Isomeric forms and derivatives of butanol (C4H9OH).
A four carbon linear hydrocarbon that has a hydroxy group at position 1.
Butanes are flammable, colorless gases with a mild petroleum-like odor, consisting of either one of two isomeric forms of butane (n-butane or isobutane), used primarily as fuel, in the production of a wide range of chemicals, and as a refrigerant.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, used for the industrial production of SOLVENTS.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, capable of solventogenesis, and isolated from SOIL, infected WOUNDS, fermenting OLIVES, and spoiled CANDY.
A class of compounds that contain a -NH2 and a -NO radical. Many members of this group have carcinogenic and mutagenic properties.
Isomeric forms and derivatives of pentanol (C5H11OH).
An enzyme found mostly in plant tissue. It hydrolyzes glycerophosphatidates with the formation of a phosphatidic acid and a nitrogenous base such as choline. This enzyme also catalyzes transphosphatidylation reactions. EC 3.1.4.4.
A colorless liquid made by oxidation of aliphatic hydrocarbons that is used as a solvent and chemical intermediate.
A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.
A colorless liquid used as a solvent and an antiseptic. It is one of the ketone bodies produced during ketoacidosis.
Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).
Isomeric forms and derivatives of hexanol (C6H11OH).
A colorless, slightly viscous liquid used as a defoaming or wetting agent. It is also used as a solvent for protective coatings, waxes, and oils, and as a raw material for plasticizers. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Derivatives of GLUCURONIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the 6-carboxy glucose structure.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.
Fatty acid derivatives of glycerophosphates. They are composed of glycerol bound in ester linkage with 1 mole of phosphoric acid at the terminal 3-hydroxyl group and with 2 moles of fatty acids at the other two hydroxyl groups.
The N-glucuronide conjugate of cotinine is a major urinary metabolite of NICOTINE. It thus serves as a biomarker of exposure to tobacco SMOKING. It has CNS stimulating properties.
Methods and techniques used to genetically modify cells' biosynthetic product output and develop conditions for growing the cells as BIOREACTORS.
Unstable isotopes of oxygen that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. O atoms with atomic weights 13, 14, 15, 19, and 20 are radioactive oxygen isotopes.
Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.

Alcohol-induced biphasic inhibition of myosin subfragment 1 K-EDTA-ATPase. (1/210)

Butanol-induced inhibition of K-EDTA-ATPase of myosin subfragment 1 proceeded by biphasic kinetics, consisting of rapid and slow inactivations. The extent of the rapid inactivation, which was estimated by extrapolating the process of slow inactivation to zero time of the incubation period, was saturated with butanol concentration. Recovery of activity by dilution in the rapid phase indicates that the rapid process is reversible. The slow inactivation was concomitant with a partial denaturation of the 50 kDa domain of S1, which was detected by limited tryptic digestion. Other alcohols (methanol, ethanol, propanol and hexanol) also inhibited the K-EDTA-ATPase in the rapid phase. The Ki decreased with an increase in the number of methylene groups of alcohol. When K-EDTA-ATPase activity in the rapid phase was plotted against viscosity, surface tension or dielectric constant, the curves were different for each of the various alcohol solutions. The rapid inactivation appears to be caused by a binding of the alkyl group to S1, rather than by solvent effects. The kinetics of rapid butanol inhibitions indicate that butanol reduces the maximum activity of ATPase but enhances an apparent affinity of S1 with ATP. These indications suggest that alcohol stabilizes S1.KATP intermediate. The rapid K-EDTA-ATPase inhibition was observed at the same alcohol concentration where S1 Mg-ATPase was activated.  (+info)

Lysophosphatidic acid increases intracellular H2O2 by phospholipase D and RhoA in rat-2 fibroblasts. (2/210)

We have investigated the possible roles of phospholipase D (PLD) and RhoA in the production of intracellular H2O2 and actin polymerization in response to lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) in Rat-2 fibroblasts. LPA increased intracellular H2O2, with a maximal increase at 30 min, which was blocked by the catalase from Aspergillus niger. The LPA-stimulated production of H2O2 was inhibited by 1-butanol or PKC-downregulation, but not by 2-butanol. Purified phosphatidic acid (PA) also increased intracellular H2O2 and the increase was inhibited by the catalase. The role of RhoA was studied by the scrape-loading of C3 transferase into the cells. The C3 toxin, which inhibited stress fiber formation stimulated by LPA, blocked the H2O2 production in response to LPA or PA, but had no inhibitory effect on the activation of PLD by LPA. Exogenous H2O2 increased F-actin content by stress fiber formation. In addition, catalase inhibited actin polymerization activated by LPA, PA, or H2O2, indicated the role of H2O2 in actin polymerization. These results suggest that LPA increased intracellular H2O2 by the activation of PLD and RhoA, and that intracellular H2O2 was required for the LPA-stimulated stress fiber formation.  (+info)

beta-glycosidase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus: structure and activity in the presence of alcohols. (3/210)

beta-Glycosidase from the extreme thermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus is a tetrameric protein with a molecular mass of 240 kDa, stable in the presence of detergents, and with a maximal activity at temperatures above 95 degrees C. Understanding the structure-activity relationships of the enzyme under different conditions is of fundamental importance for both theoretical and applicative purposes. In this paper we report the effect of methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, and 1-butanol on the activity of S. solfataricus beta-glycosidase expressed in Escherichia coli. The alcohols stimulated the enzyme activity, with 1-butanol producing its maximum effect at a lower concentration than the other alcohols. The structure of the enzyme was studied in the presence of 1-butanol by circular dichroism, and Fourier-transform infrared and fluorescence spectroscopies. Circular dichroism and steady-state fluorescence measurements revealed that at low temperatures the presence of the alcohol produced no significant changes in the tertiary structure of the enzyme. However, time-resolved fluorescence data showed that the alcohol modifies the protein microenvironment, leading to a more flexible enzyme structure, which is probably responsible for the enhanced enzymatic activity.  (+info)

Diversity in butane monooxygenases among butane-grown bacteria. (4/210)

Butane monooxygenases of butane-grown Pseudomonas butanovora, Mycobacterium vaccae JOB5, and an environmental isolate, CF8, were compared at the physiological level. The presence of butane monooxygenases in these bacteria was indicated by the following results. (i) O(2) was required for butane degradation. (ii) 1-Butanol was produced during butane degradation. (iii) Acetylene inhibited both butane oxidation and 1-butanol production. The responses to the known monooxygenase inactivator, ethylene, and inhibitor, allyl thiourea (ATU), discriminated butane degradation among the three bacteria. Ethylene irreversibly inactivated butane oxidation by P. butanovora but not by M. vaccae or CF8. In contrast, butane oxidation by only CF8 was strongly inhibited by ATU. In all three strains of butane-grown bacteria, specific polypeptides were labeled in the presence of [(14)C]acetylene. The [(14)C]acetylene labeling patterns were different among the three bacteria. Exposure of lactate-grown CF8 and P. butanovora and glucose-grown M. vaccae to butane induced butane oxidation activity as well as the specific acetylene-binding polypeptides. Ammonia was oxidized by all three bacteria. P. butanovora oxidized ammonia to hydroxylamine, while CF8 and M. vaccae produced nitrite. All three bacteria oxidized ethylene to ethylene oxide. Methane oxidation was not detected by any of the bacteria. The results indicate the presence of three distinct butane monooxygenases in butane-grown P. butanovora, M. vaccae, and CF8.  (+info)

Short-chain alcohols promote an early stage of membrane hemifusion. (5/210)

Hemifusion, the linkage of contacting lipid monolayers of two membranes before the opening of a fusion pore, is hypothesized to proceed through the formation of a stalk intermediate, a local and strongly bent connection between membranes. When the monolayers' propensity to bend does not support the stalk (e.g., as it is when lysophosphatidylcholine is added), hemifusion is inhibited. In contrast, short-chain alcohols, reported to affect monolayer bending in a manner similar to that of lysophosphatidylcholine, were here found to promote hemifusion between fluorescently labeled liposomes and planar lipid bilayers. Single hemifusion events were detected by fluorescence microscopy. Methanol or ethanol (1.2-1.6 w/w %) added to the same compartment of the planar bilayer chamber as liposomes caused a 5-50 times increase in the number of hemifusion events. Alcohol-induced hemifusion was inhibited by lysophosphatidylcholine. Promotion of membrane hemifusion by short-chain alcohol was also observed for cell-cell fusion mediated by influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA). Alcohol promoted a fusion stage subsequent to the low pH-dependent activation of HA. We propose that binding of short-chain alcohol to the surface of membranes promotes hemifusion by facilitating the transient breakage of the continuity of each of the contacting monolayers, which is required for their subsequent merger in the stalk intermediate.  (+info)

Trp-Lys-Tyr-Met-Val-D-Met is a chemoattractant for human phagocytic cells. (6/210)

Trp-Lys-Tyr-Met-Val-D-Met (WKYMVm) is a synthetic peptide that stimulates phosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis in human leukocytes. The peptide binds to a unique cell surface receptor(s). Recently we had demonstrated that human neutrophils, monocytes, and B lymphocytes express this peptide-specific receptor and that stimulation of human leukocytes with the peptide leads to activation of the oxidative respiratory system and the bactericidal activity of neutrophils or monocytes. In this study we showed that the peptide induces chemotaxis of phagocytic leukocytes and studied the signaling pathway leading to chemotaxis in human monocytes. The peptide-induced monocyte chemotaxis is pertussis toxin (PTX)-sensitive. This fact correlates with the peptide's stimulation of PI hydrolysis and intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) release, which is also PTX-sensitive. We demonstrate that the peptide-specific receptor is different from receptor(s) for monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). We also show that intracellular signaling of WKYMVm leading to monocyte chemotaxis is different from that of MCP-1. The peptide-mediated monocyte chemotaxis is insensitive to protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor (GF109203X) and butan-1-ol, ruling out PKC and phospholipase D participation in this process. On the other hand, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (genistein) and RhoA inhibitor (C3 transferase) curtailed the peptide-induced chemotaxis in a concentration-dependent manner, implying the involvement of tyrosine kinase and RhoA, respectively. Treatment of human monocytes with the peptide stimulates tyrosine phosphorylation of several cellular proteins, including p125FAK and Pyk2 and translocation of RhoA from the cytosol to the membrane. We conclude that WKYMVm induces chemotaxis of human phagocytic leukocytes via unique receptors and signaling.  (+info)

Ethanol increases superoxide anion production stimulated with 4beta-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Involvement of protein kinase C. (7/210)

Stimulation of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) with PMA initiates a cascade of events leading to the production and release of superoxide anion (O-2), a major component in anti-bacterial defense. Generation of O-2 by PMA-stimulated PMNs occurs through the translocation and activation of protein kinase C (PKC). In this study, using freshly isolated PMNs, we examined the effect of ethanol on this response to PMA. Our results show that the basal production of O-2 was not affected by ethanol. In contrast, the response induced by PMA was potentiated by ethanol. This potentiation was observed even at high doses of PMA (200 nM) which alone had stimulated the O-2 response maximally. This enhanced response was not due to an increase of PMA uptake by PMNs. The maximal effect was obtained when the cells were preincubated with 80 mM of ethanol before PMA stimulation. Measurement of PKC activity in the cytosolic and membrane fractions showed that pretreatment of PMNs with ethanol increased twofold the PMA-stimulated PKC activity in the membrane fraction. Furthermore, Western blot analysis verified that this increase in PKC activity in the membrane fraction was linked to an increase in the translocation of PKC-alpha and -beta isoforms to the membrane. These results suggest that ethanol potentiates PMA-induced O-2 production through increasing PKC translocation and activity in PMNs.  (+info)

General anesthetic action at an internal protein site involving the S4-S5 cytoplasmic loop of a neuronal K(+) channel. (8/210)

The structural bases of general anesthetic action on a neuronal K(+) channel were investigated using the series of homologous 1-alkanols, electrophysiology, and mutational analysis. Domain swapping between dShaw2 (alkanol-sensitive) and hKv3.4 (alkanol-resistant) and site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated that a 13-amino acid cytoplasmic loop (S4-S5) determines the selective inhibition of native dShaw2 channels by 1-alkanols. The S4-S5 loop may contribute to a receptor for both 1-alkanols and the inactivation particle, because the enhanced 1-alkanol sensitivity of hKv3.4 channels hosting S4-S5 mutations correlates directly with disrupted channel inactivation. Evidence of a discrete protein site was also obtained from the analysis of the relationship between potency and alkyl chain length, which begins to level off after 1-hexanol. Rapid application to the cytoplasmic side of inside-out membrane patches shows that the interaction between dShaw2 channels and 1-alkanols equilibrates in <200 ms. By contrast, the equilibration time is >1000-fold slower when the drug is applied externally to outside-out membrane patches. The data strongly favor a mechanism of inhibition involving a discrete internal site for 1-alkanols in dShaw2 K(+) channels. A new working hypothesis proposes that 1-alkanols lock dShaw2 channels in their closed conformation by a direct interaction at a crevice formed by the S4-S5 loop.  (+info)

Butanols are a family of alcohols with four carbon atoms and a chemical formula of C4H9OH. They are commonly used as solvents, intermediates in chemical synthesis, and fuel additives. The most common butanol is n-butanol (normal butanol), which has a straight chain of four carbon atoms. Other forms include secondary butanols (such as isobutanol) and tertiary butanols (such as tert-butanol). These compounds have different physical and chemical properties due to the differences in their molecular structure, but they all share the common characteristic of being alcohols with four carbon atoms.

1-Butanol, also known as n-butanol or butyl alcohol, is a primary alcohol with a chemical formula of C4H9OH. It is a colorless liquid that is used as a solvent and in the manufacture of other chemicals. 1-Butanol has a wide range of applications including use as a paint thinner, in the production of rubber, and as a fuel additive. It is also found naturally in some foods and beverages.

In medical terms, 1-butanol may be used as an ingredient in topical medications or as a solvent for various pharmaceutical preparations. However, it is not typically used as a therapeutic agent on its own. Exposure to high levels of 1-butanol can cause irritation to the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract, and prolonged exposure may lead to more serious health effects.

Butanes are a group of flammable, colorless gases that are often used as fuel or in the production of other chemicals. They have the chemical formula C4H10 and are composed of four carbon atoms and ten hydrogen atoms. Butanes are commonly found in natural gas and crude oil, and they can be extracted through a process called distillation.

There are two main types of butane: n-butane and isobutane. N-butane has a straight chain of four carbon atoms, while isobutane has a branched chain with one carbon atom branching off the main chain. Both forms of butane are used as fuel for lighters, stoves, and torches, and they are also used as refrigerants and in the production of aerosols.

Butanes are highly flammable and can be dangerous if not handled properly. They should be stored in a cool, well-ventilated area away from sources of ignition, and they should never be used near an open flame or other source of heat. Ingesting or inhaling butane can be harmful and can cause symptoms such as dizziness, nausea, and vomiting. If you suspect that you have been exposed to butane, it is important to seek medical attention immediately.

'Clostridium acetobutylicum' is a gram-positive, spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in soil and aquatic environments. It is a species of the genus Clostridium, which includes many bacteria capable of producing industrial chemicals through fermentation.

'Clostridium acetobutylicum' is particularly known for its ability to produce acetic acid and butyric acid, as well as solvents such as acetone and butanol, during the process of anaerobic respiration. This makes it a potential candidate for biotechnological applications in the production of biofuels and other industrial chemicals.

However, like many Clostridium species, 'Clostridium acetobutylicum' can also produce toxins and cause infections in humans and animals under certain circumstances. Therefore, it is important to handle this organism with care and follow appropriate safety protocols when working with it in a laboratory setting.

'Clostridium beijerinckii' is a species of gram-positive, spore-forming, rod-shaped bacteria found in various environments such as soil, aquatic sediments, and the intestinal tracts of animals. It is named after the Dutch microbiologist Martinus Willem Beijerinck.

This bacterium is capable of fermenting a wide range of organic compounds and producing a variety of metabolic end-products, including butanol, acetone, and ethanol. 'Clostridium beijerinckii' has attracted interest in biotechnology due to its potential for the production of biofuels and industrial chemicals through fermentation processes.

However, it is also known to cause food spoilage and, under certain circumstances, can produce harmful metabolites that may pose a risk to human health. Therefore, proper handling and safety precautions are necessary when working with this bacterium in laboratory or industrial settings.

Nitrosamines are a type of chemical compound that are formed by the reaction between nitrous acid (or any nitrogen oxide) and secondary amines. They are often found in certain types of food, such as cured meats and cheeses, as well as in tobacco products and cosmetics.

Nitrosamines have been classified as probable human carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Exposure to high levels of nitrosamines has been linked to an increased risk of cancer, particularly in the digestive tract. They can also cause DNA damage and interfere with the normal functioning of cells.

In the medical field, nitrosamines have been a topic of concern due to their potential presence as contaminants in certain medications. For example, some drugs that contain nitrofurantoin, a medication used to treat urinary tract infections, have been found to contain low levels of nitrosamines. While the risk associated with these low levels is not well understood, efforts are underway to minimize the presence of nitrosamines in medications and other products.

"Pentanols" is not a recognized medical term. However, in chemistry, pentanols refer to a group of alcohols containing five carbon atoms. The general formula for pentanols is C5H12O, and they have various subcategories such as primary, secondary, and tertiary pentanols, depending on the type of hydroxyl (-OH) group attachment to the carbon chain.

In a medical context, alcohols like methanol and ethanol can be toxic and cause various health issues. However, there is no specific medical relevance associated with "pentanols" as a group. If you have any further questions or need information about a specific chemical compound, please let me know!

Phospholipase D is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine and other glycerophospholipids to produce phosphatidic acid and a corresponding alcohol. This reaction plays a crucial role in various cellular processes, including signal transduction, membrane trafficking, and lipid metabolism. There are several isoforms of Phospholipase D identified in different tissues and organisms, each with distinct regulatory mechanisms and functions. The enzyme's activity can be modulated by various factors such as calcium ions, protein kinases, and G proteins, making it a critical component in the regulation of cellular homeostasis.

1-Propanol is a primary alcohol with the chemical formula CH3CH2CH2OH. It is also known as n-propanol or propan-1-ol. It is a colorless, flammable liquid that is used as a solvent and in the production of other chemicals. 1-Propanol has a wide range of applications including as a disinfectant, an intermediate in the synthesis of other chemicals, and as a component in various industrial and consumer products such as cosmetics, cleaning agents, and pharmaceuticals. It is also used as a fuel additive to increase the octane rating of gasoline.

'Clostridium' is a genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are widely distributed in nature, including in soil, water, and the gastrointestinal tracts of animals and humans. Many species of Clostridium are anaerobic, meaning they can grow and reproduce in environments with little or no oxygen. Some species of Clostridium are capable of producing toxins that can cause serious and sometimes life-threatening illnesses in humans and animals.

Some notable species of Clostridium include:

* Clostridium tetani, which causes tetanus (also known as lockjaw)
* Clostridium botulinum, which produces botulinum toxin, the most potent neurotoxin known and the cause of botulism
* Clostridium difficile, which can cause severe diarrhea and colitis, particularly in people who have recently taken antibiotics
* Clostridium perfringens, which can cause food poisoning and gas gangrene.

It is important to note that not all species of Clostridium are harmful, and some are even beneficial, such as those used in the production of certain fermented foods like sauerkraut and natto. However, due to their ability to produce toxins and cause illness, it is important to handle and dispose of materials contaminated with Clostridium species carefully, especially in healthcare settings.

Acetone is a colorless, volatile, and flammable liquid organic compound with the chemical formula (CH3)2CO. It is the simplest and smallest ketone, and its molecules consist of a carbonyl group linked to two methyl groups. Acetone occurs naturally in the human body and is produced as a byproduct of normal metabolic processes, particularly during fat burning.

In clinical settings, acetone can be measured in breath or blood to assess metabolic status, such as in cases of diabetic ketoacidosis, where an excess production of acetone and other ketones occurs due to insulin deficiency and high levels of fatty acid breakdown. High concentrations of acetone can lead to a sweet, fruity odor on the breath, often described as "fruity acetone" or "acetone breath."

Biofuels are defined as fuels derived from organic materials such as plants, algae, and animal waste. These fuels can be produced through various processes, including fermentation, esterification, and transesterification. The most common types of biofuels include biodiesel, ethanol, and biogas.

Biodiesel is a type of fuel that is produced from vegetable oils or animal fats through a process called transesterification. It can be used in diesel engines with little or no modification and can significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions compared to traditional fossil fuels.

Ethanol is a type of alcohol that is produced through the fermentation of sugars found in crops such as corn, sugarcane, and switchgrass. It is typically blended with gasoline to create a fuel known as E85, which contains 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline.

Biogas is a type of fuel that is produced through the anaerobic digestion of organic materials such as food waste, sewage sludge, and agricultural waste. It is composed primarily of methane and carbon dioxide and can be used to generate electricity or heat.

Overall, biofuels offer a renewable and more sustainable alternative to traditional fossil fuels, helping to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and decrease dependence on non-renewable resources.

Hexanols are a class of organic compounds that contain a hexanol functional group, which is a hydroxyl group (-OH) attached to a linear or branched carbon chain containing six carbon atoms. They can be either primary, secondary, or tertiary alcohols depending on the position of the hydroxyl group in relation to the carbon chain. Hexanols are used in various applications such as in the production of flavors, fragrances, and industrial chemicals.

1-Octanol is a fatty alcohol with the chemical formula C8H17OH. It is a colorless oily liquid that is slightly soluble in water and miscible with most organic solvents. 1-Octanol is used as an intermediate in the synthesis of other chemicals, including pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and fragrances.

In medical terminology, 1-octanol may be used as a reference standard for measuring the partition coefficient of drugs between octanol and water, which can help predict their distribution and elimination in the body. This value is known as the octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow) and is an important parameter in pharmacokinetics and drug design.

Glucuronates are not a medical term per se, but they refer to salts or esters of glucuronic acid, a organic compound that is a derivative of glucose. In the context of medical and biological sciences, glucuronidation is a common detoxification process in which glucuronic acid is conjugated to a wide variety of molecules, including drugs, hormones, and environmental toxins, to make them more water-soluble and facilitate their excretion from the body through urine or bile.

The process of glucuronidation is catalyzed by enzymes called UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs), which are found in various tissues, including the liver, intestines, and kidneys. The resulting glucuronides can be excreted directly or further metabolized before excretion.

Therefore, "glucuronates" can refer to the chemical compounds that result from this process of conjugation with glucuronic acid, as well as the therapeutic potential of enhancing or inhibiting glucuronidation for various clinical applications.

Fermentation is a metabolic process in which an organism converts carbohydrates into alcohol or organic acids using enzymes. In the absence of oxygen, certain bacteria, yeasts, and fungi convert sugars into carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and various end products, such as alcohol, lactic acid, or acetic acid. This process is commonly used in food production, such as in making bread, wine, and beer, as well as in industrial applications for the production of biofuels and chemicals.

Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) is a group of enzymes responsible for catalyzing the oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes or ketones, and reducing equivalents such as NAD+ to NADH. In humans, ADH plays a crucial role in the metabolism of ethanol, converting it into acetaldehyde, which is then further metabolized by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) into acetate. This process helps to detoxify and eliminate ethanol from the body. Additionally, ADH enzymes are also involved in the metabolism of other alcohols, such as methanol and ethylene glycol, which can be toxic if allowed to accumulate in the body.

Phosphatidic acids (PAs) are a type of phospholipid that are essential components of cell membranes. They are composed of a glycerol backbone linked to two fatty acid chains and a phosphate group. The phosphate group is esterified to another molecule, usually either serine, inositol, or choline, forming different types of phosphatidic acids.

PAs are particularly important as they serve as key regulators of many cellular processes, including signal transduction, membrane trafficking, and autophagy. They can act as signaling molecules by binding to and activating specific proteins, such as the enzyme phospholipase D, which generates second messengers involved in various signaling pathways.

PAs are also important intermediates in the synthesis of other phospholipids, such as phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylinositol. They are produced by the enzyme diacylglycerol kinase (DGK), which adds a phosphate group to diacylglycerol (DAG) to form PA.

Abnormal levels of PAs have been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders. Therefore, understanding the regulation and function of PAs is an active area of research with potential therapeutic implications.

Cotinine is the major metabolite of nicotine, which is formed in the body after exposure to tobacco smoke or other sources of nicotine. It is often used as a biomarker for nicotine exposure and can be measured in various biological samples such as blood, urine, saliva, and hair. Cotinine has a longer half-life than nicotine, making it a more reliable indicator of long-term exposure to tobacco smoke or nicotine products.

Metabolic engineering is a branch of biotechnology that involves the modification and manipulation of metabolic pathways in organisms to enhance their production of specific metabolites or to alter their flow of energy and carbon. This field combines principles from genetics, molecular biology, biochemistry, and chemical engineering to design and construct novel metabolic pathways or modify existing ones with the goal of optimizing the production of valuable compounds or improving the properties of organisms for various applications.

Examples of metabolic engineering include the modification of microorganisms to produce biofuels, pharmaceuticals, or industrial chemicals; the enhancement of crop yields and nutritional value in agriculture; and the development of novel bioremediation strategies for environmental pollution control. The ultimate goal of metabolic engineering is to create organisms that can efficiently and sustainably produce valuable products while minimizing waste and reducing the impact on the environment.

Oxygen radioisotopes are unstable isotopes of the element oxygen that emit radiation as they decay to a more stable form. These isotopes can be used in medical imaging and treatment, such as positron emission tomography (PET) scans. Common oxygen radioisotopes used in medicine include oxygen-15 and oxygen-18. Oxygen-15 has a very short half-life of about 2 minutes, while oxygen-18 has a longer half-life of about 2 hours. These isotopes can be incorporated into molecules such as water or carbon dioxide, which can then be used to study blood flow, metabolism and other physiological processes in the body.

Carcinogens are agents (substances or mixtures of substances) that can cause cancer. They may be naturally occurring or man-made. Carcinogens can increase the risk of cancer by altering cellular DNA, disrupting cellular function, or promoting cell growth. Examples of carcinogens include certain chemicals found in tobacco smoke, asbestos, UV radiation from the sun, and some viruses.

It's important to note that not all exposures to carcinogens will result in cancer, and the risk typically depends on factors such as the level and duration of exposure, individual genetic susceptibility, and lifestyle choices. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classifies carcinogens into different groups based on the strength of evidence linking them to cancer:

Group 1: Carcinogenic to humans
Group 2A: Probably carcinogenic to humans
Group 2B: Possibly carcinogenic to humans
Group 3: Not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans
Group 4: Probably not carcinogenic to humans

This information is based on medical research and may be subject to change as new studies become available. Always consult a healthcare professional for medical advice.

Butanol is considered as a potential biofuel (butanol fuel). Butanol at 85 percent strength can be used in cars designed for ... Therefore, a vehicle using butanol would return fuel consumption more comparable to gasoline than ethanol. Butanol can also be ... Butyraldehyde is then hydrogenated to produce butanol. A second method for producing butanol involves the Reppe reaction of ... Research in the past few decades showed results of other microorganisms that can produce butanol through fermentation. Butanol ...
2-Methyl-2-butanol Lide, David R. (1998), Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (87 ed.), Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, pp. 3-374 ... 2-Methyl-1-butanol is a component of many mixtures of commercial amyl alcohols. It is one of the many components of the aroma ... 2-Methyl-1-butanol (IUPAC name, also called active amyl alcohol) is an organic compound with the formula CH3CH2CH(CH3)CH2OH. It ... 2-Methyl-1-butanol has been produced from glucose by genetically modified E. coli. 2-Keto-3-methylvalerate, a precursor to ...
... (IUPAC name: 2-ethylbutan-1-ol) is an organic chemical compound. It can be used to facilitate the separation ... 2-Ethyl-1-butanol is manufactured industrially by the aldol condensation of acetaldehyde and butyraldehyde, followed by ... The branching in 2-ethyl-1-butanol makes it harder to crystallize due to packing disruption, which results in a very low ... Esters of 2-ethyl-1-butanol are similarly effected and it therefore finds application as a feedstock in the production of ...
... (DMB) is a structural analog of choline. DMB inhibits microbial trimethylamine (TMA) formation in mice ...
... is an organic chemical compound; it is one of the isomeric hexanols. Its main use is as a solvent. Lide ...
Designations such as isopropanol, sec-butanol, and tert-butanol are incorrect because there are no hydrocarbons isopropane, sec ... and tert-butanol. 2-Butanol is chiral and thus can be obtained as either of two stereoisomers designated as (R)-(−)-butan-2-ol ... "Butanols". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH.. Doyle, R. R. (1986). "2-Butanol safety warning ... Like other butanols, butan-2-ol has low acute toxicity. The LD50 is 4400 mg/kg (rat, oral). Several explosions have been ...
The butanol was a by-product of fermentation (twice as much butanol was produced). The feedstocks for biobutanol are the same ... The octane rating of n-butanol is similar to that of gasoline but lower than that of ethanol and methanol. n-Butanol has a RON ... As the heat of vaporization of butanol is less than half of that of ethanol, an engine running on butanol should be easier to ... Approximate equivalent butanol blends can be calculated from the relations between the stoichiometric fuel-air ratio of butanol ...
... (n-butanol or isobutanol) is a potential biofuel (butanol fuel). Butanol at 85 percent concentration can be used in ... These are n-butanol, 2 stereoisomers of sec-butanol, isobutanol and tert-butanol. Butanol is primarily used as a solvent and as ... Biologically produced butanol is called biobutanol, which may be n-butanol or isobutanol. The unmodified term butanol usually ... The butanol isomers have different melting and boiling points. n-butanol and isobutanol have limited solubility, sec-butanol ...
Kraemer K, Harwardt A, Bronneberg R, Marquardt W (May 2011). "Separation of butanol from acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation ... which in turn would help in increasing the consumption of n-butanol globally. Butyl acrylate was the biggest n-butanol ... Biogenic butanol is a possible substitute of bioethanol or even better and it is already employed both as fuel additive and as ... "n-Butanol Market Worth 5.58 Billion USD by 2022". www.prnewswire.com (Press release). (Articles with short description, Short ...
"2-Methyl-1-Butanol". Grrexports.com. Retrieved 2013-02-05. "t-butyl alcohol". Toxnet.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2013-02-05. Pubchem ...
doi:10.1007/978-1-4614-5882-1_2. ISBN 9781461458814. PMID 23232918. (CS1 French-language sources (fr), Articles without InChI ... It hydrolyses to phthalic acid and 1-butanol. "Monobutyl phthalate". PubChem. National Center for Biotechnology Information, U. ...
1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 527. v t e (All articles with dead external links, Articles with dead external ... Examples of primary alcohols include ethanol and 1-butanol. Methanol is also generally regarded as a primary alcohol, including ...
Overall, 1-butanol was produced in S. elongatus using a pathway from another organism. This pathway was modified in order to ... This pathway synthesizes 1-butanol using the reverse β-oxidation pathway. The enzymes involved in this newly engineered pathway ... 100 (763): 1-17. doi:10.1007/b136411. PMID 16270654. S2CID 21169566. Pollak, N; C Dolle; M Ziegler (2006). "The power to reduce ... 88 (1): 199-208. doi:10.1007/s00253-010-2703-3. PMID 20552355. S2CID 25646005. (All articles with dead external links, Articles ...
Mixed with 10-15% triethylaluminium, it was used before lift-off to ignite the F-1 engines on the Saturn V rocket. The Merlin ... A. Young (2008). The Saturn V F-1 Engine: Powering Apollo Into History. Springer. p. 86. ISBN 978-0-387-09629-2. Mission Status ... For example, THF is converted, after hydrolysis, to 1-butanol. It also promotes certain variants of the Reformatskii reaction. ... Binger, P.; Köster, R. (1974). "Sodium triethylhydroborate, sodium tetraethylborate, and sodium triethyl-1-propynylborate". ...
Tert-butanol is poorly absorbed through skin but rapidly absorbed if inhaled or ingested. Tert-butanol is irritating to skin or ... As a tertiary alcohol, tert-butyl alcohol is more resistant to oxidation than the other isomers of butanol. tert-Butyl alcohol ... Particularly common is potassium tert-butoxide, which is prepared by treating tert-butanol with potassium metal. K + t-BuOH → t ... 0078". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). "ICSC 0114 - tert-Butanol". Inchem.org. Retrieved 29 ...
DBP is produced by the reaction of n-butanol with phthalic anhydride. DBP is an important plasticizer that enhances the utility ... doi:10.1007/978-1-4614-5882-1_2. ISBN 9781461458814. PMID 23232918. Hu Y, Dong C, Chen M, Chen Y, Gu A, Xia Y, Sun H, Li Z, ... Hydrolysis of DBP leads to phthalic acid and 1-butanol. Monobutyl phthalate (MBP) is its major metabolite. Biodegradation by ... Kjeldsen, Peter; Barlaz, Morton A.; Rooker, Alix P.; Baun, Anders; Ledin, Anna; Christensen, Thomas H. (1 October 2002). " ...
Algae biofuels such as butanol and methanol are produced both at laboratory and commercial scales. This method has benefited ... Cd 1-xZn xS solid solution reports high activity in hydrogen production from water splitting under sunlight irradiation. A ... During 2009, F. del Valle and K. Domen showed the effect of the thermal treatment in a closed atmosphere using Cd 1-xZn xS ... 1 (1-2): 26-58. doi:10.1002/cssc.200700087. PMID 18605661. Fujishima, Akira; Rao, Tata N.; Tryk, Donald A. (29 June 2000). " ...
1 (4): 689-738. doi:10.1016/j.joule.2017.07.007. ISSN 2542-4785. Liu, Xijun; He, Jia; Zhao, Shunzheng; Liu, Yunpeng; Zhao, Zhe ... Making the anode basic and the cathode acidic increased the power density a lot, showing high peaks of around 1 W/cm2 at a ... 1 (4): 689-738. doi:10.1016/j.joule.2017.07.007. ISSN 2542-4351. He, Jie; Janáky, Csaba (12 June 2020). "Recent Advances in ... David Kaminski-Morrow (1 March 2022). "Swiss to pioneer sun-to-liquid kerosene flights next year". FlightGlobal. Lehn, Jean- ...
160 (1): F69-F74. doi:10.1149/2.052301jes. ISSN 0013-4651. S2CID 95111100. Lv JJ, Jouny M, Luc W, Zhu W, Zhu JJ, Jiao F ( ... Methanol, propanol and 1-butanol have also been produced via CO2RR in small quantities. The main challenges are the relatively ... Service RF (1 September 2017). "Two new ways to turn 'garbage' carbon dioxide into fuel". Science Magazine. doi:10.1126/science ... ISBN 1-56670-284-4. Li, Fengwang; et al. (2020). "Molecular tuning of CO2-to-ethylene conversion". Nature. 577 (7791): 509-513 ...
... is an alkyl halide with the chemical formula CH3(CH2)3Cl. It is a colorless, flammable liquid. It can be ... "1-Chlorobutane CAS#:109-69-3". Coursey, B. M.; Heric, E. L. (1971). "AApplication of the Congruence Principle to Viscosities of ... prepared from 1-butanol by treatment with hydrogen chloride. It reacts with lithium metal to give n-butyllithium: 2 Li + CH3( ... 1-Chloroalkane Binary Mixtures". Canadian Journal of Chemistry. 49 (16): 2631-2635. doi:10.1139/v71-437. ISSN 0008-4042. ...
2-diphenyl-2-butanols" (PDF). Journal of the American Chemical Society. 75 (18): 4458-4461. doi:10.1021/ja01114a019. Archived ... Unlike many antitussives, it binds poorly to the sigma-1 receptor. Mannich reaction of propiophenone with formaldehyde and ... Pohland, A.; Sullivan, H. R. (1953). "Analgesics: Esters of 4-Dialkylamino-1, ...
The detection limit for the ELISA is 1 μg/g and it can not assess soybean proteins existing in brewed soybean products due to ... 74 (1): 6-12. doi:10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-10-271. ISSN 0362-028X. PMID 21219756. Kunze, H.; Bohn, E.; Bahrke, G. (1975). "Effects ... Walnut residues can be disclosed at 1 ppm quantitation limit in a diversity of food such as ice cream, muffins, cookies and ... 9 (1): 21-32. doi:10.1586/epr.11.78. ISSN 1478-9450. PMID 22292821. S2CID 207212401. Detection of highly dangerous pathogens : ...
Urland, Werner (1 January 1979). "Über des magnetische Verhalten von Cs2MYbF6 (M = Na, K, Rb) und Cs2NaYbBr6" [On the Magnetic ... 111 (1-2): 221. doi:10.1016/0022-5088(85)90190-0. ISSN 0022-5088. Urland, W.; Hochheimer, H.D.; Kourouklis, G.A.; Kremer, R. ( ... 77 (1): 58-62. Bibcode:1981CPL....77...58U. doi:10.1016/0009-2614(81)85599-6. ISSN 0009-2614. Tang, Jinkui; Hewitt, Ian; Madhu ... 78 (1): 164-169. Bibcode:1989JSSCh..78..164P. doi:10.1016/0022-4596(89)90140-0. ISSN 0022-4596. Urland, W.; Plambeck-Fischer, P ...
The production of organic solvents like acetone, butanol, and isopropanol through fermentation was one of the first things to ... Butanol, Acetone, and Isopropanol; 1,3- and 1,2-Propanediol Production; and 2,3-Butanediol Production". The Prokaryotes. pp. 77 ... ISBN 978-1-4822-4521-9. Chen, Jiann-Shin; Zidwick, Mary Jo; Rogers, Palmer (2013). "Organic Acid and Solvent Production: ... ISBN 978-3-642-31330-1. Woods, D.R. (July 1995). "The genetic engineering of microbial solvent production". Trends in ...
2-butanol, and tert-butanol, all of which are important industrially. Isobutanol is produced by the carbonylation of propylene ... Isobutanol is one of the least toxic of the butanols with an LD50 of 2460 mg/kg (rat, oral). In March 2009, the Government of ... 0352". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). IPCS Environmental Health Criteria 65: Butanols: four ... 0352". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). "Iso-butanol". ChemicalLand21. Isobutanol, International ...
542-88-1 and 107-30-2, Report on carcinogens, Eleventh edition (CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list, Ethers). ... William F. Bailey, Matthew W. Carson, Lyn M. J. Zarcone (1998). "Selective Protection of 1,3-Diols at the More Hindered Hydroxy ... 1-Butanol". Organic Syntheses. 75: 177. doi:10.15227/orgsyn.075.0177.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list ... 1,1'-bi-2-naphthol". Organic Syntheses. 96: 312-332. doi:10.15227/orgsyn.096.0312. ...
35 (1): 1-7. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2338.2005.00815.x. ISSN 0250-8052. H.N. Nigg; S.E. Simpson; R.A. Schumann; E. Exteberria; E.B. ... 50 (1): 36. doi:10.1111/j.1570-7458.1989.tb02311.x. ISSN 0013-8703. Burk, T.; Webb, J. C. (1983). "Effect of male size on ... p. 1. Stone A. 1942. The fruitflies of the genus Anastrepha. U.S. Department of Agriculture Miscellaneous Publication No. 439, ... 120 (1): 9-24. doi:10.4289/0013-8797.120.1.9. ISSN 0013-8797. A. Canal, Nelson; Hernández-Ortiz, Vicente; Tigrero, Juan; ...
S)-iPr-PHOX - an oxazoline ligand made using valinol Sigma-Aldrich Co., 2-Amino-3-methyl-1-butanol. Retrieved on 2014-10-22. ...
n-Butanol is reported to produce similar effects to those of ethanol and relatively low toxicity (one-sixth of that of ethanol ... n-Butanol (PDF), SIDS Initial Assessment Report, Geneva: United Nations Environment Programme, April 2005. McCreery MJ, Hunt WA ... doi:10.1007/978-1-4419-1005-9_626. ISBN 978-1-4419-1004-2. "10th Special Report to the U.S. Congress on Alcohol and Health: ... 90 (1): 90-4. doi:10.1016/j.pbb.2008.03.006. PMC 2574824. PMID 18423561. Narahashi T, Kuriyama K, Illes P, Wirkner K, Fischer W ...
Others include N′-nitrosoanatabine (NAT) and N-nitrosoanabasine (NAB). NNK and its metabolite 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3- ... pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) are potent systemic lung carcinogens in rats. Tumors of the nasal cavity, liver, and pancreas are ...
Butanol is considered as a potential biofuel (butanol fuel). Butanol at 85 percent strength can be used in cars designed for ... Therefore, a vehicle using butanol would return fuel consumption more comparable to gasoline than ethanol. Butanol can also be ... Butyraldehyde is then hydrogenated to produce butanol. A second method for producing butanol involves the Reppe reaction of ... Research in the past few decades showed results of other microorganisms that can produce butanol through fermentation. Butanol ...
Synonyms: <I>n</I>-Butanol, Butyl alcohol, 1-Butanol. CAS 71-36-3. Molecular Weight 74.12. Browse 1-Butanol and ... 1-Butanol, puriss. p.a., ACS reagent, reag. ISO, reag. Ph. Eur., ≥99.5% (GC) ...
NNAL is a product formed after 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) enters the body. NNK belongs to a group of ... Substance Profile-4-(N-Nitrosomethylamino)-1-(3-Pyridyl)-1-Butanonepdf iconexternal icon ...
1-Butanol, 4-[(tetr. ahydro-2-furanyl)ox. y]- [ACD/Index Name] ... ranyl)oxy]-1-Butanol 4-[(tetrahydro-fura. n-2-yl)oxy]-1-butan. ...
2-Butanol, 4-[[1-(5. -chloro-2-thienyl)e. thyl]amino]- [ACD/Index Name] ... 4-{[1-(5-Chloro-2-t. hiényl)éthyl]amino}. -2-butanol [French] [ACD/IUPAC Name] ... 4-{[1-(5-Chloro-2-thienyl)ethy. l]amino}-2-butanol *Molecular FormulaC10H16ClNOS ... 4-{[1-(5-Chlor-2-th. ienyl)ethyl]amino}-. 2-butanol [German] [ACD/IUPAC Name] ...
Order 1-(2-Furyl)-1-butanol, CAS 4208-62-2, EC-000.1529, MW C8H12O2 from direct supplier at the best price ... Tags: Purchase 1-(2-Furyl)-1-butanol - 4208-62-2 , Buy 1-(2-Furyl)-1-butanol - 4208-62-2 , Order 1-(2-Furyl)-1-butanol - 4208- ... 1-(2-Furyl)-1-butanol. CAS: 4208-62-2. Catalog Number:EC-000.1529 ...
Inelastic Neutron Scattering spectrum of 1-Butanol crystalline, C4H9OH, measured on the TOSCA instrument. Initially amorphous ... Inelastic Neutron Scattering spectrum of 1-Butanol crystalline, C4H9OH, measured on the TOSCA instrument. Initially amorphous ...
box] 3-Methyl-1-Butanol 1L / Isoamyl alcohol / Technical Grade / Formula: (CH3)2.CHCH2.CH2.OH / DG 3 ... 3-METHYL-1-BUTANOL [Isoamyl Alcohol]. $ 109.95. excl. GST. This DANGEROUS GOODS CHEMICAL is available for purchase to Business ... 3-Methyl-1-Butanol 1L / Isoamyl alcohol / Technical Grade / Formula: (CH3)2.CHCH2.CH2.OH / DG 3 ... 3-Methyl-1-Butanol 1L / Isoamyl alcohol / Technical Grade / Formula: (CH3)2.CHCH2.CH2.OH / DG 3 ...
1,4-Dioxane. more about. this contaminant. 1,4-Dioxane is a solvent classified by the EPA as a likely human carcinogen. It ... 1-Butanol more about. this contaminant. 1-butanol is an industrial petrochemical used in the production of butyl acetate. ... The EWG Health Guideline of 0.35 ppb for 1,4-dioxane was defined by the Environmental Protection Agency as a one-in-a-million ... The EWG Health Guideline of 1 ppt for PFOS was defined by EWG based on studies by Phillipe Grandjean of Harvard University and ...
1-Butanol, 4-amino-. CAS Number: 13325-10-5. Catalog Number: AR001563. MDL Number: MFCD00008230. Molecular Formula: C4H11NO. ... 1-Butanol, 4-amino-. Catalog#: AR001563 , CAS#: 13325-10-5 , MDL#: MFCD00008230 , MF: C4H11NO , MW: 89.1362 ...
C6H12. 84.161. 110-82-7. Cyclohexane. Search the DDB for all data of this mixture Data Table. Azeotropic Type. T [K]. P [kPa]. ... yaz,1 [mol/mol]. yaz,2 [mol/mol]. Measurement Method. Evaluation. Source. ... 1. Svoboda V.; Vonkova J.; Holub R.; Pick J.: Heats of Vaporization of Binary Azeotropic Mixtures Containing Aliphatic and ...
Find here 4 Chloro 1 Butanol Manufacturers, 4 Chloro 1 Butanol Suppliers, 4 Chloro 1 Butanol Exporters, Get contact address of ... 4 Chloro 1 Butanol manufacturing and supplying companies of India ...
Xylose utilization stimulates mitochondrial production of isobutanol and 2-methyl-1-butanol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In: ... keywords = "2-Methyl-1-butanol, Branched-chain higher alcohols, Isobutanol, Mitochondrial engineering, Saccharomyces cerevisiae ... Dive into the research topics of Xylose utilization stimulates mitochondrial production of isobutanol and 2-methyl-1-butanol ... Xylose utilization stimulates mitochondrial production of isobutanol and 2-methyl-1-butanol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ...
2-butanol under a condition at a hydrogen pressure of from 1 to 5 MPa in the presence of a palladium catalyst (A) supported on ... 2-butanol under a condition at a hydrogen pressure of from 1 to 5 MPa in the presence of a palladium catalyst (A) supported on ... 2-butanol having a woody or amber-like fragrance as a perfume material and excellent fragrance notes can be obtained in a high ... 2-butanol having a woody or amber-like fragrance as a perfume material and excellent fragrance notes can be obtained in a high ...
A leading manufacturer of high purity solvents used in semiconductor-related manufacturing processes.
2-Butanol. 5.1 ± 0.3. Ethyl lactate. 4.6 ± 0.3. Isopropanol. 3.6 ± 0.4. 1-Butanol. 3.1 ± 0.3. ... The cations (1 mM) including Ca2+, Ba2+, Mn2+ and Co2+ decreased the activity by 79.5% to 89.3%. In addition, the cations Al3+ ... 1. 0. a The experiments were carried out in triple replicates; b The relative activity of 100% represents 11.1 U/mg for acetoin ... Figure 1. SDS-PAGE analysis of the purified ReBDH with or without N-terminal His-tag. Lane 1, the purified ReBDH without N- ...
... ... Kitagawa 190U Ethyl cellosolve, Methyl cellosolve Detector Tube 5-500 ppm; 1-Butanol, Butyl cellosolve, Diacetone alcohol,more ...
2-Methyl-n-butanol; 2-Methyl-1-butanol; 2-Methylbutyl alcohol; CH3CH2CH(CH3)CH2OH; L-2-Methyl-1-butanol; dl-2-Methyl-1-butanol ... SVOC MegaMix 100 Kit: 1 mL/ampul; 3 ampuls/kit. CLP 04.1 B/N MegaMix Standard, Revision 2, 1000 ug/mL, Methylene Chloride, 1 mL ... 515.4 Methylated Chlorinated Acids Mix, MTBE, 1 mL/ampul. Appendix IX Mix #1, Revised, 2000 ug/mL ea. in Methylene Chloride, 1 ... New York Pesticide Kit, 1 mL/ampul, 8 ampuls/kit. GC Multiresidue Pesticide Standard #7 Herbicide Methyl Esters, 100 ug/mL, ...
Brendan Allen1, Sabrina Fechtner2, Meagan Chriswell3, Widian Jubair1, M. Aaron Vrolijk1, V. Michael Holers4 and kristine Kuhn1 ... 3,3-dimethyl-1-butanol and Its Metabolite 3,3-dimethylbutyrate Ameliorate Arthritis Severity in CIA Independent of Choline TMA ... Allen B, Fechtner S, Chriswell M, Jubair W, Vrolijk M, Holers V, Kuhn k. 3,3-dimethyl-1-butanol and Its Metabolite 3,3- ... On day 21 post-initial immunization, mice were left untreated (CIA), treated with 1% (v/v) DMB in drinking water (DMB), or ...
Results: While 3-methyl-1-butanol baited traps did capture An. gambiae s.l. in this study, we did not find traps baited with ... To test the role of 3-methyl-1-butanol in luring Anopheles mosquitoes, two traps were set in each land-use site (village, ... In this study, we evaluate the role of the synthetic compound, 3-methyl-1-butanol in combination with field produced CO(2) in ... Previous studies have isolated volatiles from the human skin microbiota and found the compound 3-methyl-1-butanol to be the ...
1-Butanol] .We manufacture and distribute chemical reagents for research use only or various antibodies. ...
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Butanol 2:1: 7.6 to 0 dex; Phospholipase A 10 mcg/ml: 7.0 to 2.3 dex (6) ... 2:1 After Treatment Titer. 1.8 dex Control Titer. 7.0 dex Lipid Solvent (deoxycholate). 0.1% After Treatment Titer. 2.8 dex ... 2:1 After Treatment Titer. 3.6 dex Control Titer. 7.0 dex Lipid Solvent (chloroform). ...
... bio-Butanol), although petro-Butanol also exists, i.e., Butanol produced from fossil fuels. In the research project DiBut (with ... Like Ethanol, Butanol is a biomas-based renewable fuel that can be produced by alcoholic fermentation of sugar beet, sugar can ... Butanol, a four-carbon alcohol, is considered in the last years as an interesting alternative fuel, both for Diesel and for ... support of BfE and BAFU) addition of Butanol to Diesel fuel is investigated from the points of view of engine combustion, of ...
Butanol, n-. 71-36-3. Liquid. imm. Butyl alcohol, n-. 71-36-3. Liquid. imm. ... With the exception of models TF 611T, QS 127T and QC 125T with option code DC, as of January 1, 2006, all DuPont™ Tychem® ... C with a hood and 1°C without a hood. ...
IUPAC Standard InChI: InChI=1S/C6H12O2/c1-3-6(2)4-8-5-7/h5-6H,3-4H2,1-2H3 Copy ...
Butanol (C. 4H. 9OH) is formed by ABE fermentation (acetone, butanol, ethanol) and experimental modifications of the process ... "Butanol.com. 15 August 2005. Archived from the original on 10 July 2019. Retrieved 14 July 2010.. ... Escherichia coli strains have also been successfully engineered to produce butanol by modifying their amino acid metabolism.[16 ... Biologically produced alcohols, most commonly ethanol, and less commonly propanol and butanol, are produced by the action of ...
2-amino-1-butanol 227-475-9 5856-62-2 Cease Manufacture Intermediate Joint Cease manufacture 10-04-2017 View substance ...
These pre-registration intentions were submitted to ECHA between 1 June and 1 December 2008. Use this list to find other ... 1,3,4,14b-tetrahydro-2,7-dimethyl-2H-dibenzo[b,f]pyrazino[1,2-d]oxazepine maleate ... 2Z,4E,7S)-1-iminio-11-methoxy-3,7,11-trimethyl-2,4-dodecadien-1-yl)dioxidanide ... 1,2,3,4,4a,9-hexahydro-2-methyldibenzo[c,f]pyrimido[1,6-a]azepine fumarate ...
  • The largest use of 1-butanol is as an industrial intermediate, particularly for the manufacture of butyl acetate (itself an artificial flavorant and industrial solvent). (wikipedia.org)
  • A variety of butanol derivatives are used as solvents, e.g. butoxyethanol or butyl acetate. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1.1 This specification covers n-butyl alcohol (butanol). (astm.org)
  • Isomers of 1-butanol are isobutanol, butan-2-ol and tert-butanol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two of its isomers, n-Butanol (1-butanol) and iso-Butanol can be considered for use in spark ignition (SI) engines. (bfh.ch)
  • Butan-1-ol is one of the "fusel alcohols" (from the German for "bad liquor"), which include alcohols that have more than two carbon atoms and have significant solubility in water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Background: Branched-chain higher alcohols (BCHAs), including isobutanol and 2-methyl-1-butanol, are promising advanced biofuels, superior to ethanol due to their higher energy density and better compatibility with existing gasoline infrastructure. (illinois.edu)
  • The oxygen content of Butanol has similar advantages, like with other alcohols: tendency of less CO & HC, but possibility of increasing NO x (depending on engine parameters setting). (bfh.ch)
  • Biologically produced alcohols , most commonly ethanol, and less commonly propanol and butanol , are produced by the action of microorganisms and enzymes through the fermentation of sugars or starches (easiest), or cellulose (which is more difficult).The IEA estimates that ethanol production used 20% of sugar supplies and 13% of corn supplies in 2021. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1-Butanol occurs naturally as a minor product of the ethanol fermentation of sugars and other saccharides and is present in many foods and drinks. (wikipedia.org)
  • Butanol at 85 percent strength can be used in cars designed for gasoline without any change to the engine (unlike 85% ethanol), and it provides more energy for a given volume than ethanol, almost as much as gasoline. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, a vehicle using butanol would return fuel consumption more comparable to gasoline than ethanol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like Ethanol, Butanol is a biomas-based renewable fuel that can be produced by alcoholic fermentation of sugar beet, sugar can, corn, wheat (bio-Butanol), although petro-Butanol also exists, i.e. (bfh.ch)
  • Butanol, a four-carbon alcohol, is a candidate alternative fuel, with properties closer to gasoline than Ethanol. (bfh.ch)
  • The biorefineries producing cellulosic ethanol from wood or agricultural residues can be retrofitted to enable the production of butanol, which is actually practiced in US. (bfh.ch)
  • We then increased the flux through these pathways by making gene deletions of BAT1, ALD6, and PHO13, to develop a strain (YZy197) that produces as much as 4 g/L of BCHAs (3.10 ±- 0.18 g isobutanol/L and 0.91 ±- 0.02 g 2-methyl-1-butanol/L) from xylose. (illinois.edu)
  • This represents approximately a 28-fold improvement on the highest isobutanol titers obtained from xylose previously reported in yeast and the first report of 2-methyl-1-butanol produced from xylose. (illinois.edu)
  • Field Evaluation of Synthetic Lure (3-methyl-1-butanol) When Compared to Non Odor-Baited Control in Capturing Anopheles Mosquitoes in Varying Land-Use Sites in Madagascar. (pivotworks.org)
  • and recommended 3-methyl-1-butanol as a compound to increase An. (pivotworks.org)
  • In this study, we evaluate the role of the synthetic compound, 3-methyl-1-butanol in combination with field produced CO(2) in attracting Anopheles mosquitoes in varying land-use sites in Madagascar. (pivotworks.org)
  • To test the role of 3-methyl-1-butanol in luring Anopheles mosquitoes, two traps were set in each land-use site (village, agricultural sites, and forested habitats affiliated with each village). (pivotworks.org)
  • While 3-methyl-1-butanol baited traps did capture An. (pivotworks.org)
  • Our findings suggest that trapping mosquitoes near livestock in malaria endemic regions, such as Madagascar, may be more successful at capturing Anopheles mosquitoes than the proposed 3-1-methyl-butanol lure. (pivotworks.org)
  • and those of SN wine were 1-butanol, 1-hexanol, 2-butenoic acid ethyl ester, and 3-methyl-1-butanol. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Butanol can be produced via furan hydrogenation over Pd or Pt catalyst at high temperature and high pressure.https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlehtml/2014/gc/c3gc41183d Constituting 85% of its use, 1-butanol is mainly used in the production of varnishes. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the transparent, amorphous sample is treated with 1-butanol, it becomes white, and the MALDI signal returns. (nist.gov)
  • 1-Butanol, also known as butan-1-ol or n-butanol, is a primary alcohol with the chemical formula C4H9OH and a linear structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Butanol, a four-carbon alcohol, is considered in the last years as an interesting alternative fuel, both for Diesel and for Gasoline application. (bfh.ch)
  • 1-Butanol is used as an ingredient in processed and artificial flavorings, and for the extraction of lipid-free protein from egg yolk, natural flavouring materials and vegetable oils, the manufacture of hop extract for beermaking, and as a solvent in removing pigments from moist curd leaf protein concentrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inelastic Neutron Scattering spectrum of 1-Butanol crystalline, C4H9OH, measured on the TOSCA instrument. (stfc.ac.uk)
  • Butanol is considered as a potential biofuel (butanol fuel). (wikipedia.org)
  • DMB and its predicted metabolite, DMBut, were detected in the liver and serum, suggesting systemic effects, and both significantly reduced arthritis severity and circulating IL-1β and IL-6, but not circulating anti-CII antibodies, compared to untreated CIA mice. (acrabstracts.org)
  • RESULTS: Among individuals who did not currently use tobacco (148 cases/163 controls), two acrolein metabolites, two acrylonitrile metabolites, one propylene oxide metabolite and one 1,3-butadiene metabolite were significantly associated with incident ESCC (adjusted ORs between 1.8 and 4.3). (cdc.gov)
  • The aqueous and 50% ethanolic extracts of A. catechu stem bark were prepared and 50% ethanolic extract was further fractioned by successively partitioning with petroleum ether, chloroform and n-butanol. (nih.gov)
  • MALDI samples containing mass fraction 1% polystyrene (PS) are run in both the crystalline and amorphous states. (nist.gov)
  • Research in the past few decades showed results of other microorganisms that can produce butanol through fermentation. (wikipedia.org)
  • P-ρ-T Data and Modeling for Propan-1-ol + n-Octane or n-Nonane or n-Decane from 313.15 K to 363.15 K and 1 MPa to 20 MPa. (acs.org)
  • 1-Butanol has been proposed as a substitute for diesel fuel and gasoline. (wikipedia.org)
  • NNAL is a product formed after 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) enters the body. (cdc.gov)
  • We collected preshift and postshift urine samples on 114 NP casino dealers to determine whether levels of ETS biomarkers (Cotinine (COT) and 4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL)) in their urine would increase over an 8-hour work shift. (cdc.gov)
  • METHODS: We measured 2 metabolites, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and its glucuronides (NNAl-Gluc) in the urine of males who were either current CS or WPS, and their wives exposed to either cigarette or waterpipe smoke in a sample of 46 subjects from rural Egypt. (who.int)
  • Experimental liquid densities of decane and of CO 2 (1) + decane (2) binary mixtures (at five different compositions, x 1 = 0.0551, 0.2369, 0.4536, 0.8114, and 0.9663) were measured from (313 to 363) K and at pressures up to 25 MPa. (acs.org)
  • Butanol can also be added to diesel fuel to reduce soot emissions. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the research project DiBut (with support of BfE and BAFU) addition of Butanol to Diesel fuel is investigated from the points of view of engine combustion, of influences on exhaust aftertreatment systems and of non-legislated emissions of cars in transient operation. (bfh.ch)
  • According to the present invention, 1-(2-t-butylcyclohexyloxy)-2-butanol having a woody or amber-like fragrance as a perfume material and excellent fragrance notes can be obtained in a high purity because of a small remaining amount of a reaction intermediate and in a high yield. (epo.org)
  • 3-Hydroxy Benzoic Acid (98-99%), 4 Chloro 1 Butanol. (needsinfo.com)
  • Stimulation of BMDMs with LPS in the presence of DMB or DMBut significantly reduced secretion of IL-1β and IL-6. (acrabstracts.org)
  • The effect of n-butanol fraction on the induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines secretion in Vk2/E6E7 cells and transepithelial resistance in Caco-2 and HEC-1A cells was investigated. (nih.gov)
  • The n-butanol fraction did not cause an enhanced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines in Vk2/E6E7 cells. (nih.gov)
  • 1-Butanol is also formed during deep frying of corn oil, cottonseed oil, trilinolein, and triolein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Butanol can also be blended to the Diesel fuel. (bfh.ch)
  • The good miscibility (also with Diesel fuel), lower hygroscopicity and lower corrosivity make Butanol an interesting alternative. (bfh.ch)
  • The project focuses on the application of butanol-blends in Diesel engines only. (bfh.ch)
  • A second method for producing butanol involves the Reppe reaction of propylene with CO and water: CH3CH=CH2 + H2O + 2 CO → CH3CH2CH2CH2OH + CO2 In former times, butanol was prepared from crotonaldehyde, which can be obtained from acetaldehyde. (wikipedia.org)
  • If you or someone you are with has an exposure, call the local emergency number (such as 911), or the local poison control center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere in the United States. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Butanol can also be produced by fermentation of biomass by bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prior to the 1950s, Clostridium acetobutylicum was used in industrial fermentation to produce butanol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Butan-1-ol occurs naturally as a result of carbohydrate fermentation in a number of alcoholic beverages, including beer, grape brandies, wine, and whisky. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pomegranate ( Punica granatum ), a native of Western Asia and Mediterranean countries, is a fruit with a worldwide consumption containing compounds beneficial to health 1 . (nature.com)
  • METHODS: We performed multiple regression analysis of longitudinal measures of urinary biomarkers of alkaloids, tobacco-specific nitrosamines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds (VOC), and metals to examine the sample-to-sample consistency in Waves 1 and 2 of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study including demographic characteristics and use behavior variables of persons who smoked exclusively. (cdc.gov)
  • NNAL saliva and urine biomarker for SHSe (table 1). (cdc.gov)
  • [ 1 , 2 ] This figure only accounts for deaths caused by intoxication and does not include cases in which an intoxicant was found that did not cause death. (medscape.com)
  • Clostridium produces much higher yields of butanol. (wikipedia.org)
  • The results presented here show a potential anti-HIV-1 activity of A. catechu mediated by the inhibition of the functions of the viral protein and Tat. (nih.gov)
  • Methods for the determination of benzidine in biological samples are summarized in Table 7-1. (cdc.gov)
  • and [2] a perfume composition containing 1-(2-t-butylcyclohexyloxy)-2-butanol obtained by the foregoing method. (epo.org)
  • Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data 2019 , 64 (1) , 273-285. (acs.org)
  • Thus, we investigated modulation of TMAO production as a therapeutic target in CIA using the choline TMA lyase inhibitors 3,3-diemthyl-1-butanol (DMB) and fluoromethylcholine (FMC). (acrabstracts.org)
  • Since the 1950s, most 1-butanol is produced by the hydroformylation of propene (oxo process) to preferentially form the butyraldehyde n-butanal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) shows that the 1-butanol treatment leads to the return of some of the crystallinity. (nist.gov)
  • Differences in Detection of DNA Adducts in the 32P-Postlabelling Assay After Either 1-Butanol Extraction or Nuclease Pl Treatment. (epa.gov)
  • 6-week-old male DBA/1j mice were immunized at days 0 and 21 with bovine type II collagen (CII) in complete Freund's adjuvant and either left untreated or treated with 1% (vol/vol) DMB, 1% (vol/vol) 3,3-dimethylbutyrate (DMBut), or 100mg/kg FMC. (acrabstracts.org)
  • On day 21 post-initial immunization, mice were left untreated (CIA), treated with 1% (v/v) DMB in drinking water (DMB), or treated with 1% (v/v) DMBut in drinking water (DMBut). (acrabstracts.org)
  • This was for two reasons: (1) mice have a thin olfactory nerve layer compared to rats and this will favor drug access to the glomerular layer, and (2) transgenic G-CaMP2 mice express the fluorescent calcium sensor protein G-CaMP2 in mitral cells. (jneurosci.org)
  • The active n-butanol fraction was evaluated for its inhibition against HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, integrase, protease, pro-viral genome integration and viral Tat protein mediated transactivation. (nih.gov)