Butanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of butanol (C4H9OH).1-Butanol: A four carbon linear hydrocarbon that has a hydroxy group at position 1.ButanesClostridium acetobutylicum: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, used for the industrial production of SOLVENTS.Clostridium beijerinckii: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, capable of solventogenesis, and isolated from SOIL, infected WOUNDS, fermenting OLIVES, and spoiled CANDY.Nitrosamines: A class of compounds that contain a -NH2 and a -NO radical. Many members of this group have carcinogenic and mutagenic properties.Pentanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of pentanol (C5H11OH).Phospholipase D: An enzyme found mostly in plant tissue. It hydrolyzes glycerophosphatidates with the formation of a phosphatidic acid and a nitrogenous base such as choline. This enzyme also catalyzes transphosphatidylation reactions. EC 3.1.4.4.1-Propanol: A colorless liquid made by oxidation of aliphatic hydrocarbons that is used as a solvent and chemical intermediate.Clostridium: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.Acetone: A colorless liquid used as a solvent and an antiseptic. It is one of the ketone bodies produced during ketoacidosis.Biofuels: Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).Hexanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of hexanol (C6H11OH).1-Octanol: A colorless, slightly viscous liquid used as a defoaming or wetting agent. It is also used as a solvent for protective coatings, waxes, and oils, and as a raw material for plasticizers. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Glucuronates: Derivatives of GLUCURONIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the 6-carboxy glucose structure.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Alcohol Dehydrogenase: A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.Phosphatidic Acids: Fatty acid derivatives of glycerophosphates. They are composed of glycerol bound in ester linkage with 1 mole of phosphoric acid at the terminal 3-hydroxyl group and with 2 moles of fatty acids at the other two hydroxyl groups.Cotinine: The N-glucuronide conjugate of cotinine is a major urinary metabolite of NICOTINE. It thus serves as a biomarker of exposure to tobacco SMOKING. It has CNS stimulating properties.Metabolic Engineering: Methods and techniques used to genetically modify cells' biosynthetic product output and develop conditions for growing the cells as BIOREACTORS.Oxygen Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of oxygen that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. O atoms with atomic weights 13, 14, 15, 19, and 20 are radioactive oxygen isotopes.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.European Union: The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)EuropeAdvance Directives: Declarations by patients, made in advance of a situation in which they may be incompetent to decide about their own care, stating their treatment preferences or authorizing a third party to make decisions for them. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Hazardous Substances: Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.Inorganic Chemicals: A broad class of substances encompassing all those that do not include carbon and its derivatives as their principal elements. However, carbides, carbonates, cyanides, cyanates, and carbon disulfide are included in this class.Organic Chemicals: A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.Sulfonium Compounds: Sulfur compounds in which the sulfur atom is attached to three organic radicals and an electronegative element or radical.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Chemistry, Organic: The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Alkanes: The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Electrons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.Coordination Complexes: Neutral or negatively charged ligands bonded to metal cations or neutral atoms. The number of ligand atoms to which the metal center is directly bonded is the metal cation's coordination number, and this number is always greater than the regular valence or oxidation number of the metal. A coordination complex can be negative, neutral, or positively charged.Search Engine: Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.Alkane 1-Monooxygenase: A P450 oxidoreductase that catalyzes the hydroxylation of the terminal carbon of linear hydrocarbons such as octane and FATTY ACIDS in the omega position. The enzyme may also play a role in the oxidation of a variety of structurally unrelated compounds such as XENOBIOTICS, and STEROIDS.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Safety: Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.Accidents, Occupational: Unforeseen occurrences, especially injuries in the course of work-related activities.Databases, Chemical: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific chemicals.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.tert-Butyl AlcoholAlcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Reflex, Babinski: A reflex found in normal infants consisting of dorsiflexion of the HALLUX and abduction of the other TOES in response to cutaneous stimulation of the plantar surface of the FOOT. In adults, it is used as a diagnostic criterion, and if present is a NEUROLOGIC MANIFESTATION of dysfunction in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.AcrylatesAcetamides: Derivatives of acetamide that are used as solvents, as mild irritants, and in organic synthesis.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Access to Information: Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)

Alcohol-induced biphasic inhibition of myosin subfragment 1 K-EDTA-ATPase. (1/210)

Butanol-induced inhibition of K-EDTA-ATPase of myosin subfragment 1 proceeded by biphasic kinetics, consisting of rapid and slow inactivations. The extent of the rapid inactivation, which was estimated by extrapolating the process of slow inactivation to zero time of the incubation period, was saturated with butanol concentration. Recovery of activity by dilution in the rapid phase indicates that the rapid process is reversible. The slow inactivation was concomitant with a partial denaturation of the 50 kDa domain of S1, which was detected by limited tryptic digestion. Other alcohols (methanol, ethanol, propanol and hexanol) also inhibited the K-EDTA-ATPase in the rapid phase. The Ki decreased with an increase in the number of methylene groups of alcohol. When K-EDTA-ATPase activity in the rapid phase was plotted against viscosity, surface tension or dielectric constant, the curves were different for each of the various alcohol solutions. The rapid inactivation appears to be caused by a binding of the alkyl group to S1, rather than by solvent effects. The kinetics of rapid butanol inhibitions indicate that butanol reduces the maximum activity of ATPase but enhances an apparent affinity of S1 with ATP. These indications suggest that alcohol stabilizes S1.KATP intermediate. The rapid K-EDTA-ATPase inhibition was observed at the same alcohol concentration where S1 Mg-ATPase was activated.  (+info)

Lysophosphatidic acid increases intracellular H2O2 by phospholipase D and RhoA in rat-2 fibroblasts. (2/210)

We have investigated the possible roles of phospholipase D (PLD) and RhoA in the production of intracellular H2O2 and actin polymerization in response to lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) in Rat-2 fibroblasts. LPA increased intracellular H2O2, with a maximal increase at 30 min, which was blocked by the catalase from Aspergillus niger. The LPA-stimulated production of H2O2 was inhibited by 1-butanol or PKC-downregulation, but not by 2-butanol. Purified phosphatidic acid (PA) also increased intracellular H2O2 and the increase was inhibited by the catalase. The role of RhoA was studied by the scrape-loading of C3 transferase into the cells. The C3 toxin, which inhibited stress fiber formation stimulated by LPA, blocked the H2O2 production in response to LPA or PA, but had no inhibitory effect on the activation of PLD by LPA. Exogenous H2O2 increased F-actin content by stress fiber formation. In addition, catalase inhibited actin polymerization activated by LPA, PA, or H2O2, indicated the role of H2O2 in actin polymerization. These results suggest that LPA increased intracellular H2O2 by the activation of PLD and RhoA, and that intracellular H2O2 was required for the LPA-stimulated stress fiber formation.  (+info)

beta-glycosidase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus: structure and activity in the presence of alcohols. (3/210)

beta-Glycosidase from the extreme thermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus is a tetrameric protein with a molecular mass of 240 kDa, stable in the presence of detergents, and with a maximal activity at temperatures above 95 degrees C. Understanding the structure-activity relationships of the enzyme under different conditions is of fundamental importance for both theoretical and applicative purposes. In this paper we report the effect of methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, and 1-butanol on the activity of S. solfataricus beta-glycosidase expressed in Escherichia coli. The alcohols stimulated the enzyme activity, with 1-butanol producing its maximum effect at a lower concentration than the other alcohols. The structure of the enzyme was studied in the presence of 1-butanol by circular dichroism, and Fourier-transform infrared and fluorescence spectroscopies. Circular dichroism and steady-state fluorescence measurements revealed that at low temperatures the presence of the alcohol produced no significant changes in the tertiary structure of the enzyme. However, time-resolved fluorescence data showed that the alcohol modifies the protein microenvironment, leading to a more flexible enzyme structure, which is probably responsible for the enhanced enzymatic activity.  (+info)

Diversity in butane monooxygenases among butane-grown bacteria. (4/210)

Butane monooxygenases of butane-grown Pseudomonas butanovora, Mycobacterium vaccae JOB5, and an environmental isolate, CF8, were compared at the physiological level. The presence of butane monooxygenases in these bacteria was indicated by the following results. (i) O(2) was required for butane degradation. (ii) 1-Butanol was produced during butane degradation. (iii) Acetylene inhibited both butane oxidation and 1-butanol production. The responses to the known monooxygenase inactivator, ethylene, and inhibitor, allyl thiourea (ATU), discriminated butane degradation among the three bacteria. Ethylene irreversibly inactivated butane oxidation by P. butanovora but not by M. vaccae or CF8. In contrast, butane oxidation by only CF8 was strongly inhibited by ATU. In all three strains of butane-grown bacteria, specific polypeptides were labeled in the presence of [(14)C]acetylene. The [(14)C]acetylene labeling patterns were different among the three bacteria. Exposure of lactate-grown CF8 and P. butanovora and glucose-grown M. vaccae to butane induced butane oxidation activity as well as the specific acetylene-binding polypeptides. Ammonia was oxidized by all three bacteria. P. butanovora oxidized ammonia to hydroxylamine, while CF8 and M. vaccae produced nitrite. All three bacteria oxidized ethylene to ethylene oxide. Methane oxidation was not detected by any of the bacteria. The results indicate the presence of three distinct butane monooxygenases in butane-grown P. butanovora, M. vaccae, and CF8.  (+info)

Short-chain alcohols promote an early stage of membrane hemifusion. (5/210)

Hemifusion, the linkage of contacting lipid monolayers of two membranes before the opening of a fusion pore, is hypothesized to proceed through the formation of a stalk intermediate, a local and strongly bent connection between membranes. When the monolayers' propensity to bend does not support the stalk (e.g., as it is when lysophosphatidylcholine is added), hemifusion is inhibited. In contrast, short-chain alcohols, reported to affect monolayer bending in a manner similar to that of lysophosphatidylcholine, were here found to promote hemifusion between fluorescently labeled liposomes and planar lipid bilayers. Single hemifusion events were detected by fluorescence microscopy. Methanol or ethanol (1.2-1.6 w/w %) added to the same compartment of the planar bilayer chamber as liposomes caused a 5-50 times increase in the number of hemifusion events. Alcohol-induced hemifusion was inhibited by lysophosphatidylcholine. Promotion of membrane hemifusion by short-chain alcohol was also observed for cell-cell fusion mediated by influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA). Alcohol promoted a fusion stage subsequent to the low pH-dependent activation of HA. We propose that binding of short-chain alcohol to the surface of membranes promotes hemifusion by facilitating the transient breakage of the continuity of each of the contacting monolayers, which is required for their subsequent merger in the stalk intermediate.  (+info)

Trp-Lys-Tyr-Met-Val-D-Met is a chemoattractant for human phagocytic cells. (6/210)

Trp-Lys-Tyr-Met-Val-D-Met (WKYMVm) is a synthetic peptide that stimulates phosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis in human leukocytes. The peptide binds to a unique cell surface receptor(s). Recently we had demonstrated that human neutrophils, monocytes, and B lymphocytes express this peptide-specific receptor and that stimulation of human leukocytes with the peptide leads to activation of the oxidative respiratory system and the bactericidal activity of neutrophils or monocytes. In this study we showed that the peptide induces chemotaxis of phagocytic leukocytes and studied the signaling pathway leading to chemotaxis in human monocytes. The peptide-induced monocyte chemotaxis is pertussis toxin (PTX)-sensitive. This fact correlates with the peptide's stimulation of PI hydrolysis and intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) release, which is also PTX-sensitive. We demonstrate that the peptide-specific receptor is different from receptor(s) for monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). We also show that intracellular signaling of WKYMVm leading to monocyte chemotaxis is different from that of MCP-1. The peptide-mediated monocyte chemotaxis is insensitive to protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor (GF109203X) and butan-1-ol, ruling out PKC and phospholipase D participation in this process. On the other hand, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (genistein) and RhoA inhibitor (C3 transferase) curtailed the peptide-induced chemotaxis in a concentration-dependent manner, implying the involvement of tyrosine kinase and RhoA, respectively. Treatment of human monocytes with the peptide stimulates tyrosine phosphorylation of several cellular proteins, including p125FAK and Pyk2 and translocation of RhoA from the cytosol to the membrane. We conclude that WKYMVm induces chemotaxis of human phagocytic leukocytes via unique receptors and signaling.  (+info)

Ethanol increases superoxide anion production stimulated with 4beta-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Involvement of protein kinase C. (7/210)

Stimulation of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) with PMA initiates a cascade of events leading to the production and release of superoxide anion (O-2), a major component in anti-bacterial defense. Generation of O-2 by PMA-stimulated PMNs occurs through the translocation and activation of protein kinase C (PKC). In this study, using freshly isolated PMNs, we examined the effect of ethanol on this response to PMA. Our results show that the basal production of O-2 was not affected by ethanol. In contrast, the response induced by PMA was potentiated by ethanol. This potentiation was observed even at high doses of PMA (200 nM) which alone had stimulated the O-2 response maximally. This enhanced response was not due to an increase of PMA uptake by PMNs. The maximal effect was obtained when the cells were preincubated with 80 mM of ethanol before PMA stimulation. Measurement of PKC activity in the cytosolic and membrane fractions showed that pretreatment of PMNs with ethanol increased twofold the PMA-stimulated PKC activity in the membrane fraction. Furthermore, Western blot analysis verified that this increase in PKC activity in the membrane fraction was linked to an increase in the translocation of PKC-alpha and -beta isoforms to the membrane. These results suggest that ethanol potentiates PMA-induced O-2 production through increasing PKC translocation and activity in PMNs.  (+info)

General anesthetic action at an internal protein site involving the S4-S5 cytoplasmic loop of a neuronal K(+) channel. (8/210)

The structural bases of general anesthetic action on a neuronal K(+) channel were investigated using the series of homologous 1-alkanols, electrophysiology, and mutational analysis. Domain swapping between dShaw2 (alkanol-sensitive) and hKv3.4 (alkanol-resistant) and site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated that a 13-amino acid cytoplasmic loop (S4-S5) determines the selective inhibition of native dShaw2 channels by 1-alkanols. The S4-S5 loop may contribute to a receptor for both 1-alkanols and the inactivation particle, because the enhanced 1-alkanol sensitivity of hKv3.4 channels hosting S4-S5 mutations correlates directly with disrupted channel inactivation. Evidence of a discrete protein site was also obtained from the analysis of the relationship between potency and alkyl chain length, which begins to level off after 1-hexanol. Rapid application to the cytoplasmic side of inside-out membrane patches shows that the interaction between dShaw2 channels and 1-alkanols equilibrates in <200 ms. By contrast, the equilibration time is >1000-fold slower when the drug is applied externally to outside-out membrane patches. The data strongly favor a mechanism of inhibition involving a discrete internal site for 1-alkanols in dShaw2 K(+) channels. A new working hypothesis proposes that 1-alkanols lock dShaw2 channels in their closed conformation by a direct interaction at a crevice formed by the S4-S5 loop.  (+info)

Plasticizers. The N-butanol report provides the past, present and future industry trends and the forecast information related to the expected N-butanol sales revenue, N-butanol growth, N-butanol demand and supply scenario. Furthermore, the opportunities and the threats to the development of N-butanol market are also covered at depth in this research document.. Initially, the N-butanol manufacturing analysis of the major industry players based on their company profiles, annual revenue, sales margin, growth aspects is also covered in this report, which will help other N-butanol market players in driving business insights.. To Download A Sample Of The Report Click Here: http://qyresearch.us/report/global-n-butanol-market-2017/82805/#requestForSample. Key Emphasizes Of The N-butanol Market:. The fundamental details related to N-butanol industry like the product definition, cost, variety of applications, demand and supply statistics are covered in this report.. Competitive study of the major ...
The Asia-Pacific region was the worlds largest market of n-butanol with a share of 51.3% in terms of volume in 2014. China was the key consumer of n-butanol in the Asia-Pacific region in 2014. It is also the biggest import market of n-butanol. Almost 15.0% demand was met by imports from other regions including Russia, Taiwan, Malaysia, the U.S., and Germany in 2014. Though various projects received approvals for the construction of n-butanol manufacturing facilities in China, some are already under construction; however, the production deficit is still expected to exist in the near future. It reflects a significant deficit in the production of n-butanol in China. The market players may take it as an opportunity to establish their plants within the country to serve the highly growing n-butanol market ...
ABSTRAK: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui aktivitas antioksidan secara in vitro dan mengidentifikasi golongan senyawa flavonoid yang terkandung dalam fraksi n-butanol ekstrak kulit terong belanda. Uji aktivitas antioksidan dilakukan dengan metode DPPH. Pemisahan dan pemurnian fraksi aktif n-butanol dilakukan dengan kromatografi kolom menggunakan silika gel yang dielusi dengan n-butanol-etil asetat-asam asetat 10% (2:7:1) dan diidentifikasi dengan spektrofotometer UV-Vis dan FTIR. Fraksi n-butanol memiliki aktivitas antioksidan yang kuat dengan nilai IC50 sebesar 69,89 mg/L. Empat senyawa flavonoid (isolat A, C, H, dan J) berhasil diisolasi dan diidentifikasi sebagai golongan flavon, flavonol dan isoflavon. Senyawa tersebut dipercaya memiliki aktivitas antioksidan. ABSTRACT: The present study was conducted to determine in vitro antioxidant activity and ctivity and to identify flavonoid class of compounds present in n-butanol active fraction of Terong Belanda (Solanum betaceum cav.) peel ...
On October 10, 2016, the Brazilian government initiated a sunset review on the antidumping duty applied to imports of n-butanol originating from the Unites States of America. The product currently under investigation is classified in the Mercosur Common Nomenclature as (NCM) 2905.13.00.. The antidumping duty currently applied to imports of n-butanol is US$ 272,12 per ton.. For further information on the investigation, please contact Sideras Team at [email protected] or +55 (11) 3168.0650.. ...
The MEK1 kinase is required for early stages of Golgi fragmentation during mitosis, but its downstream effectors have been elusive. The ER/Golgi‐localized protein Myt1 is inactivated in a MEK1‐dependent manner to promote Golgi membrane fragmentation and mitotic entry. ...
One of the most controversial parts of the threshold is that its decided by the judge after a jury has already made their verdict. Meaning that, after the jury has decided on an award at the conclusion of a trial, the defense can bring a threshold motion in front of the judge alone.. The judge isnt bound by the verdict of the jury and will have to determine whether or not the injuries breach the threshold test. In the threshold test, the judge will asses the plaintiffs injuries in three parts.. First, the judge will consider whether the impairment caused by the injuries can be considered permanent. In order to asses this, theyll look at the plaintiffs medical records and history of treatment. Theyll also take into consideration witness testimony.. Second, the judge will consider whether the impairment caused by the injuries can be considered serious. Seriousness is more subjective and difficult to define but, generally, the judge will look at how the impairment has impacted the plaintiffs ...
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By altering the microbes metabolism, engineers were able to induce a tenfold jump in production of n-butanol, a greener fuel alternative to diesel and ...
Batch fermentation was performed to investigate the effects of pH and temperature on the butanol production of Clostridium pasteurianum DSM 525 using a synthetic medium containing glycerol as a sole source of carbon and energy. C. pasteurianum DSM 525 showed a good growth at the initial glycerol concentration of 40 g/L, the temperature of 37 ℃, and a pH range from 5.0 to 6.5. The growth rate and the proportion of butanol among the fermentation products increased as the culture pH decreased, but the final glycerol consumption decreased at lower pHs, probably due to the reduced tolerance to butanol at lower pHs. The growth rate and the proportion of butanol increased as the temperature of the medium increased from 25, to 30, and to 37 ℃. However, more butanol was produced at lower temperatures (18.7, 16.8, and 11.5 g/L of butanol were finally produced at the temperatures of 25, 30, and 37 ℃, respectively), probably due to the reduced toxicity of butanol at lower temperatures. These results ...
Factorial design and response surface techniques were used in combination with mathematical modelling and computational simulation to optimise an innovative industrial bioprocess, the production of biobutanol employing the flash fermentation technology. A parametric analysis performed by means of a full factorial design at two levels determined the influence of operating variables on butanol yield and productivity. A second set of simulations were carried out based on the central composite rotatable design. This procedure generated simplified statistical models that describe butanol yield and productivity as functions of the significant operating variables. From these models, response surfaces were obtained and used to optimise the process. For a range of substrate concentration from 130 to 180 g/l, the optimum operating ranges ensure butanol productivity between 7.0 and 8.0 g/l h, butanol yield between 19 and 22%, substrate conversion above 90% and final butanol concentration around 25 g/l. (C) ...
Butan-1-ol (nom sistemàtic), n-Butanol, n-butil alcohol,normal butanol o n-alcohol butílic és un alcohol primari, que és un dels isòmers del butanol. La seva fórmula molecular és C4H10O. Entre els seus isòmers es troben lisobutanol, 2-butanol, i tert-butanol. És un dels alcohols que tenen més de dos carbonis i una significativa solubilitat dins laigua.. El n-Butanol apareix de forma natural com a producte menor de la fermentació alcohòlica dels sucres i altres carbohidrats,[1] i es troba en molts aliments i begudes.[2][3] Als Estats Units està permès el seu ús com saboritzant artificial,[4] es fa servir en la mantega, crema, fruits, rom,whiskey, gelats, caramels productes de panificació i licors.[5] També es fa servir en molts productes de consum.[2]. Lús principal del n-butanol és industrial particularment per manufacturar acetat de butil (el qual és un saboritzant i un solvent industrial). Sobté de la indústria petroquímica a partir del propilè, cal rodi per fer-ho. ...
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Butanol is an important biofuel and chemical. The development of butanol-tolerant strains and the identification of functional butanol-tolerant genes is essential for high-yield bio-butanol production due to the toxicity of butanol. Escherichia coli BW25113 was subjected for the first time to error-prone PCR-based whole-genome shuffling. The resulting mutants BW1847 and BW1857 were found to tolerate 2% (v/v) butanol and short-chain alcohols, including ethanol, isobutanol, and 1-pentanol. The mutants exhibited good stability under butanol stress, indicating that they are potential host strains for the construction of butanol pathways. BW1847 had better butanol tolerance than BW1857 under 0-0.75% (v/v) butanol stress, but showed a lower tolerance than BW1857 under 1.25-2% (v/v) butanol stress. Genome resequencing and PCR confirmation revealed that BW1847 and BW1857 had nine and seven single nucleotide polymorphisms, respectively, and a common 14-kb deletion. Functional complementation experiments of the
Dow and Johnson Matthey (JM) announced that China-based company, Guangxi Huayi New Material Company Ltd. (Huayi), has selected LP OxoSM SELECTORTM 10 Technology to produce butanol at a new manufacturing facility. Under this license, the plant will be built at Huayis integrated petrochemical complex in Qinzhou Port, P.R. China with an annual butanol capacity of 300,000 metric tonnes per annum. LP OxoSM SELECTORTM 10 Technology, licensed through Dow and JM, enables the efficient production of butanol with low capital investment and operating cost. Dow and JM provide its licensees customised plant designs, performance warranties, technical support pre- and post-plant start-up, ongoing technology updates, and more. To date, the suite of LP OxoSM Technology has been licensed into a significant number of projects across 15 countries, representing a majority of the worlds oxo alcohols capacity licensed over the past 45 years. "Our Licensing & Catalyst technologies continue to be an important platform ...
Visit ChemicalBook To find more (2R,3R)-2-AMINO-3-PHENYLMETHOXY-1-BUTANOL(160841-03-2) information like chemical properties,Structure,melting point,boiling point,density,molecular formula,molecular weight, physical properties,toxicity information,customs codes. You can also browse global suppliers,vendor,prices,Price,manufacturers of (2R,3R)-2-AMINO-3-PHENYLMETHOXY-1-BUTANOL(160841-03-2). At last,(2R,3R)-2-AMINO-3-PHENYLMETHOXY-1-BUTANOL(160841-03-2) safety, risk, hazard and MSDS, CAS,cas number,Use,cas no may also be you need.
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Pabrik butil asetat dari butanol dan asam asetat dengan kapasitas 20.000 ton/tahun didirikan di kawasan Industri Gresik, Jawa Timur. Pabrik beroperasi selama 330 hari efektif, 24 jam per hari. Bahan baku berupa asam asetat 99% diperoleh dari PT Indo Acidatama di Karang Anyar sebanyak 1513.7295 kg/jam yang disimpan pada Tangki (T-01) pada T=30 0 C, P=1atm dan butanol 98% diperoleh dari PT Petro Oxo Nusantara di Gresik sebanyak 9334.6654 kg/jam disimpan dalam Tangki (T-02) pada T=30 0 C, P=1 atm, Sedangkan asam sulfat 98% didatangkan dari PT. Petrokimia Gresik (T-03) . Reaktor yang digunakan adalah Reaktor Alir Tangki Berpengaduk, reaktor beroperasi pada T= 100 o C dengan tekanan 1 atm. Reaksi antara butanol dan asam asetat menjadi butil asetat merupakan reaksi yang bersifat eksotermis. Untuk menjaga agar suhu tetap pada 100 o C, maka reaktor dilengkapi dengan sistem pendingin coil. Hasil reaksi yang keluar dari reaktor (R-01) berupa larutan butil asetat dan larutan reaktan sisa. Selanjutnya ...
Ethanol gets a lot of attention as the biofuel of choice in America. But BP claims that butanol will provide greater benefits than ethanol and is betting at least some of their chips on it as the gasoline-alternative to watch out for. Butanols advantages over ethanol arise from its gasoline-like properties. A
Why does this amaze me? Chemical companies like Celanese (my former employer), Dow, BASF, Eastman - oil companies like BP and Shell - and numerous other companies around the world produce butanol. They have big research budgets, and they would love to find an economical direct gasification route to butanol. These companies have looked at probably thousands of catalysts, and people have spent their careers working on this problem. The challenge is that syngas (produced from gasification) doesnt like to form butanol. You can form a little bit directly, but CO (carbon monoxide) likes to do lots of things besides form a C4 alcohol like butanol.. Methanol is not a problem. You can also produce ethanol, which is what Range Fuels is planning on doing (although you almost always have methanol to deal with as well). But the selectivity falls off sharply as you go to higher alcohols. By the time you get to butanol, you are lucky if 5% of the product is butanol. More typical is 1-2%. See this NREL report ...
1-Butanol Industry report provides a basic overview of the industry including definitions, applications and industry chain structure. Global market analysis and Chinese domestic market analysis are provided with a focus on history, developments, trends and competitive landscape of the market. A comparison between the international and Chinese situation is also offered.. Browse full report with TOC : http://www.qyresearchreports.com/report/global-and-china-1-butanol-industry-2013-market-research-report.htm. Global and China 1-butanol Industry Report focuses on development policies and plans for the industry as well as a consideration of a cost structure analysis. Capacity production, market share analysis, import and export consumption and price cost production value gross margins are discussed.. Download Sample Report: http://www.qyresearchreports.com/sample/sample.php?rep_id=175636&type=E. A key feature of this report is it focus on major industry players, providing an overview, product ...
... This report was created for strategic planners, international marketing executives - Market research report and industry analysis - 9213152
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Send Inquiry to Cosmic Chemicals - We are leading Manufacturer of N-Butanol, Polyvinylpyrrolidone, 2-ethylhexanol, Butyl Cellosolve, Fulvic Acid from Ahmedabad Gujarat India.
Engineering microbes to capture carbon dioxide to produce organic chemicals, especially butanol for use as a fuel for cars and trucks, would be better than raising and then fermenting corn or other crops for that same end use, according to Derek Lovley of the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. He and his collaborators described projects aimed to produce such materials at several poster sessions during the 2014 ASM General Meeting in Boston last May.
OptKnock algorithm was used as part of a study in RobOKoD: microbial strain design for (over)production of target compounds. (http://fairdomhub.org/publications/236). It was used to generate a strain of e.coli for producing butanol, that was then compared to an experimental strain. ...
Cyanobacterial 1-butanol production is an important model system for direct conversion of CO2 to fuels and chemicals. Metabolically-engineered cyanobacteri
(R)-(-)-3-METHYL-2-BUTANOL | C5H12O | CID 638099 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
4-Amino-2-methyl-4-phenyl-2-butanol | C11H17NO | CID 26748 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
(S)-2-Amino-3-methyl-1-butanol/ACM2046484 can be provided in Alfa Chemistry. We are dedicated to provide our customers the best products and services.
L-2-Amino-3-methyl-1-butanol hydrochloride/ACM17016896 can be provided in Alfa Chemistry. We are dedicated to provide our customers the best products and services.
Learn more about 3-3-dimethyl-2-butanol. We enable science by offering product choice, services, process excellence and our people make it happen.
[4-Chloro-1-butanol] [928-51-8] | Buy and find out price and availability, MSDS, properties of TCIs high quality specialty chemicals.
You are viewing an interactive 3D depiction of the molecule 4-(dimethylamino)-3-methyl-1,2-diphenyl-1-butanol (C19H25NO) from the PQR.
1491116-15-4 - 1-Butanol, 4-cyclohexylidene-3-methyl- - Searchable synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
Andre navne: n-Butylalkohol, n-butanol, 1-hydroxybutan, butan-1-ol. (Eng.: n-Butyl alcohol, butyl alcohol, propyl carbinol). Butan-1-ol er en prim r alkohol der bl.a. forekommer i gylle.. MV= 74,12 g/mol; SMP= -90oC; KP= 117-118oC; densitet: 0,81 g/cm3; Flammepunkt= 35oC; log Ko/w: 0,88; CAS-nummer: 71-36-3. Se ogs artiklen om organiske opl sningsmidler.. Butan-1-ol. ...
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Professor Aadrian van Heiningen and Tom Granström with a team of scientists at Aalto University in Finland and associated with the University of Maine in the U.S. have developed a process to make fuel grade butanol and other industrial chemicals from wood biomass. Butanol is particularly suitable as a transport fuel because it is not ...
Ghose, A.K.; Viswanadhan V.N. & Wendoloski, J.J. (1998). „Prediction of Hydrophobic (Lipophilic) Properties of Small Organic Molecules Using Fragment Methods: An Analysis of AlogP and CLogP Methods". J. Phys. Chem. A. 102: 3762-3772. doi:10.1021/jp980230o ...
Přihlaste se k odběru našeho newsletteru. Budeme vás informovat o všech zajímavých akcích a slevách, které chystáme. A slibujeme, že zpravodaj budeme posílat jen občas, abychom nezahltili vaše e-mailové schránky. Pokud se vám zpravodaj přestane líbit, máte možnost se kdykoli odhlásit.. ...
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A team at the BioEnergy Science Center (BESC) announced that it succeeded to produce isobutanol directly from cellulose. It is the first time anyone does that.. The process presents several advantages, including saving time and money. Besides, isobutanol is a higher-grade of alcohol than ethanol.. ...
Isobutanol Market is projected to reach USD 1.56 bn by 2027 registering a CAGR of 6.4%. The rising market for isobutanol through diverse end-use industries, including oil & gas & chemical intermediates, is anticipated to enhance its production over the forecast period.
Bar graphs indicate the probability of selected flight category element. The color represents the difference (using 10% thresholds between categories) between the probability and the threshold required to make a categorical forecast. Solid black lines indicate the threshold value at each hour ...
Bar graphs indicate the probability of selected flight category element. The color represents the difference (using 10% thresholds between categories) between the probability and the threshold required to make a categorical forecast. Solid black lines indicate the threshold value at each hour ...
Prithvi Shaw has been handed an eight-month ban for doping offence. We take a look at the whole episode and the lessons learnt from it.
The propylene production with 1-butanol co-feeding for methanol in relation to propylene process (MTP) at 440-490 ̊C temperature range and at 0.9-15 hr-1 WHSV range over H-ZSM-5 zeolite catalyst is assessed in a isothermal fixed-bed reactor. The feedings here are of: pure 1-butanol, pure methanol and a 1-butanol and methanol mixture. The effect of 1-butanol co-feeding on selectivity of propylene is assessed through RSM an experimental design method. The results indicate that the selectivity of propylene is 69% in the feed mixture of 13, 37 and 50 wt% of 1-butanol, methanol and water, respectively. The optimum conditions to obtain high level of propylene selectivity is suggested to be at 480 ̊C, WHSV of 0.9 hr-1 and 1-butanol concentration of 0.135 wt.% through RSM method. The sensitivity analysis of the RSM method reveals that the WHSV is the most effective parameter on the propylene selectivity with a P-value of 0.003.
There is provided the compound 4-azido-4,4-dinitro-1-butanol (ADNBOH) and a method for making same which comprises reacting trinitromethane and acrolein at a reduced temperature to provide 4,4,4-trinitrobutyraldehyde (TNBA1), reducing the TNBSI to provide 4,4-trinitro-1-butanol (TNBOH) which is further reduced to provide 4,4-dinitro-1-butanol (DNBOH), reacting the DNBOH with acetyl chloride to provide 4,4-dinitro-1-butyl acetate (DNBAc), reacting the DNBAc with an alkali metal azide in an electrolysis cell to provide 4-azido-4,4-dinitro-1-butyl acetate (ADNBAc) and reacting the ADNBAc with a lower alcohol and recovering the 4-azido-4,4-dinitro-1-butanol (ADNBOH). Also provided are several azidodinitro derivatives of 4-azido-4,4-dinitro-1-butanol and methods for making same. Butanol, Nitro radicals, Azides. Patents. (mjm)*AZIDES
Overall, 1-butanol was produced in S. elongatus using a pathway from another organism. This pathway was modified in order to ... 100 (763): 1-17. doi:10.1007/b136411. Pollak, N; C Dolle; M Ziegler (2006). "The power to reduce: pyridine nucleotides - small ... This pathway synthesizes 1-butanol using the reverse β-oxidation pathway. The enzymes involved in this newly engineered pathway ... An engineered pathway was created to make 1-butanol from Acetyl-CoA by changing enzymes in the metabolic pathway of S. ...
Lan, Ethan I.; Liao, James C. (July 2011). "Metabolic engineering of cyanobacteria for 1-butanol production from carbon dioxide ... One example is the production of 1-butanol in Synechococcus elongatus using enzymes from Clostridium acetobutylicum, ...
... and NADH-dependent butanol dehydrogenases EC 1.1.1.- (genes adh1, bdhA and bdhB), enzymes that have activity using butanol and ... "Molecular characterization of two Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 butanol dehydrogenase isozyme genes". Journal of ... 281 (1-2): 59-63. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(91)80358-A. PMID 2015910. Truniger V, Boos W (Mar 1994). "Mapping and cloning of gldA, ... 78 (1): 20-31. doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfh057. PMID 14718645. Farrés J, Moreno A, Crosas B, Peralba JM, Allali-Hassani A, Hjelmqvist ...
2-diphenyl-2-butanols" (PDF). Journal of the American Chemical Society. 75 (18): 4458-4461. doi:10.1021/ja01114a019. Archived ... Pohland, A.; Sullivan, H. R. (1953). "Analgesics: Esters of 4-Dialkylamino-1, ...
Algae biofuels such as butanol and methanol are produced both at laboratory and commercial scales. This method has benefited ... 46 (1-2): 52-66. doi:10.1002/anie.200602373. PMID 17103469.. *^ Giacomo Ciamician, The Photochemistry of the Future. In: ... 1-xZn. xS photocatalysts. Cd. 1-xZn. xS solid solution reports high activity in hydrogen production from water splitting under ... 1 (1-2): 26-58. doi:10.1002/cssc.200700087. PMID 18605661.. *^ Fujishima, Akira; Rao, Tata N.; Tryk, Donald A. (29 June 2000). ...
Butanol (C. 4H. 9OH) is formed by ABE fermentation (acetone, butanol, ethanol) and experimental modifications of the process ... "Butanol.com. 2005-08-15. Retrieved 2010-07-14.. *^ Evans, Jon (14 January 2008). "Biofuels aim higher". Biofuels, Bioproducts ... DuPont and BP are working together to help develop butanol. Escherichia coli strains have also been successfully engineered to ... Butanol will produce more energy and allegedly can be burned "straight" in existing gasoline engines (without modification to ...
Designations such as isopropanol, sec-butanol, and tert-butanol are incorrect because there are no hydrocarbons isopropane, sec ... 1 (5849): 357. ISSN 0007-1447. PMC 1588210. PMID 4265463.. *^ a b c d e Slaughter RJ, Mason RW, Beasley DM, Vale JA, Schep LJ ( ... Together with ethanol, n-butanol, and methanol, it belongs to the group of alcohol solvents, about 6.4 million tonnes of which ... 36 (1): 17-9. doi:10.1002/jps.3030360105. PMID 20285822.. *^ Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine (1922). Proceedings ...
S)-iPr-PHOX - an oxazoline ligand made using valinol Sigma-Aldrich Co., 2-Amino-3-methyl-1-butanol. Retrieved on 2014-10-22. ...
Others include N′-nitrosoanatabine (NAT) and N-nitrosoanabasine (NAB). NNK and its metabolite 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3- ... pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) are potent systemic lung carcinogens in rats. Tumors of the nasal cavity, liver, and pancreas are ...
Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation is a process that uses bacterial fermentation to produce acetone, n-Butanol, and ... The production of butanol by biological means was first performed by Louis Pasteur in 1861. In 1905, Austrian biochemist Franz ... ABE fermentation is attracting renewed interest with an eye on butanol as a renewable biofuel. Mark R. Wilkins and Hasan Atiye ... Recent advances in ABE fermentation: hyper-butanol producing Clostridium beijerinckii BA101. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 27(5): ...
n-Butanol (C. 4). *1-Pentanol (C. 5). *1-Hexanol (C. 6) ... The Haworth reaction is a classic method for the synthesis of 1 ... Rev. 1: 73. doi:10.1039/cs9720100073.. *^ Eyley, S. C. (1991). "The Aliphatic Friedel-Crafts Reaction". Compr. Org. Synth. 2: ... 48 (1): 1122-1133. doi:10.1002/cber.191504801156.. *^ J. Houben (1926). Über die Kern-Kondensation von Phenolen und Phenol- ... 978-0-08-052349-1. .. *^ Heaney, H. (1991). "The Bimolecular Aromatic Friedel-Crafts Reaction". Compr. Org. Synth. 2: 733-752. ...
2-diphenyl-2-butanol". Journal of Organic Chemistry. 38 (10): 1870-1877. doi:10.1021/jo00950a020. Morrison, James D.; Mosher, ... e e = ( [ α ] o b s / [ α ] m a x ) × 100 {\displaystyle \ ee=([\alpha ]_{obs}/[\alpha ]_{max})\times 100} (1) The enantiomeric ... the specific rotation of enantiopure 1-phenylethanol can be enhanced by the addition of achiral acetophenone as an impurity. ... 1 {\displaystyle \ R+S=1} Enantiomeric excess is used as one of the indicators of the success of an asymmetric synthesis. For ...
86: 1-10. doi:10.1016/j.phrs.2014.04.001. Chapman, Kent; Venables, Barney; Markovic, Robert; Blair Jr, Raymond; Bettinger, ... 96 (1-4): 114-20. doi:10.1016/j.prostaglandins.2011.07.002. PMC 3215906 . PMID 21810478. Magotti P, Bauer I, Igarashi M, ... N-Oleoylethanolamine is the amide of oleic acid (18:1) and ethanolamine. It has anorexic effects and enables fat breakdown by ... In plants NAE 18:1 is present abundantly in dry seeds and levels decline during seed imbibition, but its physiological ...
Today, the ink is usually made on the basis of alcohols (e.g. 1-propanol, 1-butanol, diacetone alcohol and cresols). Markers ...
159 (1): 167-182. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.1961.sp006799. "Stung - How tiny little insects get us to do exactly as they wish". J.O ... The Scientific Monthly 15(1): 68-88 European hornet protection site (in English) (also available in French, German, Russian, ... Three biologically active chemicals, 2-pentanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, and 1-methylbutyl 3-methylbutanoate, have been identified ...
If the molecules are almost identical chemically, e.g., 1-butanol and 2-butanol, then the solution will be almost ideal. Since ... 1 bar, or as the pressure of the mix to ease operations. On substituting the value of p i {\displaystyle p_{i}} from Raoult's ...
CN in a solvent of 2-butanol, propylene glycol, cyclohexene, and dipropylene glycol methyl ether. Chemical Mace was originally ... Leu, Chelsea (1 July 2017). "What's Inside Triple-Action Mace? Chili Peppers and UV Dye". Wired. Retrieved 2 July 2017. Aronson ...
1-butanol and pyridine were used as the mobile phase in this particular scale and glycine was used as the reference value. ... 105 (1976) 1. M. A. Moret, G. F. Zebende, Phys. Rev. E 75 (2007) 011920; J. C. Phillips, Phys. Rev. E 80 (2009) 051916. R .S. ... 14 (1959) 1. Charton, M. and Charton, B.I. (1982) J. Theor. Biol., 99, 629-644. Kyte J, Doolittle RF (May 1982). "A simple ... 157 (1): 105-32. doi:10.1016/0022-2836(82)90515-0. PMID 7108955. Eisenberg D (July 1984). "Three-dimensional structure of ...
The original 1899 publication concerned the conversion of n-butanol to 2-ethylhexanol. The alcohols derived from this reaction ... In one study 1-pentanol is reacted with an iridium dehydrogenation catalyst (Cp* stands for the pentamethylcyclopentadiene ... A small amount of the diene 1,7-octadiene is required as a proton acceptor. Guerbet alcohols 2-Ethyl-1-butanol 2-Ethylhexanol 2 ... 1-ol 2-Butyl-1-octanol 2-Butyl-1-octanol Marcel Guerbet (1909). "Condensation de l'alcool isopropylique avec son dérivé sodé; ...
... n-butanol, 1-octanol, hexylacetate, octylacetate and 2-nonanol. These components have a low molar mass and evaporate quickly. ... The pheromone contains more than 40 different compounds, including pentylacetate, butyl acetate, 1-hexanol, ...
For example, among the alcohols, ethanol has two carbon atoms and is miscible with water, whereas 1-butanol with four carbons ...
2008, 27, 1. "Parabens". U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Archived from the original on 2011-10-30. Retrieved 2011-10-31. " ... Mice administered butylparaben at 0.01-1% body weight for ten weeks showed a decrease in serum testosterone concentration and ... "Agents Classified by the IARC Monographs, Volumes 1-109" (PDF). International Agency for Research on Cancer. "The Royal Danish ... Pages 163-180, Print ISBN 978-0-8493-1453-7, eBook ISBN 978-1-4200-0332-1 doi:10.3109/9781420003321-12 "Parabens". Vashon ...
n-Butanol (C. 4). *1-Pentanol (C. 5). *1-Hexanol (C. 6) ... An amyl alcohol is any of 8 alcohols with the formula C5H12O.[1 ... The name amyl alcohol without further specification applies to the normal (straight-chain) form, 1-pentanol. ... Three of these alcohols, active amyl alcohol (2-methylbutan-1-ol), methyl (n) propyl carbinol (pentan-2-ol), and methyl ...
It was mainly used as a solvent for tribromoethanol, forming "avertin fluid" at a 0.5 : 1 ratio of TAA to TBE. TAA was rarely ... 49 (1): 15-28. doi:10.1093/toxsci/49.1.15. PMID 10367338. Soehring, K.; Frey, H.H.; Endres, G. (1955). "Relations between ... ISBN 1-56670-223-2. Hans Brandenberger & Robert A.A. Maes, ed. (1997). Analytical Toxicology for Clinical, Forensic and ... 2-Methyl-1-butanol Alcohols Amyl alcohol Pentanols Ethchlorvynol Methylpentynol Anxiolytics and Ethanol Alternatives, ...
... may refer to: tert-Amyl alcohol (2-methylbutan-2-ol) Isoamyl alcohol (3-methylbutan-1-ol) 2-Methyl-1-butanol 3- ... Methyl-2-butanol. ...
2-Metil-2-butanol • Acekarbromal • Acetofenon • Apronal • Bromidi • Bromizoval • Karbromal • Hloralosa • Klometiazol • ... Postoji šest izomera, svaki od kojih ima molekulsku težinu od 113,115 i formulu C5H7NO2.[1] Piperidindioni su u osnovi mnoštva ... 1,4-Butandiol • Acebuterna kiselina • GABOB • Gama-hidroksibuterna kiselina • GBL • gama-Valerolakton ...
102.177 g·mol−1 Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa). ... 3,3-Dimethyl-1-butanol (DMB) is a structural analog of choline.[1] ... DMB is found in some balsamic vinegars, red wines, and some cold-pressed extra virgin olive oils and grapeseed oils.[1] ... Mice showed no evidence of toxicity to chronic (16-week) DMB exposure.[1] ...
2002, Vol.31, No.1, p.79-98. 41 ref.. Abstract. Animal experiments show isoamyl alcohol (3-methyl-1-butanol) to be an irritant ...
... n-Butanol; n-Butyl alcohol; Butyl hydroxide; CCS 203; Hemostyp; Methylolpropane; Propylcarbinol; n-C4H9OH; Butanol; Butan-1-ol ... 1-Hydroxybutane; Alcool butylique; Butanolo; Butylowy alkohol; Butyric alcohol; Propylmethanol; Butanolen; 1-Butyl alcohol; ... Rcra waste number U031; Butanol-1; NSC 62782 * Permanent link for this species. Use this link for bookmarking this species for ... Other names: Butyl alcohol; n-Butan-1-ol; ... 1.) Enter the desired X axis range (e.g., 100, 200) 2.) Check ...
2-butanol, tert-butanol, and isobutanol. These butanol isomers, which occur naturally as products of fermentation, are ... ... 2-butanol, tert-butanol, isobutanol / published under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations Environment Programme, the ... tert-Butanol : health and safety guide  International Programme on Chemical Safety; World Health Organization (‎World Health ... Laboratory evaluation of the molluscicidal potency of a butanol extract of Phytolacca dodecandra (‎endod)‎ berries  ...
2-Methyl-2-butanol Lide, David R. (1998), Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (87 ed.), Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, pp. 3-374, 5- ... 2-Methyl-1-butanol (IUPAC name, also called active amyl alcohol) is an organic chemical compound. It is one of the components ... 2-Methyl-1-butanol is a component of many mixtures of amyl alcohols sold industrially. 2-Methyl-1-butanol can be derived from ...
2-Ethyl-1-butanol (IUPAC name: 2-ethylbutan-1-ol) is an organic chemical compound. It can be used to facilitate the separation ... 2-Ethyl-1-butanol is manufactured industrially by the aldol condensation of acetaldehyde and butyraldehyde, followed by ... The branching in 2-ethyl-1-butanol makes it harder to crystalize due to packing disruption, which results in a very low ... Esters of 2-ethyl-1-butanol are similarly effected and it therefore finds application as a feedstock in the production of ...
NNAL is a product formed after 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) enters the body. NNK belongs to a group of ... Substance Profile-4-(N-Nitrosomethylamino)-1-(3-Pyridyl)-1-Butanonepdf iconexternal icon ...
Looking for TCI AMERICAS 3-Methyl-1-Butanol,25mL (19KC07)? Graingers got your back. Price:$26.40. Easy ordering & convenient ...
... n-Butanol, Butyl alcohol; Linear Formula: C4H10O; find Sigma-Aldrich-900639 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical ... 1-Butanol anhydrous, ZerO2®, 99.8%; CAS Number: 71-36-3; EC Number: 200-751-6; Synonym: 1-Butanol ZerO2®, Degassed and low ... 1-Butanol anhydrous, ZerO2®, 99.8% Synonym: 1-Butanol ZerO2®, n-Butanol, Butyl alcohol, Degassed and low oxygen 1-butanol ...
EINECS is an inventory of substances that were deemed to be on the European Community market between 1 January 1971 and 18 ...
2-amino-1-butanol. Regulatory process names 7 IUPAC names 3 Other identifiers 2 ... 215-540-4, is covered by three harmonisations: 005-011-00-4; 005-011-01-1 and 005-011-02-9), CLH information cannot be ...
... butanol, n-butanol, butyl alcohol, n-butyl alcohol, 1-hydroxybutane, propylcarbinol, butyl hydroxide, propylmethanol, ... butanol, n-butanol, butyl alcohol, n-butyl alcohol, 1-hydroxybutane, propylcarbinol, butyl hydroxide, propylmethanol, ... DOTInformation : Transport Hazard Class: 3; Packing Group: III; Proper Shipping Name: BUTANOLS ... 1-Butanol is used as a solvent for many organic reactions in pharmaceutical and chemical industry, as a solvent in coating ...
2,2-Dimetil-1-butanol je organsko jedinjenje, koje sadrži 6 atoma ugljenika i ima molekulsku masu od 102,175 Da. ... Преузето из „https://sr.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=2,2-Dimetil-1-butanol&oldid=8819195" ...
1-Butanol-4,4,4-d3 98 atom % D; CAS Number: 64156-70-3; Synonym: Butyl-4,4,4-d3 alcohol; Linear Formula: C4D3H7O; find Sigma- ... 1-Butanol-4,4,4-d3 98 atom % D Synonym: Butyl-4,4,4-d3 alcohol ...
1-Butanol, 4-chloro-, 1-methanesulfonate. CAS information. CAS number:. 26910-61-2. Molecular and structural information. ...
... n-butanol 3. 2-butanol 4. tert-butanol alcohol 5. pentane 6. hexanes I know that the forces include- dipole-dipole, ion-dipole ... 2-butanol is mixed with an equal volume of a 0.720 M solution of racemic 2-butanol, and the resulting solution is analyzed in a ... how do you convert 50 microliters of 2 butanol to moles? chemistry. what are the structures and iupac names of the isomers of 2 ... Use the following information to find Hf of butanol [C4H9OH(l)]. C4H9OH(l) + 6 O2(g) 4 CO2(g) + 5 H2O(g) Hcomb = -2712.9 Hf of ...
1-Butanol , C4H9OH or C4H10O , CID 263 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, ...
1-Amino-2-butanol , C4H11NO , CID 26107 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents ...
1-propanol + dibutyl ether (DBE)} and (water + 1-butanol + DBE) were determined at T = (293.15, 303.15, 308.15) K under... ... 1.. Tynjälä, P., Pakkanen, T.T., Mustamäki, S.: Modification of ZSM-5 zeolite with trimethyl phosphite. 2. Catalytic properties ... Cháfer, A., de la Torre, J., Lladosa, E., Montón, J.B.: Liquid-liquid equilibria of 4-methyl-2-pentanone + 1-propanol or 2- ... Çehreli, S., Özmen, D., Dramur, U.: (Liquid + liquid) equilibria of (water + 1-propanol + solvent) at T = 298.2 K. Fluid Phase ...
Andre navne: n-Butylalkohol, n-butanol, 1-hydroxybutan, butan-1-ol. (Eng.: n-Butyl alcohol, butyl alcohol, propyl carbinol) ... Butan-1-ol er en prim r alkohol der bl.a. forekommer i gylle. ...
Compositions and lures are described which provide 3-alkyl-1-butanol vapors and vapor blends of 3-alkyl-1-butanol with one or ... Butanol), or in McPhail traps baited with torula yeast in field trails conducted in Palin, Guatemala. Bars headed by the ... Butanol), and McPhail traps baited with torula yeast in field trials conducted in Palin, Guatemala. Bars headed by the same ... butanol), ammonium acetate and putrescine (SB), or ammonium acetate, putrescine and 3-methyl-1-butanol (SB+ ...
Plasma (1 mL) was placed in a 10-mL glass conical tube with a Teflon-lined cap, and the pH was adjusted to 6 to 7 if necessary ... Analysis of Total 4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-Pyridyl)-1-Butanol in Smokers Blood. Steven G. Carmella, Shaomei Han, Peter W. ... 1) are present in unburned tobacco and tobacco smoke (1, 2). NNK is a potent lung carcinogen in rats, inducing tumors ... 1) and its glucuronides (NNAL-Glucs) are metabolites of NNK in rodents and humans, and numerous studies have quantified levels ...
... phenol Isolated from Butanol Fraction of ,i,Cordyceps bassiana,/i, ... phenol Isolated from Butanol Fraction of Cordyceps bassiana. Figure 3. Apoptosis-inducing effects of KTH-13 in C6 glioma cells ... Antiproliferative and Apoptosis-Inducing Activities of 4-Isopropyl-2,6-bis(1-phenylethyl) ...
of mixtures of 1-butanol or iso-butanol or t-butanol with equimolar mixture of (N,N-dimethylacetamide + Ethyl acrylate) over ... Acoustic and Volumetric Properties of Mixture of (N,N-Dimethylacetamide + Ethyl Acrylate) with 1-Butanol or iso-Butanol or t- ... Butanol at 308.15 K. M. Kondaiah,1 K. Sreekanth,2 D. Sravana Kumar,3 and D. Krishna Rao4 ... 1NM Govt. Degree College, Medak District, Jogipet, India. 2PBN College, Guntur District, Nidubrolu, India. 3SVLNS Govt. Degree ...
Enzymatic Biodiesel Synthesis by the Biphasic Esterification of Oleic Acid and 1-Butanol in Microreactors. Hommes, A., de Wit, ... N2 - The enzymatic esterification of oleic acid and 1-butanol to butyl oleate was performed in an aqueous-organic system in ... AB - The enzymatic esterification of oleic acid and 1-butanol to butyl oleate was performed in an aqueous-organic system in ... Enzymatic Biodiesel Synthesis by the Biphasic Esterification of Oleic Acid and 1-Butanol in Microreactors. / Hommes, Arne; de ...
  • 1-Butanol is used as a solvent for many organic reactions in pharmaceutical and chemical industry, as a solvent in coating industries and also used as a diluent/reactant in the manufacture of urea-formaldehyde and melamine-formaldehyde resins. (fishersci.ca)
  • Çehreli, S., Özmen, D., Dramur, U.: (Liquid + liquid) equilibria of (water + 1-propanol + solvent) at T = 298.2 K. Fluid Phase Equilib. (springer.com)
  • Although the ABE fermentation is considered as a promising process for butanol production, current drawbacks in the ABE fermentation include low titer, yield, and productivity of solvent production that needs to be improved to achieve an economically viable process. (illinois.edu)
  • However, M. extorquens AM1 is vulnerable to solvent stress, which impedes further development for 1-butanol production. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This research will be useful for uncovering the mechanism of cellular response of M. extorquens AM1 to solvent stress, and will provide the genetic blueprint for the rational design of a strain of M. extorquens AM1 with increased 1-butanol tolerance in the future. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Basic Organic Chemicals 1 Butanol With Low Price Product description 1 butanol is a colorless odorless liquid with a boiling point of 117 7 C and slightly soluble in water It is a solvent for a variety of coatings and a raw material for the plasticizer dibutyl phthalate see phthalate ester and is also used in the. (zgshenyu.com)
  • APELBLAT, A. Liquid- Liquid Distribution Equilibrium in the Ternary system: Citric Acid - 2-Butanol - Water at 298.15 K. Solvent Extraction and Ion Exchange. (brazilianjournals.com)
  • Distribution coefficients and separation factors of 1-propanol in the mixtures were calculated and are discussed. (springer.com)
  • Ghanadzadeh, H., Ghanadzadeh, A., Bahrpaima, K.: Measurement and prediction of tie-line data for mixtures of (water + 1-propanol + diisopropyl ether): LLE diagrams as a function of temperature. (springer.com)
  • Compositions and lures are described which provide 3-alkyl-1-butanol vapors and vapor blends of 3-alkyl-1-butanol with one or more compounds selected from the group consisting of acetic acid, ammonia, putrescine and mixtures which function as highly effective attractants for frugivorous pest flies especially of Anastrepha species. (patentgenius.com)
  • Demixing pressures of the ternary and quaternary mixtures, (1-butanol-water-CO2) and ([C(4)mim][NTf1-butanol-water CO2), were determined for a few compositions and temperatures. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • d) chemically converting the butyrate, butyric acid, caproate, caproic acid or mixtures thereof to the butanol and hexanol. (google.com)
  • tert-butanol alcohol 5. (jiskha.com)
  • To gain deeper insights into the mode of mobilization of TAG during NAE 12:0 or 1-butanol treatment, we conducted a detailed comparative analysis of the effect of NAE 12:0, DMSO, 1-butanol and tert -butanol on Arabidopsis seed germination and fatty acid composition, tert -butanol and DMSO served as the corresponding controls treatment respectively. (kib.ac.cn)
  • Our data show that 1-butanol, but not the inactive tert -butanol isomer, inhibited Arabidopsis seed germination, which is accompanied by a with retardation of the mobilization of triacylglycerols (TAG). (kib.ac.cn)
  • AM1 as a future industrial microorganism, a 1-butanol synthesis pathway was established in M. extorquens AM1 by diverting part of the native crotonyl-CoA flux from the EMC pathway to 1-butanol production. (washington.edu)
  • When KMnO acts as an oxidizing agent when it comes in contact with 1 butanol, 2 butanol and t- butyl which of these agents will become primary, secondary or tertiary alcohol? (markedbyteachers.com)
  • Oxidizing alcohols By: Toufa Bouchouar Partner's name: Adrian Date: March 20, 2006 Teacher name: Ms. Sommer When KMnO acts as an oxidizing agent when it comes in contact with 1 butanol, 2 butanol and t- butyl which of these agents will become primary, secondary or tertiary alcohol? (markedbyteachers.com)
  • 1 butanol was a primary alcohol which had a reaction time of 44 seconds and started with a primary alcohol then went to an aldehyde and finally a carboxylic acid. (markedbyteachers.com)
  • A strain overexpressing Treponema denticola trans-enoyl-CoA reductase, Clostridium acetobutylicum alcohol dehydrogenase, and native crotonase was able to generate the highest 1-butanol titer (15.2 mg l -1 ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Each of the two major impurities 1-butanol as di-n-butyl ether and the minor impurity butanoic acid contains an oxygen atom.Alcohol Dehydration of 4-methylpentanol (a)based on the mechanism of the reaction, explain why (E) and (Z) 4-methylpentenes and the 2-methylpentene are the three major alkene products. (billsimas.com)
  • abstract = "The enzymatic esterification of oleic acid and 1-butanol to butyl oleate was performed in an aqueous-organic system in capillary microreactors with various inner diameters operated under slug flow. (rug.nl)
  • The purpose of this investigation was to examine the ability of single-phase aqueous solutions of 1-butanol to release immunoprotective tumor antigen activity from partially purified plasma membranes of the methylcholanthrene-induced fibrosarcoma, MCA-F. Tumor antigen activity was assessed by s.c. immunization of syngeneic C3H/HeJ mice 10 days prior to supralethal challenge. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The structure and the sorption properties of partially hydrophobized silicates (dodecylammonium and dodecyldiammonium vermiculites) have been investigated in aqueous solutions of 1-butanol. (elsevier.com)
  • In aqueous butanol solutions, the basal spacing of dodecylammonium vermiculite gradually increases with the extent of butanol adsorption because the chains increasingly point away from the surface. (elsevier.com)
  • If the heat of combustion of 1-butanol (C4H9OH) is 2,710 kJ/mol, what mass of oxygen is consumed when enough 1-butanol is burned to yield 26,400 kJ of energy? (jiskha.com)
  • A close to 100{\%} yield of butyl oleate could be achieved in the microreactor made of polytetrafluoroethylene within 30 min residence time at 30 °C. The reaction rate is well described by the existing kinetic model based on a Ping Pong Bi Bi mechanism with competitive inhibition of 1-butanol. (rug.nl)
  • Augmentation of antigen yield was also observed when plasma membranes were pretreated with colchicine prior to 2.5% butanol extraction. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Second, product diversification in the ABE fermentation producing butyl esters was carried out through simultaneous ABE fermentation, condensation, and extraction to compensate the low yield of butanol. (illinois.edu)
  • One of them stems from a Langmuir-Hinshelwood-Hougen-Watson (LHHW) formalism in which two adsorbed molecules of 1-butanol react to yield ether and water, being the reversible surface reaction the rate limiting step. (ub.edu)
  • Both alcohols are obtained by the hydrogenation of the respective phenyl substituted 1-alkanols. (perfumerflavorist.com)
  • High purity 99 Ethylene glycol cas 107 21 1 Product description Ethylene Glycol also known as glycol is the simplest aliphatic glycol with the chemical properties of alcohols such as the formation of ether ester can be oxidized to form aldehyde or acid can condensation to form ether They can be replaced by halogens. (zgshenyu.com)
  • The feedings here are of: pure 1-butanol, pure methanol and a 1-butanol and methanol mixture. (ac.ir)
  • The results indicate that the selectivity of propylene is 69% in the feed mixture of 13, 37 and 50 wt% of 1-butanol, methanol and water, respectively. (ac.ir)
  • Esters of 2-ethyl-1-butanol are similarly effected and it therefore finds application as a feedstock in the production of plasticizers and lubricants, where its presence helps reduce viscosity and lower freezing points. (wikipedia.org)
  • FT-IR spectrum of 2-butyl palmitate showed absorbance at 1743.90 cm-1 attribute for C = O vibrational stretching by ester group and the absorbance at 1377.57 cm-1 and 1176.65 cm-1 attribute for CO vibrational derived from fatty acid esters. (usu.ac.id)
  • Liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) date for the ternary systems of {water + 1-propanol + dibutyl ether (DBE)} and (water + 1-butanol + DBE) were determined at T = (293.15, 303.15, 308.15) K under atmospheric pressure. (springer.com)
  • Pirahmadi, F., Dehghani, M.R., Behzadi, B.: Experimental and theoretical study on liquid-liquid equilibrium of 1-butanol + water + NH 4 Cl at 298.15, 308.15 and 318.15 K. Fluid Phase Equilib. (springer.com)
  • The liquid-liquid equilibrium of the [C(4)mim][NTf1-butanol system presents upper critical solution temperature (UCST) behaviour. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Predict change in temperature for 1-butanol, CHSCH2CH2CH2OH, if same experiment were using 1-butanol? (jiskha.com)
  • IR-visible sum-frequency generation (IV-SFG) vibrational spectroscopy and a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation were used to study the local layering order at the interface of 1-butanol-d 9 and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim]PF 6 ), a room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL). (rsc.org)
  • The propylene production with 1-butanol co-feeding for methanol in relation to propylene process (MTP) at 440-490 ̊ C temperature range and at 0.9-15 hr -1 WHSV range over H-ZSM-5 zeolite catalyst is assessed in a isothermal fixed-bed reactor. (ac.ir)
  • Also included are polyaldehydes such as those of the general formula ##STR8## where R" is alkylene, cycloalkylene, arylene, heterocyclic, etc., for example of the general formula ##STR9## where n= 1-18 or more, for example succinaldehyde, etc. (google.es)
  • PWSs will monitor for 10 List 1 cyanotoxins during a 4-consecutive month period from March 2018 through November 2020. (epa.gov)
  • PWSs will monitor for 20 List 1 additional contaminants during a 12-month period from January 2018 through December 2020. (epa.gov)
  • The information on this page is current as of April 1 2018 . (fda.gov)
  • Phospholipase D antagonist 1-butanol inhibited the mobilization of triacylglycerol during seed germination in Arabidopsis [J].Plant Diversity, 2018, 40(06): 292-298. (kib.ac.cn)
  • Front Microbiol 2018 1;9:863. (pubfacts.com)
  • Epub 2018 May 1. (pubfacts.com)
  • While starchy substrates or molasses are major carbon feedstocks for fermentative production of 1-butanol in clostridia or heterologous microorganisms, interest is growing in employing novel substrates that are economically competitive with petrochemical synthesis yet at the same time non-competitive with food for human consumption [ 12 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 16. The process of claim 1 further comprising the step of injecting inert gas into said polymer to assist in the removal of said volatile impurities. (google.com)
  • 2-Ethyl-1-butanol (IUPAC name: 2-ethylbutan-1-ol) is an organic chemical compound. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2-Ethyl-1-butanol is manufactured industrially by the aldol condensation of acetaldehyde and butyraldehyde, followed by hydrogenation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The branching in 2-ethyl-1-butanol makes it harder to crystalize due to packing disruption, which results in a very low freezing point. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order to overcome this problem, the second generation biofuels are increasingly prepared from non-edible raw materials, e.g., wood, agricultural waste and other lignocellulosic materials [ 1 , 2 , 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Lastly, evolutionary engineering of C. beijerinckii was performed to increase cell growth on lignocellulosic hydrolysate which is a potential feedstock for industrial butanol production. (illinois.edu)
  • The fuel is butanol It can be derived from lignocellulosic materia. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The fuel is butanol, It can be derived from lignocellulosic material, plant biomass parts that range from woody stems, straw, agricultural residues, corn fiber and husks, all containing in large part cellulose and some lignin. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Global and Chinese (S)-(+)-2-Amino-1-butanol Hydrochloride (CAS 28895-09-2) Industry, 2009-2019 Market Research Report is a professional and in-depth market survey on Global and Chinese (S)-(+)-2-Amino-1-butanol Hydrochloride (CAS 28895-09-2) industry. (blogspot.com)
  • The report then explores global and Chinas top manufacturers of (S)-(+)-2-Amino-1-butanol Hydrochloride (CAS 28895-09-2) listing their product specification, capacity, production value, cost, gross margin and market share etc. (blogspot.com)
  • I just want to check if I am correct on this Q: What is the major product formed when 1-butene reacts with water in the presence of dilute sulphuric acid? (jiskha.com)
  • the solubility of 1-butanol in water is 7.9g per 100g of water. (jiskha.com)
  • From the following combustion: 1-butanol + oxygen = carbon dioxide + water. (jiskha.com)
  • How many grams of carbon dioxide and water are produced when 130.6 grams of 1-butanol is completely burned? (jiskha.com)
  • If a small amount of water is present in the [C(4)mim][NTf1-butanol system it decreases the UCST as much as 1.5 K per mol% of water added to butanol. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • The enthalpy of the displacement of water by 1-butanol has been determined by flow sorption microcalorimetry. (elsevier.com)
  • This is through the prioritization of the 1-Butanol creating an hydroxyl group to be a strong leaving group.Although this side reaction occurs, HBr is highly soluble in cold H2O as a gas it is not soluble in hot water. (graduateway.com)
  • 3 g of NaBr, 15 mL of water and 10 mL of 1-Butanol in the flask then very slowly under a vented hood with the glass pilled down to cover exposed airways. (graduateway.com)
  • Stopping point for part 1) Pour the solution into a separator funnel shake with about 10 mL of water and note that the 1-Bromobutane creates a new layer. (graduateway.com)