Butanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of butanol (C4H9OH).1-Butanol: A four carbon linear hydrocarbon that has a hydroxy group at position 1.ButanesClostridium acetobutylicum: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, used for the industrial production of SOLVENTS.Clostridium beijerinckii: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, capable of solventogenesis, and isolated from SOIL, infected WOUNDS, fermenting OLIVES, and spoiled CANDY.Nitrosamines: A class of compounds that contain a -NH2 and a -NO radical. Many members of this group have carcinogenic and mutagenic properties.Pentanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of pentanol (C5H11OH).Phospholipase D: An enzyme found mostly in plant tissue. It hydrolyzes glycerophosphatidates with the formation of a phosphatidic acid and a nitrogenous base such as choline. This enzyme also catalyzes transphosphatidylation reactions. EC 3.1.4.4.1-Propanol: A colorless liquid made by oxidation of aliphatic hydrocarbons that is used as a solvent and chemical intermediate.Clostridium: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.Acetone: A colorless liquid used as a solvent and an antiseptic. It is one of the ketone bodies produced during ketoacidosis.Biofuels: Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).Hexanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of hexanol (C6H11OH).1-Octanol: A colorless, slightly viscous liquid used as a defoaming or wetting agent. It is also used as a solvent for protective coatings, waxes, and oils, and as a raw material for plasticizers. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Glucuronates: Derivatives of GLUCURONIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the 6-carboxy glucose structure.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Alcohol Dehydrogenase: A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.Phosphatidic Acids: Fatty acid derivatives of glycerophosphates. They are composed of glycerol bound in ester linkage with 1 mole of phosphoric acid at the terminal 3-hydroxyl group and with 2 moles of fatty acids at the other two hydroxyl groups.Cotinine: The N-glucuronide conjugate of cotinine is a major urinary metabolite of NICOTINE. It thus serves as a biomarker of exposure to tobacco SMOKING. It has CNS stimulating properties.Metabolic Engineering: Methods and techniques used to genetically modify cells' biosynthetic product output and develop conditions for growing the cells as BIOREACTORS.Oxygen Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of oxygen that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. O atoms with atomic weights 13, 14, 15, 19, and 20 are radioactive oxygen isotopes.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
(1/210) Alcohol-induced biphasic inhibition of myosin subfragment 1 K-EDTA-ATPase.

Butanol-induced inhibition of K-EDTA-ATPase of myosin subfragment 1 proceeded by biphasic kinetics, consisting of rapid and slow inactivations. The extent of the rapid inactivation, which was estimated by extrapolating the process of slow inactivation to zero time of the incubation period, was saturated with butanol concentration. Recovery of activity by dilution in the rapid phase indicates that the rapid process is reversible. The slow inactivation was concomitant with a partial denaturation of the 50 kDa domain of S1, which was detected by limited tryptic digestion. Other alcohols (methanol, ethanol, propanol and hexanol) also inhibited the K-EDTA-ATPase in the rapid phase. The Ki decreased with an increase in the number of methylene groups of alcohol. When K-EDTA-ATPase activity in the rapid phase was plotted against viscosity, surface tension or dielectric constant, the curves were different for each of the various alcohol solutions. The rapid inactivation appears to be caused by a binding of the alkyl group to S1, rather than by solvent effects. The kinetics of rapid butanol inhibitions indicate that butanol reduces the maximum activity of ATPase but enhances an apparent affinity of S1 with ATP. These indications suggest that alcohol stabilizes S1.KATP intermediate. The rapid K-EDTA-ATPase inhibition was observed at the same alcohol concentration where S1 Mg-ATPase was activated.  (+info)

(2/210) Lysophosphatidic acid increases intracellular H2O2 by phospholipase D and RhoA in rat-2 fibroblasts.

We have investigated the possible roles of phospholipase D (PLD) and RhoA in the production of intracellular H2O2 and actin polymerization in response to lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) in Rat-2 fibroblasts. LPA increased intracellular H2O2, with a maximal increase at 30 min, which was blocked by the catalase from Aspergillus niger. The LPA-stimulated production of H2O2 was inhibited by 1-butanol or PKC-downregulation, but not by 2-butanol. Purified phosphatidic acid (PA) also increased intracellular H2O2 and the increase was inhibited by the catalase. The role of RhoA was studied by the scrape-loading of C3 transferase into the cells. The C3 toxin, which inhibited stress fiber formation stimulated by LPA, blocked the H2O2 production in response to LPA or PA, but had no inhibitory effect on the activation of PLD by LPA. Exogenous H2O2 increased F-actin content by stress fiber formation. In addition, catalase inhibited actin polymerization activated by LPA, PA, or H2O2, indicated the role of H2O2 in actin polymerization. These results suggest that LPA increased intracellular H2O2 by the activation of PLD and RhoA, and that intracellular H2O2 was required for the LPA-stimulated stress fiber formation.  (+info)

(3/210) beta-glycosidase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus: structure and activity in the presence of alcohols.

beta-Glycosidase from the extreme thermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus is a tetrameric protein with a molecular mass of 240 kDa, stable in the presence of detergents, and with a maximal activity at temperatures above 95 degrees C. Understanding the structure-activity relationships of the enzyme under different conditions is of fundamental importance for both theoretical and applicative purposes. In this paper we report the effect of methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, and 1-butanol on the activity of S. solfataricus beta-glycosidase expressed in Escherichia coli. The alcohols stimulated the enzyme activity, with 1-butanol producing its maximum effect at a lower concentration than the other alcohols. The structure of the enzyme was studied in the presence of 1-butanol by circular dichroism, and Fourier-transform infrared and fluorescence spectroscopies. Circular dichroism and steady-state fluorescence measurements revealed that at low temperatures the presence of the alcohol produced no significant changes in the tertiary structure of the enzyme. However, time-resolved fluorescence data showed that the alcohol modifies the protein microenvironment, leading to a more flexible enzyme structure, which is probably responsible for the enhanced enzymatic activity.  (+info)

(4/210) Diversity in butane monooxygenases among butane-grown bacteria.

Butane monooxygenases of butane-grown Pseudomonas butanovora, Mycobacterium vaccae JOB5, and an environmental isolate, CF8, were compared at the physiological level. The presence of butane monooxygenases in these bacteria was indicated by the following results. (i) O(2) was required for butane degradation. (ii) 1-Butanol was produced during butane degradation. (iii) Acetylene inhibited both butane oxidation and 1-butanol production. The responses to the known monooxygenase inactivator, ethylene, and inhibitor, allyl thiourea (ATU), discriminated butane degradation among the three bacteria. Ethylene irreversibly inactivated butane oxidation by P. butanovora but not by M. vaccae or CF8. In contrast, butane oxidation by only CF8 was strongly inhibited by ATU. In all three strains of butane-grown bacteria, specific polypeptides were labeled in the presence of [(14)C]acetylene. The [(14)C]acetylene labeling patterns were different among the three bacteria. Exposure of lactate-grown CF8 and P. butanovora and glucose-grown M. vaccae to butane induced butane oxidation activity as well as the specific acetylene-binding polypeptides. Ammonia was oxidized by all three bacteria. P. butanovora oxidized ammonia to hydroxylamine, while CF8 and M. vaccae produced nitrite. All three bacteria oxidized ethylene to ethylene oxide. Methane oxidation was not detected by any of the bacteria. The results indicate the presence of three distinct butane monooxygenases in butane-grown P. butanovora, M. vaccae, and CF8.  (+info)

(5/210) Short-chain alcohols promote an early stage of membrane hemifusion.

Hemifusion, the linkage of contacting lipid monolayers of two membranes before the opening of a fusion pore, is hypothesized to proceed through the formation of a stalk intermediate, a local and strongly bent connection between membranes. When the monolayers' propensity to bend does not support the stalk (e.g., as it is when lysophosphatidylcholine is added), hemifusion is inhibited. In contrast, short-chain alcohols, reported to affect monolayer bending in a manner similar to that of lysophosphatidylcholine, were here found to promote hemifusion between fluorescently labeled liposomes and planar lipid bilayers. Single hemifusion events were detected by fluorescence microscopy. Methanol or ethanol (1.2-1.6 w/w %) added to the same compartment of the planar bilayer chamber as liposomes caused a 5-50 times increase in the number of hemifusion events. Alcohol-induced hemifusion was inhibited by lysophosphatidylcholine. Promotion of membrane hemifusion by short-chain alcohol was also observed for cell-cell fusion mediated by influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA). Alcohol promoted a fusion stage subsequent to the low pH-dependent activation of HA. We propose that binding of short-chain alcohol to the surface of membranes promotes hemifusion by facilitating the transient breakage of the continuity of each of the contacting monolayers, which is required for their subsequent merger in the stalk intermediate.  (+info)

(6/210) Trp-Lys-Tyr-Met-Val-D-Met is a chemoattractant for human phagocytic cells.

Trp-Lys-Tyr-Met-Val-D-Met (WKYMVm) is a synthetic peptide that stimulates phosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis in human leukocytes. The peptide binds to a unique cell surface receptor(s). Recently we had demonstrated that human neutrophils, monocytes, and B lymphocytes express this peptide-specific receptor and that stimulation of human leukocytes with the peptide leads to activation of the oxidative respiratory system and the bactericidal activity of neutrophils or monocytes. In this study we showed that the peptide induces chemotaxis of phagocytic leukocytes and studied the signaling pathway leading to chemotaxis in human monocytes. The peptide-induced monocyte chemotaxis is pertussis toxin (PTX)-sensitive. This fact correlates with the peptide's stimulation of PI hydrolysis and intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) release, which is also PTX-sensitive. We demonstrate that the peptide-specific receptor is different from receptor(s) for monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). We also show that intracellular signaling of WKYMVm leading to monocyte chemotaxis is different from that of MCP-1. The peptide-mediated monocyte chemotaxis is insensitive to protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor (GF109203X) and butan-1-ol, ruling out PKC and phospholipase D participation in this process. On the other hand, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (genistein) and RhoA inhibitor (C3 transferase) curtailed the peptide-induced chemotaxis in a concentration-dependent manner, implying the involvement of tyrosine kinase and RhoA, respectively. Treatment of human monocytes with the peptide stimulates tyrosine phosphorylation of several cellular proteins, including p125FAK and Pyk2 and translocation of RhoA from the cytosol to the membrane. We conclude that WKYMVm induces chemotaxis of human phagocytic leukocytes via unique receptors and signaling.  (+info)

(7/210) Ethanol increases superoxide anion production stimulated with 4beta-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Involvement of protein kinase C.

Stimulation of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) with PMA initiates a cascade of events leading to the production and release of superoxide anion (O-2), a major component in anti-bacterial defense. Generation of O-2 by PMA-stimulated PMNs occurs through the translocation and activation of protein kinase C (PKC). In this study, using freshly isolated PMNs, we examined the effect of ethanol on this response to PMA. Our results show that the basal production of O-2 was not affected by ethanol. In contrast, the response induced by PMA was potentiated by ethanol. This potentiation was observed even at high doses of PMA (200 nM) which alone had stimulated the O-2 response maximally. This enhanced response was not due to an increase of PMA uptake by PMNs. The maximal effect was obtained when the cells were preincubated with 80 mM of ethanol before PMA stimulation. Measurement of PKC activity in the cytosolic and membrane fractions showed that pretreatment of PMNs with ethanol increased twofold the PMA-stimulated PKC activity in the membrane fraction. Furthermore, Western blot analysis verified that this increase in PKC activity in the membrane fraction was linked to an increase in the translocation of PKC-alpha and -beta isoforms to the membrane. These results suggest that ethanol potentiates PMA-induced O-2 production through increasing PKC translocation and activity in PMNs.  (+info)

(8/210) General anesthetic action at an internal protein site involving the S4-S5 cytoplasmic loop of a neuronal K(+) channel.

The structural bases of general anesthetic action on a neuronal K(+) channel were investigated using the series of homologous 1-alkanols, electrophysiology, and mutational analysis. Domain swapping between dShaw2 (alkanol-sensitive) and hKv3.4 (alkanol-resistant) and site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated that a 13-amino acid cytoplasmic loop (S4-S5) determines the selective inhibition of native dShaw2 channels by 1-alkanols. The S4-S5 loop may contribute to a receptor for both 1-alkanols and the inactivation particle, because the enhanced 1-alkanol sensitivity of hKv3.4 channels hosting S4-S5 mutations correlates directly with disrupted channel inactivation. Evidence of a discrete protein site was also obtained from the analysis of the relationship between potency and alkyl chain length, which begins to level off after 1-hexanol. Rapid application to the cytoplasmic side of inside-out membrane patches shows that the interaction between dShaw2 channels and 1-alkanols equilibrates in <200 ms. By contrast, the equilibration time is >1000-fold slower when the drug is applied externally to outside-out membrane patches. The data strongly favor a mechanism of inhibition involving a discrete internal site for 1-alkanols in dShaw2 K(+) channels. A new working hypothesis proposes that 1-alkanols lock dShaw2 channels in their closed conformation by a direct interaction at a crevice formed by the S4-S5 loop.  (+info)

*  Fermentation
Biotechnology portal Acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation Chemostat Dark fermentation Ethanol fermentation Fed-batch ... butanol fermentation, glyoxylate fermentation), as a way to regenerate NAD+ from NADH. Electrons are transferred to ferredoxin ... 57 Suppl 1: S226-32. doi:10.1007/s00239-003-0031-2. PMID 15008419. 15008419. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 9, ... 41 (1): 100-80. ISSN 0005-3678. PMC 413997 . PMID 860983. Ferry, J.G. (1992). "Methane from acetate". Journal of Bacteriology. ...
*  Alcohol dehydrogenase
... and NADH-dependent butanol dehydrogenases EC 1.1.1.- (genes adh1, bdhA and bdhB), enzymes that have activity using butanol and ... "Molecular characterization of two Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 butanol dehydrogenase isozyme genes". Journal of ... 281 (1-2): 59-63. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(91)80358-A. PMID 2015910. Truniger V, Boos W (Mar 1994). "Mapping and cloning of gldA, ... 78 (1): 20-31. doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfh057. PMID 14718645. Farrés J, Moreno A, Crosas B, Peralba JM, Allali-Hassani A, Hjelmqvist ...
*  2-Ethyl-1-butanol
... (IUPAC name: 2-ethylbutan-1-ol) is an organic chemical compound. It can be used to facilitate the separation ... 2-Ethyl-1-butanol is manufactured industrially by the aldol condensation of acetaldehyde and butyraldehyde, followed by ... The branching in 2-ethyl-1-butanol makes it harder to crystalize due to packing disruption, which results in a very low ... Esters of 2-ethyl-1-butanol are similarly effected and it therefore finds application as a feedstock in the production of ...
*  2-Methyl-1-butanol
2-Methyl-2-butanol Lide, David R. (1998), Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (87 ed.), Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, pp. 3-374, 5- ... 2-Methyl-1-butanol (IUPAC name, also called active amyl alcohol) is an organic chemical compound. It is one of the components ... 2-Methyl-1-butanol is a component of many mixtures of amyl alcohols sold industrially. 2-Methyl-1-butanol can be derived from ... 279-280, ISBN 978-0-8247-2480-1, retrieved 2009-12-14 Howard, Philip H. (1993), Handbook of Environmental Fate and Exposure ...
*  3,3-Dimethyl-1-butanol
... (DMB) is a structural analog of choline. DMB inhibits microbial trimethylamine (TMA) formation in mice ...
*  2,2-Dimethyl-1-butanol
... (IUPAC name: 2,2-dimethylbutan-1-ol) is an organic chemical compound. It is used as a solvent. Lide, ...
*  Cofactor engineering
Overall, 1-butanol was produced in S. elongatus using a pathway from another organism. This pathway was modified in order to ... 100 (763): 1-17. doi:10.1007/b136411. Pollak, N; C Dolle; M Ziegler (2006). "The power to reduce: pyridine nucleotides - small ... This pathway synthesizes 1-butanol using the reverse β-oxidation pathway. The enzymes involved in this newly engineered pathway ... An engineered pathway was created to make 1-butanol from Acetyl-CoA by changing enzymes in the metabolic pathway of S. ...
*  Solar fuel
Lan, Ethan I.; Liao, James C. (July 2011). "Metabolic engineering of cyanobacteria for 1-butanol production from carbon dioxide ... One example is the production of 1-butanol in Synechococcus elongatus using enzymes from Clostridium acetobutylicum, ...
*  Valinol
S)-iPr-PHOX - an oxazoline ligand made using valinol Sigma-Aldrich Co., 2-Amino-3-methyl-1-butanol. Retrieved on 2014-10-22. ...
*  Tobacco-specific nitrosamines
Others include N′-nitrosoanatabine (NAT) and N-nitrosoanabasine (NAB). NNK and its metabolite 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3- ... pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) are potent systemic lung carcinogens in rats. Tumors of the nasal cavity, liver, and pancreas are ...
*  N-Acylethanolamine
86: 1-10. doi:10.1016/j.phrs.2014.04.001. Chapman, Kent; Venables, Barney; Markovic, Robert; Blair Jr, Raymond; Bettinger, ... 96 (1-4): 114-20. doi:10.1016/j.prostaglandins.2011.07.002. PMC 3215906 . PMID 21810478. Magotti P, Bauer I, Igarashi M, ... N-Oleoylethanolamine is the amide of oleic acid (18:1) and ethanolamine. It has anorexic effects and enables fat breakdown by ... In plants NAE 18:1 is present abundantly in dry seeds and levels decline during seed imbibition, but its physiological ...
*  Marker pen
Today, the ink is usually made on the basis of alcohols (e.g. 1-propanol, 1-butanol, diacetone alcohol and cresols). Markers ...
*  Hornet
159 (1): 167-182. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.1961.sp006799. "Stung - How tiny little insects get us to do exactly as they wish". J.O ... The Scientific Monthly 15(1): 68-88 European hornet protection site (in English) (also available in French, German, Russian, ... Three biologically active chemicals, 2-pentanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, and 1-methylbutyl 3-methylbutanoate, have been identified ...
*  Ideal solution
If the molecules are almost identical chemically, e.g., 1-butanol and 2-butanol, then the solution will be almost ideal. Since ... 1 bar, or as the pressure of the mix to ease operations. On substituting the value of p i {\displaystyle p_{i}} from Raoult's ...
*  Hydrophobicity scales
1-butanol and pyridine were used as the mobile phase in this particular scale and glycine was used as the reference value. ... 105 (1976) 1. M. A. Moret, G. F. Zebende, Phys. Rev. E 75 (2007) 011920; J. C. Phillips, Phys. Rev. E 80 (2009) 051916. R .S. ... 14 (1959) 1. Charton, M. and Charton, B.I. (1982) J. Theor. Biol., 99, 629-644. Kyte J, Doolittle RF (May 1982). "A simple ... 157 (1): 105-32. doi:10.1016/0022-2836(82)90515-0. PMID 7108955. Eisenberg D (July 1984). "Three-dimensional structure of ...
*  Guerbet reaction
The original 1899 publication concerned the conversion of n-butanol to 2-ethylhexanol. The alcohols derived from this reaction ... In one study 1-pentanol is reacted with an iridium dehydrogenation catalyst (Cp* stands for the pentamethylcyclopentadiene ... A small amount of the diene 1,7-octadiene is required as a proton acceptor. Guerbet alcohols 2-Ethyl-1-butanol 2-Ethylhexanol 2 ... 1-ol 2-Butyl-1-octanol 2-Butyl-1-octanol Marcel Guerbet (1909). "Condensation de l'alcool isopropylique avec son dérivé sodé; ...
*  Miscibility
For example, among the alcohols, ethanol has two carbon atoms and is miscible with water, whereas 1-butanol with four carbons ...
*  Butylparaben
2008, 27, 1. "Parabens". U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Archived from the original on 2011-10-30. Retrieved 2011-10-31. " ... Mice administered butylparaben at 0.01-1% body weight for ten weeks showed a decrease in serum testosterone concentration and ... "Agents Classified by the IARC Monographs, Volumes 1-109" (PDF). International Agency for Research on Cancer. "The Royal Danish ... Pages 163-180, Print ISBN 978-0-8493-1453-7, eBook ISBN 978-1-4200-0332-1 doi:10.3109/9781420003321-12 "Parabens". Vashon ...
*  Tert-Amyl alcohol
It was mainly used as a solvent for tribromoethanol, forming "avertin fluid" at a 0.5 : 1 ratio of TAA to TBE. TAA was rarely ... 49 (1): 15-28. doi:10.1093/toxsci/49.1.15. PMID 10367338. Soehring, K.; Frey, H.H.; Endres, G. (1955). "Relations between ... ISBN 1-56670-223-2. Hans Brandenberger & Robert A.A. Maes, ed. (1997). Analytical Toxicology for Clinical, Forensic and ... 2-Methyl-1-butanol Alcohols Amyl alcohol Pentanols Ethchlorvynol Methylpentynol Anxiolytics and Ethanol Alternatives, ...
*  Methylbutanol
... may refer to: tert-Amyl alcohol (2-methylbutan-2-ol) Isoamyl alcohol (3-methylbutan-1-ol) 2-Methyl-1-butanol 3- ... Methyl-2-butanol. ...
*  Fusel alcohol
... one of the least toxic of the butanols. n-propyl alcohol During distillation, fusel alcohols are concentrated in the feints or ... The compounds involved are chiefly: 2-methyl-1-butanol - sometimes called "active" amyl alcohol isoamyl alcohol (isopentanol) ...
*  UGT2B17
1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol glucuronidation phenotype and risk for lung cancer". Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 16 (4): 823-8. ...
*  Butanol fuel
The butanol was a by-product of this fermentation (twice as much butanol was produced). The process also creates a recoverable ... The octane rating of n-butanol is similar to that of gasoline but lower than that of ethanol and methanol. n-Butanol has a RON ... As the heat of vaporization of butanol is less than half of that of ethanol, an engine running on butanol should be easier to ... Approximate equivalent butanol blends can be calculated from the relations between the stoichiometric fuel-air ratio of butanol ...
*  Silver molybdate
Rocca, F; Kuzmin, A; Mustarelli, P; Tomasi, C; Magistris, A (1999-06-01). "XANES and EXAFS at Mo K-edge in (AgI)1−x(Ag2MoO4)x ... 14 (4): 1-11. doi:10.1007/s11051-012-0781-0. ISSN 1388-0764. Fodjo, Essy Kouadio; Li, Da-Wei; Marius, Niamien Paulin; Albert, ... 121 (1-4): 189-192. doi:10.1016/S0167-2738(98)00546-3. Brown, Stephen; Marshall, Alison; Hirst, Philip (1993-12-20). "The ... "Low temperature synthesis and SERS application of silver molybdenum oxides". Journal of Materials Chemistry A. 1 (7). doi: ...
*  Stachybotrys chartarum
3-methyl-2-butanol, and thujopsene, were detected on rice cultures, and only one (1-butanol) was detected on gypsum board ... 1-398. Andersen B, Frisvad JC, Søndergaard I, Rasmussen IS & Larsen LS (June 2011). "Associations between fungal species and ... Four distinctive microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs), 1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, ...
*  Cellulosic ethanol commercialization
The collaboration will allow BUTALCO to optimise its C5 sugar fermenting and butanol producing yeast strains on a technical ... January 2005, p. 1. Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 Biofuels Can Provide Viable, Sustainable Solution To Reducing ... August 1, 2008. POET Further Commits to Cellulosic Ethanol Iowa gives final approval to Poet's cellulosic ethanol plant ... Special interest to BUTALCO is the use of the newly built pilot plant, which is equipped with a safety class 1 approved ...
*  Tuber melanosporum
26 (1): 69-76. Bonet, Jose-Antonio; Oliach, Daniel; Fischer, Christine; Martinez de Aragon, Juan; Colinas, Carlos (2009). " ... The volatile compounds that contribute to the aroma and are developed by the fruiting bodies include 2-methyl-1-butanol, ... 56-58, doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-1026(199801/02)13:1. 3.0.CO;2-X Laura Culleré; Vicente Ferreira; Berenger Chevret; María E. ... ISBN 978-3-440-12408-6. "1,3 Kilo schwerer Trüffel in Dordogne gefunden". ORF. 15 January 2012. Retrieved 27 July 2013. Cetto, ...
IDEALS @ Illinois: Production of 1-butanol and butanol isomers by metabolically engineered Clostridium beijerinckii and...  IDEALS @ Illinois: Production of 1-butanol and butanol isomers by metabolically engineered Clostridium beijerinckii and...
Butanol Clostridium beijerinckii Saccharomyces cerevisiae Metabolic engineering. Abstract:. The overall goal of my thesis ... Therefore, the first goal of my thesis study was to improve the ABE fermentation by C. beijerinckii for production of butanol ... The second goal of my thesis study was to produce butanol isomers including 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) and isobutanol by ... Biobutanol is an attractive renewable biofuel and intermediate chemical that has been produced from the ABE (acetone-butanol- ...
more infohttps://www.ideals.illinois.edu/handle/2142/97592
Advanced BioFuels USA  » Recent Advancements in Various Steps of Ethanol, Butanol, and Isobutanol Productions from Woody...  Advanced BioFuels USA » Recent Advancements in Various Steps of Ethanol, Butanol, and Isobutanol Productions from Woody...
Recent Advancements in Various Steps of Ethanol, Butanol, and Isobutanol Productions from Woody Materials. Submitted by admin ... Presently, the major challenges in the production of ethanol, butanol, and isobutanol via biological conversions are the rather ... butanol C5 sugar C6 sugar California California Air Resources Board (CARB) Camelina Canada canola/rapeseed cap-and-trade carbon ... n-butanol NASCAR National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) National Highway Traffic Safety Administration National ...
more infohttps://advancedbiofuelsusa.info/recent-advancements-in-various-steps-of-ethanol-butanol-and-isobutanol-productions-from-woody-materials/
1-Butanol  1-Butanol
... n-Butanol; n-Butyl alcohol; Butyl hydroxide; CCS 203; Hemostyp; Methylolpropane; Propylcarbinol; n-C4H9OH; Butanol; Butan-1-ol ... 1-Hydroxybutane; Alcool butylique; Butanolo; Butylowy alkohol; Butyric alcohol; Propylmethanol; Butanolen; 1-Butyl alcohol; ... Rcra waste number U031; Butanol-1; NSC 62782 * Permanent link for this species. Use this link for bookmarking this species for ... Other names: Butyl alcohol; n-Butan-1-ol; ... 1.) Enter the desired X axis range (e.g., 100, 200) 2.) Check ...
more infohttps://webbook.nist.gov/cgi/cbook.cgi?ID=C71363&Type=IR-SPEC&Index=14
1-Butanol  1-Butanol
... n-Butanol; n-Butyl alcohol; Butyl hydroxide; CCS 203; Hemostyp; Methylolpropane; Propylcarbinol; n-C4H9OH; Butanol; Butan-1-ol ... 1-Hydroxybutane; Alcool butylique; Butanolo; Butylowy alkohol; Butyric alcohol; Propylmethanol; Butanolen; 1-Butyl alcohol; ... Rcra waste number U031; Butanol-1; NSC 62782 * Permanent link for this species. Use this link for bookmarking this species for ... Other names: Butyl alcohol; n-Butan-1-ol; ... 1.) Enter the desired X axis range (e.g., 100, 200) 2.) Check ...
more infohttps://webbook.nist.gov/cgi/cbook.cgi?ID=C71363&Type=IR-SPEC&Index=26
3,3-Dimethyl-1-butanol - Wikipedia  3,3-Dimethyl-1-butanol - Wikipedia
102.177 g·mol−1 Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa). ... 3,3-Dimethyl-1-butanol (DMB) is a structural analog of choline.[1] ... DMB is found in some balsamic vinegars, red wines, and some cold-pressed extra virgin olive oils and grapeseed oils.[1] ... Mice showed no evidence of toxicity to chronic (16-week) DMB exposure.[1] ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/3%2C3-Dimethyl-1-butanol
CISDOC - 3-Methyl-1-butanol  CISDOC - 3-Methyl-1-butanol
2002, Vol.31, No.1, p.79-98. 41 ref.. Abstract. Animal experiments show isoamyl alcohol (3-methyl-1-butanol) to be an irritant ...
more infohttp://www.ilo.org/dyn/cisdoc2/cismain.details?p_lang=en&p_doc_id=104256
Alfa Aesar™ 1-Butanol, 99%  Alfa Aesar™ 1-Butanol, 99%
... butanol, n-butanol, butyl alcohol, n-butyl alcohol, 1-hydroxybutane, propylcarbinol, butyl hydroxide, propylmethanol, ... butanol, n-butanol, butyl alcohol, n-butyl alcohol, 1-hydroxybutane, propylcarbinol, butyl hydroxide, propylmethanol, ... DOTInformation : Transport Hazard Class: 3; Packing Group: III; Proper Shipping Name: BUTANOLS ... 1-Butanol is used as a solvent for many organic reactions in pharmaceutical and chemical industry, as a solvent in coating ...
more infohttps://www.fishersci.ca/shop/products/1-butanol-99-31/AAL13171AU
1-butanol - search results  1-butanol - search results
... n-butanol 3. 2-butanol 4. tert-butanol alcohol 5. pentane 6. hexanes I know that the forces include- dipole-dipole, ion-dipole ... 2-butanol is mixed with an equal volume of a 0.720 M solution of racemic 2-butanol, and the resulting solution is analyzed in a ... how do you convert 50 microliters of 2 butanol to moles? chemistry. what are the structures and iupac names of the isomers of 2 ... Use the following information to find Hf of butanol [C4H9OH(l)]. C4H9OH(l) + 6 O2(g) 4 CO2(g) + 5 H2O(g) Hcomb = -2712.9 Hf of ...
more infohttps://www.jiskha.com/search/index.cgi?query=1-butanol
2-Ethyl-1-butanol - Wikipedia  2-Ethyl-1-butanol - Wikipedia
2-Ethyl-1-butanol (IUPAC name: 2-ethylbutan-1-ol) is an organic chemical compound. It can be used to facilitate the separation ... 2-Ethyl-1-butanol is manufactured industrially by the aldol condensation of acetaldehyde and butyraldehyde, followed by ... The branching in 2-ethyl-1-butanol makes it harder to crystalize due to packing disruption, which results in a very low ... Esters of 2-ethyl-1-butanol are similarly effected and it therefore finds application as a feedstock in the production of ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2-Ethyl-1-butanol
2-Methyl-1-butanol - Wikipedia  2-Methyl-1-butanol - Wikipedia
2-Methyl-2-butanol Lide, David R. (1998), Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (87 ed.), Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, pp. 3-374, 5- ... 2-Methyl-1-butanol (IUPAC name, also called active amyl alcohol) is an organic chemical compound. It is one of the components ... 2-Methyl-1-butanol is a component of many mixtures of amyl alcohols sold industrially. 2-Methyl-1-butanol can be derived from ... 279-280, ISBN 978-0-8247-2480-1, retrieved 2009-12-14 Howard, Philip H. (1993), Handbook of Environmental Fate and Exposure ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2-Methyl-1-butanol
2,2-Dimetil-1-butanol - Википедија, слободна енциклопедија  2,2-Dimetil-1-butanol - Википедија, слободна енциклопедија
2,2-Dimetil-1-butanol je organsko jedinjenje, koje sadrži 6 atoma ugljenika i ima molekulsku masu od 102,175 Da. ... Преузето из „https://sr.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=2,2-Dimetil-1-butanol&oldid=8819195" ...
more infohttps://sr.wikipedia.org/wiki/2,2-Dimetil-1-butanol
TCI AMERICAS 3-Methyl-1-Butanol,25mL - 19KC07|I0289-25ML - Grainger  TCI AMERICAS 3-Methyl-1-Butanol,25mL - 19KC07|I0289-25ML - Grainger
Looking for TCI AMERICAS 3-Methyl-1-Butanol,25mL (19KC07)? Grainger's got your back. Price:$26.40. Easy ordering & convenient ...
more infohttps://www.grainger.com/product/TCI-AMERICAS-TCI-123-51-3-19KC07
3-alkyl-1-butanol attractants for frugivorous pest insects - Patent # 6224890 - PatentGenius  3-alkyl-1-butanol attractants for frugivorous pest insects - Patent # 6224890 - PatentGenius
Compositions and lures are described which provide 3-alkyl-1-butanol vapors and vapor blends of 3-alkyl-1-butanol with one or ... Butanol), or in McPhail traps baited with torula yeast in field trails conducted in Palin, Guatemala. Bars headed by the ... Butanol), and McPhail traps baited with torula yeast in field trials conducted in Palin, Guatemala. Bars headed by the same ... butanol), ammonium acetate and putrescine (SB), or ammonium acetate, putrescine and 3-methyl-1-butanol (SB+ ...
more infohttp://www.patentgenius.com/patent/6224890.html
Fragrant Esters of 3-Cyclohexyl-1-propanol and 3-Cyclohexyl-1-butanol  Fragrant Esters of 3-Cyclohexyl-1-propanol and 3-Cyclohexyl-1-butanol
Preparation and fragrance properties of some esters of 3-cyclohexyl-1-propanol and 3-cyclohexyl-1-butanol are described in this ... March 1, 1991 Contact Author Libor Cerveny, Antonin Marhoui and Petra Winklerova Close. Fill out my online form. ... 1Non-Alcoholic Solvents in Multifunctional Fragrances. *2Free Article Download: IFRA Reveals a Fragrance Formula ... in Defense ... 3-Cyclohexyl-1-propanol and 3-cyclohexyl-1-butanol rank among synthetic fragrant compounds. The fragrant properties of 3- ...
more infohttps://www.perfumerflavorist.com/fragrance/application/multiuse/Fragrant-Esters-of-3-Cyclohexyl-1-propanol-and-3-Cyclohexyl-1-butanol-371991362.html
Analysis of Total 4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-Pyridyl)-1-Butanol in Smokers Blood | Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention  Analysis of Total 4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-Pyridyl)-1-Butanol in Smokers' Blood | Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Plasma (1 mL) was placed in a 10-mL glass conical tube with a Teflon-lined cap, and the pH was adjusted to 6 to 7 if necessary ... Analysis of Total 4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-Pyridyl)-1-Butanol in Smokers' Blood. Steven G. Carmella, Shaomei Han, Peter W. ... 1) are present in unburned tobacco and tobacco smoke (1, 2). NNK is a potent lung carcinogen in rats, inducing tumors ... 1) and its glucuronides (NNAL-Glucs) are metabolites of NNK in rodents and humans, and numerous studies have quantified levels ...
more infohttp://cebp.aacrjournals.org/content/14/11/2669
2R,3R)-2-AMINO-3-PHENYLMETHOXY-1-BUTANOL | 160841-03-2  2R,3R)-2-AMINO-3-PHENYLMETHOXY-1-BUTANOL | 160841-03-2
You can also browse global suppliers,vendor,prices,Price,manufacturers of (2R,3R)-2-AMINO-3-PHENYLMETHOXY-1-BUTANOL(160841-03-2 ... At last,(2R,3R)-2-AMINO-3-PHENYLMETHOXY-1-BUTANOL(160841-03-2) safety, risk, hazard and MSDS, CAS,cas number,Use,cas no may ... 2-AMINO-3-PHENYLMETHOXY-1-BUTANOL(160841-03-2) information like chemical properties,Structure,melting point,boiling point, ... 2R,3R)-2-AMINO-3-PHENYLMETHOXY-1-BUTANOL. CAS No.. 160841-03-2. Chemical Name:. (2R,3R)-2-AMINO-3-PHENYLMETHOXY-1-BUTANOL. ...
more infohttp://www.chemicalbook.com/ChemicalProductProperty_EN_CB0372709.htm
Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium of Water + 1-Propanol or 1-Butanol + Dibutyl Ether Ternary Systems: Measurements and Correlation at...  Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium of Water + 1-Propanol or 1-Butanol + Dibutyl Ether Ternary Systems: Measurements and Correlation at...
1-propanol + dibutyl ether (DBE)} and (water + 1-butanol + DBE) were determined at T = (293.15, 303.15, 308.15) K under... ... 1.. Tynjälä, P., Pakkanen, T.T., Mustamäki, S.: Modification of ZSM-5 zeolite with trimethyl phosphite. 2. Catalytic properties ... Cháfer, A., de la Torre, J., Lladosa, E., Montón, J.B.: Liquid-liquid equilibria of 4-methyl-2-pentanone + 1-propanol or 2- ... Çehreli, S., Özmen, D., Dramur, U.: (Liquid + liquid) equilibria of (water + 1-propanol + solvent) at T = 298.2 K. Fluid Phase ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10953-018-0733-0
Metabolic engineering of the ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway in M. extorquens AM1 for 1-butanol production  Metabolic engineering of the ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway in M. extorquens AM1 for 1-butanol production
... ... Finally, adaptive laboratory evolution was used as a tool to develop ,italic,M. extorquens,/italic, AM1 for high 1-butanol ... We applied a serial transfer method to isolate two mutants that demonstrated improved 1-butanol tolerance compared to the ... Our success in producing 1-butanol from the engineered ,italic,M. extorquens,/italic, AM1 opens the possibility for using ...
more infohttps://digital.lib.washington.edu/researchworks/handle/1773/27430
CAS # 475086-75-0, 4-[(5,6-Diphenylpyrazinyl)(1-methylethyl)amino]-1-butanol  CAS # 475086-75-0, 4-[(5,6-Diphenylpyrazinyl)(1-methylethyl)amino]-1-butanol
Home >> Chemical Listing >> D >> 4-[(5,6-Diphenylpyrazinyl)(1-methylethyl)amino]-1-butanol ... List of Reports Available for 4-[(5,6-Diphenylpyrazinyl)(1-methylethyl)amino]-1-butanol ...
more infohttps://www.chemblink.com/products/475086-75-0.htm
1-Butanol, 4-dimethylamino-1,1-bis((3,4-(methylenedioxy)phenoxy)methyl)-, acetate, citrate | C30H37NO15 - PubChem  1-Butanol, 4-dimethylamino-1,1-bis((3,4-(methylenedioxy)phenoxy)methyl)-, acetate, citrate | C30H37NO15 - PubChem
1-Butanol, 4-dimethylamino-1,1-bis((3,4-(methylenedioxy)phenoxy)methyl)-, acetate, citrate , C30H37NO15 , CID 47321 - structure ...
more infohttps://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/47321
  • The overall goal of my thesis research is to produce four-carbon alcohols such as 1-butanol and 2,3-butanediol, and isobutanol as advanced biofuels and chemicals from microorganisms through metabolic engineering, systems biology, and synthetic biology approaches. (illinois.edu)
  • Second, product diversification in the ABE fermentation producing butyl esters was carried out through simultaneous ABE fermentation, condensation, and extraction to compensate the low yield of butanol. (illinois.edu)
  • When KMnO acts as an oxidizing agent when it comes in contact with 1 butanol, 2 butanol and t- butyl which of these agents will become primary, secondary or tertiary alcohol? (markedbyteachers.com)
  • Oxidizing alcohols By: Toufa Bouchouar Partner's name: Adrian Date: March 20, 2006 Teacher name: Ms. Sommer When KMnO acts as an oxidizing agent when it comes in contact with 1 butanol, 2 butanol and t- butyl which of these agents will become primary, secondary or tertiary alcohol? (markedbyteachers.com)
  • The purpose of this investigation was to examine the ability of single-phase aqueous solutions of 1-butanol to release immunoprotective tumor antigen activity from partially purified plasma membranes of the methylcholanthrene-induced fibrosarcoma, MCA-F. Tumor antigen activity was assessed by s.c. immunization of syngeneic C3H/HeJ mice 10 days prior to supralethal challenge. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 2-Methyl-1-butanol can be derived from fusel oil (because it occurs naturally in fruits such as grapes) or manufactured by either the oxo process or via the halogenation of pentane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) date for the ternary systems of {water + 1-propanol + dibutyl ether (DBE)} and (water + 1-butanol + DBE) were determined at T = (293.15, 303.15, 308.15) K under atmospheric pressure. (springer.com)
  • Pirahmadi, F., Dehghani, M.R., Behzadi, B.: Experimental and theoretical study on liquid-liquid equilibrium of 1-butanol + water + NH 4 Cl at 298.15, 308.15 and 318.15 K. Fluid Phase Equilib. (springer.com)
  • 1-Butanol is used as a solvent for many organic reactions in pharmaceutical and chemical industry, as a solvent in coating industries and also used as a diluent/reactant in the manufacture of urea-formaldehyde and melamine-formaldehyde resins. (fishersci.ca)
  • Çehreli, S., Özmen, D., Dramur, U.: (Liquid + liquid) equilibria of (water + 1-propanol + solvent) at T = 298.2 K. Fluid Phase Equilib. (springer.com)
  • However, M. extorquens AM1 is vulnerable to solvent stress, which impedes further development for 1-butanol production. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This research will be useful for uncovering the mechanism of cellular response of M. extorquens AM1 to solvent stress, and will provide the genetic blueprint for the rational design of a strain of M. extorquens AM1 with increased 1-butanol tolerance in the future. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Whole genome sequencing revealed a SNP mutation at kefB in BHBT5, which was confirmed to be responsible for increasing 1-butanol tolerance through an allelic exchange experiment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Global metabolomic analysis further discovered that the pools of multiple key metabolites, including fatty acids, amino acids, and disaccharides, were increased in BHBT5 in response to 1-butanol stress. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In order to overcome this problem, the second generation biofuels are increasingly prepared from non-edible raw materials, e.g., wood, agricultural waste and other lignocellulosic materials [ 1 , 2 , 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Lastly, evolutionary engineering of C. beijerinckii was performed to increase cell growth on lignocellulosic hydrolysate which is a potential feedstock for industrial butanol production. (illinois.edu)
  • Compositions and lures are described which provide 3-alkyl-1-butanol vapors and vapor blends of 3-alkyl-1-butanol with one or more compounds selected from the group consisting of acetic acid, ammonia, putrescine and mixtures which function as highly effective attractants for frugivorous pest flies especially of Anastrepha species. (patentgenius.com)
  • Fig. 1 ) and its glucuronides (NNAL-Glucs) are metabolites of NNK in rodents and humans, and numerous studies have quantified levels of these compounds in the urine of smokers, smokeless tobacco users, and nonsmokers exposed to environmental tobacco smoke ( 6 , 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Distribution coefficients and separation factors of 1-propanol in the mixtures were calculated and are discussed. (springer.com)
  • 1. An attractant composition for frugivorous pest insects consisting essentially of a vapor blend of (a) ammonia, and (b) a synergistic amount of a vapor of 3-alkyl-1-butanol, wherein said composition provides an effective frugivorous pest insect attractant amount of said vapor blend. (patentgenius.com)
  • 3. The composition of claim 1 wherein said ammonia is provided by ammonium carbonate, ammonium bicarbonate or ammonium acetate. (patentgenius.com)
  • First, optimization of ABE fermentation condition was conducted to maximize butanol production in a small-scale standard platform. (illinois.edu)
  • The fragrant properties of 3-cyclohexyl-1-propanol have been reported in the literature as very mild, sweet balsamic, but rather "flat" odor of moderate to poor tenacity. (perfumerflavorist.com)
  • It was also demonstrated that the developed atomistic model is able to predict the swelling behavior of ion-exchange resins in 1-butanol. (ub.edu)
  • The column was maintained at 25°C. MS/MS variables were as follows: positive ion electrospray mode with selected reaction monitoring for m/z 210 → 180 for NNAL, m/z 214 → 184 for [pyridine-D 4 ]NNAL, and m/z 224 → 194 for 5-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-pentanone (C 5 -NNAL), at 0.5 amu scan width. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 1 butanol was a primary alcohol which had a reaction time of 44 seconds and started with a primary alcohol then went to an aldehyde and finally a carboxylic acid. (markedbyteachers.com)
  • 4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) is reduced to its main metabolite, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) in a reaction that is both stereoselective and reversible. (ovid.com)
  • DNBE formation proved to be a slightly exothermic reaction, almost athermic, whereas 1-butene formation was found to be an endothermic reaction. (ub.edu)
  • All venues had at least 1 entire wall open to allow for free air exchange. (springer.com)
  • We developed a liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method for the analysis of total NNAL in 1-mL samples of plasma. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The branching in 2-ethyl-1-butanol makes it harder to crystalize due to packing disruption, which results in a very low freezing point. (wikipedia.org)
  • These results show that total NNAL can readily be quantified in 1-mL plasma samples. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Collectively, the available evidence for the involvement of NNK in tobacco-induced cancers is strong, and the IARC classifies NNK and N ′-nitrosonornicotine in group 1 as carcinogenic to humans ( 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The sum of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol and its glucuronides (total NNAL) is an excellent biomarker for uptake of the tobacco-specific carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Indoor concentrations of particulate matter smaller than 2.5 microns (PM 2.5 ) attributable to SHS were assessed during a work shift, while 1 non-smoking employee responsible for indoor and outdoor table service from each venue provided a post work shift urine sample for analysis of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL). (springer.com)
  • Diethyl ether has a boiling point of 34.5C, and 1-butanol has a boiling point of 117C. (jiskha.com)
  • What observed rotation is expected when a 1.44 M solution of (R)-2-butanol is mixed with an equal volume of a 0.720 M solution of racemic 2-butanol, and the resulting solution is analyzed in a sample container that is 1 dm long? (jiskha.com)
  • [1] It consequently inhibited choline-enhanced endogenous macrophage foam cell formation and atherosclerotic lesion development in mice without alterations in circulating cholesterol levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • I just want to check if I am correct on this Q: What is the major product formed when 1-butene reacts with water in the presence of dilute sulphuric acid? (jiskha.com)
  • the solubility of 1-butanol in water is 7.9g per 100g of water. (jiskha.com)