Glycerides: GLYCEROL esterified with FATTY ACIDS.DiglyceridesPhosphatidic Acids: Fatty acid derivatives of glycerophosphates. They are composed of glycerol bound in ester linkage with 1 mole of phosphoric acid at the terminal 3-hydroxyl group and with 2 moles of fatty acids at the other two hydroxyl groups.Acyltransferases: Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.3.Glycerol-3-Phosphate O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that transfers acyl groups from acyl-CoA to glycerol-3-phosphate to form monoglyceride phosphates. It acts only with CoA derivatives of fatty acids of chain length above C-10. Also forms diglyceride phosphates. EC 2.3.1.15.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Phosphatidylcholine-Sterol O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme secreted from the liver into the plasma of many mammalian species. It catalyzes the esterification of the hydroxyl group of lipoprotein cholesterol by the transfer of a fatty acid from the C-2 position of lecithin. In familial lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency disease, the absence of the enzyme results in an excess of unesterified cholesterol in plasma. EC 2.3.1.43.TriglyceridesDiacylglycerol O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyses the last step of the TRIACYLGLYCEROL synthesis reaction in which diacylglycerol is covalently joined to LONG-CHAIN ACYL COA to form triglyceride. It was formerly categorized as EC 2.3.1.124.Sterol O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of cholesterol esters by the direct transfer of the fatty acid group from a fatty acyl CoA derivative. This enzyme has been found in the adrenal gland, gonads, liver, intestinal mucosa, and aorta of many mammalian species. EC 2.3.1.26.Lecithin Acyltransferase Deficiency: An autosomal recessively inherited disorder caused by mutation of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that facilitates the esterification of lipoprotein cholesterol and subsequent removal from peripheral tissues to the liver. This defect results in low HDL-cholesterol level in blood and accumulation of free cholesterol in tissue leading to a triad of CORNEAL OPACITY, hemolytic anemia (ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC), and PROTEINURIA.1-Acylglycerophosphocholine O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme localized predominantly within the plasma membrane of lymphocytes. It catalyzes the transfer of long-chain fatty acids, preferentially unsaturated fatty acids, to lysophosphatides with the formation of 1,2-diacylglycero-3-phosphocholine and CoA. EC 2.3.1.23.Acyl Coenzyme A: S-Acyl coenzyme A. Fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.1-Acylglycerol-3-Phosphate O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acyl group transfer of ACYL COA to 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate to generate 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate. This enzyme has alpha, beta, gamma, delta and epsilon subunits.Calcium Phosphates: Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.Glycerophosphates: Any salt or ester of glycerophosphoric acid.Glucose-6-Phosphate: An ester of glucose with phosphoric acid, made in the course of glucose metabolism by mammalian and other cells. It is a normal constituent of resting muscle and probably is in constant equilibrium with fructose-6-phosphate. (Stedman, 26th ed)Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenases: Enzymes that catalyze the dehydrogenation of GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE. Several types of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase exist including phosphorylating and non-phosphorylating varieties and ones that transfer hydrogen to NADP and ones that transfer hydrogen to NAD.Dihydroxyacetone Phosphate: An important intermediate in lipid biosynthesis and in glycolysis.Sugar PhosphatesEsterification: The process of converting an acid into an alkyl or aryl derivative. Most frequently the process consists of the reaction of an acid with an alcohol in the presence of a trace of mineral acid as catalyst or the reaction of an acyl chloride with an alcohol. Esterification can also be accomplished by enzymatic processes.Cholesterol Esters: Fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.Acylation: The addition of an organic acid radical into a molecule.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Escherichia coli O157: A verocytotoxin-producing serogroup belonging to the O subfamily of Escherichia coli which has been shown to cause severe food-borne disease. A strain from this serogroup, serotype H7, which produces SHIGA TOXINS, has been linked to human disease outbreaks resulting from contamination of foods by E. coli O157 from bovine origin.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Microsomes: Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Inositol Phosphates: Phosphoric acid esters of inositol. They include mono- and polyphosphoric acid esters, with the exception of inositol hexaphosphate which is PHYTIC ACID.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Apolipoprotein A-I: The most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. This protein serves as an acceptor for CHOLESTEROL released from cells thus promoting efflux of cholesterol to HDL then to the LIVER for excretion from the body (reverse cholesterol transport). It also acts as a cofactor for LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that forms CHOLESTEROL ESTERS on the HDL particles. Mutations of this gene APOA1 cause HDL deficiency, such as in FAMILIAL ALPHA LIPOPROTEIN DEFICIENCY DISEASE and in some patients with TANGIER DISEASE.Lysophospholipids: Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDIC ACIDS that lack one of its fatty acyl chains due to its hydrolytic removal.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Retinol O-Fatty-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acyl group transfer of acyl COENZYME A to RETINOL to generate COENZYME A and a retinyl ester.Palmitoyl Coenzyme A: A fatty acid coenzyme derivative which plays a key role in fatty acid oxidation and biosynthesis.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate: An aldotriose which is an important intermediate in glycolysis and in tryptophan biosynthesis.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Pentose Phosphate Pathway: An oxidative decarboxylation process that converts GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE to D-ribose-5-phosphate via 6-phosphogluconate. The pentose product is used in the biosynthesis of NUCLEIC ACIDS. The generated energy is stored in the form of NADPH. This pathway is prominent in tissues which are active in the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS and STEROIDS.Organosilicon Compounds: Organic compounds that contain silicon as an integral part of the molecule.Lipoproteins, HDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.Glucosephosphate DehydrogenasePenicillium chrysogenum: A mitosporic fungal species used in the production of penicillin.Carnitine Acyltransferases: Acyltransferases in the inner mitochondrial membrane that catalyze the reversible transfer of acyl groups from acyl-CoA to L-carnitine and thereby mediate the transport of activated fatty acids through that membrane. EC 2.3.1.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.EstersPhosphate Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins that are involved in the active transport of phosphate.Pyridoxal Phosphate: This is the active form of VITAMIN B 6 serving as a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate (PYRIDOXAMINE).Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase: An enzyme that transfers methyl groups from O(6)-methylguanine, and other methylated moieties of DNA, to a cysteine residue in itself, thus repairing alkylated DNA in a single-step reaction. EC 2.1.1.63.Glucose-6-Phosphate Isomerase: An aldose-ketose isomerase that catalyzes the reversible interconversion of glucose 6-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate. In prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms it plays an essential role in glycolytic and gluconeogenic pathways. In mammalian systems the enzyme is found in the cytoplasm and as a secreted protein. This secreted form of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase has been referred to as autocrine motility factor or neuroleukin, and acts as a cytokine which binds to the AUTOCRINE MOTILITY FACTOR RECEPTOR. Deficiency of the enzyme in humans is an autosomal recessive trait, which results in CONGENITAL NONSPHEROCYTIC HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA.Lysophosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES obtained by their partial hydrolysis which removes one of the fatty acid moieties.Monoglycerides: GLYCEROL esterified with a single acyl (FATTY ACIDS) chain.TriosesHydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)GlucosephosphatesLipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Waxes: A plastic substance deposited by insects or obtained from plants. Waxes are esters of various fatty acids with higher, usually monohydric alcohols. The wax of pharmacy is principally yellow wax (beeswax), the material of which honeycomb is made. It consists chiefly of cerotic acid and myricin and is used in making ointments, cerates, etc. (Dorland, 27th ed)Lipoproteins: Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.Hypolipoproteinemias: Conditions with abnormally low levels of LIPOPROTEINS in the blood. This may involve any of the lipoprotein subclasses, including ALPHA-LIPOPROTEINS (high-density lipoproteins); BETA-LIPOPROTEINS (low-density lipoproteins); and PREBETA-LIPOPROTEINS (very-low-density lipoproteins).Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Lysophospholipase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of a single fatty acid ester bond in lysoglycerophosphatidates with the formation of glyceryl phosphatidates and a fatty acid. EC 3.1.1.5.Glycerolphosphate DehydrogenasePentosephosphatesSphingosine: An amino alcohol with a long unsaturated hydrocarbon chain. Sphingosine and its derivative sphinganine are the major bases of the sphingolipids in mammals. (Dorland, 28th ed)HexosephosphatesCloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Corneal Opacity: Disorder occurring in the central or peripheral area of the cornea. The usual degree of transparency becomes relatively opaque.Carbamyl Phosphate: The monoanhydride of carbamic acid with PHOSPHORIC ACID. It is an important intermediate metabolite and is synthesized enzymatically by CARBAMYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (AMMONIA) and CARBAMOYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (GLUTAMINE-HYDROLYZING).Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Apolipoproteins: Protein components on the surface of LIPOPROTEINS. They form a layer surrounding the hydrophobic lipid core. There are several classes of apolipoproteins with each playing a different role in lipid transport and LIPID METABOLISM. These proteins are synthesized mainly in the LIVER and the INTESTINES.Dithionitrobenzoic Acid: A standard reagent for the determination of reactive sulfhydryl groups by absorbance measurements. It is used primarily for the determination of sulfhydryl and disulfide groups in proteins. The color produced is due to the formation of a thio anion, 3-carboxyl-4-nitrothiophenolate.Phosphate-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to and are involved in the metabolism of phosphate ions.Coenzyme ARecombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Coenzyme A Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.Oleic Acids: A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Apolipoproteins A: Structural proteins of the alpha-lipoproteins (HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS), including APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I and APOLIPOPROTEIN A-II. They can modulate the activity of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE. These apolipoproteins are low in atherosclerotic patients. They are either absent or present in extremely low plasma concentration in TANGIER DISEASE.Phosphotransferases: A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.Palmitic Acids: A group of 16-carbon fatty acids that contain no double bonds.Lipoylation: Covalent attachment of LIPIDS and FATTY ACIDS to other compounds and PROTEINS.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Ethylmaleimide: A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.Oleic Acid: An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Ribosemonophosphates: Ribose substituted in the 1-, 3-, or 5-position by a phosphoric acid moiety.Transferases (Other Substituted Phosphate Groups): A class of enzymes that transfers substituted phosphate groups. EC 2.7.8.Phosphatidylinositol Phosphates: Phosphatidylinositols in which one or more alcohol group of the inositol has been substituted with a phosphate group.Organophosphates: Carbon-containing phosphoric acid derivatives. Included under this heading are compounds that have CARBON atoms bound to one or more OXYGEN atoms of the P(=O)(O)3 structure. Note that several specific classes of endogenous phosphorus-containing compounds such as NUCLEOTIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and PHOSPHOPROTEINS are listed elsewhere.Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Palmitoyl-CoA Hydrolase: Enzyme catalyzing reversibly the hydrolysis of palmitoyl-CoA or other long-chain acyl coenzyme A compounds to yield CoA and palmitate or other acyl esters. The enzyme is involved in the esterification of fatty acids to form triglycerides. EC 3.1.2.2.Lipid A: Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties.Glycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.Aldehyde-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze a reverse aldol condensation. A molecule containing a hydroxyl group and a carbonyl group is cleaved at a C-C bond to produce two smaller molecules (ALDEHYDES or KETONES). EC 4.1.2.FructosephosphatesVitamin A: Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.Receptors, Lysosphingolipid: A subfamily of lysophospholipid receptors with specificity for LYSOSPHINGOLIPIDS such as sphingosine-1-phosphate and sphingosine phosphorylcholine.Receptor, IGF Type 2: A receptor that is specific for IGF-II and mannose-6-phosphate. The receptor is a 250-kDa single chain polypeptide which is unrelated in structure to the type 1 IGF receptor (RECEPTOR, IGF TYPE 1) and does not have a tyrosine kinase domain.Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (NADP+)Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Glutamine-Fructose-6-Phosphate Transaminase (Isomerizing): An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of fructose-6-phosphate plus GLUTAMINE from GLUTAMATE plus glucosamine-6-phosphate.Mannosephosphates: Phosphoric acid esters of mannose.Polyisoprenyl Phosphates: Phosphoric or pyrophosphoric acid esters of polyisoprenoids.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases: A group of hydrolases which catalyze the hydrolysis of monophosphoric esters with the production of one mole of orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Acyl Carrier Protein: Consists of a polypeptide chain and 4'-phosphopantetheine linked to a serine residue by a phosphodiester bond. Acyl groups are bound as thiol esters to the pantothenyl group. Acyl carrier protein is involved in every step of fatty acid synthesis by the cytoplasmic system.Microbodies: Electron-dense cytoplasmic particles bounded by a single membrane, such as PEROXISOMES; GLYOXYSOMES; and glycosomes.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Membrane Lipids: Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Octoxynol: Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Octoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor): A group of enzymes that transfers a phosphate group onto an alcohol group acceptor. EC 2.7.1.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Malonyl Coenzyme A: A coenzyme A derivative which plays a key role in the fatty acid synthesis in the cytoplasmic and microsomal systems.Phospholipases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates. EC 3.1.-.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Multienzyme Complexes: Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.Organophosphorus Compounds: Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Polyketide Synthases: Large enzyme complexes composed of a number of component enzymes that are found in STREPTOMYCES which biosynthesize MACROLIDES and other polyketides.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Penicillium: A mitosporic Trichocomaceae fungal genus that develops fruiting organs resembling a broom. When identified, teleomorphs include EUPENICILLIUM and TALAROMYCES. Several species (but especially PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM) are sources of the antibiotic penicillin.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Sterol Esterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and some other sterol esters, to liberate cholesterol plus a fatty acid anion.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases: Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of alpha-carboxyl group of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to yield MEVALONIC ACID.Lipoprotein-X: An abnormal lipoprotein present in large amounts in patients with obstructive liver diseases such as INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS. LP-X derives from the reflux of BILE lipoproteins into the bloodstream. LP-X is a low-density lipoprotein rich in free CHOLESTEROL and PHOSPHOLIPIDS but poor in TRIGLYCERIDES; CHOLESTEROL ESTERS; and protein.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Phosphatidate Phosphatase: A phosphomonoesterase involved in the synthesis of triacylglycerols. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphatidates with the formation of diacylglycerols and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.4.Caprylates: Derivatives of caprylic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a carboxy terminated eight carbon aliphatic structure.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Lipoproteins, LDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency: A disease-producing enzyme deficiency subject to many variants, some of which cause a deficiency of GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE activity in erythrocytes, leading to hemolytic anemia.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Phosphatidylinositols: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to the hexahydroxy alcohol, myo-inositol. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid, myo-inositol, and 2 moles of fatty acids.Apolipoprotein A-II: The second most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. It has a high lipid affinity and is known to displace APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I from HDL particles and generates a stable HDL complex. ApoA-II can modulate the activation of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE in the presence of APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I, thus affecting HDL metabolism.NADP: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Arachis hypogaea: A plant species of the family FABACEAE that yields edible seeds, the familiar peanuts, which contain protein, oil and lectins.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Cyclohexanes: Six-carbon alicyclic hydrocarbons.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Cholesterol Ester Transfer Proteins: Proteins that bind to and transfer CHOLESTEROL ESTERS between LIPOPROTEINS such as LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.Palmitates: Salts and esters of the 16-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--palmitic acid.UTP-Hexose-1-Phosphate Uridylyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of UDPgalactose from UTP and galactose-1-phosphate. It is present in low levels in fetal and infant liver, but increases with age, thereby enabling galactosemic infants who survive to develop the capacity to metabolize galactose. EC 2.7.7.10.Aldose-Ketose Isomerases: Enzymes that catalyze the interconversion of aldose and ketose compounds.Acetyl-CoA C-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetoacetyl-CoA from two molecules of ACETYL COA. Some enzymes called thiolase or thiolase-I have referred to this activity or to the activity of ACETYL-COA C-ACYLTRANSFERASE.Plasmalogens: GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS in which one of the two acyl chains is attached to glycerol with an ether alkenyl linkage instead of an ester as with the other glycerophospholipids.Deoxycholic Acid: A bile acid formed by bacterial action from cholate. It is usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. Deoxycholic acid acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, is reabsorbed itself, and is used as a choleretic and detergent.Phosphatidylethanolamines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to an ethanolamine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and ethanolamine and 2 moles of fatty acids.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Enzyme Assays: Methods used to measure the relative activity of a specific enzyme or its concentration in solution. Typically an enzyme substrate is added to a buffer solution containing enzyme and the rate of conversion of substrate to product is measured under controlled conditions. Many classical enzymatic assay methods involve the use of synthetic colorimetric substrates and measuring the reaction rates using a spectrophotometer.Glycerylphosphorylcholine: A component of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES or LECITHINS, in which the two hydroxy groups of GLYCEROL are esterified with fatty acids. (From Stedman, 26th ed) It counteracts the effects of urea on enzymes and other macromolecules.Palmitic Acid: A common saturated fatty acid found in fats and waxes including olive oil, palm oil, and body lipids.Myo-Inositol-1-Phosphate Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of myo-inositol-1-phosphate from glucose-6-phosphate in the presence of NAD. EC 5.5.1.4.Sterols: Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (Phosphorylating): An NAD-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase found in the cytosol of eucaryotes. It catalyses the dehydrogenation and phosphorylation of GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE to 3-phospho-D-glyceroyl phosphate, which is an important step in the GLYCOLYSIS pathway.Cardiolipins: Acidic phospholipids composed of two molecules of phosphatidic acid covalently linked to a molecule of glycerol. They occur primarily in mitochondrial inner membranes and in bacterial plasma membranes. They are the main antigenic components of the Wassermann-type antigen that is used in nontreponemal SYPHILIS SERODIAGNOSIS.Mortierella: A genus of zygomycetous fungi of the family Mortierellaceae, order MUCORALES. Its species are abundant in soil and can cause rare infections in humans and animals. Mortierella alpinais is used for production of arachidonic acid.Lipoproteins, VLDL: A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.Cholesterol, Dietary: Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Sodium-Phosphate Cotransporter Proteins: A family of symporters that facilitate sodium-dependent membrane transport of phosphate.Detergents: Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.Fatty Alcohols: Usually high-molecular-weight, straight-chain primary alcohols, but can also range from as few as 4 carbons, derived from natural fats and oils, including lauryl, stearyl, oleyl, and linoleyl alcohols. They are used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, detergents, plastics, and lube oils and in textile manufacture. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Acetyltransferases: Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from acetyl coenzyme A, to another compound. EC 2.3.1.

A plastidial lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase from oilseed rape. (1/111)

The biosynthesis of phosphatidic acid, a key intermediate in the biosynthesis of lipids, is controlled by lysophosphatidic acid (LPA, or 1-acyl-glycerol-3-P) acyltransferase (LPAAT, EC 2.3.1.51). We have isolated a cDNA encoding a novel LPAAT by functional complementation of the Escherichia coli mutant plsC with an immature embryo cDNA library of oilseed rape (Brassica napus). Transformation of the acyltransferase-deficient E. coli strain JC201 with the cDNA sequence BAT2 alleviated the temperature-sensitive phenotype of the plsC mutant and conferred a palmitoyl-coenzyme A-preferring acyltransferase activity to membrane fractions. The BAT2 cDNA encoded a protein of 351 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 38 kD and an isoelectric point of 9.7. Chloroplast-import experiments showed processing of a BAT2 precursor protein to a mature protein of approximately 32 kD, which was localized in the membrane fraction. BAT2 is encoded by a minimum of two genes that may be expressed ubiquitously. These data are consistent with the identity of BAT2 as the plastidial enzyme of the prokaryotic glycerol-3-P pathway that uses a palmitoyl-ACP to produce phosphatidic acid with a prokaryotic-type acyl composition. The homologies between the deduced protein sequence of BAT2 with prokaryotic and eukaryotic microsomal LAP acytransferases suggest that seed microsomal forms may have evolved from the plastidial enzyme.  (+info)

Overexpression of 1-acyl-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase-alpha enhances lipid storage in cellular models of adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. (2/111)

Plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) at elevated concentrations antagonize insulin action and thus may play a critical role in the development of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. Plasma NEFA and glucose concentrations are regulated, in part, by their uptake into peripheral tissues. Cellular energy uptake can be increased by enhancing either energy transport or metabolism. The effects of overexpression of 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (AGAT)-alpha, which catalyzes the second step in triglyceride formation from glycerol-3-phosphate, was studied in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and C2C12 myotubes. In myotubes, overexpression of AGAT-alpha did not affect total [14C]glucose uptake in the presence or absence of insulin, whereas insulin-stimulated [14C]glucose conversion to cellular lipids increased significantly (33%, P = 0.004) with a concomitant decrease (-30%, P = 0.005) in glycogen formation. [3H]oleic acid (OA) uptake in AGAT-overexpressing myotubes increased 34% (P = 0.027) upon insulin stimulation. AGAT-alpha overexpression in adipocytes increased basal (130%, P = 0.04) and insulin-stimulated (27%, P = 0.01) [3H]OA uptake, increased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (56%, P = 0.04) and conversion to cellular lipids (85%, P = 0.007), and suppressed basal (-44%, P = 0.01) and isoproterenol-stimulated OA release (-45%, P = 0.03) but not glycerol release. Our data indicate that an increase in metabolic flow to triglyceride synthesis can inhibit NEFA release, increase NEFA uptake, and promote insulin-mediated glucose utilization in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In myotubes, however, AGAT-alpha overexpression does not increase basal cellular energy uptake, but can enhance NEFA uptake and divert glucose from glycogen synthesis to lipogenesis upon insulin stimulation.  (+info)

Mutations in CGI-58, the gene encoding a new protein of the esterase/lipase/thioesterase subfamily, in Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome. (3/111)

Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome (CDS) is a rare autosomal recessive form of nonbullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (NCIE) that is characterized by the presence of intracellular lipid droplets in most tissues. We previously localized a gene for a subset of NCIE to chromosome 3 (designated "the NCIE2 locus"), in six families. Lipid droplets were found in five of these six families, suggesting a diagnosis of CDS. Four additional families selected on the basis of a confirmed diagnosis of CDS also showed linkage to the NCIE2 locus. Linkage-disequilibrium analysis of these families, all from the Mediterranean basin, allowed us to refine the NCIE2 locus to an approximately 1.3-Mb region. Candidate genes from the interval were screened, and eight distinct mutations in the recently identified CGI-58 gene were found in 13 patients from these nine families. The spectrum of gene variants included insertion, deletion, splice-site, and point mutations. The CGI-58 protein belongs to a large family of proteins characterized by an alpha/beta hydrolase fold. CGI-58 contains three sequence motifs that correspond to a catalytic triad found in the esterase/lipase/thioesterase subfamily. Interestingly, CGI-58 differs from other members of the esterase/lipase/thioesterase subfamily in that its putative catalytic triad contains an asparagine in place of the usual serine residue.  (+info)

Exploration of novel motifs derived from mouse cDNA sequences. (4/111)

We performed a systematic maximum density subgraph (MDS) detection of conserved sequence regions to discover new, biologically relevant motifs from a set of 21,050 conceptually translated mouse cDNA (FANTOM1) sequences. A total of 3202 candidate sequences, which shared similar regions over >20 amino acid residues, were screened against known conserved regions listed in Pfam, ProDom, and InterPro. The filtering procedure resulted in 139 FANTOM1 sequences belonging to 49 new motif candidates. Using annotations and multiple sequence alignment information, we removed by visual inspection 42 candidates whose members were found to be false positives because of sequence redundancy, alternative splicing, low complexity, transcribed retroviral repeat elements contained in the region of the predicted open reading frame, and reports in the literature. The remaining seven motifs have been expanded by hidden Markov model (HMM) profile searches of SWISS-PROT/TrEMBL from 28 FANTOM1 sequences to 164 members and analyzed in detail on sequence and structure level to elucidate the possible functions of motifs and members. The novel and conserved motif MDS00105 is specific for the mammalian inhibitor of growth (ING) family. Three submotifs MDS00105.1-3 are specific for ING1/ING1L, ING1-homolog, and ING3 subfamilies. The motif MDS00105 together with a PHD finger domain constitutes a module for ING proteins. Structural motif MDS00113 represents a leucine zipper-like motif. Conserved motif MDS00145 is a novel 1-acyl-SN-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (AGPAT) submotif containing a transmembrane domain that distinguishes AGPAT3 and AGPAT4 from all other acyltransferase domain-containing proteins. Functional motif MDS00148 overlaps with the kazal-type serine protease inhibitor domain but has been detected only in an extracellular loop region of solute carrier 21 (SLC21) (organic anion transporters) family members, which may regulate the specificity of anion uptake. Our motif discovery not only aided in the functional characterization of new mouse orthologs for potential drug targets but also allowed us to predict that at least 16 other new motifs are waiting to be discovered from the current SWISS-PROT/TrEMBL database.  (+info)

Limnanthes douglasii lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferases: immunological quantification, acyl selectivity and functional replacement of the Escherichia coli plsC gene. (5/111)

Antibodies were raised against the two membrane-bound lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAAT) enzymes from Limnanthes douglasii (meadowfoam), LAT1 and LAT2, using the predicted soluble portion of each protein as recombinant protein antigens. The antibodies can distinguish between the two acyltransferase proteins and demonstrate that both migrate in an anomalous fashion on SDS/PAGE gels. The antibodies were used to determine that LAT1 is present in both leaf and developing seeds, whereas LAT2 is only detectable in developing seeds later than 22 daf (days after flowering). Both proteins were found exclusively in microsomal fractions and their amount was determined using the recombinant antigens as quantification standards. LAT1 is present at a level of 27 pg/microg of membrane protein in leaf tissue and +info)

Prevalence of mutations in AGPAT2 among human lipodystrophies. (6/111)

Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy (BSCL) is a heterogeneous genetic disease characterized by near absence of adipose tissue and severe insulin resistance. We have previously identified mutations in the seipin gene in a subset of our patients' cohort. Recently, disease-causing mutations in AGPAT2 have been reported in BSCL patients. In this study, we have performed mutation screening in AGPAT2 and the related AGPAT1 in patients with BSCL or other forms of lipodystrophy who have no detectable mutation in the seipin gene. We found 38 BSCL patients from 30 families with mutations in AGPAT2. Three of the known mutations were frequently found in our families. Of the eight new alterations, six are null mutations and two are missense mutations (Glu172Lys and Ala238Gly). All the patients harboring AGPAT2 mutations presented with typical features of BSCL. We did not find mutations in patients with other forms of lipodystrophies, including the syndromes of Lawrence, Dunnigan, and Barraquer-Simons, or with type A insulin resistance. In conclusion, mutations in the seipin gene and AGPAT2 are confined to the BSCL phenotype. Because we found mutations in 92 of the 94 BSCL patients studied, the seipin gene and AGPAT2 are the two major genes involved in the etiology of BSCL.  (+info)

Truncation of CGI-58 protein causes malformation of lamellar granules resulting in ichthyosis in Dorfman-Chanarin syndrome. (7/111)

Dorfman-Chanarin syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive inherited lipid storage disease characterized by ichthyosis, leukocyte lipid vacuoles, and involvement of several internal organs. Recently, CGI-58 mutations were identified as the cause of Dorfman-Chanarin syndrome. The physiologic roles of the CGI-58 protein and the pathomechanisms of Dorfman-Chanarin syndrome still remain to be clarified, however. The patient, a 16-y-old male, demonstrated ichthyosis, small ears, lipid vacuoles in his leukocytes, liver dysfunction, and mental retardation. Sequencing of CGI-58 revealed that the patient was homozygous for a novel nonsense mutation R184X, in exon 4. The putative truncated protein was 52.4% of the length of the normal CGI-58 polypeptide and lacked approximately 60% of the lipid binding region, 66.4% of the alpha/beta hydrolase folding segment of the polypeptide, and two of the CGI-58 catalytic triads, resulting in a significant loss of lipase/esterase/thioesterase activity. Electron microscopy revealed a large number of abnormal lamellar granules, a disturbed intercellular lamellar structure, and lipid vacuoles in the epidermis. These results suggested that CGI-58 protein is involved in the lipid metabolism of lamellar granules and that defective lipid production in lamellar granules caused by a CGI-58 protein deficiency is involved in the pathogenesis of ichthyosis in Dorfman-Chanarin syndrome.  (+info)

CGI-58 interacts with perilipin and is localized to lipid droplets. Possible involvement of CGI-58 mislocalization in Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome. (8/111)

Lipid droplets (LDs) are a class of ubiquitous cellular organelles that are involved in lipid storage and metabolism. Although the mechanisms of the biogenesis of LDs are still unclear, a set of proteins called the PAT domain family have been characterized as factors associating with LDs. Perilipin, a member of this family, is expressed exclusively in the adipose tissue and regulates the breakdown of triacylglycerol in LDs via its phosphorylation. In this study, we used a yeast two-hybrid system to examine the potential function of perilipin. We found direct interaction between perilipin and CGI-58, a deficiency of which correlated with the pathogenesis of Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome (CDS). Endogenous CGI-58 was distributed predominantly on the surface of LDs in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells, and its expression increased during adipocyte differentiation. Overexpressed CGI-58 tagged with GFP gathered at the surface of LDs and colocalized with perilipin. This interaction seems physiologically important because CGI-58 mutants carrying an amino acid substitution identical to that found in CDS lost the ability to be recruited to LDs. These mutations significantly weakened the binding of CGI-58 with perilipin, indicating that the loss of this interaction is involved in the etiology of CDS. Furthermore, we identified CGI-58 as a binding partner of ADRP, another PAT domain protein expressed ubiquitously, by yeast two-hybrid assay. GFP-CGI-58 expressed in non-differentiated 3T3-L1 or CHO-K1 cells was colocalized with ADRP, and the CGI-58 mutants were not recruited to LDs carrying ADRP, indicating that CGI-58 may also cooperate with ADRP.  (+info)

Looking for online definition of 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase alpha in the Medical Dictionary? 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase alpha explanation free. What is 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase alpha? Meaning of 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase alpha medical term. What does 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase alpha mean?
Looking for online definition of 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase beta in the Medical Dictionary? 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase beta explanation free. What is 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase beta? Meaning of 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase beta medical term. What does 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase beta mean?
The second acylation reaction in glycerolipid biosynthesis is catalyzed by an sn-1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase. The enzyme of Limnanthes douglusii involved in triacylglycerol synthesis has an unusual specificity for very long chain acyl groups in both of its substrates, namely acyl-CoA and sn-1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate, and causes the enrichment of erucoyl groups in the sn-2 position of the seed oil of this plant species. We have isolated a cDNA clone encoding this embryo-specific, microsomal acyltransferase via heterologous complementation of an Escherichia coli mutant deficient in sn -1-acyl-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase activity. The open reading frame of the cDNA insert encodes a protein with a length of 281 amino acids, with three predicted membrane-spanning domains and of about 31.7 kDa. The sequence exhibits substantial sequence similaritiy to the sn-1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase of E. coli. The corresponding transcript was detectable in developing embryos ...
This project is supported by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (award #111062), Alberta Innovates - Health Solutions, and by The Metabolomics Innovation Centre (TMIC), a nationally-funded research and core facility that supports a wide range of cutting-edge metabolomic studies. TMIC is funded by Genome Alberta, Genome British Columbia, and Genome Canada, a not-for-profit organization that is leading Canadas national genomics strategy with $900 million in funding from the federal government ...
This project is supported by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (award #111062), Alberta Innovates - Health Solutions, and by The Metabolomics Innovation Centre (TMIC), a nationally-funded research and core facility that supports a wide range of cutting-edge metabolomic studies. TMIC is funded by Genome Alberta, Genome British Columbia, and Genome Canada, a not-for-profit organization that is leading Canadas national genomics strategy with $900 million in funding from the federal government ...
GT:ID BAD56558.1 GT:GENE BAD56558.1 GT:PRODUCT putative 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase GT:DATABASE GIB00210CH01 GT:ORG nfar0 GB:ACCESSION GIB00210CH01 GB:LOCATION complement(1863574..1864296) GB:FROM 1863574 GB:TO 1864296 GB:DIRECTION - GB:PRODUCT putative 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase GB:PROTEIN_ID BAD56558.1 LENGTH 240 SQ:AASEQ MFYWLLKFVLVGPFIRVYNRPTVEGVENIPSDGPAILAGNHLSIADWLFAPLLSPRRINYLAKAEYFTTPGIKGRLQKFFFSGTGQYPIDRSGADAAEDALNAARKLLDQGKLVGLYPEGTRSPDGRLYKGKTGMARLALETGVPVIPVAVIGTDKVAPPGPFRWRRHKVTVKFGAPIDFSRYEGMGGNRFVERAVTDEVMYELMRLSGQEYVDVYAHSLKGVPSGSKPEAPRIPDTAAS GT:EXON 1,1-240:0, BL:SWS:NREP 1 BL:SWS:REP 9-,161,LPAT1_ARATH,2e-17,35.7,143/356, SEG 94-,104,adaaedalnaa, RP:PFM:NREP 1 RP:PFM:REP 23-,152,PF01553,5e-18,42.4,125/132,Acyltransferase, HM:PFM:NREP 1 HM:PFM:REP 21-,151,PF01553,1.2e-31,45.2,126/135,Acyltransferase, GO:PFM:NREP 2 GO:PFM GO:0008152,GO:metabolic process,PF01553,IPR002123, GO:PFM GO:0008415,GO:acyltransferase activity,PF01553,IPR002123, ...
1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase beta is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the AGPAT2 gene. This gene encodes a member of the 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase family. The protein is located within the endoplasmic reticulum membrane and converts lysophosphatidic acid to phosphatidic acid, the second step in de novo phospholipid biosynthesis. Mutations in this gene have been associated with congenital generalized lipodystrophy, a disease characterized by a near absence of adipose tissue and severe insulin resistance. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000169692 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000026922 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Eberhardt C, Gray PW, Tjoelker LW (Aug 1997). "Human lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase. cDNA cloning, expression, and localization to chromosome 9q34.3". The Journal of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - CGI-58 facilitates the mobilization of cytoplasmic triglyceride for lipoprotein secretion in hepatoma cells. AU - Brown, J. Mark. AU - Chung, Soonkyu. AU - Das, Akash. AU - Shelness, Gregory S.. AU - Rudel, Lawrence L.. AU - Yu, Liqing. PY - 2007/10. Y1 - 2007/10. N2 - Comparative Gene Identification-58 (CGI-58) is a member of the α/β-hydrolase family of proteins. Mutations in the human CGI-58 gene are associated with Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome, a rare autosomal recessive genetic disease in which excessive triglyceride (TG) accumulation occurs in multiple tissues. In this study, we investigated the role of CGI-58 in cellular lipid metabolism in several cell models and discovered a role for CGI-58 in promoting the packaging of cytoplasmic TG into secreted lipoprotein particles in hepatoma cells. Using both gain-of-function and loss-of-function approaches, we demonstrate that CGI-58 facilitates the depletion of cellular TG stores without altering cellular cholesterol or ...
Agpat1 - Agpat1 (Myc-DDK-tagged) - Mouse 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 1 (lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase, alpha) (Agpat1), transcript variant 2 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
AGPAT2 - AGPAT2 (GFP-tagged) - Human 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 2 (lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase, beta) (AGPAT2), transcript variant 2 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
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May convert lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) into phosphatidic acid by incorporating acyl moiety at the 2 position (By similarity). Has no activity when expressed in bacteria or yeast.
Jacq, C., Alt-Morbe, J., Andre, B., Arnold, W., Bahr, A., Ballesta, J. P., Bargues, M., Baron, L., Becker, A., Biteau, N., Blocker, H., Blugeon, C., Boskovic, J., Brandt, P., Bruckner, M., Buitrago, M. J., Coster, F., Delaveau, T., del Rey, F., Dujon, B., Eide, L. G., Garcia-Cantalejo, J. M., Goffeau, A., Gomez-Peris, A., Zaccaria, P., et, a. l. .. (1997). "The nucleotide sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome IV." Nature 387:75-78.9169867 ...
CP001600.PE179 Location/Qualifiers FT CDS_pept 207513..208256 FT /codon_start=1 FT /transl_table=11 FT /locus_tag="NT01EI_0204" FT /product="1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, FT putative" FT /EC_number="2.3.1.51" FT /db_xref="EnsemblGenomes-Gn:NT01EI_0204" FT /db_xref="EnsemblGenomes-Tr:ACR67447" FT /db_xref="GOA:C5B6Y5" FT /db_xref="InterPro:IPR002123" FT /db_xref="InterPro:IPR004552" FT /db_xref="UniProtKB/TrEMBL:C5B6Y5" FT /protein_id="ACR67447.1" FT /translation="MLFIFRVILITLLCLVICIVGSLYCLFSPRNPRHVARFGHWFGRL FT SPLFGLKVETRLPPDAATYGNAIYIANHQNNYDMVTASNAVQPNTVTVGKKSLAWIPFF FT GQLYWLTGNLLIDRKNRTKAHNTIAAVVEQFRTRRISFWMFPEGTRSRGRGLMPFKTGA FT FHAALAAGVPIVPICVSSTHDKVKLNRWNNGVVIVEMLPPIDTSRWGKDQVRDLAEHCR FT TLMAEKIGQLDAEVAAREAQAGKRA" atgctattca ttttccgggt catactgatc acgttgctgt gcctcgtcat ctgcattgtc 60 ggttcgctgt attgcctgtt cagcccgcgc aacccgcgcc acgtcgcgcg ttttggccac 120 tggttcggcc gcttatcgcc gctgtttggc ctgaaggttg aaacgcgcct gccgccggat 180 gccgcaacct atggcaacgc catctatatc gccaaccacc ...
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Purified Recombinant Human AGPAT2 293 Cell Lysate from Creative Biomart. Recombinant Human AGPAT2 293 Cell Lysate can be used for research.
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Complete information for ABHD5 gene (Protein Coding), Abhydrolase Domain Containing 5, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
AGPAT5兔多克隆抗体(ab82783)可与人样本反应并经WB, ELISA实验严格验证,被1篇文献引用并得到3个独立的用户反馈。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
AGPAT1兔多克隆抗体(ab125874)可与人样本反应并经WB实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
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This gene encodes a member of the 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase family. The protein is located within the endoplasmic reticulum membrane and converts lysophosphatidic acid to phosphatidic acid, the second step in de novo phospholipid biosynthesis. Mutations in this gene have been associated with congenital generalized lipodystrophy (CGL), or Berardinelli-Seip syndrome, a disease characterized by a near absence of adipose tissue and severe insulin resistance. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized ...
A combination of site-directed and random mutagenesis generated sequence variants of a plastidial lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase. Alanine substitutions of residues present within two conserved motifs including the putative catalytic histidine resulted in a loss of acyltransferase activity assessed as complementation competance. Substitutions at five sites within the central core resulted in reduced or loss of activity. Truncation mutants reveal that sequences in the C-terminal moiety are essential for function.. ...
Fat tissue is the most important energy depot in vertebrates. The release of free fatty acids (FFAs) from stored fat requires the enzymatic activity of lipases. We showed that genetic inactivation of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) in mice increases adipose mass and leads to triacylglycerol deposition in multiple tissues. ATGL-deficient mice accumulated large amounts of lipid in the heart, causing cardiac dysfunction and premature death. Defective cold adaptation indicated that the enzyme provides FFAs to fuel thermogenesis. The reduced availability of ATGL-derived FFAs leads to increased glucose use, increased glucose tolerance, and increased insulin sensitivity. These results indicate that ATGL is rate limiting in the catabolism of cellular fat depots and plays an important role in energy homeostasis.. ...
Phosphorylation of adipose triglyceride lipase Ser(404) is not related to 5-AMPK activation during moderate-intensity exercise in humans
Definition of Sterol O-Acyltransferase in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Sterol O-Acyltransferase? Meaning of Sterol O-Acyltransferase as a finance term. What does Sterol O-Acyltransferase mean in finance?
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Numerous hits in gapped BLAST to probable 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferases, e.g. residues 3-253 are 32% similar to PLSC_MYCGE (MG212). Apart from the similarities to mycoplasma proteins, BLAST scores are below 100 due to the lack of similarity over the NH-terminal residues. No significant similarity to T.pallidum or C.trachomatis ...
Definition of Phosphatidylcholine-sterol o-acyltransferase with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
Blog on ABHD12 cdna clone product: The ABHD12 abhd12 (Catalog #MBS1276747) is a cDNA Clone and is intended for research purposes only. The p...
Rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against recombinant ABHD9. Recombinant protein corresponding to amino acids of human ABHD9. (PAB21930) - Products - Abnova
Expression of ABHD12 (ABHD12A, BEM46L2, C20orf22, dJ965G21.2, DKFZP434P106) in kidney tissue. Antibody staining with HPA026866 in immunohistochemistry.
Mutation in the ABHD12 Gene Symptom Checker: Possible causes include Usher Syndrome Type 3B. Check the full list of possible causes and conditions now! Talk to our Chatbot to narrow down your search.
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Neutral Lipid Storage Disease With Myopath (NLSDM) is a disease caused by a defect in the PNPLA2 gene encoding ATGL. Patients with NLSDM accumulate triglycerides and exhibit muscle weakness, cardiac failure and hepatosteatosis. Most of these patients die at young age due to cardiac failure. Not much is known about the underlying mechanisms, though recently it was discovered that PPAR activation in ATGL-/- mice was impaired leading to decreased mitochondrial function, lipid accumulation and cardiac failure resulting in death at young age. Activation of PPARs, by treatment with fibrates rescued the phenotype and reduced mortality rates in these mice. These findings may have a major impact for patients with NLSDM if these results can be translated to humans. Therefore, the investigators would like to evaluate the beneficial effects of fibrate treatment on muscle mitochondrial and cardiac function in patients with NLSDM.. Patients will be treated with fibrates during a period of 28 weeks. Baseline ...
Neutral Lipid Storage Disease With Myopath (NLSDM) is a disease caused by a defect in the PNPLA2 gene encoding ATGL. Patients with NLSDM accumulate triglycerides and exhibit muscle weakness, cardiac failure and hepatosteatosis. Most of these patients die at young age due to cardiac failure. Not much is known about the underlying mechanisms, though recently it was discovered that PPAR activation in ATGL-/- mice was impaired leading to decreased mitochondrial function, lipid accumulation and cardiac failure resulting in death at young age. Activation of PPARs, by treatment with fibrates rescued the phenotype and reduced mortality rates in these mice. These findings may have a major impact for patients with NLSDM if these results can be translated to humans. Therefore, the investigators would like to evaluate the beneficial effects of fibrate treatment on muscle mitochondrial and cardiac function in patients with NLSDM.. Patients will be treated with fibrates during a period of 28 weeks. Baseline ...
(R)-Lisofylline ((R)-Lisophylline) is a (R)-enantiomer of the metabolite of Pentoxifylline with anti-inflammatory properties. (R)-Lisofylline is a lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase inhibitor with an IC50 of 0.6 µM and interrupts IL-12 signaling-mediated STAT4 activation. (R)-Lisofylline has the potential for type 1 diabetes, autoimmune disorders research. - Mechanism of Action & Protocol.
Introduction: Myocardial metabolism undergoes change in response to pathological cardiac hypertrophy (PH), characterized by increased reliance on glucose oxidation, decreased free fatty acid (FFA) oxidation and a loss of metabolic flexibility. Cardiac metabolism is influenced by other organs such as adipose tissue. Hence, we aimed to investigate the effect of Adipose Triglyceride Lipase (ATGL) in adipose tissue on the development of PH and heart failure (HF) in a pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy model in mice.. Methods: Male adipose tissue specific ATGL-knock out (atATGL-KO) and wild type mice (WT) underwent sham surgery (sham) or transverse aortic constriction (TAC). After 11 weeks, mice were sacrificed and organs were harvested.. We performed echocardiography one week before and 11 weeks after surgery. Left ventricular mass (LVM), left ventricular mass/tibia length (LVM/TL) and ejection fraction (EF) were calculated. Beta-myosin heavy chain (β-MyHC) was measured in RNA of hearts. ...
It has now been a decade since the causal link between CGI-58 mutations and CDS was established (5), yet molecular mechanism(s) by which CGI-58 prevents CDS has remained elusive. Early studies using skin fibroblasts isolated from patients with neutral lipid storage disease or CDS showed that these cultured cells had striking accumulation of intracellular TAGs under normal growth conditions (10,11,38-41). However, the TAG accumulation could not be explained by alteration in mitochondrial fatty acid uptake, β-oxidation, in vitro lipase activity, or TAG synthesizing enzyme activity (10,11,38-41). Instead, it was found that neutral lipid storage disease fibroblasts had impaired turnover of long-chain fatty acids from stored TAGs (38-41). We have likewise demonstrated that targeted knockdown of CGI-58 in hepatocytes impairs intracellular TAG hydrolysis in vitro and in vivo (2,42). Of interest, CGI-58 is a lipid-droplet-associated protein in adipocytes, achieving this subcellular localization by ...
To study the effects of acquired cardiac ATGL deficiency on cardiac PPARα activity, function, and metabolism, we generated adult mice with tamoxifen-inducible cardiomyocyte-specific ATGL deficiency (icAtglKO). Within 4-6 weeks following ATGL ablation, icAtglKO mice had markedly increased myocardial TAG accumulation, fibrotic remodelling, and pathological hypertrophy. Echocardiographic analysis of hearts in vivo revealed that contractile function was moderately reduced in icAtglKO mice. Analysis of energy metabolism in ex vivo perfused working hearts showed diminished FAO rates which was not paralleled by markedly impaired PPARα target gene expression.. ...
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Disorder of Cornification 12 (Neutral Lipid Storage Type) information including symptoms, diagnosis, misdiagnosis, treatment, causes, patient stories, videos, forums, prevention, and prognosis.
Rabbit monoclonal antibody raised against a human AGPAT1 peptide using ARM Technology. A synthetic peptide of human AGPAT1 is used for rabbit immunization.Customer or Abnova will decide on the preferred peptide sequence. (H00010554-K) - Products - Abnova
Parfümieren is a blog of perfume reviews and reflections on new and vintage fragrance. Parfumieren is purple prose for perfume people.
The ABHD7 Colorimetric Cell-Based ELISA Kit is a convenient, lysate-free, high throughput and sensitive assay kit that can detect ABHD7 protein expressino profile in cells. The kit can be used for measuring the relative amounts of ABHD7 in cultured cells
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Perform reliable PCR with Bio-Rads AGPAT2 primer pair, for Human. Designed for EvaGreen-based detection with digital PCR (ddPCR).
Expression of ABHD12 (ABHD12A, BEM46L2, C20orf22, dJ965G21.2, DKFZP434P106) in skeletal muscle tissue. Antibody staining with HPA026866 in immunohistochemistry.
Abhd15 - mouse gene knockout kit via CRISPR, 1 kit. |dl||dt|Kit Component:|/dt||dd|- |strong|KN300653G1|/strong|, Abhd15 gRNA vector 1 in |a href=http://www.origene.com/CRISPR-CAS9/Detail.
Abhd4 - mouse gene knockout kit via CRISPR, 1 kit. |dl||dt|Kit Component:|/dt||dd|- |strong|KN300661G1|/strong|, Abhd4 gRNA vector 1 in |a href=http://www.origene.com/CRISPR-CAS9/Detail.
MBOAT4 antibody (membrane bound O-acyltransferase domain containing 4) for IHC-P, WB. Anti-MBOAT4 pAb (GTX53651) is tested in Human, Mouse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Use Bio-Rads PrimePCR assays, controls, templates for your target gene. Every primer pair is optimized, experimentally validated, and performance guaranteed.
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Heart-Shaped Box" je píseň americké grungeové skupiny Nirvana, jejímž autorem je Kurt Cobain. Vyšla na stejnojmenném singlu roku 1993 k albu In Utero. Cobain skladbu napsal na přelomu let 1992 a 1993. Podle jeho slov byla píseň inspirovaná dokumentem o dětech s rakovinou.[zdroj?] Cobaina k sepsání skladby inspiroval dárek od jeho pozdější manželky Courtney Love z roku 1990 - krabička ve tvaru srdce (anglicky: heart-shaped box).[1] Cobainův životopis Těžší než nebe o tomto dárku uvádí:[2] „(…) poslala mu [Courtney] jako dárek krabičku ve tvaru srdce. Byla v ní porcelánová panenka, tři usušené růže, miniaturní čajový šálek a nalakované mořské mušle. Krabičku potaženou hedvábím s krajkovým lemováním zakoupila ve starožitnostech Geralda Katze v New Orleansu, a než ji Kurtovi poslala, jako magické zaklínadlo do ní vetřela svůj parfém." ...
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Lipodystrophies are disorders of adipose tissue (fat) characterized by selective loss of fat from various parts of the body. There are several different types of lipodystrophies and the degree of fat loss may vary from very small depressed areas to near complete absence of adipose tissue. The extent of fat loss may determine the severity of metabolic complications related to insulin resistance, such as diabetes mellitus and high levels of serum triglycerides. Some patients may have only cosmetic problems while others may also have severe metabolic complications.. Inherited lipodystrophies are caused by mutations (alterations or blips) in a gene. Several genes responsible for different types of inherited lipodystrophies have been identified. These include AGPAT2 (1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate-O-acyltransferase 2), BSCL2 (Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy 2) in Congenital Generalized Lipodystrophy (CGL), Lamin A/ C (LMNA) gene in Familial Partial Lipodystrophy Dunnigan variety (Familial ...
Neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy (NLSDM) is a rare clinical heterogeneous disorder caused by mutations in the patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 2 (PNPLA2) gene. NLSDM usually presents skeletal myopathy, cardiomyopathy and the multiple organs dysfunction. Around 50 cases of NLSDM have been described worldwide, whereas the comprehensive understanding of this disease are still limited. We therefore recruit NLSDM patients from 10 centers across China, summarize the clinical, muscle imaging, pathological and genetic features, and analyze the genotype-phenotype relationship. A total of 45 NLSDM patients (18 men and 27 women) were recruited from 40 unrelated families. Thirteen patients were born from consanguineous parents. The phenotypes were classified as asymptomatic hyperCKemia (2/45), pure skeletal myopathy (18/45), pure cardiomyopathy (4/45), and the combination of skeletal myopathy and cardiomyopathy (21/45). Right upper limb weakness was the early and prominent feature in 61.5% of
Sterol O-acyltransferase (also called Acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase, Acyl-CoA cholesterin acyltransferase[citation needed] or simply ACAT) is an intracellular protein located in the endoplasmic reticulum that forms cholesteryl esters from cholesterol. Sterol O-acyltransferase catalyzes the chemical reaction: acyl-CoA + cholesterol ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } CoA + cholesterol ester Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are acyl-CoA and cholesterol, whereas its two products are CoA and cholesteryl ester. This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those acyltransferases transferring groups other than aminoacyl groups, the membrane-bound O-acyltransferases. This enzyme participates in bile acid biosynthesis. Acyl-CoA cholesterol acyl transferase EC 2.3.1.26, more simply referred to as ACAT, also known as sterol O-acyltransferase (SOAT), belongs to the class of enzymes known as acyltransferases. The role of this enzyme is to transfer fatty acyl groups from ...
In the present study, we report the first phenotypic characterization of mice deficient for GPAT3, one of two microsomal GPAT enzymes identified so far at the molecular level. Our data show that total and NEM-sensitive GPAT activity was significantly reduced in Gpat3−/− mice compared with wild-type controls in both subcutaneous and visceral fat depots, whereas NEM-resistant GPAT activity in adipose tissue remained unchanged. In contrast, in liver, although the total GPAT activities were comparable between wild-type and Gpat3−/− littermates, the NEM-sensitive (presumably microsomal) activity was decreased by 30% due to an unexpected increase in NEM-resistant GPAT activity in this tissue. In addition, our results show that AGPAT activity in GPAT3 knockout mice was either unchanged (liver) or upregulated (adipose tissue) when compared with wild-type controls. These results, together with our previous findings of high expression level of GPAT3 in adipose tissue and the impairment of ...
Sitnick et al. (1) provide compelling evidence that skeletal muscle-specific modulations of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) expression in vivo in mice impacts intramyocellular triacylglycerol (IMTG) content with no measurable effects on other lipid species (diacylglycerols [DAG], ceramides, and long-chain acyl-coenzyme A) and insulin sensitivity. The authors speculate that the fatty acid (FA) cycle observed in cardiac muscle, with FA largely trafficking through IMTG before being consumed, may only occur in skeletal muscle during exercise. However, data from Jensen and colleagues (2) elegantly demonstrate that this cycle may be physiologically relevant in resting human skeletal muscle under normal feeding conditions. The findings in mice are also contrasting with the effect of ATGL on fat oxidation and insulin sensitivity observed in vitro in human primary myotubes (3).. The study by Sitnick et al. (1) raises a number of questions. It is first striking that long-term high-fat feeding did not ...
Abcam provides specific protocols for Anti-Adipose Triglyceride Lipase antibody (ab85858) : Western blot protocols, Immunohistochemistry protocols
RPH629Hu01, MGAT2; DGAT2L5; DC5; 2-Acylglycerol O-Acyltransferase 2; Diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase candidate 5; Diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2-like protein 5 | Products for research use only!
This gene encodes a mitochondrial enzyme which prefers saturated fatty acids as its substrate for the synthesis of glycerolipids. This metabolic pathways first step is catalyzed by the encoded enzyme. Two forms for this enzyme exist, one in the mitochondria and one in the endoplasmic reticulum. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011 ...
General Electric enters wind power partnership General Electric (GE) has announced that it will be helping develop a large-scale wind energy project in Australia. The company will be working with the Powering Australian Renewables Fund (PARF) in this endeavor. PARF is currently in a partnership with AGL Energy and the Queensland Investment Corporation to expand Australias wind energy capacity. The country has become a prominent wind market, largely due to its efforts to expand its use of clean power. New wind farm will power 260,000 homes With its partners, General…. Read More ...
The countdown for GPAT has begun as only few days are left for the exam. Now the time has come to give the sprint to the marathon race of your preparation. In this article I am discussing the most hit topics which should be covered or revised in the last few days of the GPAT. Also here worth mentioning that this time AICTE is conducting the exam so it is expected that standard of the exam will be little higher than the previous one and so the cut off will be low ...
Konu az biraz klasiğe yalpalamış olsa da, asıl çağcıl girişini takiben, öyle veya böyle yolundan çıkmadan bizi karşı kıyıya geçirmeyi başardı kanaatimce. Ancak o en baba esprilerini ilk yarının ortalarına doğru tüketti. Buna rağmen genç/yaşlı güncel masa düzeni detayları, yaşlıdan alınma delikanlı aşk tavsileri vb esprileri gerçekten çok keyifliydi. Tam yerinde ve tam kıyamında bir şekilde, beni bayağı güldürdü, keyiflendirdi ...
The integrity of the vascular barrier, which is essential to blood vessel homoeostasis, can be disrupted by a variety of soluble permeability factors during sepsis. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), a potent endogenous anti-angiogenic molecule, is significantly increased in sepsis, but its role in endothelial dysfunction has not been defined. To assess the role of PEDF in the vasculature, we evaluated the effects of exogenous PEDF in vivo using a mouse model of cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis and in vitro using human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMECs). In addition, PEDF was inhibited using a PEDF-monoclonal antibody (PEDF-mAb) or recombinant lentivirus vectors targeting PEDF receptors, including adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and laminin receptor (LR). Our results showed that exogenous PEDF induced vascular hyperpermeability, as measured by extravasation of Evans Blue (EB), dextran and microspheres in the skin, blood, trachea and cremaster muscle, both ...
G0/G1 switch gene 2 (G0S2) is a direct retinoic acid target gene that is widely expressed in diverse organs and has been reported to have a role in adipose lipolysis by negatively regulating adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL). G0S2 is also commonly silenced by DNA methylation in a variety of solid tumors including glioma, head and neck and lung cancers, and G0S2 induction is associated with retinoic acid-mediated clinical remissions in acute promyelocytic leukemia. This evidence suggests that G0S2 may possess tumor suppressor activity although definitive proof and mechanistic details are lacking. We now clearly demonstrate using G0S2 null immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) that G0S2 can function to oppose oncogene-induced transformation. G0S2 null MEFs were readily transformed with H-RAS or EGFR while wild-type MEFs were not. Importantly, re-introduction of G0S2 reversed H-RAS transformation of G0S2 null MEFs. Although G0S2 is a known regulator of fat metabolism through attenuating ...
Purchase Recombinant Colwellia psychrerythraea Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase(plsY). It is produced in in vitro E.coli expression system. High purity. Good price.
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Giallo" İtalyanlara özgü bir tür olsa da Yeşilçam da buna kayıtsız kalmamıştır. Kalıcı bir izlenim bırakabilmesi için bir giallonun özel bir şeye ihtiyacı vardır. Örneğin, etrafta hiçbir ağaçtan iz yokken ağaçtan atlayarak insanlara saldıran bir katil.. Aşka Susayanlar, Seks ve Cinayet, giallo türü için çıtayı yükseltmiş filmlerden biri olan The Strange Vice Of Mrs. Wardhın birebir yeniden çevrilmiş Türk yapımı versiyonu. Ancak Strange Vice bir E.T. ya da Ghostbusters değil -araklanmış Türk yapımı filmlere genelde malzeme olan dünya çapında fenomen haline gelmiş filmlerden değil. Diğer bir deyişle Strange Viceı uyarlamak License To Driveı uyarlamak gibidir. Her iki film de küçük bir grup için başyapıt olsa da geniş yankı uyandırmaz. Yapımcıların 1962 hiti "Sealed With A Kiss"i filmin müzikleri arasına eklemelerinin nedeni de muhtemelen budur. İnsanları bir şekilde çekmek zorundasınız.. Siyah bir trençkot, siyah ...
Natürliche Hautformel - parfümfrei - parabenfrei - silikonfrei . Wird von allen Hauttypen toleriert, selbst von den empfindlichsten. Dermatologisch getestet.
Bu arada evet dediklerinde doğruluk payı var, geçmişte yapılan araştırmalarda steroidlerin kasların çok daha çabuk iyileşmesini sağladığı görüldü. Hatta yanılmıyorsam steroid kullanımı uzun vadede kaslara da bir zarar vermiyor. Ancak - çoğu ölümcül olmasa da - 1001 tane yan etkisi var. Ne kadar gerekli kontroller/denetlemeler yapılırsa yapılsın, böyle birşeyin doktor reçetesiyle de olsa oyunculara verilmesi sporun (bu durumda basketbolun), ileride çok büyük yara almasına sebep olacaktır. Dünya saf ve temiz bir yer değil, bu tarz şeylere ucundan izin verirseniz, ipleri elinizde tutamazsınız. Zaten steroidin yasal olarak kullanılmasının ihtimal dahilinde olmadığını eminim Cuban da biliyordur. Herhalde canı sıkılmış olacak ki medyada biraz tartışma yaratacak bu açıklamayı yapmış ...
Predelava avta na plin kvalitetno, hitro in ugodno. Car gas - kjer kakovost in kvaliteta ne trpita na račun ugodne cene same storitve.
A blog about online GPAT study material. We provide free notes for GPAT preparation along with the free objective questions for your preparation.
Huntingtons disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder, which is characterized by progressive motor impairment and cognitive alterations. Changes in energy metabolism, neuroendocrine function, body weight, euglycemia, appetite function, and circadian rhythm can also occur. It is likely that the locus of these alterations is the hypothalamus. We used the HD transgenic (tg) rat model bearing 51 CAG repeats, which exhibits similar HD symptomology as HD patients to investigate hypothalamic function. We conducted detailed hypothalamic proteome analyses and also measured circulating levels of various metabolic hormones and lipids in pre-symptomatic and symptomatic animals. Our results demonstrate that there are significant alterations in HD rat hypothalamic protein expression such as glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), heat shock protein-70, the oxidative damage protein glutathione peroxidase (Gpx4), glycogen synthase1 (Gys1) and the lipid synthesis enzyme acylglycerol-3-phosphate ...
Mutations in the BSCL2 gene underlie human type 2 Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy (BSCL2) disease. Global Bscl2-/- mice recapitulate human BSCL2 lipodystrophy and results in the development of insulin resistance and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The pathological mechanisms underlying the development of lipodystrophy and cardiomyopathy in BSCL2 are controversial. Here we report that Bscl2-/- mice develop cardiac hypertrophy because of increased basal IGF1 receptor-mediated (IGF1R-mediated) PI3K/AKT signaling. Bscl2-/- hearts exhibited increased adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) protein stability and expression causing drastic reduction of glycerolipids. Excessive fatty acid oxidation was overt in Bscl2-/- hearts, partially attributing to the hyperacetylation of cardiac mitochondrial proteins. Intriguingly, pharmacological inhibition or genetic inactivation of ATGL could rescue adipocyte differentiation and lipodystrophy in Bscl2-/- cells and mice. Restoring a small portion of fat mass ...
Anthracyclines such as, doxorubicin (DOX) are an effective class of antineoplastic agents. Despite its efficacy in the treatment of a variety of cancers including breast cancer, the clinical use of DOX is limited by cardiac side effects. While it has been shown that DOX alters myocardial fatty acid metabolism, it is poorly understood whether variations in myocardial triacylglycerol (TG) metabolism contribute to DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Since TG catabolism in the heart is primarily controlled by adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), this study examined the influence of DOX on cardiac ATGL expression and TG levels as well as the consequence of forced-expression of ATGL in the setting of DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. To do this, wild type (WT) mice and mice with cardiomyocyte-specific ATGL over-expression (MHC-ATGL) received weekly intraperitoneal injections of saline or DOX (8mg/kg) for four weeks. Heart rate, heart weight to tibia length ratio and DOX-induced body weight loss were comparable ...
The budding yeast ALE1 gene encodes a lysophospholipid acyltransferase (LPLAT) with broad specificity. We show that yeast LPLAT (ScLPLAT) belongs to a distinct protein family that includes human MBOAT1, MBOAT2, MBOAT4, and several closely related proteins from other eukaryotes. We further show that two plant proteins within this family, the Arabidopsis proteins AtLPLAT1 and AtLPLAT2, possess lysophospholipid acyltransferase activities similar to ScLPLAT. We propose that other members of this protein family, which we refer to as the LPLAT family, also are likely to possess LPLAT activity. Finally, we show that ScLPLAT differs from the specific lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase that is encoded by SLC1 in that it cannot efficiently use lysophosphatidic acid produced by acylation of glycerol-3-phosphate in vitro.. ...
Displays acyl-CoA-dependent lysophospholipid acyltransferase activity with a subset of lysophospholipids as substrates; converts lysophosphatidylethanolamine to phosphatidylethanolamine, lysophosphatidylcholine to phosphatidycholine, 1-alkenyl-lysophatidylethanolamine to 1-alkenyl-phosphatidylethanolamine, lysophosphatidylglycerol and alkyl-lysophosphatidylcholine to phosphatidylglycerol and alkyl-phosphatidylcholine, respectively. In contrast, has no lysophosphatidylinositol, glycerol-3-phosphate, diacylglycerol or lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase activity. Prefers long chain acyl-CoAs (C16, C18) as acyl donors ...
While its swan song lasted, this curious exoticism could be found everywhere: in popular illustrations by Maxfield Parrish and Erté, in haute couture designs by Paul Poiret and Mariano Fortuny, in Leon Baksts costumes for the Ballets Russes, even in print ads for Djer-Kiss brand toiletries. The public bought up copies of T.E. Lawrences Seven Pillars of Wisdom (1922), The Prophet by Khalil Gibran (1923), and The Rubáiyát of Omar Khayyám, and lined up at cinemas to swoon over The Sheik. It would be lunacy if Guerlain didnt capitalize on this trend-- and so, crowned in sapphire and veiled in PR romance, Shalimar made its commercial debut in 1925. The world sighed-- and has continued to sigh ever since ...
Comparative genome analysis between two distantly related species allows the organization of genes to be traced from a common ancestor. When several genes are mapped in one species and these genes...
This serie description Ar Florascent Tu esi princese, kura rotaļājas plaukstošu rožu ziedu okeānā. Vai arī karaliene jasmīns - eleganta un cienīga! Vai bagāta kā austrumu šeihs, vai vieda kā indiešu guru. Baudi svaigu vēja brīzi uz baltas jahtas klāja Vidusjūras saulē, pastaigas Ķīnas imperatora ziedošajā dārzā vai dejo kaislīgu tango tveicīgā Spānijas piepilsētā. Ceļo, pārvērties un parādi savas personības dižciltību! Parfimērijas māksla un tradicionālas metodes, ko, gatavojot parfīmus aristokrātiem izmantoja 17.gs. Francijā, šodien atdzīvojušās vācu meistaru radītajos daudzveidīgajos un valdzinošajos Florascent aromātos. Florascent tualetes ūdeņi: • izgatavoti tikai no dabīgām izejvielām - izsmalcinātām augtākās kvalitātes augu esencēm un ēteriskajām eļļām; • nesatur ftalātus, naftas ķīmiju, sintētiskas vielas, dzīvnieku izcelsmes vielas; nav testēti uz dzīvniekiem; • teicama noturība panākta tikai ar ...
L gy sz p!, A Sz ps g s az eg szs g ruh za!, kozmetikumok, ingyenes, orsz gos kisz ll t s, term szetes parf m k, sz ps g pol s, sz ps g pol si term kek, kozmetikumok, test pol , arc pol s, haj pol s, k r m pol s, l b pol s, arc pol k, baba-mama pol term kek, haj pol k, hypoallerg n, k z- s k r m pol k, l b pol k, napoz k sz tm nyek, test pol k
L gy sz p!, A Sz ps g s az eg szs g ruh za!, kozmetikumok, ingyenes, orsz gos kisz ll t s, term szetes parf m k, sz ps g pol s, sz ps g pol si term kek, kozmetikumok, test pol , arc pol s, haj pol s, k r m pol s, l b pol s, arc pol k, baba-mama pol term kek, haj pol k, hypoallerg n, k z- s k r m pol k, l b pol k, napoz k sz tm nyek, test pol k
摘要 本研究旨在克隆从江香猪FoxO 4基因编码区序列,对FoxO 4基因功能进行初步探究。采用qRT-PCR技术对从江香猪(6月龄)不同组织中FoxO 4基因的相对表达量进行检测;PCR扩增FoxO 4基因CDS区,构建真核表达载体pEGFP-N3-FoxO4;利用脂质体法将重组质粒pEGFP-N3-FoxO4瞬时转染从江香猪皮下脂肪前体细胞,通过qRT-PCR方法,检测FoxO 4、PPARγ、LPL、FAS、ACC、ATGL、HSL的表达水平。结果显示:FoxO 4基因在从江香猪脂肪组织中表达量最高;构建的重组真核表达载体pEGFP-N3-FoxO4在从江香猪皮下脂肪前体细胞中成功表达,与对照组相比,LPL、FAS、ACC、ATGL、HSL基因的表达均显著上调。综上表明,FoxO 4对脂质代谢具有一定的调控作用,可能是影响从江香猪猪肉品质的重要候选基因,为进一步了解从江香猪脂肪沉积机制提供理论基础。. ...
Displays acyl-CoA-dependent lysophospholipid acyltransferase activity with a subset of lysophospholipids as substrates; converts lysophosphatidylethanolamine to phosphatidylethanolamine, 1-alkenyl-lysophatidylethanolamine to 1-alkenyl-phosphatidylethanolamine, lysophosphatidylglycerol and alkyl-lysophosphatidylcholine to phosphatidylglycerol and alkyl-phosphatidylcholine, respectively. In contrast, has no lysophosphatidylinositol, glycerol-3-phosphate, diacylglycerol or lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase activity. Prefers long chain acyl-CoAs (C16, C18) as acyl donors (By similarity). Converts lysophosphatidylcholine to phosphatidycholine.
casSAR Dugability of Q8RFU2 | lpxA | Acyl-[acyl-carrier-protein]--UDP-N-acetylglucosamine O-acyltransferase - Also known as LPXA_FUSNN, lpxA. Involved in the biosynthesis of lipid A, a phosphorylated glycolipid that anchors the lipopolysaccharide to the outer membrane of the cell. Homotrimer.
article{ad4911a9-fa37-43c8-88dd-95a7ab3e310d, abstract = {,p,ABHD12 mutations have been linked to neurodegenerative PHARC (polyneuropathy, hearing loss, ataxia, retinitis pigmentosa, and early-onset cataract), a rare, progressive, autosomal, recessive disease. Although ABHD12 is suspected to play a role in the lysophosphatidylserine and/or endocannabinoid pathways, its precise functional role(s) leading to PHARC disease had not previously been characterized. Cell and zebrafish models were designed to demonstrate the causal link between an identified new missense mutation p.T253R, characterized in ABHD12 from a young patient, the previously characterized p.T202I and p.R352* mutations, and the associated PHARC. Measuring ABHD12 monoacylglycerol lipase activity in transfected HEK293 cells demonstrated inhibition with mutated isoforms. Both the expression pattern of zebrafish abhd12 and the phenotype of specific antisense morpholino oligonucleotide gene knockdown morphants were consistent with human ...
Purchase Recombinant Ehrlichia chaffeensis Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase(plsY). It is produced in in vitro E.coli expression system. High purity. Good price.
Catalyzes the formation of fatty acid-cholesterol esters, which are less soluble in membranes than cholesterol. Plays a role in lipoprotein assembly and dietary cholesterol absorption. In addition to its acyltransferase activity, it may act as a ligase.
Spermatogenic cells are characterized by the presence of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in their glycerolipids and hormone-coordinated cellular prolifer...
Youve tried all the diets. No matter: youve still regained the weight you lost, even though you ate well and you exercised regularly! This may be due to a particular enzyme in the brain: the alpha/beta hydrolase domain-6 enzyme, better known as ABHD6. A study published this week in Cell Reports demonstrates that when this enzyme is blocked in certain neurons of the mouse hypothalamus, it becomes impossible for them to lose weight, even if they adhere to an ideal regimen... ideal for mice that is!
Ilgili zorunlu yasalarin elverdigi azami ölçüde, bu Uluslararasi Sinirli Garanti tek yasal basvuru yolunuzdur ve açik veya zimni diger tüm garantilerin yerine geçer. Suunto, beklenen faydalarin saglanamamasi, verilerin kaybedilmesi, kullanim kaybi, sermaye maliyeti, yedek ekipman veya cihazlarin maliyeti, üçüncü taraflarca yapilan tazminat talepleri, ürünün satin alinmasi veya kullanilmasindan veya garanti ihlalinden olusan mal ziyani, sözlesme ihlali, ihmalkarlik, tazminat yükümlülügü veya herhangi bir yasal veya tarafsiz yorum dahil ancak bunlarla sinirli kalmamak kaydiyla özel, arizi, cezai veya sonuç olarak ortaya çikan hiçbir zarardan, bu tür zararlarin olusabilecegini biliyor olsa dahi sorumlu tutulamaz. Suunto garanti hizmetinin yerine getirilmesinde olusan gecikmelerden sorumlu degildir.. ...
Propun traducatorilor de stiri de la Evenimentul Zilei sa foloseasca si celelalte expresii care se preteaza la traducerea cuvantului "nuts":. - Borcan plin de testicole si suruburi. - Borcan plin de nebuni si suruburi. - Borcan plin de prostii si suruburi.. - Borcan plin cu o chinta regala si suruburi.. E greu sa lucrezi in presa…. (Poza este pentru referinta, probabil ca vor repara monumentala gafa de traducere…). ...
The protein encoded by this gene is an acyltransferase that converts lysophosphatidic acid into phosphatidic acid, which is the ... Leung DW (2001). "The structure and functions of human lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferases". Front. Biosci. 6: D944-53. doi: ... 128 (1): 9-13. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.12.018. PMID 17218247. van der Weyden L, White JK, Adams DJ, Logan DW (2011). "The mouse ... 449 (1-2): 64-76. doi:10.1016/j.abb.2006.03.014. PMID 16620771. Hu YH, Warnatz HJ, Vanhecke D, et al. (2006). "Cell array-based ...
Aguado B, Campbell RD (Feb 1998). "Characterization of a human lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase that is encoded by a gene ... lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase, beta)". Human AGPAT2 genome location and AGPAT2 gene details page in the UCSC Genome ... "Human lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase. cDNA cloning, expression, and localization to chromosome 9q34.3". The Journal of ... "A human cDNA sequence with homology to non-mammalian lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferases". The Biochemical Journal. 326 ( Pt ...
... lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase, epsilon)". Human AGPAT5 genome location and AGPAT5 gene details page in the UCSC Genome ... 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase epsilon is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the AGPAT5 gene. This gene ... 36 (1): 40-5. doi:10.1038/ng1285. PMID 14702039. Lu B, Jiang YJ, Zhou Y, et al. (2005). "Cloning and characterization of murine ... 1 (3): 287-92. doi:10.1093/embo-reports/kvd058. PMC 1083732 . PMID 11256614. Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. ( ...
Aguado B, Campbell RD (1998). "Human lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase is encoded by a gene located in the major ... Leung DW (2001). "The structure and functions of human lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferases". Front. Biosci. 6 (1): D944-53. ... 1997). "Cloning and expression of two human lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase cDNAs that enhance cytokine-induced signaling ... lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase, alpha)". Human AGPAT1 genome location and AGPAT1 gene details page in the UCSC Genome ...
이상혁 외 4인 (9.24). 》206p》. 》어린선 환자에서 발생한 혈관면역모세포 T세포림프종 1예》 (PDF) (학위논문).. 다음 날짜 값 확인 필요: ,date=, ,연도=와 ,날짜=가 일치하지 않음. (도움말) ... 아종에 관계없이 모든 어린선 환자들은 마르고 딱딱하며 얇은 비늘 모양의 피부를 띤다.[1] 어린선은 물고기를 의미하는 그리스어ichthys에서 유래된 명칭으로 전신에 물고기 비늘같은 인설(scale)을 보이는 질환을 총칭하는 ... 층판상 어린선, type 3 604777 CYP4F22 Cytochrome P450, subfamily 4F, polypeptide 22 ... Arachidonate lipoxygenase 3. Arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase, 12R type Epidermolytic hyperkeratosis (bullous ichthyosis, bCIE) ...
2006). "Identification of a novel human lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase, LPAAT-theta, which activates mTOR pathway". J. ... acyltransferases (GPAT; EC 2.3.1.15), such as GPAM and GPAT3 (this enzyme), catalyze the initial step of de novo ... lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase theta (LPAAT-theta), or lung cancer metastasis-associated protein 1. Glycerol-3-phosphate ... "Identification of a novel human lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase, LPAAT-theta, which activates mTOR pathway". J. Biochem. ...
128 (1): 9-13. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.12.018. PMID 17218247. van der Weyden L, White JK, Adams DJ, Logan DW (2011). "The mouse ... 236 (1): 107-13. doi:10.1006/abio.1996.0138. PMID 8619474. Yu W, Andersson B, Worley KC, Muzny DM, Ding Y, Liu W, Ricafrente JY ... 3 (5): 309-19. doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2006.03.005. PMID 16679289. Yamaguchi T, Omatsu N, Morimoto E, Nakashima H, Ueno K, Tanaka T ... 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase ABHD5 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ABHD5 gene. The protein ...
Type 3 CGL involves a mutation is caused by a mutation in the CAV1 gene. This gene codes for the Caveolin protein, which is a ... More recently, type 3 CGL was identified as a separate type of CGL, which was identified as a mutation in the CAV1 gene. Then, ... Types 3 and 4 are two different mutations but they share a common defective pathway. Medical diagnosis of CGL can be made after ... In type 1 patients, they still have mechanical adipose tissue, but type 2 patients do not have any adipose tissue, including ...
... diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase EC 2.3.1.21: carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase EC 2.3.1.22: 2-acylglycerol O-acyltransferase EC ... glycerone-phosphate O-acyltransferase EC 2.3.1.43: phosphatidylcholine-sterol O-acyltransferase EC 2.3.1.44: N- ... isopentenyl phosphate kinase EC 2.7.4.27: (pyruvate, phosphate dikinase)-phosphate phosphotransferase EC 2.7.4.28: (pyruvate, ... glutamine N-acyltransferase EC 2.3.1.69: monoterpenol O-acetyltransferase EC 2.3.1.70: CDP-acylglycerol O- ...
ISBN 978-1-136-84407-2. Genome Decoration Page, NCBI. Ideogram data for Homo sapience (850 bphs, Assembly GRCh38.p3). Last ... ISBN 978-3-318-02253-7. Sethakulvichai, W.; Manitpornsut, S.; Wiboonrat, M.; Lilakiatsakun, W.; Assawamakin, A.; Tongsima, S. ( ... 329 (5999): 1650-3. Bibcode:2010Sci...329.1650L. doi:10.1126/science.1189044. PMID 20724583. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors ... ligand 3, scyb3 CXCL4: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 4, Platelet factor-4, PF-4, scyb4 CXCL5: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 5 ...
... glucose-6-phosphate isomerase MeSH D08.811.399.475.200.550 --- mannose-6-phosphate isomerase MeSH D08.811.399.475.200.662 --- ... phosphatidylcholine-sterol O-acyltransferase MeSH D08.811.913.050.646 --- retinol O-fatty-acyltransferase MeSH D08.811.913.050. ... nucleoside-phosphate kinase MeSH D08.811.913.696.900 --- transferases (other substituted phosphate groups) MeSH D08.811.913.696 ... carbamoyl-phosphate synthase (ammonia) MeSH D08.811.464.259.400 --- carbon-nitrogen ligases with glutamine as amide-n-donor ...
... glycerol phosphate acyltransferase, glycerol phosphate transacylase, glycerophosphate acyltransferase, glycerophosphate ... This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those acyltransferases transferring groups other than aminoacyl ... Yamashita S, Numa S (1972). "Partial purification and properties of glycerophosphate acyltransferase from rat liver. Formation ... Other names in common use include alpha-glycerophosphate acyltransferase, 3-glycerophosphate acyltransferase, ACP:sn-glycerol-3 ...
In enzymology, a 2-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.52) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ... This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those acyltransferases transferring groups other than aminoacyl ... This enzyme is also called 2-acylglycerophosphate acyltransferase. This enzyme participates in glycerophospholipid metabolism. ... 2-acylglycerophosphate acyltransferase and 1-acylglycerophosphorylcholine acyltransferase from rat-liver microsomes". Eur. J. ...
PA is a vital cell lipid that acts as a biosynthetic precursor for the formation (directly or indirectly) of all acylglycerol ... This will show whether the phosphate group is newly derived from the kinase activity or whether it originates from the PC. ... Different acyltransferases also have different intracellular distributions, such as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the ... PA is degraded by conversion into DAG by lipid phosphate phosphohydrolases (LPPs) or into lyso-PA by phospholipase A (PLA). The ...
Then acylglycerol-3-phosphate can be once more acylated to form a phosphatidic acid (PA). With the help of the enzyme CDP-DAG ... Since there are two phosphates in the molecule, each of them can catch one proton. Although it has a symmetric structure, ... The hydroxyl groups (-OH and -O−) on phosphate would form a stable intramolecular hydrogen bond with the centered glycerol's ... ionizing one phosphate happens at a very different levels of acidity than ionizing both: pK1 = 3 and pK2 > 7.5. So under normal ...
In contrast to these finding from rat liver microsomes, mammalian acyl transferase from dog lungs was found to exhibit no ... 2-acylglycerophosphocholine O-acyltransferase, an enzyme purified in liver microsomes, catalyzes specifically the acylation of ... M. F. Frosolono; Slivka, S; Charms, BL (1971-01-01). "Acyl transferase activities in dog lung microsomes". Journal of Lipid ... Yamashita, A.; Sugiura, T.; Waku, K. (Jul 1997). "Acyltransferases and transacylases involved in fatty acid remodeling of ...
"Acylation of acylglycerols by acyl coenzyme A:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1). Functional importance of DGAT1 in the ... Diglyceride acyltransferase (or O-acyltransferase), DGAT, catalyzes the formation of triglycerides from diacylglycerol and Acyl ... cholesterol acyltransferase-related enzymes". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 273 (41): 26765-71. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.41. ... a second mammalian diacylglycerol acyltransferase, and related family members". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 276 (42): ...
acetyl-CoA C-acyltransferase activity. • long-chain-enoyl-CoA hydratase activity. Cellular component. • membrane. • ... acetyl-CoA acyltransferase, or beta-ketothiolase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the HADHB gene.[5] ... 3 (2): 121-6. doi:10.1002/ajh.2830030202. PMID 272120.. *^ Spiekerkoetter, U; Sun, B; Khuchua, Z; Bennett, MJ; Strauss, AW ( ... 36 (1): 40-5. doi:10.1038/ng1285. PMID 14702039.. *. Fould B, Garlatti V, Neumann E, et al. (2010). "Structural and functional ...
Transferases: acyltransferases (EC 2.3). 2.3.1: other than amino-acyl groups. *acetyltransferases: Acetyl-Coenzyme A ... 311 (3): 433-44. doi:10.1006/jmbi.2001.4859. PMID 11492997.. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Yuan H, Marmorstein R ( ... 46 (3): 623-9. doi:10.1021/bi602513x. PMC 2752042 . PMID 17223684.. *^ a b c d e Berndsen CE, Denu JM (December 2008). " ... 345 (1): 7-21. doi:10.1002/ardp.201100209. PMID 22234972.. *^ a b Oike T, Ogiwara H, Torikai K, Nakano T, Yokota J, Kohno T ( ...
Transferases: acyltransferases (EC 2.3). 2.3.1: other than amino-acyl groups. *acetyltransferases: Acetyl-Coenzyme A ... Goodsell D (1 September 2007). "Citrate Synthase". Molecule of the Month. RCSB Protein Data Bank. doi:10.2210/rcsb_pdb/mom_2007 ... H3CC(=O)−SCoA] and oxaloacetate [−O2CCH2C(=O)CO2−] into citrate [−O2CCH2C(OH)(CO2−)CH2CO2−] and H−SCoA in an aldol condensation ... 2-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase. *ABHD5. 2.3.2: Aminoacyltransferases. *Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase ...
Transferases: acyltransferases (EC 2.3). 2.3.1: other than amino-acyl groups. *acetyltransferases: Acetyl-Coenzyme A ... 264 (1): 574-7. PMID 2535847.. *^ a b Latasa MJ, Griffin MJ, Moon YS, Kang C, Sul HS (August 2003). "Occupancy and function of ... 2 (11): 1. doi:10.1038/scibx.2009.430.. *^ Stevens L, Price NC (1999). Fundamentals of enzymology: the cell and molecular ... 91 (1): 47-53. doi:10.1002/jcb.10708. PMID 14689581.. *^ Hunt DA, Lane HM, Zygmont ME, Dervan PA, Hennigar RA (2007). "MRNA ...
Lysophospholipid acyltransferases (LPLATs) catalyze the reacylation step of the phospholipid remodeling pathway also known as ... Acyltransferase which contributes to the regulation of free arachidonic acid (AA) in the cell through the remodeling of ... Mediates the conversion of lysophosphatidylinositol (1-acylglycerophosphatidylinositol or LPI) into phosphatidylinositol (1,2- ... diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoinositol or PI) (LPIAT activity). Prefers arachidonoyl-CoA as the acyl donor. ...
Increased insulin and leptin sensitivity in mice lacking acyl CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1. J Clin Invest 109: 1049- ... mice fed a high-fat diet were homogenized in cold phosphate-buffered saline, and the total protein level in each sample was ... Identification of a novel human lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase, LPAAT-theta, which activates mTOR pathway. J Biochem Mol ... GPAT4, the closest homolog of GPAT3 within the family of glycerophospholipid acyltransferases, shows a much more pronounced ...
What is 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase beta? Meaning of 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase beta ... Looking for online definition of 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase beta in the Medical Dictionary? 1-acyl-sn- ... What does 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase beta mean? ... redirected from 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase beta) AGPAT2. A gene on chromosome 9q34.3 that encodes 1- ...
What is 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase alpha? Meaning of 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase alpha ... Looking for online definition of 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase alpha in the Medical Dictionary? 1-acyl-sn- ... What does 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase alpha mean? ... redirected from 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase alpha) AGPAT1. A gene on chromosome 6p21.3 that encodes an ...
Definition of 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes ... See: lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase. Further information. Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those acyltransferases transferring groups other than aminoacyl ... and lysophosphatidic acid-acyltransferase. This enzyme participates in 3 metabolic pathways: glycerolipid metabolism, ... 2-acylglycerophosphate acyltransferase and 1-acylglycerophosphorylcholine acyltransferase from rat-liver microsomes". Eur. J. ... In enzymology, a 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.51) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ...
U3KCS2-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basketAdded to basket. « Hide. 10 20 30 40 50. MGFIAFLKTQ FIVHLLIGFV FVVSGLIINF IQLCTLLLWP ... 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 3Imported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using ... Annotation score:1 out of 5. ,p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB ... PF16076 Acyltransf_C, 1 hit. PF01553 Acyltransferase, 1 hit. Simple Modular Architecture Research Tool; a protein domain ...
... lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase, alpha) Biomolecules from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, ... Lysophosphatidic Acid Acyltransferase, Alpha) (AGPAT1) (AA 29-285) protein (His tag) ... 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 1 (lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase, alpha) Biomolecules. Clear ... Epithelial Cyst Formation in 3-D Life Hydrogels. *Improved methods for site-directed mutagenesis using Gibson Assembly® Master ...
A Plant Acyltransferase Involved in Triacylglycerol Biosynthesis Complements an Escherichia Coli sn-1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate ... Bin Yu, Setsuko Wakao, Jilian Fan, Christoph Benning, Loss of Plastidic Lysophosphatidic Acid Acyltransferase Causes Embryo- ... We have isolated a cDNA clone encoding this embryo-specific, microsomal acyltransferase via heterologous complementation of an ... Yong-Mei Zhang, Charles O. Rock, Thematic Review Series: Glycerolipids.Acyltransferases in bacterial glycerophospholipid ...
Mice Deficient in lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase delta (Lpaatδ)/acylglycerophosphate acyltransferase 4 (Agpat4) Have ... Title: Acylglycerophosphate acyltransferase 4 (AGPAT4) is a mitochondrial lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase that regulates ... lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase, delta). LPAAT-delta. lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase-delta. NP_080920.2. *EC 2.3. ... Acyltransf_C; Acyltransferase C-terminus. * XM_006523348.3 → XP_006523411.1 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase ...
The acyl-glycerol phosphate acyltransferase (AGPAT) family of enzymes have been largely identified through sequence homology, ... In summary, this thesis has characterized AGPAT4 as a lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase with a potential role in ... AGPAT4 did not display significant acyltransferase activity with lysophosphatidylcholine, lysophosphatidylethanolamine, ... I report the functional characterization of AGPAT4 as a lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase. Although AGPAT4 is present in ...
Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase which functions in phosphatidic acid biosynthesis. May regulate the cellular storage of ... Acyl-CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate → Coenzyme A + 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate. details ... Showing Protein 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase ABHD5 (HMDBP11598). IdentificationBiological propertiesGene ... Acyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + 1-Acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate → Acyl-carrier protein + Phosphatidate. details ...
1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 3. Synonyms: D10Jhu12e, LPAAT3. Gene nomenclature, locus information, and GO, OMIM ... Vega: OTTMUSG20522 (Agpat3, 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 3)*CCDS: 23963, 23963.1*Gene Ontology: Agpat3 *Mouse ... Question? Comments? For Mice, Cells, and germplasm please contact us at [email protected], US 1-888-KOMP-MICE or International ... 1-530-752-KOMP, or for vectors [email protected] or +1-510-450-7917. ...
What is 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase ABHD5? Meaning of 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase ABHD5 ... Looking for online definition of 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase ABHD5 in the Medical Dictionary? 1-acylglycerol-3 ... What does 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase ABHD5 mean? ... redirected from 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase ABHD5) ABHD5. A gene on chromosome 3p25.3-p24.3 that encodes a ...
... lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase, delta). Synonyms: 1500003P24Rik. Gene nomenclature, locus information, and GO, OMIM, and ... Question? Comments? For Mice, Cells, and germplasm please contact us at [email protected], US 1-888-KOMP-MICE or International ... 1-530-752-KOMP, or for vectors [email protected] or +1-510-450-7917. ...
Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase beta; Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase-beta; PLCB_HUMAN; AV000834; 2510002J07Rik; ... lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase, beta); 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase beta; 1 acyl sn glycerol 3 ... phosphate acyltransferase beta; 1 acylglycerol 3 phosphate O acyltransferase 2; 1 AGP acyltransferase 2; 1 AGPAT2; 1- ... lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase-beta); 1-AGPAT2; 1-AGPAT2, BSCL, BSCL1, LPAAB, LPAAT-beta, AGPAT2; zgc:153984 ...
What is 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase? Meaning of 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase medical term. What ... Looking for online definition of 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase in the Medical Dictionary? 1-acylglycerol-3- ... lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase. (redirected from 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase) lysophosphatidic acid ... 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase , definition of 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase by Medical dictionary ...
Mouse 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase ABHD5 ELISA Kit-NP_057090.2 (MBS2608516) product datasheet at MyBioSource, ... ABHD5: a lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase which functions in phosphatidic acid biosynthesis. May regulate the cellular ... 96-Strip-Wells / $435 +1 FREE 8GB USB. 5x96-Strip-Wells / $1,755 +2 FREE 8GB USB. 10x96-Strip-Wells / $3,150 +3 FREE 8GB USB. ... lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase activity; triacylglycerol lipase activity. Biological Process: cell differentiation; ...
Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase beta,Mouse, \ EIAAB31420 for more molecular products just contact us ... 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 2,1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase beta,1-AGP acyltransferase 2,1- ... Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase beta,Mouse, mus musculus murine 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 2,1-acyl-sn- ... Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase beta,Mouse,. Related products : 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 2,1-acyl-sn- ...
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... lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase-delta (LPAAT-delta); 1-AGPAT4; LPAAT-delta; RP3-473J16.2; 1-AGPAT4, dJ473J16.2, LPAAT- ... lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase, delta); 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase delta; dJ473J16.2; LPAAT delta; 1 ... This gene encodes a member of the 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase family. This integral membrane protein converts ... Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase delta; 1-AGPAT 4; 1-AGP acyltransferase 4; ...
1-Acylglycerol-3-Phosphate O-Acyltransferase 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. ... The HXXXXD motif is essential for acyltransferase activity and may constitute the binding site for the phosphate moiety of the ... The HXXXXD motif is essential for acyltransferase activity and may constitute the binding site for the phosphate moiety of the ... Human lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase. cDNA cloning, expression, and localization to chromosome 9q34.3. (PMID: 9242711) ...
What is 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 1? Meaning of 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 1 medical term ... Looking for online definition of 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 1 in the Medical Dictionary? 1-acylglycerol-3- ... redirected from 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 1) AGPAT1. A gene on chromosome 6p21.3 that encodes an enzyme ... 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 1 , definition of 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 1 by Medical ...
membrane bound o-acyltransferase. mtp. microsomal triglyceride transfer protein. pcyt1. choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase ... is first acylated by acyltransferases to phosphatidic acid (PtdOH), which can be transferred into diacylglycerol (DAG) or CDP- ... 1.. Vance JE, Vance DE. Phospholipid biosynthesis in mammalian cells. Biochem Cell Biol. 2004;82(1):113-28.CrossRefPubMedGoogle ... 3). In the 11 families with two highly expressed genes, they are mostly salmon-specific duplicates from Ss4R WGD. In de-novo ...
  • However, Homo sapiens cDNA sequences deposited in GenBank and UniGene repositories, coaligned on the genomic sequence and clustered in a minimal non-redundant way, support at least 21 different alternatively spliced mRNAs composed by 17 exons (Figure 3) (La Cognata et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Acylation of glycerol 3-phosphate occurs through a stepwise addition of fatty acyl groups, each of which is catalyzed by a distinct enzyme (see Fig. 1 ). (physiology.org)
  • Lysophosphatidylglycerol (LPG) specific acyltransferase that recognizes various acyl-CoAs and LPGs as substrates but demonstrates a clear preference for long chain saturated fatty acyl-CoAs and oleoyl-CoA as acyl donors. (genecards.org)
  • Genetic loci associated with plasma phospholipid n-3 fatty acids: a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies from the CHARGE Consortium. (sanger.ac.uk)
  • In glycerophospholipids, two fatty acids are ester-linked to glycerol at C-1 and C-2, and a highly polar or charged (and therefore hydrophilic) head group is attached to C-3 through a phosphodiester bond. (wikipathways.org)
  • In general, glycerophospholipids contain a saturated fatty acid at C-1 and an unsaturated fatty acid at C-2, and, in general terms, the fatty acyl groups are generally 16 or 18 carbons long. (wikipathways.org)
  • Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been considered the hepatic manifestation of this condition and, additionally, is one of the most common causes of liver diseases worldwide [ 3 - 5 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Phosphatidic acids: those lipids which on hydrolysis give rise to one molecule of glycerol and phosphoric acid and two molecules of fatty acids Phosphatidic acid consists of a glycerol backbone, with, in general, a saturated fatty acid bonded to carbon-1, an unsaturated fatty acid bonded to carbon-2, and a phosphate group bonded to carbon-3. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1-lysoPC can be hydrolyzed further by lysophospholipases to lose the remaining fatty acid and yield L-1-glycero-3-phosphocholine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The conversion of phosphatidate occurs through the action of phosphatidate phosphatase-1 (PAP) enzymatic activity, which is conferred by the lipin family of proteins (reviewed in Refs. (physiology.org)
  • MeCP2-e1 (MeCP2α/B) is encoded by exons 1, 3 and 4 and is more abundant in brain than the previously identified MeCP2-e2 (MeCP2β/A) isoform, which is encoded by exons 2, 3 and 4. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Activation of kinase pathways (including JNK, Erk1/2, p38 MAPK, and NF-κB) promotes the survival of cells, while TNF-α-mediated activation of caspase-8 leads to programmed cell death (1,2). (cellsignal.com)
  • The following step is conversion of CDP-DAG to phosphatidylglycerol phosphate (PGP) by the enzyme PGP synthase, followed by dephosphorylation by PTPMT1 to form PG. (wikipedia.org)
  • In prokaryotes such as bacteria, diphosphatidylglycerol synthase catalyses a transfer of the phosphatidyl moiety of one phosphatidylglycerol to the free 3'-hydroxyl group of another, with the elimination of one molecule of glycerol, via the action of an enzyme related to phospholipase D. The enzyme can operate in reverse under some physiological conditions to remove cardiolipin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biochem J. 1997 Sep 1;326 ( Pt 2):455-61. (hmdb.ca)
  • Lipodystrophy and lipoatrophy syndromes are characterized by congenital or acquired decreases in adipose tissue, which are associated with severe metabolic consequences ( 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The conventional diagnostic scheme for lipodystrophy involves the extent of fat loss (general or partial) and inheritance (acquired or congenital) resulting in four categories of disease: congenital generalized lipodystrophy, acquired generalized lipodystrophy, familial partial lipodystrophy (FPL), and acquired partial lipodystrophy (APL) ( 1 - 5 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Lipodystrophy: The Metabolic Link of HIV Infection with Insulin-Resistance SyndromePaula Freitas1, Davide Carvalho1, Selma Souto1, Antonio Sarmento1 and Jose Luis Medina1[1] Department of Endocrinology, Centro Hospitalar Sao Joao and University of Porto Medical School, Porto, Portugal1. (amazonaws.com)
  • also known as Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy type 1 (BSCL1) or Berardinelli-Seip syndrome. (mybiosource.com)
  • An alternative suggestion, based on reports of relatively high expression in the central nervous system, is that lipodystrophy results from loss of a key central function of BSCL2 ( 3 - 6 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Mutations in a variety of genes can lead to the various subtypes of congenital lipodystrophy ( 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)