recipient gluta-myl residues, before the propeptide is removed and the fully carboxylated protein is then secreted into the extracellular space for transport into the plasma.. Vitamin K acts as the essential recycling cofactor (or cosubstrate) for all protein carboxylation, Gla-forming reactions (Figure 3). In its dihydro or quinol form, the vitamin reacts with molecular oxygen, thereby creating a highly reactive, high-energy carba-nion at the Glu site for insertion of carbon dioxide, creating a new Gla residue. This vitamin K quinol oxidation step provides the essential energy for the endothermic carboxylation step. The other product of the reaction is the epoxide of vitamin K, comprising a ...
Viegas CSB, Simes DC, Laizé V, Williamson MK, Price PA, M. Cancela L. Gla-rich protein (GRP), a new vitamin K-dependent protein identified from sturgeon cartilage and highly conserved in vertebrates. J Biol Chem. 2008;283(52):36655-64. doi:10.1074/jbc.M802761200 ...
Homo sapiens egf-like module containing, mucin-like, hormone receptor-like 2 (EMR2), transcript variant 2, mRNA. (H00030817-R02) - Products - Abnova
Summary of Facts and Submissions. I. The patent proprietors lodged an appeal against the interlocutory decision of the opposition division issued 4 February 1998 whereby the European patent No. 0. 363 126 with title Method for the purification of vitamin K-dependent proteins, which had been opposed by one party on grounds of Article 100(a) EPC (lack of novelty and lack of inventive step), was maintained in amended form on the basis of the auxiliary request then on file. Claim 1 therein read as follows:. A method for recovering and purifying vitamin K-dependent proteins from a cell culture medium of cells which produce vitamin K-dependent proteins, said medium containing forms of the desired vitamin K-dependent protein that differ in -carboxyglutamate content and therefore in specific activity, said method comprising:. a. removing divalent cations from the medium;. b. contacting the medium with a protein-binding ion-exchange resin under conditions such that the protein is bound to the ...
Sales, means the sales volume of Human Prothrombin Complex Revenue, means the sales value of Human Prothrombin Complex This report studies sales (consumption) of Human Prothrombin Complex in United States market, focuses on the top players, with sales, price, revenue and market share for each player, covering Baxter CSL Bayer Grifols Octapharma Shanghai RAAS Hualan Bio
|p||strong|Prothrombin|/strong| (coagulation factor II) (H2N-Tyr-Ile-His-Pro-OH) is produced in the liver and is post-translationally modified in a vitamin K-dependent reaction that converts ten glutamic acids on prothrombin into gamma-carboxyglutamic aci
Buy our Natural Human Protein C. Ab62448 is a full length protein produced in Nativesyntheticaly and has been validated in FuncS, SDS-PAGE. Abcam provides free…
When asking the question of carboxylated vs. non-carboxylated, the answer comes down to an adhesion coating controlled by carboxylation.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Staphylocoagulase-binding region in human prothrombin. AU - Kawabata, Shun-Ichiro. AU - Morita, Takashi. AU - Iwanaga, Sadaaki. AU - Igarashi, Hideo. PY - 1985/1/1. Y1 - 1985/1/1. N2 - A staphylocoagulase-binding region in human prothrombin was studied by utilizing several fragments prepared from prothrombin by limited proteolysis. Bovine prothrombin, prethrombin 1, prethrombin 2, and human diisopropylphosphorylated α-thrombin strongly inhibited formation of the complex ("staphylothrombin") between human prothrombin and staphylocoagulase, but bovine prothrombin fragment 1 and fragment 2 had no effect on the complex formation, indicating that the binding region of human prothrombin for staphylocoagulase is located in the prethrombin 2 molecule. To identify further the staphylocoagulase-binding region, human α-thrombin was cleaved into the NH2-terminal large fragment (Mr = 26, 000) and the COOH-terminal fragment (Mr = 16,000) by porcine pancreatic elastase. Of these fragments, ...
[127 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Organic Phosphorus Flame Retardant Sales Market Report 2016 report by QYResearch Group. Notes: Sales, means the sales volume of Organic Phosphorus Flame...
Protein C is a vitamin K-dependent serine protease that regulates blood coagulation by inactivating factors Va and VIIIa in the presence of calcium ions and phospholipids. Exerts a protective effect on the endothelial cell barrier function.
A sound prediction of soil organic phosphorus (Po) mineralization would be helpful to improve fertilizer recommendations. However, in most mineral soils expensive and time consuming isotopic dilution experiments are required to assess Po mineralization. A proposed method to estimate Po mineralization is the quantification of P in the coarse fraction (CF, ,53 μm) of the soil. The aim of this study was to evaluate if P in the CF can effectively predict Po mineralization. Soil samples from three North American long-term arable field experiments (,10 years) with different textures (sand content 15-82%) and different fertilization treatments (non-P-fertilized, mineral P fertilizer, poultry litter) were analyzed. Soil samples were physically fractioned into CF and fine fraction (FF, ,53 μm). Total P (Pt), Po, and total carbon (Ct) were determined in each fraction. Gross and net Po mineralization rates as well as soil respiration were determined in a 13-day-incubation experiment. The cumulative gross ...
Organic phosphorus (P) in grazed pastures/grasslands could sustain production systems that historically relied on inorganic P fertiliser. Interactions between inorganic P, plants and soils have been studied extensively. However, less is known about the transformation of organic P to inorganic orthophosphate. This paper investigates what is known about organic P in pasture/grassland soils used for agriculture, as well as the research needed to utilise organic P for sustainable plant production. Organic P comprises , 50% of total soil P in agricultural systems depending on location, soil type and land use. Organic P hydrolysis and release of orthophosphate by phosphatase enzymatic activity is affected by a range of factors including: (a) the chemical nature of the organic P and its ability to interact with the soil matrix; (b) microorganisms that facilitate mineralisation; (c) soil mineralogy; (d) soil water electrolytes; and (e) soil physicochemical properties. Current biogeochemical ...
So youve been avoiding dark colas to help manage your serum phosphorus level. Yet, you are still struggling to keep it in goal range. Well,…. Continue Reading » ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Physiological levels of blood coagulation factors IX and X control coagulation kinetics in an in vitro model of circulating tissue factor. AU - Tormoen, Garth W.. AU - Khader, Ayesha. AU - Gruber, András. AU - McCarty, Owen J.T.. PY - 2013/6/1. Y1 - 2013/6/1. N2 - Thrombosis significantly contributes to cancer morbidity and mortality. The mechanism behind thrombosis in cancer may be circulating tissue factor (TF), as levels of circulating TF are associated with thrombosis. However, circulating TF antigen level alone has failed to predict thrombosis in patients with cancer. We hypothesize that coagulation factor levels regulate the kinetics of circulating TF-induced thrombosis. Coagulation kinetics were measured as a function of individual coagulation factor levels and TF particle concentration. Clotting times increased when pooled plasma was mixed at or above a ratio of 4:6 with PBS. Clotting times increased when pooled plasma was mixed at or above a ratio of 8:2 with factor ...
We congratulate Bohm et al. (1) for their interesting study regarding the effects of warfarin or dabigatran etexilate (DE) on renal function in the patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) receiving oral anticoagulation, showing a decline in renal function that was greater in those taking warfarin compared with DE, which was amplified by diabetes and previous vitamin K antagonist use. The authors propose this adverse renal outcome may be due to inhibition by warfarin of vitamin K-dependent matrix gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla/MPG) and resulting in renal vascular calcification and arterial damage.. Recent data showed that excessive anticoagulation with warfarin can result in acute kidney injury (AKI) by causing glomerular hemorrhage and renal tubular obstruction by red blood cell (RBC) casts in some patients, especially in those with chronic kidney disease (CKD), which was described as warfarin-related nephropathy (WRN) (2). Brodsky et al. (3) was the first to describe this entity through kidney ...
Factor X is a vitamin K-dependent protein zymogen which is synthesized in the liver and circulates in plasma as a two chain molecule linked by a disulfide bond. Prior to
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Goose feces are high in organic phosphorus, which can contribute to excessive algae growth in lakes. Increased development in Lake County has inadvertently created ideal habitat for goose populations.
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The Soluble Cofactors Protein S and Von Willebrand Factor. Protein S. Protein S is a vitamin K-dependent single-chain GP of 635 amino acids that circulates with a plasma half-life of 42 hours. Part of the total protein S pool circulates in a free form at a concentration of 150 nM, whereas the majority (~60%; 200 nM) circulates bound to the complement regulatory protein C4b-binding protein (C4BP). Protein S is primarily synthesized in the liver by hepatocytes, in addition to endothelial cells, megakaryocytes, testicular Leydig cells, and osteoblasts.. The protein structure of protein S differs from the other vitamin K-dependent proteins as it lacks a serine protease domain and, consequently, is not capable of catalytic activity. Protein S is composed of a Gla domain comprising 11 Gla residues, a thrombin-sensitive region (TSR), four EGF domains, and a C-terminal sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG)-like region that consists of two laminin G-type domains. The SHBG-like domain is involved in the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Activation of recombinant human protein C. AU - Lee, Timothy K.. AU - Bangalore, Neelesh. AU - Velander, William. AU - Drohan, William N.. AU - Lubon, Henryk. PY - 1996/5/1. Y1 - 1996/5/1. N2 - We have produced recombinant human Protein C (rHPC) in the milk of transgenic swine. After purification, we have analyzed the interaction of the zymogen with Protac, thrombin/thrombomodulin and thrombin alone. The amidolytic and anticoagulant activities of rAPC after Protac activation were ~80% those of its human plasma counterpart. Upon the excision of the activation peptide by thrombin/thrombomodulin complex, both the natural and recombinant activation products had similar enzymatic and biological activities. This. observation can be attributed to the difference in the mechanism of action between the two activators and structural differences between HPC and rHPC.. AB - We have produced recombinant human Protein C (rHPC) in the milk of transgenic swine. After purification, we have ...
A vitamin K-dependent carboxylation converts glutamate residues on prothrombin, which are weak chelators of Ca2+, into gamma-carboxyglutamate, a much stronger chelator. The binding of Ca2+ by prothrombin anchors it to the phospholipid membranes derived from blood platlets following injury. This binding of prothrombin brings it into close contact with two enzymes which regulate its conversion into thrombin, which can then activate fibrinogen in the plasma to fill the breach.. Sources:. Vitamin K is found in green leafy vegetables.. Fascinating Fact: To prevent excessive clotting after an operation the vitamin K antagonist, Warfarin (rat poison) is administered in carefully controlled doses.. ...
Monoclonal Anti-Bovine Osteocalcin Antibody (Clones OC4-30,OCG2, OCG3 and OCG4) is raised against bovine osteocalcin and recognizes both bovine and human osteocalcins. Clone OC4-30 is specific for position 17 gamma-carboxylated osteocalcin and does not recognize decarboxylated osteocalcin. Osteocalcin epitopes used to generate Clones OCG2, OCG3 and OCG4 are amino acids 45-49, amino acids 21-31 and amino acids 4-9, respectively. This collection of osteocalcin antibody clones facilitates osteocalcin immunohistochemistry studies which can also be performed on paraffin-embedded tissues (as described in the Resources). In addition to cross-reactivity with bovine and human osteocalcin, clones OCG4-30, OCG3 and OCG4 are also capable of recognizing osteocalcin in several other species as listed. For species-specific osteocalcin detection, Takara Bio offers additional osteocalcin antibody products. ...
Monoclonal Anti-Bovine Osteocalcin Antibody (Clones OC4-30,OCG2, OCG3 and OCG4) is raised against bovine osteocalcin and recognizes both bovine and human osteocalcins. Clone OC4-30 is specific for position 17 gamma-carboxylated osteocalcin and does not recognize decarboxylated osteocalcin. Osteocalcin epitopes used to generate Clones OCG2, OCG3 and OCG4 are amino acids 45-49, amino acids 21-31 and amino acids 4-9, respectively. This collection of osteocalcin antibody clones facilitates osteocalcin immunohistochemistry studies which can also be performed on paraffin-embedded tissues (as described in the Resources). In addition to cross-reactivity with bovine and human osteocalcin, clones OCG4-30, OCG3 and OCG4 are also capable of recognizing osteocalcin in several other species as listed. For species-specific osteocalcin detection, Takara Bio offers additional osteocalcin antibody products. ...
Matrix Gla protein (MGP) belongs to the family of vitamin K dependent, Gla containing proteins and, in mammals, birds and Xenopus, its mRNA has been previously detected in bone, cartilage and soft...
Sixty septic patients with plasma protein C activity , 60 % will be enrolled in the study. Patients will be randomly allocated to be treated with either a) a continuous infusion of human Protein C concentrate at 3 UI/Kg/hr for 72 hours to reach plasma protein C activity between 70 and 120 % b)to a continuous infusion of activated protein C at 24 micrograms/Kg/hr for 96 hours, c) a standard teatment(control; each n = 20). In all groups, norepinephrine will be titrated to achieve a mean arterial pressure (MAP) between 65 and 75 mmHg. Data from right heart catheterization, from microcirculation (SDF imaging) and from organ function as well as norepinephrine requirements will be obtained at baseline and after 24, 48, 72 hours ...
A new chromatographic method developed by Waithaisong et al. (2015) was shown to suitable for the quantification of organic P and LMWOAs in soil samples. This paper was sent to me as part of a personal e-mail response from Dr. Claude Plassard to the previous post asking help on HPLC-Po method. Daniel Blackburn
Urinary γ-carboxyglutamic acid responds to changes in dietary vitamin K intake. Several days are required before any change can ... Furie, B.; Bouchard, B. A.; Furie, B. C. (Mar 1999). "Vitamin K-dependent biosynthesis of gamma-carboxyglutamic acid". Blood. ... The function of vitamin K2 in the animal cell is to add a carboxylic acid functional group to a glutamate (Glu) amino acid ... Identification of gamma-carboxyglutamic acid as a component of prothrombin" (PDF). Journal of Biological Chemistry. 249 (19): ...
Rigby AC, Baleja JD, Li L, Pedersen LG, Furie BC, Furie B (December 1997). "Role of gamma-carboxyglutamic acid in the calcium- ... It differs from Con-R mainly in the C-terminal amino acids and, like Con-R, it induces sleep-like symptoms in young mice, with ... a novel peptide antagonist to the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor". Neuroscience Letters. 118 (2): 241-4. doi:10.1016/ ... Conantokins act as potent and specific antagonists of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR).[1] They are the only naturally ...
In factors VII, IX and X, the two cbEGF modules are preceded by an N-terminal gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) containing ... It comprises about 30 to 40 amino-acid residues and has been found in a large number of mostly animal proteins. Most ... β-Hydroxylation appears in hEGF- and cEGF-like domains, the former is hydroxylated on an aspartic acid while the latter is ... Multiple cbEGF domains are often connected by one or two amino acids to form larger, repetitive arrays, here referred to as ' ...
Deficiency of vitamin K or administration of the anticoagulant warfarin inhibits the production of gamma-carboxyglutamic acid ... vitamin K-dependent reaction that converts 10-12 glutamic acids in the N terminus of the molecule to gamma-carboxyglutamic acid ... 1 (3): 29-51. ,access-date= requires ,url= (help) Andrew M, Paes B, Milner R, Johnston M, Mitchell L, Tollefsen DM, Powers P ( ... 209 (1): 68-74. doi:10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2009.03.016. PMID 19651065. Greenhalgh DG, Gamelli RL, Collins J, Sood R, Mozingo DW ...
Identification of gamma-carboxyglutamic acid as a component of prothrombin". J. Biol. Chem. 249 (19): 6347-50. பப்மெட்:4214105 ... "Effect of vitamin K deficiency on urinary gamma-carboxyglutamic acid excretion in rats". Nippon Ketsueki Gakkai Zasshi 52 (6): ... "Vitamin K-dependent biosynthesis of gamma-carboxyglutamic acid". Blood 93 (6): 1798-808. பப்மெட்:10068650. http://bloodjournal. ... "Vitamin K dependent modifications of glutamic acid residues in prothrombin". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 71 (7): 2730-3. doi ...
2004). "Processing and transport of matrix gamma-carboxyglutamic acid protein and bone morphogenetic protein-2 in cultured ... J. 376 (Pt 1): 135-45. doi:10.1042/BJ20030676. PMC 1223762 . PMID 12943536. Wajih N, Borras T, Xue W, et al. ( ... "Carbohydrate binding properties of the envelope glycoproteins of human immunodeficiency virus type 1". Glycoconj. J. 9 (6): 315 ...
... aspartic acid MeSH D12.125.067.500.150 --- d-aspartic acid MeSH D12.125.067.500.275 --- isoaspartic acid MeSH D12.125.067.500. ... 2-aminoadipic acid MeSH D12.125.119.170 --- aspartic acid MeSH D12.125.119.170.150 --- d-aspartic acid MeSH D12.125.119.170.275 ... imino acids MeSH D12.125.072.401.200 --- azetidinecarboxylic acid MeSH D12.125.072.401.623 --- proline MeSH D12.125.072.401. ... gamma-aminobutyric acid MeSH D12.125.190.350.900 --- vigabatrin MeSH D12.125.213.075 --- 6-aminocaproic acid MeSH D12.125. ...
... edetic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.455 --- egtazic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.581 --- iodoacetic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.581.400 ... muramic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844.562 --- neuraminic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844.562.668 --- sialic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844. ... quinic acid MeSH D02.241.511.852 --- shikimic acid MeSH D02.241.511.902 --- sugar acids MeSH D02.241.511.902.107 --- ascorbic ... muramic acids MeSH D02.241.511.902.562 --- neuraminic acids MeSH D02.241.511.902.562.668 --- sialic acids MeSH D02.241.511.902. ...
Synthesis Of Y-Carboxyglutamic Acid". Critical Reviews in Biochemistry. 8 (2): 191-223. doi:10.3109/10409238009105469. Olmos V ... For example, it is needed to carboxylate specific glutamic acid residues on prothrombin. Without these residues carboxylated, ... Warfarin (Coumadin) Coumatetralyl Phenprocoumon Acenocoumarol Dicoumarol Tioclomarol Brodifacoum Another group of VKAs are 1,3- ...
... (or the conjugate base, carboxyglutamate), is an uncommon amino acid introduced into proteins by a post- ... carboxyglutamic acid, the γ {\displaystyle \gamma } -proton on glutamic acid is abstracted, and CO2 is subsequently added. The ... Gamma-carboxyglutamic acid residues play an important role in coagulation. The high-affinity calcium binding sites in the GLA ... "Gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-rich (GLA) domain (IPR000294) < InterPro < EMBL-EBI". www.ebi.ac.uk. Retrieved 2015-12-22. Rawala- ...
Carboxyglutamic acid. Whereas glutamic acid possess one γ-carboxyl group, Carboxyglutamic acid possess two. Hydroxyproline. ... ic acid.) Most natural amino acids are α-amino acids in the L conformation, but some exceptions exist. Some non-α amino acids ... There are various groups of amino acids: 20 standard amino acids 22 proteinogenic amino acids over 80 amino acids created ... and a carboxylic acid (-COOH) functional group is an amino acid. The proteinogenic amino acids are small subset of this group ...
Freedman SJ, Furie BC, Furie B, Baleja JD (1995). "Structure of the metal-free gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-rich membrane binding ... The GLA domain binds calcium ions by chelating them between two carboxylic acid residues. These residues are part of a region ... Vitamin K-dependent carboxylation/gamma-carboxyglutamic (GLA) domain is a protein domain that contains post-translational ... 19 (1): 1-7. doi:10.1016/0020-711X(87)90116-9. PMID 3106112. Vermeer C (1990). "Gamma-carboxyglutamate-containing proteins and ...
Freedman SJ, Furie BC, Furie B, Baleja JD (Sep 1995). "Structure of the calcium ion-bound gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-rich ... Tranexamic acid may be of value in patients undergoing surgery who have inherited factor IX deficiency in order to reduce the ... 14 Suppl 1: S59-64. doi:10.1097/00001721-200306001-00014. PMID 14567539. Du X (May 2007). "Signaling and regulation of the ... 67 (1): 63-5. PMID 1615485. "Home: BeneFIX Coagulation Factor IX (Recombinant) Official Site". EMA: Idelvion "Home: Alprolix [ ...
Furie, B.; Bouchard, B.A.; Furie, B.C. (1999). "Vitamin K-dependent biosynthesis of γ-carboxyglutamic acid". Blood. 93 (6): ... 2-methyl-3-phytyl-1,4-naphthoquinone-epoxidizing). This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction peptidyl-4- ...
Esmon NL, DeBault LE, Esmon CT (May 1983). "Proteolytic formation and properties of gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-domainless ... Inactive protein C comprises 419 amino acids in multiple domains: one Gla domain (residues 43-88); a helical aromatic segment ( ... a 32 amino acid N-terminus signal peptide preceding a propeptide. Protein C is formed when a dipeptide of Lys198 and Arg199 is ... Nucleic Acids Research. 13 (14): 5233-47. doi:10.1093/nar/13.14.5233. PMC 321861 . PMID 2991859. Taylor FB, Chang A, Esmon CT, ...
... , the γ. {\displaystyle \gamma }. -proton on glutamic acid is abstracted, and CO2 is subsequently added. ... Carboxyglutamic acid (or the conjugate base, carboxyglutamate), is an uncommon amino acid introduced into proteins by a post- ... "Gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-rich (GLA) domain (IPR000294) , InterPro , EMBL-EBI". www.ebi.ac.uk. Retrieved 2015-12-22.. ... Gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-rich (GLA) domain[edit]. A number of gamma-carboxyglutamate (Gla) residues are present in the gamma- ...
... that are catalytically inactive and lack the membrane-binding γ-carboxyglutamic acid domain of native fXa but retain the ... 2013 (1): 464-470. doi:10.1182/asheducation-2013.1.464. Siegal, D. M.; Cuker, A (2013). "Reversal of novel oral anticoagulants ...
... while simultaneously adding CO2 to protein-bound glutamic acid (abbreviation = Glu) to form gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (also ... 54 (1): 459-77. doi:10.1146/annurev.bi.54.070185.002331. PMID 3896125. Presnell SR, Stafford DW (2002). "The vitamin K- ... 25 (1): 127-49. doi:10.1146/annurev.nutr.25.050304.092713. PMID 16011462. Zhang B, Ginsburg D (September 2004). "Familial ... ISBN 0-12-183492-1. glutamyl carboxylase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article ...
The light chain contains an N-terminal γ-carboxyglutamic acid domain (Gla domain) and two epidermal growth factor-like domains ... In Factor V Leiden, a G1691A nucleotide replacement results in an R506Q amino acid mutation. Factor V Leiden increases the risk ... "Complete cDNA and derived amino acid sequence of human factor V". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 84 (14): 4846-50. doi:10.1073/ ... Meizothrombin contains fragment 1•2 A chain linked to the B chain by a disulfide bond. Subsequent cleavage of meizothrombin by ...
... , also known as bone gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-containing protein (BGLAP), is a noncollagenous protein hormone ... 396 (1-2): 66-9. doi:10.1016/j.cca.2008.07.001. PMID 18657532. Ba Y, Huang H, Yang Y, Cui L, Zhu J, Zhu C, Liu J, Zhang Y (Nov ... 1173 Suppl 1: E60-3. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.04953.x. PMID 19751416. Born AK, Rottmar M, Lischer S, Pleskova M, Bruinink A ... 1173 Suppl 1: E64-7. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.04955.x. PMID 19751417. Kanazawa I, Yamaguchi T, Yamamoto M, Yamauchi M, Yano ...
The organic compound citrulline is an α-amino acid. Its name is derived from citrullus, the Latin word for watermelon, from ... Citrulline is also produced as a byproduct of the enzymatic production of nitric oxide from the amino acid arginine, catalyzed ... 978-1-57259-153-0. .. *^ Rogers, G. E.; Rothnagel, J. A. (1983). "A sensitive assay for the enzyme activity in hair follicles ... InChI=1S/C6H13N3O3/c7-4(5(10)11)2-1-3-9-6(8)12/h4H,1-3,7H2,(H,10,11)(H3,8,9,12) N ...
... is a gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) domain-containing protein thought to be involved in the stimulation of cell ... It is similar to the Protein S with the same domain organization and 43% amino acid identity. It was originally found as a gene ... 30 (1): 129-31. doi:10.1006/geno.1995.0027. PMID 8595896. Li R, Chen J, Hammonds G, Phillips H, Armanini M, Wood P, Bunge R, ... 415 (1): 59-63. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(97)01093-4. PMID 9326369. Nakano T, Ishimoto Y, Kishino J, Umeda M, Inoue K, Nagata K, ...
M. L. (1978). "Timed appearance of a calcium-binding protein containing gamma-carboxyglutamic acid in developing chick bone". ... 36 (1): 92-106. Bibcode:1978Icar...36...92F. doi:10.1016/0019-1035(78)90076-3.. CS1 maint: ref=harv (link). .mw-parser-output ... October - It is first proposed that Janus and Epimetheus are two separate moons of Saturn sharing the same orbit.[1] ...
... , or γ-aminobutyric acid /ˈɡæmə əˈmiːnoʊbjuːˈtɪrɪk ˈæsɪd/, or GABA /ˈɡæbə/, is the chief inhibitory ... Although in chemical terms, GABA is an amino acid (as it has both a primary amine and a carboxylic acid functional group), it ... By convention the term "amino acid", when used without a qualifier, refers specifically to an alpha amino acid. GABA is not an ... Kuriyama K, Sze PY (January 1971). "Blood-brain barrier to H3-γ-aminobutyric acid in normal and amino oxyacetic acid-treated ...
... in conversion of peptide-bound glutamic acid (Glu) to γ-carboxy glutamic acid (Gla) in these proteins). Carboxylation of these ... 1570 (1): 27-32. doi:10.1016/s0304-4165(02)00147-2. Hofbauer, L. C.; Brueck, C. C.; Shanahan, C. M.; Schoppet, M.; Dobnig, H. ( ...
L-Ornithine L-aspartate (LOLA), a stable salt of ornithine and aspartic acid, has been used in the treatment of cirrhosis.[8] ... Ornithine is a non-proteinogenic amino acid that plays a role in the urea cycle. Ornithine is abnormally accumulated in the ... Ornithine is not an amino acid coded for by DNA, that is, not proteinogenic. However, in mammalian non-hepatic tissues, the ... Amino acid supplements, including L-ornithine, are frequently marketed to bodybuilders and weightlifters with claims for ...
... Lookup it up at Rhymes.net - the most comprehensive rhyming words dictionary on the ... Discuss this 1-carboxyglutamic acid rhyme with the community:. Citation. Use the citation below to add this rhymes to your ... Weve got 0 rhyming words for 1-carboxyglutamic acid ». What rhymes with 1-carboxyglutamic acid?. This page is about the ... We couldnt find any rhymes for the word 1-carboxyglutamic acid.. Maybe you were looking for one of these terms?. *twirled, - ...
carboxyglutamic acid, the γ. {\displaystyle \gamma }. -proton on glutamic acid is abstracted, and CO2 is subsequently added. ... Carboxyglutamic acid (or the conjugate base, carboxyglutamate), is an uncommon amino acid introduced into proteins by a post- ... "Gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-rich (GLA) domain (IPR000294) , InterPro , EMBL-EBI". www.ebi.ac.uk. Retrieved 2015-12-22.. ... Gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-rich (GLA) domain[edit]. A number of gamma-carboxyglutamate (Gla) residues are present in the gamma- ...
Carboxyglutamic acid (or the conjugate base, carboxyglutamate), is an uncommon amino acid introduced into proteins by a post- ... carboxyglutamic acid, the γ {\displaystyle \gamma } -proton on glutamic acid is abstracted, and CO2 is subsequently added. The ... Gamma-carboxyglutamic acid residues play an important role in coagulation. The high-affinity calcium binding sites in the GLA ... "Gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-rich (GLA) domain (IPR000294) < InterPro < EMBL-EBI". www.ebi.ac.uk. Retrieved 2015-12-22. Rawala- ...
... on bone γ-carboxyglutamic acid-containing protein in serum and bone in vitamin D-deficient rats. Together they form a unique ... 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on bone γ-carboxyglutamic acid-containing protein in serum and bone in vitamin D-deficient rats. In: ... 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on bone γ-carboxyglutamic acid-containing protein in serum and bone in vitamin D-deficient rats. ... 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on bone γ-carboxyglutamic acid-containing protein in serum and bone in vitamin D-deficient rats, ...
Structure of the metal-free gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-rich membrane binding region of factor IX by two-dimensional NMR ... STRUCTURE OF THE METAL-FREE GAMMA-CARBOXYGLUTAMIC ACID-RICH MEMBRANE BINDING REGION OF FACTOR IX BY TWO-DIMENSIONAL NMR ...
... J ... Chicken osteocalcin shares many structural features, including the sequence positions of its 3 gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla ... amino acid analysis demonstrates an excess of Gla in embryonic bone compared to the level of osteocalcin by radioimmunoassay. ...
R M Camire 1 , P J Larson, D W Stafford, K A High ... Amino Acid Sequence * Animals * CHO Cells * Carbon-Carbon ... 1 Department of Pediatrics and Pathology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA. ...
Acidity and metal (Mg2+, Ca2+, Zn2+) affinity of L-gamma-carboxyglutamic acid and its peptide analog. Remko, M., Broer, R., ... Hildner, R., Lemmer, U., Scherf, U. & Koehler, J., 29-Sep-2006, In : Chemical Physics Letters. 429, 1-3, p. 103-108 6 p.. ... Ernst, D., Hildner, R., Hippius, C., Wuerthner, F. & Koehler, J., 6-Nov-2009, In : Chemical Physics Letters. 482, 1-3, p. 93-98 ...
transmembrane gamma-carboxyglutamic acid protein 4. Names. proline rich Gla (G-carboxyglutamic acid) 4 (transmembrane). proline ... NM_024081.6 → NP_076986.1 transmembrane gamma-carboxyglutamic acid protein 4 precursor. See identical proteins and their ... Identification of two novel transmembrane gamma-carboxyglutamic acid proteins expressed broadly in fetal and adult tissues. ... XM_006718313.3 → XP_006718376.3 transmembrane gamma-carboxyglutamic acid protein 4 isoform X2 ...
... which contain the calcium-binding amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid; no proteins containing gamma-carboxyglutamic acid are ... Small amounts of osteocalcin, the bone-derived protein containing gamma-carboxyglutamic acid, were present in both human and ... It is concluded that proteins containing gamma-carboxyglutamic acid are involved in both the onset and progression of ... Warfarin anticoagulant therapy did not prevent calcification or accumulation of protein with gamma-carboxyglutamic acid. ...
Price PA, Otsuka AA, Poser JW, Kristaponis J and Raman N: Characterization of a gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-containing protein ... It is abundant in γ-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) residue and can combine with the calcium ions in hydroxyapatite to form osteoid ... Nucleic Acids Res. 34:W293-W297. 2006. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI ... collecting duct acid secretion and primary immunodeficiency. The top 10 KEGG enriched pathways are listed in Table V. ...
Gamma-carboxyglutamic acid. ,p>This section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in ... Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. Graphical view. Length. ... 1. Metal bindingi. 11. Divalent metal cation; via 4-carboxyglutamateBy similarity. Manual assertion inferred from sequence ... Ref.1. "Novel conantokins from Conus parius venom are specific antagonists of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors.". Teichert R.W., ...
Urinary γ-carboxyglutamic acid responds to changes in dietary vitamin K intake. Several days are required before any change can ... Furie, B.; Bouchard, B. A.; Furie, B. C. (Mar 1999). "Vitamin K-dependent biosynthesis of gamma-carboxyglutamic acid". Blood. ... The function of vitamin K2 in the animal cell is to add a carboxylic acid functional group to a glutamate (Glu) amino acid ... Identification of gamma-carboxyglutamic acid as a component of prothrombin" (PDF). Journal of Biological Chemistry. 249 (19): ...
Carbox-yglutamic acid (Gla): Resolution of synthetic Gla derivatives, Helv. Chim. Acta. 60:798.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... A deuteron magnetic resonance study of a single crystal of deuterated malonic acid, Mol. Phys. 17:401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Effects of acid-base equilibrium on photo-CIDNP in nitroaromatic compounds, Chem. Phys. Lett. 49:538.Google Scholar ... Pseudo-structures for the 20 common amino acids for use in studies of protein conformations by measurements of intramolecular ...
The possibility to perform intra-articular injections with hyaluronic acid, corticosteroids, or the newest but criticized ... 1 Carlos Martínez2 1BioTrauma Centre, Escaldes, Principality of Andorra; 2University of Illinois Hospital and Health Sciences ... gamma-carboxyglutamic acid; gp, glycoprotein; PARP, proline- and arginine-rich protein; PGs, proteoglycans; PRELP, proline- and ... Comparison between hyaluronic acid and platelet-rich plasma, intra-articular infiltration in the treatment of gonarthrosis. Am ...
... γ-carboxyglutamic acid) domain followed by two epidermal growth factor-like domains and a C-terminal inactive catalytic domain ... Amino acid sequence of CAP37, a human neutrophil granule-derived antibacterial and monocyte-specific chemotactic glycoprotein ... Given the central role that specific amino acids play in catalysis, a change to these residues is typically highly disruptive. ... Enzymes are classically defined by a set of key functional amino acid residues that are employed in catalysis, substrate ...
Matrix GLA protein (MGP), a gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (GLA)-rich, vitamin K-dependent and apatite-binding protein, is a ... Matrix GLA protein (MGP), a gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (GLA)-rich, vitamin K-dependent and apatite-binding protein, is a ...
Rigby AC, Baleja JD, Li L, Pedersen LG, Furie BC, Furie B (December 1997). "Role of gamma-carboxyglutamic acid in the calcium- ... It differs from Con-R mainly in the C-terminal amino acids and, like Con-R, it induces sleep-like symptoms in young mice, with ... a novel peptide antagonist to the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor". Neuroscience Letters. 118 (2): 241-4. doi:10.1016/ ... Conantokins act as potent and specific antagonists of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR).[1] They are the only naturally ...
Of particular interest are the interactions of γ-carboxyglutamic acid-rich domain-containing clotting proteins with lipids. ... Phosphatidic Acids); 0 (Phosphatidylcholines); 0 (Phosphatidylserines); 0 (Protein C); 0 (Recombinant Proteins); 40290-44-6 (1- ... 1 Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine Pusan National University, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, ... All patients underwent blood sampling within 1 week of US and were thereafter followed up. HCC was confirmed in 40/90 cases, ...
Sakai et al., "The .gamma.-Carboxyglutamic Acid Domain of Human Factor VII is Essential for Its Interaction with Cell Surface ... Zhang et al., "Role of Individual .gamma.-Carboxyglutamic Acid Residues of Activated Human Protein C in Defining its In Vitro ... Gillis et al., "gamma-Carboxyglutamic acids 36 and 40 do not contribute to human factor IX function," Prot. Sci., 6:185-196, ... Shen et al., "Enhancement of Human Protein C Function by Site-directed Mutagenesis of the .gamma.-Carboxyglutamic Acid Domain ...
Serum bone gamma carboxyglutamic acid-containing protein in primary hyperparathyroidism and in malignant hypercalcemia. ... Serum bone gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-containing (Gla) protein (sBGP), a sensitive and specific marker of bone turnover, was ... Reduced binding of [3H]1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in the parathyroid glands of patients with renal failure. Korkor, A.B. N. Engl ... The importance of circulating 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in the pathogenesis of hypercalciuria and renal-stone formation in ...
Calcium binds to the gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) residues and, with stronger affinity, to another site, beyond the Gla ... Lane 1 : Goat polyclonal to Mouse IgG - H&L - Pre-Adsorbed (HRP) at 1/3000 dilution. Lane 2 : Goat polyclonal to Mouse IgG - H& ... Lane 1 : Human small intestine tissue lysate - total protein (ab29276). Lane 2 : Human placenta tissue lysate - total protein ( ... Contains 1 Gla (gamma-carboxy-glutamate) domain.. Contains 1 peptidase S1 domain. ...
Calcium binds to the gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) residues and, with stronger affinity, to another site, beyond the Gla ... Contains 1 Gla (gamma-carboxy-glutamate) domain.. Contains 1 peptidase S1 domain. ...
Urinary .GAMMA.-carboxyglutamic acid, plasma prothrombin and protein C in liver diseases. (1986) ... Changes of plasma prothrombin, protein C and urinary .GAMMA.-carboxyglutamic acid in diabetes mellitus. (1987) ... Articles in CiNii:1. * A DOUBLE BLIND COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE EFFICACY OF S6472, CEFACLOR AND AMOXICILLIN, IN THE TREATMENT OF ... Articles in CiNii:1. * A DOUBLE BLIND COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE EFFICACY OF S6472, CEFACLOR IN THE TREATMENT OF BACTERIAL ...
Answer the cause is converted to his final common cell-membrane receptor γ carboxyglutamic acid. Azelaic acid how long for ... Azelaic acid alone or renal failure because of chronic continuous disease. is 10mg of lexapro a low dose Procarbazine, ... Gastric acid on their reproduction, atrial fibrillation are the many weeks with ménières. Is previously and is the ... Renal 1-α-hydroxylase is straightforward, and subjective awareness of action potential and are present in ischaemic attack. ...
  • In collaboration with Dr. Barbara Seaton, we have recently crystallized bovine prothrombin fragment 1 in the presence of phospholipid analogs and calcium ions. (bidmc.org)
  • G. L. Nelsestuen, T. H. Zytkovicz, and J. B. Howard, The mode of action of vitamin K. Identification of y-carboxyglutamic acid as a component of prothrombin, J. Biol. (springer.com)
  • Pelzer, H. and Stuber, W., "Detection of Prothrombin Activation Fragments F.sub.2 /F.sub.1+2 by an Antibody Against a Synthetic Peptide," Haemostasis 1988, 18 Suppl. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 1. A monoclonal antibody and fragments thereof that specifically bind to an epitope on the carboxy terminus of a prothrombin activation peptide, wherein said epitope comprises the amino acid sequence -Ser-Asp-Arg-Ala-Ile-Glu-Gly-Arg-OH, and wherein said monoclonal antibody is secreted by the hybridoma identified as ATCC No. HB 10291. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 5. A method of immunologically assaying for prothrombin activation peptide F1.2 in a sample, comprising an immunoassay wherein a monoclonal antibody according to claim 1 is used as the capture antibody and wherein the immunoassay is a method selected from the group consisting of competitive inhibition immunoassays, single step immunoassays and agglutination immunoassays. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 6. A diagnostic kit for immunologically assaying for prothrombin activation peptide F1.2 in a sample comprising a monoclonal antibody according to claim 1 coated on a solid phase. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Epicardial coronary artery calcification (CAC) occurs in atherosclerosis 1 and is associated with increased risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). (ahajournals.org)
  • 1,2 In atherosclerotic lesions, calcification is mainly found in the intima of blood vessels as dispersed punctate or patchy crystals associated with the necrotic core of atheromas (intimal calcification) and has been shown to positively correlate to the atherosclerotic plaque burden and the increased risk of myocardial infarction. (ahajournals.org)
  • 1 This vascular calcification reduces aortic and arterial elastance, which impairs cardiovascular hemodynamics, resulting in substantial morbidity and mortality 2-4 in the form of hypertension, aortic stenosis, cardiac hypertrophy, myocardial and lower-limb ischemia, congestive heart failure, and compromised structural integrity. (ahajournals.org)
  • The present results can be explained by the dual action of 1,25 (OH) 2 D 3 on both synthesis and release of BGP by bone turnover, whereas 24,25 (OH) 2 D 3 stimulates synthesis and accumulation of BGP in bone. (elsevier.com)
  • Other purine synthesis of vertebral collapse and the frequency of metabolism 1% They differ in insulin. (musicaenlamochila.net)
  • Contains 1 Gla (gamma-carboxy-glutamate) domain. (abcam.com)
  • Contains 1 peptidase S1 domain. (abcam.com)
  • The Gla region is followed by (1) two epidermal growth factor regions, (2) the activation peptide, which is removed when the single-chain zymogen FIX is converted to activated factor IX (FIXa), ie, the 2-chain active enzyme, and (3) the catalytic domain, which contains the enzymatic activity. (medscape.com)
  • 1 The light chain contains a γ-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla)-domain necessary for a Ca2+-dependent conformational change associated with phospholipid binding, and two epidermal growth factor (EGF) domains. (haematologica.org)
  • Furthermore, the introduction of mutations within the fiber knob domain that abrogate CAR binding and infectivity in vitro has no discernible effect on Ad5 biodistribution and transduction profiles in vivo following intravenous delivery ( 1 , 10 ). (asm.org)
  • The potentiating effect of tissue factor disappeared by removal of y-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) -domain from factor VIIa, whereas the esterase activity in the absence of tissue factor was not affected by this modification, suggesting that the Gla-domain is required as the potent determinants on factor VIIa for the interaction with tissue factor, even if phospholipids are absent in the reaction mixture. (nii.ac.jp)
  • 5 F.IXa was shown to interact with the platelet membrane with high affinity and in a very specific manner involving the γ-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) domain. (ahajournals.org)
  • 11,12 ⇓ Consistent with this view, these three hydrophobic amino acids (Leu6, Phe9, and Val10) are located within the 11-residue N -terminal portion of the F.IX-Gla domain identified as an important structural determinant for cell binding. (ahajournals.org)
  • Mutagenesis of the gamma-Carboxyglutamic Acid Domain of Human Factor VII to Generate Maximum Enhancement of the Membrane Contact Site. (umn.edu)
  • 1,25 dehydroxyvitamin D 3 (1,25 (OH) 2 D 3 ) exhibited the most potent influence on serum BGP levels in a dose-dependent manner. (elsevier.com)
  • At a dose 25 ng/100 g body weight 1,25 (OH) 2 D 3 showed a cumulative effect, i.e., the longer the treatment, the more circulating BGP was detected 24,25 dehydroxyvitamin D 3 (24,25(OH) 2 D 3 ) at the same doses did not show similar effect on the serum BGP levels, regardless of the serum calcium levels. (elsevier.com)
  • Allosteric Sensing of Fatty Acid Binding by NMR: Application to Human Serum Albumin. (mcmaster.ca)
  • Pils and Schultz [ 1 ] argued that the large numbers of both inactive and active trypsin-like serine proteases, in both these species and their conservation in many other related species, indicated a gene expansion, and that the evolution of the inactive proteases and their new functions suggested that they were advantageous to insects. (portlandpress.com)
  • Taken together, we provided evidence to demonstrate that IRS-1 gene modification facilitates the osteogenic differentiation of rat BMSCs by increasing TAZ expression through the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway. (biologists.org)
  • Dose response experiments confirmed effective concentrations between 10 and 100 nmol/l for corticosterone and 1 and 10 ng/ml for TNF-α, whilst inflammatory gene expression in FLS was shown to be stable between passages four and seven. (biomedcentral.com)
  • One new depsidone, botryorhodine H (1), together with three known analogues, botryorhodines C, D and G (2-4), were obtained from the mangrove endophytic fungus Trichoderma sp. (usda.gov)
  • 10. The method of claim 1 wherein the vascular graft, synthetic prosthesis, heterograft tissue or medical device comprises a porous conduit having an exterior surface and a lumenal surface and wherein the antithrombotic membrane mimetic surface is produced on a lumenal surface of the conduit. (google.com)