GLYCEROL esterified with FATTY ACIDS.
Fatty acid derivatives of glycerophosphates. They are composed of glycerol bound in ester linkage with 1 mole of phosphoric acid at the terminal 3-hydroxyl group and with 2 moles of fatty acids at the other two hydroxyl groups.
Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.3.
An enzyme that transfers acyl groups from acyl-CoA to glycerol-3-phosphate to form monoglyceride phosphates. It acts only with CoA derivatives of fatty acids of chain length above C-10. Also forms diglyceride phosphates. EC 2.3.1.15.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An enzyme secreted from the liver into the plasma of many mammalian species. It catalyzes the esterification of the hydroxyl group of lipoprotein cholesterol by the transfer of a fatty acid from the C-2 position of lecithin. In familial lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency disease, the absence of the enzyme results in an excess of unesterified cholesterol in plasma. EC 2.3.1.43.
An enzyme that catalyses the last step of the TRIACYLGLYCEROL synthesis reaction in which diacylglycerol is covalently joined to LONG-CHAIN ACYL COA to form triglyceride. It was formerly categorized as EC 2.3.1.124.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of cholesterol esters by the direct transfer of the fatty acid group from a fatty acyl CoA derivative. This enzyme has been found in the adrenal gland, gonads, liver, intestinal mucosa, and aorta of many mammalian species. EC 2.3.1.26.
An autosomal recessively inherited disorder caused by mutation of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that facilitates the esterification of lipoprotein cholesterol and subsequent removal from peripheral tissues to the liver. This defect results in low HDL-cholesterol level in blood and accumulation of free cholesterol in tissue leading to a triad of CORNEAL OPACITY, hemolytic anemia (ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC), and PROTEINURIA.
An enzyme localized predominantly within the plasma membrane of lymphocytes. It catalyzes the transfer of long-chain fatty acids, preferentially unsaturated fatty acids, to lysophosphatides with the formation of 1,2-diacylglycero-3-phosphocholine and CoA. EC 2.3.1.23.
S-Acyl coenzyme A. Fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acyl group transfer of ACYL COA to 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate to generate 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate. This enzyme has alpha, beta, gamma, delta and epsilon subunits.
Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.
Any salt or ester of glycerophosphoric acid.
An ester of glucose with phosphoric acid, made in the course of glucose metabolism by mammalian and other cells. It is a normal constituent of resting muscle and probably is in constant equilibrium with fructose-6-phosphate. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Enzymes that catalyze the dehydrogenation of GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE. Several types of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase exist including phosphorylating and non-phosphorylating varieties and ones that transfer hydrogen to NADP and ones that transfer hydrogen to NAD.
An important intermediate in lipid biosynthesis and in glycolysis.
The process of converting an acid into an alkyl or aryl derivative. Most frequently the process consists of the reaction of an acid with an alcohol in the presence of a trace of mineral acid as catalyst or the reaction of an acyl chloride with an alcohol. Esterification can also be accomplished by enzymatic processes.
Fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.
The addition of an organic acid radical into a molecule.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A verocytotoxin-producing serogroup belonging to the O subfamily of Escherichia coli which has been shown to cause severe food-borne disease. A strain from this serogroup, serotype H7, which produces SHIGA TOXINS, has been linked to human disease outbreaks resulting from contamination of foods by E. coli O157 from bovine origin.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Phosphoric acid esters of inositol. They include mono- and polyphosphoric acid esters, with the exception of inositol hexaphosphate which is PHYTIC ACID.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
The most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. This protein serves as an acceptor for CHOLESTEROL released from cells thus promoting efflux of cholesterol to HDL then to the LIVER for excretion from the body (reverse cholesterol transport). It also acts as a cofactor for LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that forms CHOLESTEROL ESTERS on the HDL particles. Mutations of this gene APOA1 cause HDL deficiency, such as in FAMILIAL ALPHA LIPOPROTEIN DEFICIENCY DISEASE and in some patients with TANGIER DISEASE.
Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDIC ACIDS that lack one of its fatty acyl chains due to its hydrolytic removal.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acyl group transfer of acyl COENZYME A to RETINOL to generate COENZYME A and a retinyl ester.
A fatty acid coenzyme derivative which plays a key role in fatty acid oxidation and biosynthesis.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An aldotriose which is an important intermediate in glycolysis and in tryptophan biosynthesis.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
An oxidative decarboxylation process that converts GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE to D-ribose-5-phosphate via 6-phosphogluconate. The pentose product is used in the biosynthesis of NUCLEIC ACIDS. The generated energy is stored in the form of NADPH. This pathway is prominent in tissues which are active in the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS and STEROIDS.
Organic compounds that contain silicon as an integral part of the molecule.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
A mitosporic fungal species used in the production of penicillin.
Acyltransferases in the inner mitochondrial membrane that catalyze the reversible transfer of acyl groups from acyl-CoA to L-carnitine and thereby mediate the transport of activated fatty acids through that membrane. EC 2.3.1.
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
Membrane proteins that are involved in the active transport of phosphate.
This is the active form of VITAMIN B 6 serving as a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate (PYRIDOXAMINE).
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
An enzyme that transfers methyl groups from O(6)-methylguanine, and other methylated moieties of DNA, to a cysteine residue in itself, thus repairing alkylated DNA in a single-step reaction. EC 2.1.1.63.
An aldose-ketose isomerase that catalyzes the reversible interconversion of glucose 6-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate. In prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms it plays an essential role in glycolytic and gluconeogenic pathways. In mammalian systems the enzyme is found in the cytoplasm and as a secreted protein. This secreted form of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase has been referred to as autocrine motility factor or neuroleukin, and acts as a cytokine which binds to the AUTOCRINE MOTILITY FACTOR RECEPTOR. Deficiency of the enzyme in humans is an autosomal recessive trait, which results in CONGENITAL NONSPHEROCYTIC HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA.
Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES obtained by their partial hydrolysis which removes one of the fatty acid moieties.
GLYCEROL esterified with a single acyl (FATTY ACIDS) chain.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
A plastic substance deposited by insects or obtained from plants. Waxes are esters of various fatty acids with higher, usually monohydric alcohols. The wax of pharmacy is principally yellow wax (beeswax), the material of which honeycomb is made. It consists chiefly of cerotic acid and myricin and is used in making ointments, cerates, etc. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.
Conditions with abnormally low levels of LIPOPROTEINS in the blood. This may involve any of the lipoprotein subclasses, including ALPHA-LIPOPROTEINS (high-density lipoproteins); BETA-LIPOPROTEINS (low-density lipoproteins); and PREBETA-LIPOPROTEINS (very-low-density lipoproteins).
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of a single fatty acid ester bond in lysoglycerophosphatidates with the formation of glyceryl phosphatidates and a fatty acid. EC 3.1.1.5.
An amino alcohol with a long unsaturated hydrocarbon chain. Sphingosine and its derivative sphinganine are the major bases of the sphingolipids in mammals. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Disorder occurring in the central or peripheral area of the cornea. The usual degree of transparency becomes relatively opaque.
The monoanhydride of carbamic acid with PHOSPHORIC ACID. It is an important intermediate metabolite and is synthesized enzymatically by CARBAMYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (AMMONIA) and CARBAMOYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (GLUTAMINE-HYDROLYZING).
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Protein components on the surface of LIPOPROTEINS. They form a layer surrounding the hydrophobic lipid core. There are several classes of apolipoproteins with each playing a different role in lipid transport and LIPID METABOLISM. These proteins are synthesized mainly in the LIVER and the INTESTINES.
A standard reagent for the determination of reactive sulfhydryl groups by absorbance measurements. It is used primarily for the determination of sulfhydryl and disulfide groups in proteins. The color produced is due to the formation of a thio anion, 3-carboxyl-4-nitrothiophenolate.
Proteins that bind to and are involved in the metabolism of phosphate ions.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.
A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Structural proteins of the alpha-lipoproteins (HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS), including APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I and APOLIPOPROTEIN A-II. They can modulate the activity of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE. These apolipoproteins are low in atherosclerotic patients. They are either absent or present in extremely low plasma concentration in TANGIER DISEASE.
A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.
A group of 16-carbon fatty acids that contain no double bonds.
Covalent attachment of LIPIDS and FATTY ACIDS to other compounds and PROTEINS.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.
An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Ribose substituted in the 1-, 3-, or 5-position by a phosphoric acid moiety.
A class of enzymes that transfers substituted phosphate groups. EC 2.7.8.
Phosphatidylinositols in which one or more alcohol group of the inositol has been substituted with a phosphate group.
Carbon-containing phosphoric acid derivatives. Included under this heading are compounds that have CARBON atoms bound to one or more OXYGEN atoms of the P(=O)(O)3 structure. Note that several specific classes of endogenous phosphorus-containing compounds such as NUCLEOTIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and PHOSPHOPROTEINS are listed elsewhere.
Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Enzyme catalyzing reversibly the hydrolysis of palmitoyl-CoA or other long-chain acyl coenzyme A compounds to yield CoA and palmitate or other acyl esters. The enzyme is involved in the esterification of fatty acids to form triglycerides. EC 3.1.2.2.
Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties.
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
Enzymes that catalyze a reverse aldol condensation. A molecule containing a hydroxyl group and a carbonyl group is cleaved at a C-C bond to produce two smaller molecules (ALDEHYDES or KETONES). EC 4.1.2.
Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.
A subfamily of lysophospholipid receptors with specificity for LYSOSPHINGOLIPIDS such as sphingosine-1-phosphate and sphingosine phosphorylcholine.
A receptor that is specific for IGF-II and mannose-6-phosphate. The receptor is a 250-kDa single chain polypeptide which is unrelated in structure to the type 1 IGF receptor (RECEPTOR, IGF TYPE 1) and does not have a tyrosine kinase domain.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of fructose-6-phosphate plus GLUTAMINE from GLUTAMATE plus glucosamine-6-phosphate.
Phosphoric acid esters of mannose.
Phosphoric or pyrophosphoric acid esters of polyisoprenoids.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A group of hydrolases which catalyze the hydrolysis of monophosphoric esters with the production of one mole of orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Consists of a polypeptide chain and 4'-phosphopantetheine linked to a serine residue by a phosphodiester bond. Acyl groups are bound as thiol esters to the pantothenyl group. Acyl carrier protein is involved in every step of fatty acid synthesis by the cytoplasmic system.
Electron-dense cytoplasmic particles bounded by a single membrane, such as PEROXISOMES; GLYOXYSOMES; and glycosomes.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Octoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A group of enzymes that transfers a phosphate group onto an alcohol group acceptor. EC 2.7.1.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A coenzyme A derivative which plays a key role in the fatty acid synthesis in the cytoplasmic and microsomal systems.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates. EC 3.1.-.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.
Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Large enzyme complexes composed of a number of component enzymes that are found in STREPTOMYCES which biosynthesize MACROLIDES and other polyketides.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A mitosporic Trichocomaceae fungal genus that develops fruiting organs resembling a broom. When identified, teleomorphs include EUPENICILLIUM and TALAROMYCES. Several species (but especially PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM) are sources of the antibiotic penicillin.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and some other sterol esters, to liberate cholesterol plus a fatty acid anion.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of alpha-carboxyl group of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to yield MEVALONIC ACID.
An abnormal lipoprotein present in large amounts in patients with obstructive liver diseases such as INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS. LP-X derives from the reflux of BILE lipoproteins into the bloodstream. LP-X is a low-density lipoprotein rich in free CHOLESTEROL and PHOSPHOLIPIDS but poor in TRIGLYCERIDES; CHOLESTEROL ESTERS; and protein.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A phosphomonoesterase involved in the synthesis of triacylglycerols. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphatidates with the formation of diacylglycerols and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.4.
Derivatives of caprylic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a carboxy terminated eight carbon aliphatic structure.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A disease-producing enzyme deficiency subject to many variants, some of which cause a deficiency of GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE activity in erythrocytes, leading to hemolytic anemia.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to the hexahydroxy alcohol, myo-inositol. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid, myo-inositol, and 2 moles of fatty acids.
The second most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. It has a high lipid affinity and is known to displace APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I from HDL particles and generates a stable HDL complex. ApoA-II can modulate the activation of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE in the presence of APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I, thus affecting HDL metabolism.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
A plant species of the family FABACEAE that yields edible seeds, the familiar peanuts, which contain protein, oil and lectins.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Six-carbon alicyclic hydrocarbons.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
Proteins that bind to and transfer CHOLESTEROL ESTERS between LIPOPROTEINS such as LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.
Salts and esters of the 16-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--palmitic acid.
An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of UDPgalactose from UTP and galactose-1-phosphate. It is present in low levels in fetal and infant liver, but increases with age, thereby enabling galactosemic infants who survive to develop the capacity to metabolize galactose. EC 2.7.7.10.
Enzymes that catalyze the interconversion of aldose and ketose compounds.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetoacetyl-CoA from two molecules of ACETYL COA. Some enzymes called thiolase or thiolase-I have referred to this activity or to the activity of ACETYL-COA C-ACYLTRANSFERASE.
GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS in which one of the two acyl chains is attached to glycerol with an ether alkenyl linkage instead of an ester as with the other glycerophospholipids.
A bile acid formed by bacterial action from cholate. It is usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. Deoxycholic acid acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, is reabsorbed itself, and is used as a choleretic and detergent.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to an ethanolamine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and ethanolamine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Methods used to measure the relative activity of a specific enzyme or its concentration in solution. Typically an enzyme substrate is added to a buffer solution containing enzyme and the rate of conversion of substrate to product is measured under controlled conditions. Many classical enzymatic assay methods involve the use of synthetic colorimetric substrates and measuring the reaction rates using a spectrophotometer.
A component of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES or LECITHINS, in which the two hydroxy groups of GLYCEROL are esterified with fatty acids. (From Stedman, 26th ed) It counteracts the effects of urea on enzymes and other macromolecules.
A common saturated fatty acid found in fats and waxes including olive oil, palm oil, and body lipids.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of myo-inositol-1-phosphate from glucose-6-phosphate in the presence of NAD. EC 5.5.1.4.
Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)
An NAD-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase found in the cytosol of eucaryotes. It catalyses the dehydrogenation and phosphorylation of GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE to 3-phospho-D-glyceroyl phosphate, which is an important step in the GLYCOLYSIS pathway.
Acidic phospholipids composed of two molecules of phosphatidic acid covalently linked to a molecule of glycerol. They occur primarily in mitochondrial inner membranes and in bacterial plasma membranes. They are the main antigenic components of the Wassermann-type antigen that is used in nontreponemal SYPHILIS SERODIAGNOSIS.
A genus of zygomycetous fungi of the family Mortierellaceae, order MUCORALES. Its species are abundant in soil and can cause rare infections in humans and animals. Mortierella alpinais is used for production of arachidonic acid.
A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.
Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A family of symporters that facilitate sodium-dependent membrane transport of phosphate.
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
Usually high-molecular-weight, straight-chain primary alcohols, but can also range from as few as 4 carbons, derived from natural fats and oils, including lauryl, stearyl, oleyl, and linoleyl alcohols. They are used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, detergents, plastics, and lube oils and in textile manufacture. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from acetyl coenzyme A, to another compound. EC 2.3.1.

A plastidial lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase from oilseed rape. (1/111)

The biosynthesis of phosphatidic acid, a key intermediate in the biosynthesis of lipids, is controlled by lysophosphatidic acid (LPA, or 1-acyl-glycerol-3-P) acyltransferase (LPAAT, EC 2.3.1.51). We have isolated a cDNA encoding a novel LPAAT by functional complementation of the Escherichia coli mutant plsC with an immature embryo cDNA library of oilseed rape (Brassica napus). Transformation of the acyltransferase-deficient E. coli strain JC201 with the cDNA sequence BAT2 alleviated the temperature-sensitive phenotype of the plsC mutant and conferred a palmitoyl-coenzyme A-preferring acyltransferase activity to membrane fractions. The BAT2 cDNA encoded a protein of 351 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 38 kD and an isoelectric point of 9.7. Chloroplast-import experiments showed processing of a BAT2 precursor protein to a mature protein of approximately 32 kD, which was localized in the membrane fraction. BAT2 is encoded by a minimum of two genes that may be expressed ubiquitously. These data are consistent with the identity of BAT2 as the plastidial enzyme of the prokaryotic glycerol-3-P pathway that uses a palmitoyl-ACP to produce phosphatidic acid with a prokaryotic-type acyl composition. The homologies between the deduced protein sequence of BAT2 with prokaryotic and eukaryotic microsomal LAP acytransferases suggest that seed microsomal forms may have evolved from the plastidial enzyme.  (+info)

Overexpression of 1-acyl-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase-alpha enhances lipid storage in cellular models of adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. (2/111)

Plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) at elevated concentrations antagonize insulin action and thus may play a critical role in the development of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. Plasma NEFA and glucose concentrations are regulated, in part, by their uptake into peripheral tissues. Cellular energy uptake can be increased by enhancing either energy transport or metabolism. The effects of overexpression of 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (AGAT)-alpha, which catalyzes the second step in triglyceride formation from glycerol-3-phosphate, was studied in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and C2C12 myotubes. In myotubes, overexpression of AGAT-alpha did not affect total [14C]glucose uptake in the presence or absence of insulin, whereas insulin-stimulated [14C]glucose conversion to cellular lipids increased significantly (33%, P = 0.004) with a concomitant decrease (-30%, P = 0.005) in glycogen formation. [3H]oleic acid (OA) uptake in AGAT-overexpressing myotubes increased 34% (P = 0.027) upon insulin stimulation. AGAT-alpha overexpression in adipocytes increased basal (130%, P = 0.04) and insulin-stimulated (27%, P = 0.01) [3H]OA uptake, increased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (56%, P = 0.04) and conversion to cellular lipids (85%, P = 0.007), and suppressed basal (-44%, P = 0.01) and isoproterenol-stimulated OA release (-45%, P = 0.03) but not glycerol release. Our data indicate that an increase in metabolic flow to triglyceride synthesis can inhibit NEFA release, increase NEFA uptake, and promote insulin-mediated glucose utilization in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In myotubes, however, AGAT-alpha overexpression does not increase basal cellular energy uptake, but can enhance NEFA uptake and divert glucose from glycogen synthesis to lipogenesis upon insulin stimulation.  (+info)

Mutations in CGI-58, the gene encoding a new protein of the esterase/lipase/thioesterase subfamily, in Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome. (3/111)

Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome (CDS) is a rare autosomal recessive form of nonbullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (NCIE) that is characterized by the presence of intracellular lipid droplets in most tissues. We previously localized a gene for a subset of NCIE to chromosome 3 (designated "the NCIE2 locus"), in six families. Lipid droplets were found in five of these six families, suggesting a diagnosis of CDS. Four additional families selected on the basis of a confirmed diagnosis of CDS also showed linkage to the NCIE2 locus. Linkage-disequilibrium analysis of these families, all from the Mediterranean basin, allowed us to refine the NCIE2 locus to an approximately 1.3-Mb region. Candidate genes from the interval were screened, and eight distinct mutations in the recently identified CGI-58 gene were found in 13 patients from these nine families. The spectrum of gene variants included insertion, deletion, splice-site, and point mutations. The CGI-58 protein belongs to a large family of proteins characterized by an alpha/beta hydrolase fold. CGI-58 contains three sequence motifs that correspond to a catalytic triad found in the esterase/lipase/thioesterase subfamily. Interestingly, CGI-58 differs from other members of the esterase/lipase/thioesterase subfamily in that its putative catalytic triad contains an asparagine in place of the usual serine residue.  (+info)

Exploration of novel motifs derived from mouse cDNA sequences. (4/111)

We performed a systematic maximum density subgraph (MDS) detection of conserved sequence regions to discover new, biologically relevant motifs from a set of 21,050 conceptually translated mouse cDNA (FANTOM1) sequences. A total of 3202 candidate sequences, which shared similar regions over >20 amino acid residues, were screened against known conserved regions listed in Pfam, ProDom, and InterPro. The filtering procedure resulted in 139 FANTOM1 sequences belonging to 49 new motif candidates. Using annotations and multiple sequence alignment information, we removed by visual inspection 42 candidates whose members were found to be false positives because of sequence redundancy, alternative splicing, low complexity, transcribed retroviral repeat elements contained in the region of the predicted open reading frame, and reports in the literature. The remaining seven motifs have been expanded by hidden Markov model (HMM) profile searches of SWISS-PROT/TrEMBL from 28 FANTOM1 sequences to 164 members and analyzed in detail on sequence and structure level to elucidate the possible functions of motifs and members. The novel and conserved motif MDS00105 is specific for the mammalian inhibitor of growth (ING) family. Three submotifs MDS00105.1-3 are specific for ING1/ING1L, ING1-homolog, and ING3 subfamilies. The motif MDS00105 together with a PHD finger domain constitutes a module for ING proteins. Structural motif MDS00113 represents a leucine zipper-like motif. Conserved motif MDS00145 is a novel 1-acyl-SN-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (AGPAT) submotif containing a transmembrane domain that distinguishes AGPAT3 and AGPAT4 from all other acyltransferase domain-containing proteins. Functional motif MDS00148 overlaps with the kazal-type serine protease inhibitor domain but has been detected only in an extracellular loop region of solute carrier 21 (SLC21) (organic anion transporters) family members, which may regulate the specificity of anion uptake. Our motif discovery not only aided in the functional characterization of new mouse orthologs for potential drug targets but also allowed us to predict that at least 16 other new motifs are waiting to be discovered from the current SWISS-PROT/TrEMBL database.  (+info)

Limnanthes douglasii lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferases: immunological quantification, acyl selectivity and functional replacement of the Escherichia coli plsC gene. (5/111)

Antibodies were raised against the two membrane-bound lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAAT) enzymes from Limnanthes douglasii (meadowfoam), LAT1 and LAT2, using the predicted soluble portion of each protein as recombinant protein antigens. The antibodies can distinguish between the two acyltransferase proteins and demonstrate that both migrate in an anomalous fashion on SDS/PAGE gels. The antibodies were used to determine that LAT1 is present in both leaf and developing seeds, whereas LAT2 is only detectable in developing seeds later than 22 daf (days after flowering). Both proteins were found exclusively in microsomal fractions and their amount was determined using the recombinant antigens as quantification standards. LAT1 is present at a level of 27 pg/microg of membrane protein in leaf tissue and +info)

Prevalence of mutations in AGPAT2 among human lipodystrophies. (6/111)

Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy (BSCL) is a heterogeneous genetic disease characterized by near absence of adipose tissue and severe insulin resistance. We have previously identified mutations in the seipin gene in a subset of our patients' cohort. Recently, disease-causing mutations in AGPAT2 have been reported in BSCL patients. In this study, we have performed mutation screening in AGPAT2 and the related AGPAT1 in patients with BSCL or other forms of lipodystrophy who have no detectable mutation in the seipin gene. We found 38 BSCL patients from 30 families with mutations in AGPAT2. Three of the known mutations were frequently found in our families. Of the eight new alterations, six are null mutations and two are missense mutations (Glu172Lys and Ala238Gly). All the patients harboring AGPAT2 mutations presented with typical features of BSCL. We did not find mutations in patients with other forms of lipodystrophies, including the syndromes of Lawrence, Dunnigan, and Barraquer-Simons, or with type A insulin resistance. In conclusion, mutations in the seipin gene and AGPAT2 are confined to the BSCL phenotype. Because we found mutations in 92 of the 94 BSCL patients studied, the seipin gene and AGPAT2 are the two major genes involved in the etiology of BSCL.  (+info)

Truncation of CGI-58 protein causes malformation of lamellar granules resulting in ichthyosis in Dorfman-Chanarin syndrome. (7/111)

Dorfman-Chanarin syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive inherited lipid storage disease characterized by ichthyosis, leukocyte lipid vacuoles, and involvement of several internal organs. Recently, CGI-58 mutations were identified as the cause of Dorfman-Chanarin syndrome. The physiologic roles of the CGI-58 protein and the pathomechanisms of Dorfman-Chanarin syndrome still remain to be clarified, however. The patient, a 16-y-old male, demonstrated ichthyosis, small ears, lipid vacuoles in his leukocytes, liver dysfunction, and mental retardation. Sequencing of CGI-58 revealed that the patient was homozygous for a novel nonsense mutation R184X, in exon 4. The putative truncated protein was 52.4% of the length of the normal CGI-58 polypeptide and lacked approximately 60% of the lipid binding region, 66.4% of the alpha/beta hydrolase folding segment of the polypeptide, and two of the CGI-58 catalytic triads, resulting in a significant loss of lipase/esterase/thioesterase activity. Electron microscopy revealed a large number of abnormal lamellar granules, a disturbed intercellular lamellar structure, and lipid vacuoles in the epidermis. These results suggested that CGI-58 protein is involved in the lipid metabolism of lamellar granules and that defective lipid production in lamellar granules caused by a CGI-58 protein deficiency is involved in the pathogenesis of ichthyosis in Dorfman-Chanarin syndrome.  (+info)

CGI-58 interacts with perilipin and is localized to lipid droplets. Possible involvement of CGI-58 mislocalization in Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome. (8/111)

Lipid droplets (LDs) are a class of ubiquitous cellular organelles that are involved in lipid storage and metabolism. Although the mechanisms of the biogenesis of LDs are still unclear, a set of proteins called the PAT domain family have been characterized as factors associating with LDs. Perilipin, a member of this family, is expressed exclusively in the adipose tissue and regulates the breakdown of triacylglycerol in LDs via its phosphorylation. In this study, we used a yeast two-hybrid system to examine the potential function of perilipin. We found direct interaction between perilipin and CGI-58, a deficiency of which correlated with the pathogenesis of Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome (CDS). Endogenous CGI-58 was distributed predominantly on the surface of LDs in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells, and its expression increased during adipocyte differentiation. Overexpressed CGI-58 tagged with GFP gathered at the surface of LDs and colocalized with perilipin. This interaction seems physiologically important because CGI-58 mutants carrying an amino acid substitution identical to that found in CDS lost the ability to be recruited to LDs. These mutations significantly weakened the binding of CGI-58 with perilipin, indicating that the loss of this interaction is involved in the etiology of CDS. Furthermore, we identified CGI-58 as a binding partner of ADRP, another PAT domain protein expressed ubiquitously, by yeast two-hybrid assay. GFP-CGI-58 expressed in non-differentiated 3T3-L1 or CHO-K1 cells was colocalized with ADRP, and the CGI-58 mutants were not recruited to LDs carrying ADRP, indicating that CGI-58 may also cooperate with ADRP.  (+info)

Looking for online definition of 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase alpha in the Medical Dictionary? 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase alpha explanation free. What is 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase alpha? Meaning of 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase alpha medical term. What does 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase alpha mean?
Looking for online definition of 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase beta in the Medical Dictionary? 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase beta explanation free. What is 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase beta? Meaning of 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase beta medical term. What does 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase beta mean?
The second acylation reaction in glycerolipid biosynthesis is catalyzed by an sn-1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase. The enzyme of Limnanthes douglusii involved in triacylglycerol synthesis has an unusual specificity for very long chain acyl groups in both of its substrates, namely acyl-CoA and sn-1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate, and causes the enrichment of erucoyl groups in the sn-2 position of the seed oil of this plant species. We have isolated a cDNA clone encoding this embryo-specific, microsomal acyltransferase via heterologous complementation of an Escherichia coli mutant deficient in sn -1-acyl-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase activity. The open reading frame of the cDNA insert encodes a protein with a length of 281 amino acids, with three predicted membrane-spanning domains and of about 31.7 kDa. The sequence exhibits substantial sequence similaritiy to the sn-1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase of E. coli. The corresponding transcript was detectable in developing embryos ...
This project is supported by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (award #111062), Alberta Innovates - Health Solutions, and by The Metabolomics Innovation Centre (TMIC), a nationally-funded research and core facility that supports a wide range of cutting-edge metabolomic studies. TMIC is funded by Genome Alberta, Genome British Columbia, and Genome Canada, a not-for-profit organization that is leading Canadas national genomics strategy with $900 million in funding from the federal government ...
This project is supported by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (award #111062), Alberta Innovates - Health Solutions, and by The Metabolomics Innovation Centre (TMIC), a nationally-funded research and core facility that supports a wide range of cutting-edge metabolomic studies. TMIC is funded by Genome Alberta, Genome British Columbia, and Genome Canada, a not-for-profit organization that is leading Canadas national genomics strategy with $900 million in funding from the federal government ...
GT:ID BAD56558.1 GT:GENE BAD56558.1 GT:PRODUCT putative 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase GT:DATABASE GIB00210CH01 GT:ORG nfar0 GB:ACCESSION GIB00210CH01 GB:LOCATION complement(1863574..1864296) GB:FROM 1863574 GB:TO 1864296 GB:DIRECTION - GB:PRODUCT putative 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase GB:PROTEIN_ID BAD56558.1 LENGTH 240 SQ:AASEQ MFYWLLKFVLVGPFIRVYNRPTVEGVENIPSDGPAILAGNHLSIADWLFAPLLSPRRINYLAKAEYFTTPGIKGRLQKFFFSGTGQYPIDRSGADAAEDALNAARKLLDQGKLVGLYPEGTRSPDGRLYKGKTGMARLALETGVPVIPVAVIGTDKVAPPGPFRWRRHKVTVKFGAPIDFSRYEGMGGNRFVERAVTDEVMYELMRLSGQEYVDVYAHSLKGVPSGSKPEAPRIPDTAAS GT:EXON 1,1-240:0, BL:SWS:NREP 1 BL:SWS:REP 9-,161,LPAT1_ARATH,2e-17,35.7,143/356, SEG 94-,104,adaaedalnaa, RP:PFM:NREP 1 RP:PFM:REP 23-,152,PF01553,5e-18,42.4,125/132,Acyltransferase, HM:PFM:NREP 1 HM:PFM:REP 21-,151,PF01553,1.2e-31,45.2,126/135,Acyltransferase, GO:PFM:NREP 2 GO:PFM GO:0008152,GO:metabolic process,PF01553,IPR002123, GO:PFM GO:0008415,GO:acyltransferase activity,PF01553,IPR002123, ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase beta is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the AGPAT2 gene. This gene encodes a member of the 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase family. The protein is located within the endoplasmic reticulum membrane and converts lysophosphatidic acid to phosphatidic acid, the second step in de novo phospholipid biosynthesis. Mutations in this gene have been associated with congenital generalized lipodystrophy, a disease characterized by a near absence of adipose tissue and severe insulin resistance. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000169692 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000026922 - Ensembl, May 2017 Human PubMed Reference:. Mouse PubMed Reference:. Eberhardt C, Gray PW, Tjoelker LW (Aug 1997). Human lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase. cDNA cloning, expression, and localization to chromosome 9q34.3. The Journal of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - CGI-58 facilitates the mobilization of cytoplasmic triglyceride for lipoprotein secretion in hepatoma cells. AU - Brown, J. Mark. AU - Chung, Soonkyu. AU - Das, Akash. AU - Shelness, Gregory S.. AU - Rudel, Lawrence L.. AU - Yu, Liqing. PY - 2007/10. Y1 - 2007/10. N2 - Comparative Gene Identification-58 (CGI-58) is a member of the α/β-hydrolase family of proteins. Mutations in the human CGI-58 gene are associated with Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome, a rare autosomal recessive genetic disease in which excessive triglyceride (TG) accumulation occurs in multiple tissues. In this study, we investigated the role of CGI-58 in cellular lipid metabolism in several cell models and discovered a role for CGI-58 in promoting the packaging of cytoplasmic TG into secreted lipoprotein particles in hepatoma cells. Using both gain-of-function and loss-of-function approaches, we demonstrate that CGI-58 facilitates the depletion of cellular TG stores without altering cellular cholesterol or ...
Agpat1 - Agpat1 (Myc-DDK-tagged) - Mouse 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 1 (lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase, alpha) (Agpat1), transcript variant 2 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
AGPAT2 - AGPAT2 (GFP-tagged) - Human 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 2 (lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase, beta) (AGPAT2), transcript variant 2 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Converts 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate (lysophosphatidic acid or LPA) into 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate (phosphatidic acid or PA) by incorporating an acyl moiety at the sn-2 position of the glycerol backbone.
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Jacq, C., Alt-Morbe, J., Andre, B., Arnold, W., Bahr, A., Ballesta, J. P., Bargues, M., Baron, L., Becker, A., Biteau, N., Blocker, H., Blugeon, C., Boskovic, J., Brandt, P., Bruckner, M., Buitrago, M. J., Coster, F., Delaveau, T., del Rey, F., Dujon, B., Eide, L. G., Garcia-Cantalejo, J. M., Goffeau, A., Gomez-Peris, A., Zaccaria, P., et, a. l. .. (1997). The nucleotide sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome IV. Nature 387:75-78.9169867 ...
CP001600.PE179 Location/Qualifiers FT CDS_pept 207513..208256 FT /codon_start=1 FT /transl_table=11 FT /locus_tag=NT01EI_0204 FT /product=1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, FT putative FT /EC_number=2.3.1.51 FT /db_xref=EnsemblGenomes-Gn:NT01EI_0204 FT /db_xref=EnsemblGenomes-Tr:ACR67447 FT /db_xref=GOA:C5B6Y5 FT /db_xref=InterPro:IPR002123 FT /db_xref=InterPro:IPR004552 FT /db_xref=UniProtKB/TrEMBL:C5B6Y5 FT /protein_id=ACR67447.1 FT /translation=MLFIFRVILITLLCLVICIVGSLYCLFSPRNPRHVARFGHWFGRL FT SPLFGLKVETRLPPDAATYGNAIYIANHQNNYDMVTASNAVQPNTVTVGKKSLAWIPFF FT GQLYWLTGNLLIDRKNRTKAHNTIAAVVEQFRTRRISFWMFPEGTRSRGRGLMPFKTGA FT FHAALAAGVPIVPICVSSTHDKVKLNRWNNGVVIVEMLPPIDTSRWGKDQVRDLAEHCR FT TLMAEKIGQLDAEVAAREAQAGKRA atgctattca ttttccgggt catactgatc acgttgctgt gcctcgtcat ctgcattgtc 60 ggttcgctgt attgcctgtt cagcccgcgc aacccgcgcc acgtcgcgcg ttttggccac 120 tggttcggcc gcttatcgcc gctgtttggc ctgaaggttg aaacgcgcct gccgccggat 180 gccgcaacct atggcaacgc catctatatc gccaaccacc ...
PLCD-like protein of unknown function with low similarity to 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase delta, chloroplast precursor ...
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Purified Recombinant Human AGPAT2 293 Cell Lysate from Creative Biomart. Recombinant Human AGPAT2 293 Cell Lysate can be used for research.
Bovine AGPAT6 ELISA KIT allows for the in vitro quantitative determination of Bovine AGPAT6 concentrations in serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, cell culture supernates or other biological fluids.
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Purified Recombinant Human ABHD2 protein, MYC/DDK-tagged from Creative Biomart. Recombinant Human ABHD2 protein, MYC/DDK-tagged can be used for research.
Complete information for ABHD5 gene (Protein Coding), Abhydrolase Domain Containing 5, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
AGPAT5兔多克隆抗体(ab82783)可与人样本反应并经WB, ELISA实验严格验证,被1篇文献引用并得到3个独立的用户反馈。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
AGPAT1兔多克隆抗体(ab125874)可与人样本反应并经WB实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
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This gene encodes a member of the 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase family. The protein is located within the endoplasmic reticulum membrane and converts lysophosphatidic acid to phosphatidic acid, the second step in de novo phospholipid biosynthesis. Mutations in this gene have been associated with congenital generalized lipodystrophy (CGL), or Berardinelli-Seip syndrome, a disease characterized by a near absence of adipose tissue and severe insulin resistance. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized ...
A combination of site-directed and random mutagenesis generated sequence variants of a plastidial lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase. Alanine substitutions of residues present within two conserved motifs including the putative catalytic histidine resulted in a loss of acyltransferase activity assessed as complementation competance. Substitutions at five sites within the central core resulted in reduced or loss of activity. Truncation mutants reveal that sequences in the C-terminal moiety are essential for function.. ...
Fat tissue is the most important energy depot in vertebrates. The release of free fatty acids (FFAs) from stored fat requires the enzymatic activity of lipases. We showed that genetic inactivation of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) in mice increases adipose mass and leads to triacylglycerol deposition in multiple tissues. ATGL-deficient mice accumulated large amounts of lipid in the heart, causing cardiac dysfunction and premature death. Defective cold adaptation indicated that the enzyme provides FFAs to fuel thermogenesis. The reduced availability of ATGL-derived FFAs leads to increased glucose use, increased glucose tolerance, and increased insulin sensitivity. These results indicate that ATGL is rate limiting in the catabolism of cellular fat depots and plays an important role in energy homeostasis.. ...
New Atglistatin closely related analogues: Synthesis and structure-activity relationship towards adipose triglyceride lipase inhibition
Phosphorylation of adipose triglyceride lipase Ser(404) is not related to 5-AMPK activation during moderate-intensity exercise in humans
Definition of Sterol O-Acyltransferase in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Sterol O-Acyltransferase? Meaning of Sterol O-Acyltransferase as a finance term. What does Sterol O-Acyltransferase mean in finance?
Parf my Federico Mahora - FM Group | parfemyfm.cz | levn parf my | kosmetika : Balz my po holen - V prodej Online registrace Vzorky D rkov kup ny V n do auta Pro mazl ky Pro d ti Sv t k vy aurile Sv t aje aurile Parf my Dekorativn kosmetika T lov kosmetika parf my,parf m,v n ,kosmetika,Federico,Mahora,FM Group
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Numerous hits in gapped BLAST to probable 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferases, e.g. residues 3-253 are 32% similar to PLSC_MYCGE (MG212). Apart from the similarities to mycoplasma proteins, BLAST scores are below 100 due to the lack of similarity over the NH-terminal residues. No significant similarity to T.pallidum or C.trachomatis ...
Definition of Phosphatidylcholine-sterol o-acyltransferase with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cardiomyocyte steatosis and defective washout of iodine-123-β-methyl iodophenyl-pentadecanoic acid in genetic deficiency of adipose triglyceride lipase. AU - Hirano, Ken Ichi. AU - Ikeda, Yoshihiko. AU - Sugimura, Koichiro. AU - Sakata, Yasuhiko. PY - 2015/3/1. Y1 - 2015/3/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84924402434&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84924402434&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1093/eurheartj/ehu417. DO - 10.1093/eurheartj/ehu417. M3 - Comment/debate. C2 - 25336228. AN - SCOPUS:84924402434. VL - 36. SP - 580. JO - European Heart Journal. JF - European Heart Journal. SN - 0195-668X. IS - 9. ER - ...
Blog on ABHD12 cdna clone product: The ABHD12 abhd12 (Catalog #MBS1276747) is a cDNA Clone and is intended for research purposes only. The p...
Rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against recombinant ABHD9. Recombinant protein corresponding to amino acids of human ABHD9. (PAB21930) - Products - Abnova
Expression of ABHD12 (ABHD12A, BEM46L2, C20orf22, dJ965G21.2, DKFZP434P106) in kidney tissue. Antibody staining with HPA026866 in immunohistochemistry.
Expression of ABHD17B (C9orf77, CGI-67, FAM108B1) in cancer tissue. The cancer tissue page shows antibody staining of the protein in 20 different cancers.
Mutation in the ABHD12 Gene Symptom Checker: Possible causes include Usher Syndrome Type 3B. Check the full list of possible causes and conditions now! Talk to our Chatbot to narrow down your search.
Indola Innova Keratin Straight za nejvýhodnější cenu. Vyberte si v nabídce Elnino.cz váš oblíbený parfém či kosmetiku. Doprava do 24 hodin.
Tänu oma väga kõrgele konsentratsioonile saad väikese koguse nõudepesuvahendiga pesta nõusid ilma igasuguse pingutuseta. Lisaks sellele, et ta puhastab mistahes materjalist nõusid, on ta õrn nahale ja ei põhjusta nahaärritust.. Ideaalne kõigi glasuuritud, klaasistm keraamiliste roostevabast terasest ja plastikust nõude pesemiseks. Eemaldab mistahes kuiva või vedela toidu jäägid. Eemaldab lõhnad, puhastab sügavuti ja tagab hügieenilsuse. Ei jäta kuivamisel jälgi. Sisaldab taimset glütseriini naha kaitsmiseks. Toode põhineb pindaktiivsetel ainetel, mis on saadud taimsest toormaterjalist, mis on kiiresti ja täielkult biolagunev.. EI SISALDA: Fosforot, fosfaate, ensüüme, loomset päritolu koostisosi.. KEEMILINE KOOSTIS: (EC regulatsioon nr. 648/2004): 5-15%: anioonsed pindaktiivsed ained (kookosõli); ,5%: bioetanool (mikroobide kultuur), mitteioonsed/amfoteersed pindaktiivsed ained (kookosõli), parfüüm, naatriumbensoaat, kaaliumsorbaat, limoneen.. KASUTAMINE: Reguleerige ...
Neutral Lipid Storage Disease With Myopath (NLSDM) is a disease caused by a defect in the PNPLA2 gene encoding ATGL. Patients with NLSDM accumulate triglycerides and exhibit muscle weakness, cardiac failure and hepatosteatosis. Most of these patients die at young age due to cardiac failure. Not much is known about the underlying mechanisms, though recently it was discovered that PPAR activation in ATGL-/- mice was impaired leading to decreased mitochondrial function, lipid accumulation and cardiac failure resulting in death at young age. Activation of PPARs, by treatment with fibrates rescued the phenotype and reduced mortality rates in these mice. These findings may have a major impact for patients with NLSDM if these results can be translated to humans. Therefore, the investigators would like to evaluate the beneficial effects of fibrate treatment on muscle mitochondrial and cardiac function in patients with NLSDM.. Patients will be treated with fibrates during a period of 28 weeks. Baseline ...
Neutral Lipid Storage Disease With Myopath (NLSDM) is a disease caused by a defect in the PNPLA2 gene encoding ATGL. Patients with NLSDM accumulate triglycerides and exhibit muscle weakness, cardiac failure and hepatosteatosis. Most of these patients die at young age due to cardiac failure. Not much is known about the underlying mechanisms, though recently it was discovered that PPAR activation in ATGL-/- mice was impaired leading to decreased mitochondrial function, lipid accumulation and cardiac failure resulting in death at young age. Activation of PPARs, by treatment with fibrates rescued the phenotype and reduced mortality rates in these mice. These findings may have a major impact for patients with NLSDM if these results can be translated to humans. Therefore, the investigators would like to evaluate the beneficial effects of fibrate treatment on muscle mitochondrial and cardiac function in patients with NLSDM.. Patients will be treated with fibrates during a period of 28 weeks. Baseline ...
(R)-Lisofylline ((R)-Lisophylline) is a (R)-enantiomer of the metabolite of Pentoxifylline with anti-inflammatory properties. (R)-Lisofylline is a lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase inhibitor with an IC50 of 0.6 µM and interrupts IL-12 signaling-mediated STAT4 activation. (R)-Lisofylline has the potential for type 1 diabetes, autoimmune disorders research. - Mechanism of Action & Protocol.
Introduction: Myocardial metabolism undergoes change in response to pathological cardiac hypertrophy (PH), characterized by increased reliance on glucose oxidation, decreased free fatty acid (FFA) oxidation and a loss of metabolic flexibility. Cardiac metabolism is influenced by other organs such as adipose tissue. Hence, we aimed to investigate the effect of Adipose Triglyceride Lipase (ATGL) in adipose tissue on the development of PH and heart failure (HF) in a pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy model in mice.. Methods: Male adipose tissue specific ATGL-knock out (atATGL-KO) and wild type mice (WT) underwent sham surgery (sham) or transverse aortic constriction (TAC). After 11 weeks, mice were sacrificed and organs were harvested.. We performed echocardiography one week before and 11 weeks after surgery. Left ventricular mass (LVM), left ventricular mass/tibia length (LVM/TL) and ejection fraction (EF) were calculated. Beta-myosin heavy chain (β-MyHC) was measured in RNA of hearts. ...
Elucidation of the metabolic pathways of triacylglycerol synthesis is critical to the understanding of chronic metabolic disorders such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Glycerol-sn-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) and sn-1-acylglycerol-3- phosphate acyltransferase (AGPAT) catalyze the first and second steps in de novo triacylglycerol synthesis. These enzymes have multiple isoforms with different subcellular locations and tissue distributions. The specific function of each isoform and its product in the regulation of TAG synthesis and intracellular signaling pathways is not completely understood. This dissertation describes two separate projects. The first project examines the role of GPAT1 and de novo glycerolipid synthesis in the development of hepatic steatosis and hepatic insulin resistance. The second project describes the identification of a novel GPAT isoform, GPAT4. In the first project, we used an adenoviral construct to overexpress glycerol-sn-3- phosphate ...
It has now been a decade since the causal link between CGI-58 mutations and CDS was established (5), yet molecular mechanism(s) by which CGI-58 prevents CDS has remained elusive. Early studies using skin fibroblasts isolated from patients with neutral lipid storage disease or CDS showed that these cultured cells had striking accumulation of intracellular TAGs under normal growth conditions (10,11,38-41). However, the TAG accumulation could not be explained by alteration in mitochondrial fatty acid uptake, β-oxidation, in vitro lipase activity, or TAG synthesizing enzyme activity (10,11,38-41). Instead, it was found that neutral lipid storage disease fibroblasts had impaired turnover of long-chain fatty acids from stored TAGs (38-41). We have likewise demonstrated that targeted knockdown of CGI-58 in hepatocytes impairs intracellular TAG hydrolysis in vitro and in vivo (2,42). Of interest, CGI-58 is a lipid-droplet-associated protein in adipocytes, achieving this subcellular localization by ...
To study the effects of acquired cardiac ATGL deficiency on cardiac PPARα activity, function, and metabolism, we generated adult mice with tamoxifen-inducible cardiomyocyte-specific ATGL deficiency (icAtglKO). Within 4-6 weeks following ATGL ablation, icAtglKO mice had markedly increased myocardial TAG accumulation, fibrotic remodelling, and pathological hypertrophy. Echocardiographic analysis of hearts in vivo revealed that contractile function was moderately reduced in icAtglKO mice. Analysis of energy metabolism in ex vivo perfused working hearts showed diminished FAO rates which was not paralleled by markedly impaired PPARα target gene expression.. ...
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Disorder of Cornification 12 (Neutral Lipid Storage Type) information including symptoms, diagnosis, misdiagnosis, treatment, causes, patient stories, videos, forums, prevention, and prognosis.
Plin5 is abundantly expressed in the heart where it binds to lipid droplets (LDs) and facilitates physical interaction between LDs and mitochondria. We isolated cardiomyocytes from adult Plin5+/+ and Plin5-/- mice to study the role of Plin5 for fatty acid uptake, LD accumulation, fatty acid oxidation, and tolerance to hypoxia. Cardiomyocytes isolated from Plin5-/- mice cultured with oleic acid stored less LDs than Plin5+/+, but comparable levels to Plin5+/+ cardiomyocytes when adipose triglyceride lipase activity was inhibited. The ability to oxidize fatty acids into CO2 was similar between Plin5+/+ and Plin5-/- cardiomyocytes, but Plin5-/- cardiomyocytes had a transient increase in intracellular fatty acid oxidation intermediates. After pre-incubation with oleic acids, Plin5-/- cardiomyocytes retained a higher content of glycogen and showed improved tolerance to hypoxia compared to Plin5+/+. In isolated, perfused hearts, deletion of Plin5 had no important effect on ventricular pressures or ...
A young man presented with syncope. He was diagnosed with triglyceride deposit cardiomyovasculopathy and skeletal myopathy secondary to adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) deficiency. Despite optimal medical therapy, he required heart transplantation to treat his heart failure. Five years post-transplant, the graft function was normal with no evidence of triglyceride deposits. (Level of Difficulty: Intermediate.)
Rabbit monoclonal antibody raised against a human AGPAT1 peptide using ARM Technology. A synthetic peptide of human AGPAT1 is used for rabbit immunization.Customer or Abnova will decide on the preferred peptide sequence. (H00010554-K) - Products - Abnova
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The ABHD7 Colorimetric Cell-Based ELISA Kit is a convenient, lysate-free, high throughput and sensitive assay kit that can detect ABHD7 protein expressino profile in cells. The kit can be used for measuring the relative amounts of ABHD7 in cultured cells
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Perform reliable PCR with Bio-Rads AGPAT2 primer pair, for Human. Designed for EvaGreen-based detection with digital PCR (ddPCR).
Abhd4 - mouse gene knockout kit via CRISPR, 1 kit. |dl||dt|Kit Component:|/dt||dd|- |strong|KN300661G1|/strong|, Abhd4 gRNA vector 1 in |a href=http://www.origene.com/CRISPR-CAS9/Detail.
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MBOAT4 antibody (membrane bound O-acyltransferase domain containing 4) for IHC-P, WB. Anti-MBOAT4 pAb (GTX53651) is tested in Human, Mouse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Use Bio-Rads PrimePCR assays, controls, templates for your target gene. Every primer pair is optimized, experimentally validated, and performance guaranteed.
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Heart-Shaped Box je píseň americké grungeové skupiny Nirvana, jejímž autorem je Kurt Cobain. Vyšla na stejnojmenném singlu roku 1993 k albu In Utero. Cobain skladbu napsal na přelomu let 1992 a 1993. Podle jeho slov byla píseň inspirovaná dokumentem o dětech s rakovinou.[zdroj?] Cobaina k sepsání skladby inspiroval dárek od jeho pozdější manželky Courtney Love z roku 1990 - krabička ve tvaru srdce (anglicky: heart-shaped box).[1] Cobainův životopis Těžší než nebe o tomto dárku uvádí:[2] „(…) poslala mu [Courtney] jako dárek krabičku ve tvaru srdce. Byla v ní porcelánová panenka, tři usušené růže, miniaturní čajový šálek a nalakované mořské mušle. Krabičku potaženou hedvábím s krajkovým lemováním zakoupila ve starožitnostech Geralda Katze v New Orleansu, a než ji Kurtovi poslala, jako magické zaklínadlo do ní vetřela svůj parfém. ...
SEQUENCE 439 AA; 47331 MW; 5D6DBB7BDD4A87C3 CRC64; MLTGVTDGIF CCLLGTPPNA VGPLESVESS DGYTFVEVKP GRVLRVKHAG. PAPAAAPPPP SSASSDAAQG DLSGLVRCQR RITVYRNGRL LVENLGRAPR. ADLLHGQNGS GEPPAALEVE LADPAGSDGR LAPGSAGSGS GSGSGGRRRR. ARRPKRTIHI DCEKRITSCK GAQADVVLFF IHGVGGSLAI WKEQLDFFVR. LGYEVVAPDL AGHGASSAPQ VAAAYTFYAL AEDMRAIFKR YAKKRNVLIG. HSYGVSFCTF LAHEYPDLVH KVIMINGGGP TALEPSFCSI FNMPTCVLHC LSPCLAWSFL KAGFARQGAK EKQLLKEGNA FNVSSFVLRA MMSGQYWPEG. DEVYHAELTV PVLLVHGMHD KFVPVEEDQR MAEILLLAFL KLIDEGSHMV. MLECPETVNT LLHEFLLWEP EPSPKALPEP LPAPPEDKK ...
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The protein encoded by this gene is an acyltransferase that converts lysophosphatidic acid into phosphatidic acid, which is the ... Leung DW (2001). "The structure and functions of human lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferases". Front. Biosci. 6: D944-53. doi: ... 128 (1): 9-13. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.12.018. PMID 17218247. S2CID 18872015. van der Weyden L, White JK, Adams DJ, Logan DW ( ... 449 (1-2): 64-76. doi:10.1016/j.abb.2006.03.014. PMID 16620771. Hu YH, Warnatz HJ, Vanhecke D, et al. (2006). "Cell array-based ...
Aguado B, Campbell RD (Feb 1998). "Characterization of a human lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase that is encoded by a gene ... Eberhardt C, Gray PW, Tjoelker LW (Aug 1997). "Human lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase. cDNA cloning, expression, and ... lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase, beta)". Human AGPAT2 genome location and AGPAT2 gene details page in the UCSC Genome ... "A human cDNA sequence with homology to non-mammalian lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferases". The Biochemical Journal. 326 (2 ...
... lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase, epsilon)". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Human AGPAT5 genome location and ... 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase epsilon is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the AGPAT5 gene. This gene ... 36 (1): 40-5. doi:10.1038/ng1285. PMID 14702039. Lu B, Jiang YJ, Zhou Y, et al. (2005). "Cloning and characterization of murine ... 1 (3): 287-92. doi:10.1093/embo-reports/kvd058. PMC 1083732. PMID 11256614. Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2003 ...
Aguado B, Campbell RD (Mar 1998). "Characterization of a human lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase that is encoded by a gene ... Aguado B, Campbell RD (1998). "Human lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase is encoded by a gene located in the major ... Leung DW (2001). "The structure and functions of human lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferases". Front. Biosci. 6 (1): D944-53. ... 1997). "Cloning and expression of two human lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase cDNAs that enhance cytokine-induced signaling ...
2006). "Identification of a novel human lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase, LPAAT-theta, which activates mTOR pathway". J. ... acyltransferases (GPAT; EC 2.3.1.15), such as GPAM and GPAT3 (this enzyme), catalyze the initial step of de novo ... lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase theta (LPAAT-theta), or lung cancer metastasis-associated protein 1. Glycerol-3-phosphate ... "Identification of a novel human lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase, LPAAT-theta, which activates mTOR pathway". J. Biochem. ...
236 (1): 107-13. doi:10.1006/abio.1996.0138. PMID 8619474. Yu W, Andersson B, Worley KC, Muzny DM, Ding Y, Liu W, Ricafrente JY ... 128 (1): 9-13. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.12.018. PMID 17218247. S2CID 18872015. van der Weyden L, White JK, Adams DJ, Logan DW ( ... 3 (5): 309-19. doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2006.03.005. PMID 16679289. Yamaguchi T, Omatsu N, Morimoto E, Nakashima H, Ueno K, Tanaka T ... 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase ABHD5 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ABHD5 gene. The protein ...
이상혁 외 4인 (9.24). 》206p》. 》어린선 환자에서 발생한 혈관면역모세포 T세포림프종 1예》 (PDF) (학위논문).. 다음 날짜 값 확인 필요: ,date=, ,연도=와 ,날짜=가 일치하지 않음. (도움말) ... 아종에 관계없이 모든 어린선 환자들은 마르고 딱딱하며 얇은 비늘 모양의 피부를 띤다.[1] 어린선은 물고기를 의미하는 그리스어ichthys에서 유래된 명칭으로 전신에 물고기 비늘같은 인설(scale)을 보이는 질환을 총칭하는 ... 층판상 어린선, type 3 604777 CYP4F22 Cytochrome P450, subfamily 4F, polypeptide 22 ... Arachidonate lipoxygenase 3. Arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase, 12R type Epidermolytic hyperkeratosis (bullous ichthyosis, bCIE) ...
More recently, type 3 CGL was identified as a separate type of CGL, which was identified as a mutation in the CAV1 gene. Then, ... Type 3 CGL involves a mutation in the CAV1 gene. This gene codes for the Caveolin protein, which is a scaffolding membrane ... Types 3 and 4 are two different mutations but they share a common defective pathway. Medical diagnosis of CGL can be made after ... In type 1 patients, they still have mechanical adipose tissue, but type 2 patients do not have any adipose tissue, including ...
ISBN 978-1-136-84407-2. Genome Decoration Page, NCBI. Ideogram data for Homo sapience (850 bphs, Assembly GRCh38.p3). Last ... ISBN 978-1-4673-1921-8. S2CID 16666470. Genome Decoration Page, NCBI. Ideogram data for Homo sapience (850 bphs, Assembly ... ISBN 978-3-318-02253-7. Sethakulvichai, W.; Manitpornsut, S.; Wiboonrat, M.; Lilakiatsakun, W.; Assawamakin, A.; Tongsima, S. ( ... 329 (5999): 1650-3. Bibcode:2010Sci...329.1650L. doi:10.1126/science.1189044. PMC 4677822. PMID 20724583. Genome Decoration ...
... diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase EC 2.3.1.21: carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase EC 2.3.1.22: 2-acylglycerol O-acyltransferase EC ... glycerone-phosphate O-acyltransferase EC 2.3.1.43: phosphatidylcholine-sterol O-acyltransferase EC 2.3.1.44: N- ... isopentenyl phosphate kinase EC 2.7.4.27: (pyruvate, phosphate dikinase)-phosphate phosphotransferase EC 2.7.4.28: (pyruvate, ... glutamine N-acyltransferase EC 2.3.1.69: monoterpenol O-acetyltransferase EC 2.3.1.70: CDP-acylglycerol O- ...
... glycerol phosphate acyltransferase, glycerol phosphate transacylase, glycerophosphate acyltransferase, glycerophosphate ... This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those acyltransferases transferring groups other than aminoacyl ... Yamashita S, Numa S (1972). "Partial purification and properties of glycerophosphate acyltransferase from rat liver. Formation ... Other names in common use include alpha-glycerophosphate acyltransferase, 3-glycerophosphate acyltransferase, ACP:sn-glycerol-3 ...
In enzymology, a 2-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.52) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ... This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those acyltransferases transferring groups other than aminoacyl ... This enzyme is also called 2-acylglycerophosphate acyltransferase. This enzyme participates in glycerophospholipid metabolism. ... 2-acylglycerophosphate acyltransferase and 1-acylglycerophosphorylcholine acyltransferase from rat-liver microsomes". Eur. J. ...
... glucose-6-phosphate isomerase MeSH D08.811.399.475.200.550 - mannose-6-phosphate isomerase MeSH D08.811.399.475.200.662 - ... phosphatidylcholine-sterol O-acyltransferase MeSH D08.811.913.050.646 - retinol O-fatty-acyltransferase MeSH D08.811.913.050. ... nucleoside-phosphate kinase MeSH D08.811.913.696.900 - transferases (other substituted phosphate groups) MeSH D08.811.913.696. ... carbamoyl-phosphate synthase (ammonia) MeSH D08.811.464.259.400 - carbon-nitrogen ligases with glutamine as amide-n-donor MeSH ...
PA is a vital cell lipid that acts as a biosynthetic precursor for the formation (directly or indirectly) of all acylglycerol ... This will show whether the phosphate group is newly derived from the kinase activity or whether it originates from the PC. ... Different acyltransferases also have different intracellular distributions, such as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the ... PA is degraded by conversion into DAG by lipid phosphate phosphohydrolases (LPPs) or into lyso-PA by phospholipase A (PLA). The ...
Then acylglycerol-3-phosphate can be once more acylated to form a phosphatidic acid (PA). With the help of the enzyme CDP-DAG ... Since there are two phosphates in the molecule, each of them can catch one proton. Although it has a symmetric structure, ... The hydroxyl groups (-OH and -O−) on phosphate would form a stable intramolecular hydrogen bond with the centered glycerol's ... ionizing one phosphate happens at a very different levels of acidity than ionizing both: pK1 = 3 and pK2 > 7.5. So under normal ...
"Acylation of acylglycerols by acyl coenzyme A:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1). Functional importance of DGAT1 in the ... Diglyceride acyltransferase (or O-acyltransferase), DGAT, catalyzes the formation of triglycerides from diacylglycerol and Acyl ... cholesterol acyltransferase-related enzymes". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 273 (41): 26765-71. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.41. ... a second mammalian diacylglycerol acyltransferase, and related family members". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 276 (42): ...
In contrast to these finding from rat liver microsomes, mammalian acyl transferase from dog lungs was found to exhibit no ... 2-acylglycerophosphocholine O-acyltransferase, an enzyme purified in liver microsomes, catalyzes specifically the acylation of ... M. F. Frosolono; Slivka, S; Charms, BL (1971-01-01). "Acyl transferase activities in dog lung microsomes". Journal of Lipid ... Yamashita, A.; Sugiura, T.; Waku, K. (Jul 1997). "Acyltransferases and transacylases involved in fatty acid remodeling of ...
acetyl-CoA C-acyltransferase activity. • long-chain-enoyl-CoA hydratase activity. Cellular component. • membrane. • ... acetyl-CoA acyltransferase, or beta-ketothiolase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the HADHB gene.[5] ... 3 (2): 121-6. doi:10.1002/ajh.2830030202. PMID 272120.. *^ Spiekerkoetter, U; Sun, B; Khuchua, Z; Bennett, MJ; Strauss, AW ( ... 36 (1): 40-5. doi:10.1038/ng1285. PMID 14702039.. *. Fould B, Garlatti V, Neumann E, et al. (2010). "Structural and functional ...
Transferases: acyltransferases (EC 2.3). 2.3.1: other than amino-acyl groups. *acetyltransferases: Acetyl-Coenzyme A ... 311 (3): 433-44. doi:10.1006/jmbi.2001.4859. PMID 11492997.. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Yuan H, Marmorstein R ( ... 46 (3): 623-9. doi:10.1021/bi602513x. PMC 2752042 . PMID 17223684.. *^ a b c d e Berndsen CE, Denu JM (December 2008). " ... 345 (1): 7-21. doi:10.1002/ardp.201100209. PMID 22234972.. *^ a b Oike T, Ogiwara H, Torikai K, Nakano T, Yokota J, Kohno T ( ...
Transferases: acyltransferases (EC 2.3). 2.3.1: other than amino-acyl groups. *acetyltransferases: Acetyl-Coenzyme A ... Goodsell D (1 September 2007). "Citrate Synthase". Molecule of the Month. RCSB Protein Data Bank. doi:10.2210/rcsb_pdb/mom_2007 ... H3CC(=O)−SCoA] and oxaloacetate [−O2CCH2C(=O)CO2−] into citrate [−O2CCH2C(OH)(CO2−)CH2CO2−] and H−SCoA in an aldol condensation ... 2-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase. *ABHD5. 2.3.2: Aminoacyltransferases. *Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase ...
Transferases: acyltransferases (EC 2.3). 2.3.1: other than amino-acyl groups. *acetyltransferases: Acetyl-Coenzyme A ... 264 (1): 574-7. PMID 2535847.. *^ a b Latasa MJ, Griffin MJ, Moon YS, Kang C, Sul HS (August 2003). "Occupancy and function of ... 2 (11): 1. doi:10.1038/scibx.2009.430.. *^ Stevens L, Price NC (1999). Fundamentals of enzymology: the cell and molecular ... 91 (1): 47-53. doi:10.1002/jcb.10708. PMID 14689581.. *^ Hunt DA, Lane HM, Zygmont ME, Dervan PA, Hennigar RA (2007). "MRNA ...
Definition of 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes ... See: lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase. Further information. Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those acyltransferases transferring groups other than aminoacyl ... and lysophosphatidic acid-acyltransferase. This enzyme participates in 3 metabolic pathways: glycerolipid metabolism, ... 2-acylglycerophosphate acyltransferase and 1-acylglycerophosphorylcholine acyltransferase from rat-liver microsomes". Eur. J. ... In enzymology, a 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.51) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ...
Coenzyme A-dependent lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase that catalyzes the transfert of an acyl group on a lysophosphatidic ... 1-stearoyl-lysophosphatidic acid and 1-arachidonoyl-lysophosphatidic acid as lipid acceptor. Functions preferentially with ... Functions preferentially with 1-oleoyl-lysophosphatidic acid followed by 1-palmitoyl-lysophosphatidic acid, ... The HXXXXD motif is essential for acyltransferase activity and may constitute the binding site for the phosphate moiety of the ...
U3KCS2-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basketAdded to basket. « Hide. 10 20 30 40 50. MGFIAFLKTQ FIVHLLIGFV FVVSGLIINF IQLCTLLLWP ... 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 3Imported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using ... Annotation score:1 out of 5. ,p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB ... PF16076 Acyltransf_C, 1 hit. PF01553 Acyltransferase, 1 hit. Simple Modular Architecture Research Tool; a protein domain ...
... lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase, alpha) Biomolecules from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, ... Lysophosphatidic Acid Acyltransferase, Alpha) (AGPAT1) (AA 29-285) protein (His tag) ... 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 1 (lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase, alpha) Biomolecules. Clear ... Epithelial Cyst Formation in 3-D Life Hydrogels. *Improved methods for site-directed mutagenesis using Gibson Assembly® Master ...
A Plant Acyltransferase Involved in Triacylglycerol Biosynthesis Complements an Escherichia Coli sn-1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate ... Bin Yu, Setsuko Wakao, Jilian Fan, Christoph Benning, Loss of Plastidic Lysophosphatidic Acid Acyltransferase Causes Embryo- ... We have isolated a cDNA clone encoding this embryo-specific, microsomal acyltransferase via heterologous complementation of an ... Yong-Mei Zhang, Charles O. Rock, Thematic Review Series: Glycerolipids.Acyltransferases in bacterial glycerophospholipid ...
Mice Deficient in lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase delta (Lpaatδ)/acylglycerophosphate acyltransferase 4 (Agpat4) Have ... Title: Acylglycerophosphate acyltransferase 4 (AGPAT4) is a mitochondrial lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase that regulates ... lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase, delta). LPAAT-delta. lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase-delta. NP_080920.2. *EC 2.3. ... Acyltransf_C; Acyltransferase C-terminus. * XM_006523348.3 → XP_006523411.1 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase ...
This gene encodes a member of the lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase protein family. The encoded protein is an enzyme which ... lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase theta , 1-AGPAT 9 , GPAT-3 , GPAT3 , 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 9 , ... lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase, theta , 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 9 , Lysophosphatidic acid ... C-Abl Oncogene 1, Non-Receptor tyrosine Kinase (ABL1) * Kinase insert Domain Receptor (A Type III Receptor tyrosine Kinase) ( ...
The acyl-glycerol phosphate acyltransferase (AGPAT) family of enzymes have been largely identified through sequence homology, ... In summary, this thesis has characterized AGPAT4 as a lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase with a potential role in ... AGPAT4 did not display significant acyltransferase activity with lysophosphatidylcholine, lysophosphatidylethanolamine, ... I report the functional characterization of AGPAT4 as a lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase. Although AGPAT4 is present in ...
C21H36N7O16P3S. 767.534. 767.115208365. Not Available. ...
Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase which functions in phosphatidic acid biosynthesis. May regulate the cellular storage of ... Acyl-CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate → Coenzyme A + 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate. details ... Showing Protein 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase ABHD5 (HMDBP11598). IdentificationBiological propertiesGene ... Acyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + 1-Acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate → Acyl-carrier protein + Phosphatidate. details ...
1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 3. Synonyms: D10Jhu12e, LPAAT3. Gene nomenclature, locus information, and GO, OMIM ... Vega: OTTMUSG20522 (Agpat3, 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 3)*CCDS: 23963, 23963.1*Gene Ontology: Agpat3 *Mouse ... Question? Comments? For Mice, Cells, and germplasm please contact us at [email protected], US 1-888-KOMP-MICE or International ... 1-530-752-KOMP, or for vectors [email protected] or +1-510-450-7917. ...
What is 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase ABHD5? Meaning of 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase ABHD5 ... Looking for online definition of 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase ABHD5 in the Medical Dictionary? 1-acylglycerol-3 ... What does 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase ABHD5 mean? ... redirected from 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase ABHD5) ABHD5. A gene on chromosome 3p25.3-p24.3 that encodes a ...
... lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase, delta). Synonyms: 1500003P24Rik. Gene nomenclature, locus information, and GO, OMIM, and ... Question? Comments? For Mice, Cells, and germplasm please contact us at [email protected], US 1-888-KOMP-MICE or International ... 1-530-752-KOMP, or for vectors [email protected] or +1-510-450-7917. ...
Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase beta; Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase-beta; PLCB_HUMAN; AV000834; 2510002J07Rik; ... lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase, beta); 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase beta; 1 acyl sn glycerol 3 ... phosphate acyltransferase beta; 1 acylglycerol 3 phosphate O acyltransferase 2; 1 AGP acyltransferase 2; 1 AGPAT2; 1- ... lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase-beta); 1-AGPAT2; 1-AGPAT2, BSCL, BSCL1, LPAAB, LPAAT-beta, AGPAT2; zgc:153984 ...
What is 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase? Meaning of 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase medical term. What ... Looking for online definition of 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase in the Medical Dictionary? 1-acylglycerol-3- ... lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase. (redirected from 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase) lysophosphatidic acid ... 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase , definition of 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase by Medical dictionary ...
Mouse 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase ABHD5 ELISA Kit-NP_057090.2 (MBS2608516) product datasheet at MyBioSource, ... ABHD5: a lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase which functions in phosphatidic acid biosynthesis. May regulate the cellular ... 96-Strip-Wells / $435 +1 FREE 8GB USB. 5x96-Strip-Wells / $1,755 +2 FREE 8GB USB. 10x96-Strip-Wells / $3,150 +3 FREE 8GB USB. ... lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase activity; triacylglycerol lipase activity. Biological Process: cell differentiation; ...
Aguado B et al. (1998) Characterization of a human lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase that is encoded by a gene located in ... West J et al. (1997) Cloning and expression of two human lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase cDNAs that enhance cytokine- ... Eberhardt C et al. (1997) Human lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase. cDNA cloning, expression, and localization to chromosome ... 3.. Gomes KB et al. (2004) Mutations in the seipin and AGPAT2 genes clustering in consanguineous families with Berardinelli- ...
Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase beta,Mouse, \ EIAAB31420 for more molecular products just contact us ... 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 2,1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase beta,1-AGP acyltransferase 2,1- ... Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase beta,Mouse, mus musculus murine 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 2,1-acyl-sn- ... Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase beta,Mouse,. Related products : 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 2,1-acyl-sn- ...
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... lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase-delta (LPAAT-delta); 1-AGPAT4; LPAAT-delta; RP3-473J16.2; 1-AGPAT4, dJ473J16.2, LPAAT- ... lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase, delta); 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase delta; dJ473J16.2; LPAAT delta; 1 ... This gene encodes a member of the 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase family. This integral membrane protein converts ... Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase delta; 1-AGPAT 4; 1-AGP acyltransferase 4; ...
1-Acylglycerol-3-Phosphate O-Acyltransferase 3, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. ... The HXXXXD motif is essential for acyltransferase activity and may constitute the binding site for the phosphate moiety of the ... The HXXXXD motif is essential for acyltransferase activity and may constitute the binding site for the phosphate moiety of the ... 1 5 6 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ... The protein encoded by this gene is an acyltransferase that ...
1-Acylglycerol-3-Phosphate O-Acyltransferase 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. ... The HXXXXD motif is essential for acyltransferase activity and may constitute the binding site for the phosphate moiety of the ... The HXXXXD motif is essential for acyltransferase activity and may constitute the binding site for the phosphate moiety of the ... Human lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase. cDNA cloning, expression, and localization to chromosome 9q34.3. (PMID: 9242711) ...
Of the two well conserved acyltransferase motifs, NHX4D is present in AGPAT8, whereas arginine in the EGTR motif is substituted ... Based on the X-ray crystallographic structure of a related acyltransferase, squash gpat, a model is proposed in which a ... Based on the X-ray crystallographic structure of a related acyltransferase, squash gpat, a model is proposed in which a ... keywords = "Acyltransferase, Lipodystrophy, Phospholipids",. author = "Agarwal, {Anil K.} and Barnes, {Robert I.} and Abhimanyu ...
Lysophospholipid acyltransferases: 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferases. From discovery to disease. Curr Opin Lipidol ... 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase beta. *1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 2 (lysophosphatidic acid ... The AGPAT2 gene mutations that cause congenital generalized lipodystrophy type 1 greatly reduce or eliminate the activity of ... The resulting lack of body fat underlies the varied signs and symptoms of congenital generalized lipodystrophy type 1. ...
membrane bound o-acyltransferase. mtp. microsomal triglyceride transfer protein. pcyt1. choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase ... is first acylated by acyltransferases to phosphatidic acid (PtdOH), which can be transferred into diacylglycerol (DAG) or CDP- ... 1.. Vance JE, Vance DE. Phospholipid biosynthesis in mammalian cells. Biochem Cell Biol. 2004;82(1):113-28.CrossRefPubMedGoogle ... 3). In the 11 families with two highly expressed genes, they are mostly salmon-specific duplicates from Ss4R WGD. In de-novo ...
We report several different mutations of the gene (AGPAT2) encoding 1-acylglycer … ... Acyltransferases / genetics* * Adipose Tissue / enzymology * Chromosomes, Human, Pair 9 / genetics* * Female * Genes, Recessive ... Anil K Agarwal 1 , Elif Arioglu, Salome De Almeida, Nurullah Akkoc, Simeon I Taylor, Anne M Bowcock, Robert I Barnes, Abhimanyu ... 1 Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Blvd, Dallas, Texas 75390 ...
... and a dihydroxyacetone-phosphate acyltransferase. It has been suggested that motifs I and IV are important for catalysis and ... The acyltransferase domain resides in the COOH-terminal side of the second transmembrane domain, which is similar to GPAT3 (see ... In contrast, lipid phosphate phosphatase ( previously known as PAP2) activity is Mg2+ independent, NEM resistant, localized to ... Heath RJ, Rock CO. A conserved histidine is essential for glycerolipid acyltransferase catalysis. J Bacteriol 180: 1425-1430, ...
이상혁 외 4인 (9.24). 》206p》. 》어린선 환자에서 발생한 혈관면역모세포 T세포림프종 1예》 (PDF) (학위논문).. 다음 날짜 값 확인 필요: ,date=, ,연도=와 ,날짜=가 일치하지 않음. (도움말) ... 아종에 관계없이 모든 어린선 환자들은 마르고 딱딱하며 얇은 비늘 모양의 피부를 띤다.[1] 어린선은 물고기를 의미하는 그리스어ichthys에서 유래된 명칭으로 전신에 물고기 비늘같은 인설(scale)을 보이는 질환을 총칭하는 ... 층판상 어린선, type 3 604777 CYP4F22 Cytochrome P450, subfamily 4F, polypeptide 22 ... Arachidonate lipoxygenase 3. Arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase, 12R type Epidermolytic hyperkeratosis (bullous ichthyosis, bCIE) ...
The HXXXXD motif is essential for acyltransferase activity and may constitute the binding site for the phosphate moiety of the ... Esterifies acyl-group from acyl-ACP to the sn-1 position of glycerol-3-phosphate, an essential step in glycerolipid ... Phospholipid metabolism; CDP-diacylglycerol biosynthesis; CDP-diacylglycerol from sn-glycerol 3-phosphate: step 1/3. ...
  • The acyl-glycerol phosphate acyltransferase (AGPAT) family of enzymes have been largely identified through sequence homology, with eleven isoforms identified in both mice and humans. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • Various isoforms of the enzyme, 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (AGPAT), acylate lysophosphatidic acid at the sn-2 position to produce phosphatidic acid. (elsevier.com)
  • The molecular identification of genes encoding enzymes that catalyze steps in TAG biosynthesis from glycerol 3-phosphate has revealed an unexpected number of protein isoforms of the glycerol phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT), acylglycerolphosphate acyltransferase (AGPAT), and lipin (phosphatidate phosphatase) families that appear to catalyze similar biochemical reactions. (physiology.org)
  • Based on the X-ray crystallographic structure of a related acyltransferase, squash gpat, a model is proposed in which a hydrophobic pocket in AGPAT8 accommodates fatty acyl chains of both substrates in an orientation where the NHX 4 D motif participates in catalysis. (elsevier.com)
  • The first committed step in TAG synthesis via the glycerol phosphate pathway is the acylation of glycerol 3-phosphate by glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) enzymes, which reside in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria (reviewed in Refs. (physiology.org)
  • acyl-coa:glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT, EC 2.3.1.15) catalyzes the first and committed step in de novo triacylglycerol (TAG) and phospholipid biosynthesis, converting glycerol 3-phosphate into lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). (physiology.org)
  • We and others have previously identified two closely related members of the glycerolipid acyltransferase family as endoplasmic reticulum-associated microsomal GPAT enzymes, now named GPAT3 and GPAT4 ( 3 , 5 , 17 , 22 ). (physiology.org)
  • 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase beta is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the AGPAT2 gene. (creative-biogene.com)
  • This gene encodes a member of the 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase family. (creative-biogene.com)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is an acyltransferase that converts lysophosphatidic acid into phosphatidic acid, which is the second step in the de novo phospholipid biosynthetic pathway. (genecards.org)
  • AGPAT3 (1-Acylglycerol-3-Phosphate O-Acyltransferase 3) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include transferase activity, transferring acyl groups and 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase activity . (genecards.org)
  • At least 26 mutations in the AGPAT2 gene have been identified in people with congenital generalized lipodystrophy (also called Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy) type 1. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The AGPAT2 gene mutations that cause congenital generalized lipodystrophy type 1 greatly reduce or eliminate the activity of the AGPAT2 enzyme. (medlineplus.gov)
  • We report several different mutations of the gene (AGPAT2) encoding 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 2 in 20 affected individuals from 11 pedigrees of diverse ethnicities showing linkage to chromosome 9q34. (nih.gov)
  • 1 2 The NDP gene was isolated by positional cloning. (arvojournals.org)
  • 3 4 5 6 Mutations in the NDP gene also account for a variety of other familial and sporadic eye diseases, including exudative vitreoretinopathy, retinopathy of prematurity, and Coats disease. (arvojournals.org)
  • The nomenclature GAT1 is used in this paper for the gene encoding the putative major glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase of the yeast. (asm.org)
  • Molecular cloning of the gene encoding CDPdiacylglycerol-inositol 3-phosphatidyl transferase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (wikipathways.org)
  • Some patients with the Dunnigan and mandibular dyscrasia phenotypes of FPL have been found to harbor gene mutations involving LMNA, PPARγ, PLIN-1, AKT2 , or CIDEC . (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Insulin-resistance syndromes include those with mutations in the insulin receptors (ie, leprechaunism, Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (ie, type 1 diabetes with acanthosis nigricans and hypertension), 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyl transferase-2 or seipin (Berardinelli-Seip syndrome), lamin A/C (Dunnigan syndrome), and Alstrom syndrome gene. (medscape.com)
  • Through positional cloning, they identified disease causing mutations in (AGPAT2) gene located on chromosome 9q34, encoding 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate-O-acyltransferase 2, in the affected subjects from 26 of the 42 pedigrees of various ethnicities. (utsouthwestern.edu)
  • Competitive learning schemes like the Kohonen SOM [ 3 ] and hierarchical clustering are popular methods for visualization and identification of patterns in a large set of gene expression profiles. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These include AGPAT2 (1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate-O-acyltransferase 2), BSCL2 (Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy 2) in Congenital Generalized Lipodystrophy (CGL), Lamin A/ C (LMNA) gene in Familial Partial Lipodystrophy Dunnigan variety (Familial Partial Lipodystrophy), and PPARG (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma) gene in familial partial lipodystrophy. (geneticalliance.org.uk)
  • CGL has four subclinical phenotypes (CGL1, -2, -3, and -4) secondary to mutations in the acylglycerol-3-phosphate-O-acyltransferase ( AGPAT2 ) gene, the gamma-3-linked gene located at chromosome 11q13 ( BSCL2 ), caveolin-1 ( CAV1 ), and RNA polymerase 1 and transcript release factor ( PTRF ), respectively ( 7 - 12 ) ( Figure 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Antigen standard for 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 2 (lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase, beta) (AGPAT2), transcript variant 1 is a lysate prepared from HEK293T cells transiently transfected with a TrueORF gene-carrying pCMV plasmid and then lysed in RIPA Buffer. (creativebiomart.net)
  • This product includes 3 vials: 1 vial of gene-specific cell lysate, 1 vial of control vector cell lysate, and 1 vial of loading buffer. (creativebiomart.net)
  • A suppressor gene that enables Saccharomyces cerevisiae to grow without making sphingolipids encodes a protein that resembles an Escherichia coli fatty acyltransferase. (ymdb.ca)
  • AGPAT2 encodes for an acyltransferase implicated in the biosynthesis of triacylglycerol and glycerophospholipids. (frontiersin.org)
  • We conclude that AGPAT2 regulates adipogenesis through the modulation of the lipome, altering normal activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and PPARγ pathways in the early stages of adipogenesis. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The findings demonstrate that AGPAT2, which is mutated in patients with congenital generalized lipodystrophy and over-expressed in different types of cancer, is a direct transcriptional target of HIF-1, suggesting that upregulation of lipid storage by HIF-1 plays an important role in adaptation and survival of cancer cells under low oxygen conditions. (antibodies-online.cn)
  • Data show that missense mutation c.299G>A changes serine in the acyltransferase NHX4D motif of AGPAT2, and intronic c.493-1G>C mutation destroy a splicing site that leads to exon 4 skipping and deletion of whole AGPAT2 substrate binding domain. (antibodies-online.cn)
  • Data suggest that AGPAT2 regulates adipogenesis through modulation of lipid metabolism/signal transduction, altering normal activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protooncogene c-Akt and PPARgamma signaling in early stage of adipogenesis. (antibodies-online.cn)
  • DGAT, diacylglycerol acyltransferase. (physiology.org)
  • Finally, the resulting DAG is converted to TAG through the action of diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) enzymes or used in phospholipid synthesis via the Kennedy pathway (reviewed in Refs. (physiology.org)
  • The last step of the TG biosynthetic pathway is catalyzed by acyl coenzyme-A:1,2-diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) at the endoplasmic reticulum. (aocs.org)
  • In enzymology, a 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.51) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction acyl-CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } CoA + 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are acyl-CoA and 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate, whereas its two products are CoA and 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2.3.1.51 2.3.1. (genome.jp)
  • Members of the 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.51) family, such as AGPAT7, catalyze the conversion of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) to phosphatidic acid (PA), a precursor in the biosynthesis of all glycerolipids. (antibodies-online.com)
  • This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those acyltransferases transferring groups other than aminoacyl groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is acyl-CoA:1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate 2-O-acyltransferase. (wikipedia.org)
  • This enzyme participates in 3 metabolic pathways: glycerolipid metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, and ether lipid metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enzyme of Limnanthes douglusii involved in triacylglycerol synthesis has an unusual specificity for very long chain acyl groups in both of its substrates, namely acyl-CoA and sn -1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate, and causes the enrichment of erucoyl groups in the sn -2 position of the seed oil of this plant species. (wiley.com)
  • The corresponding transcript was detectable in developing embryos but not in leaves of L. douglasii , and expression of the open reading frame in E. coli caused sn -1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase activity which showed properties different from those of the bacterial acyltransferase but typical of the L. douglusii enzyme involved in triacylglycerol biosynthesis. (wiley.com)
  • A novel lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase enzyme (LPAAT4) with a possible role for incorporating docosahexaenoic acid into brain glycerophospholipids. (nih.gov)
  • MBS2608516 is a ready-to-use microwell, strip plate ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) Kit for analyzing the presence of the 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase ABHD5, ELISA Kit target analytes in biological samples. (mybiosource.com)
  • Acylation of glycerol 3-phosphate occurs through a stepwise addition of fatty acyl groups, each of which is catalyzed by a distinct enzyme (see Fig. 1 ). (physiology.org)
  • Our results demonstrate that there are significant alterations in HD rat hypothalamic protein expression such as glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), heat shock protein-70, the oxidative damage protein glutathione peroxidase (Gpx4), glycogen synthase1 (Gys1) and the lipid synthesis enzyme acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 1 (Agpat1). (nih.gov)
  • TMAO has a demonstrated ability to counteract the perturbing effects of urea on enzyme activity when accumulated in a 2:1 ratio with urea ( Somero, 1986 ). (biologists.org)
  • Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAAT) encoded by a multigene family is a rate-limiting enzyme in the Kennedy pathway in higher plants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Also acts on lysophosphatidylcholine, lysophosphatidylinositol and lysophosphatidylserine using C18:1 or C20:4-CoA (PubMed:21173190). (genecards.org)
  • At the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, 1-acyl-lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is acylated to phosphatidic acid (PA) by the enzymes 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferases (AGPAT1 through 11), and lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase (LPCAT1) (Aguado and Campbell 1998). (reactome.org)
  • Cloning and characterization of mouse lung-type acyl-CoA:lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 1 (LPCAT1). (reactome.org)
  • The glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferases-1 and -4 (GPAT1 and GPAT4), 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase-1 (AGPAT1), and phosphatidate phosphatase (LPIN1) genes from the TAG biosynthetic pathway were studied in the first set of experiments to test the associations of the polymorphisms in those genes with milk fatty acid composition. (iastate.edu)
  • The resulting lack of body fat underlies the varied signs and symptoms of congenital generalized lipodystrophy type 1. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Lipodystrophy and lipoatrophy syndromes are characterized by congenital or acquired decreases in adipose tissue, which are associated with severe metabolic consequences ( 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The conventional diagnostic scheme for lipodystrophy involves the extent of fat loss (general or partial) and inheritance (acquired or congenital) resulting in four categories of disease: congenital generalized lipodystrophy, acquired generalized lipodystrophy, familial partial lipodystrophy (FPL), and acquired partial lipodystrophy (APL) ( 1 - 5 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Lipodystrophy: The Metabolic Link of HIV Infection with Insulin-Resistance SyndromePaula Freitas1, Davide Carvalho1, Selma Souto1, Antonio Sarmento1 and Jose Luis Medina1[1] Department of Endocrinology, Centro Hospitalar Sao Joao and University of Porto Medical School, Porto, Portugal1. (amazonaws.com)
  • Mutations in a variety of genes can lead to the various subtypes of congenital lipodystrophy ( 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • novel nonsense a missense mutations were found in two patients with congenital generalized lipodystrophy type 1. (antibodies-online.cn)
  • Title: Acylglycerophosphate acyltransferase 4 (AGPAT4) is a mitochondrial lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase that regulates brain phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylinositol levels. (nih.gov)
  • In summary, this thesis has characterized AGPAT4 as a lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase with a potential role in mitochondrial function. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • The major classes of phospholipids found in the mitochondrial membrane are similar to other membranes such as phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), and some are exclusively components of mitochondrial membrane such as cardiolipin (CL) [1]. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Changes in the phospholipid composition can affect mitochondrial respiration [2], which has been linked to a variety of human diseases such as Barth syndrome, ischemia, and heart failure [3, 4]. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • and phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and cardiolipin (CL), are exclusively components of mitochondrial membrane (Figure 1). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Elevated TAG turnover in MHC-PPARα correlated with increased mRNA for enzymes involved in both TAG synthesis, Gpam (glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, mitochondrial), Dgat1 (diacylglycerol acetyltransferase 1), and Agpat3 (1-acylglycerol-3-phospate O -acyltransferase 3), and lipolysis, Pnliprp1 (pancreatic lipase related protein 1). (ahajournals.org)
  • Acts on LPA containing saturated or unsaturated fatty acids C16:0-C20:4 at the sn-1 position using C18:1, C20:4 or C18:2-CoA as the acyl donor (PubMed:21173190). (genecards.org)
  • Omega-3 (ω-3) and omega-6 (ω-6) are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) that play critical role in human health and have to be provided by food. (intechopen.com)
  • Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are essential constituents of plasma membranes and depending on their chemical structure, PUFAs are of the n-3 or the n-6 family and are commonly called ω-3 or ω-6, respectively. (intechopen.com)
  • Genetic loci associated with plasma phospholipid n-3 fatty acids: a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies from the CHARGE Consortium. (sanger.ac.uk)
  • In glycerophospholipids, two fatty acids are ester-linked to glycerol at C-1 and C-2, and a highly polar or charged (and therefore hydrophilic) head group is attached to C-3 through a phosphodiester bond. (wikipathways.org)
  • In general, glycerophospholipids contain a saturated fatty acid at C-1 and an unsaturated fatty acid at C-2, and, in general terms, the fatty acyl groups are generally 16 or 18 carbons long. (wikipathways.org)
  • The unique structure of CL (Figure 1), which contains three glycerol backbones and four fatty acyl chains, makes it highly important for optimal function of the mitochondria [10]. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • DGAT catalyzes the synthesis of TGs by forming an ester bond between a fatty acid, donated from a long-chain fatty acyl CoA, and the free hydroxyl group at the sn -3 position of 1,2-diacylglycerol ( Figure 2 ). (aocs.org)
  • Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been considered the hepatic manifestation of this condition and, additionally, is one of the most common causes of liver diseases worldwide [ 3 - 5 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the second set of experiments, the polymorphisms in the solute carrier family 27 (SLC27A6), isoform A6 and fatty acid binding proteins-3 and -4 (FABP3 and FABP4) genes involved in fatty acid uptake into mammary gland and fatty acid transport inside the mammary epithelial cells were tested for the association with milk fatty acid composition. (iastate.edu)
  • Here we focus on the key enzymes in TAG synthesis through the glycerol phosphate pathway ( Fig. 1 ), whereas the monoacylglycerol pathway is reviewed in a separate article in this series ( 61 ). (physiology.org)
  • Glycerol phosphate pathway for de novo triacylglycerol (TAG) and glycerophospholipid synthesis. (physiology.org)
  • 1-acyl-glycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferases are involved in the de novo synthesis of triacylglycerol (TAG) and glycerophospholipids, and thus are important for lipid storage/transport and membrane biogenesis. (flybase.org)
  • Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferases (GPATs) catalyze the first step in the synthesis of glycerolipids and glycerophospholipids. (physiology.org)
  • TG synthesis occurs via the multistep glycerol-3-phosphate or Kennedy pathway ( Figure 1 ) [3,4]. (aocs.org)
  • PPARα overexpression augmented TAG turnover 3-fold over nontransgenic hearts, despite similar fractions of acetyl-coenzyme A synthesis from palmitate and oxygen use at the same workload. (ahajournals.org)
  • In cell lysates, AGPAT8 shows moderate acyltransferase activity with [ 3 H]oleoyl-CoA but lacks acyl-CoA:lysocardiolipin acyltransferase activity. (elsevier.com)
  • Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase which functions in phosphatidic acid biosynthesis. (hmdb.ca)
  • Converts 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate (lysophosphatidic acid or LPA) into 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate (phosphatidic acid or PA) by incorporating an acyl moiety at the sn-2 position of the glycerol backbone (PubMed:21173190). (genecards.org)
  • Similar observations were made with Slc1p, a 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase involved in the biosynthesis of phosphatidic acid ( 3 , 34 ). (asm.org)
  • 1 . As part of this interactive and integrated network, the adipose tissue per se is involved in the coordination of diverse processes including not only energy metabolism but also endocrine and immune regulatory functions. (nature.com)
  • in eukaryotes , triacylglycerol (TAG) is synthesized through two major pathways, the glycerol phosphate pathway and the monoacylglycerol pathway ( 24 ). (physiology.org)
  • Glycerol 3-phosphate, derived primarily from glycolysis or gluconeogenesis, is esterified at the sn -1 carbon position by glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferases producing lysophosphatidate (1-acylglycerol 3-phosphate). (aocs.org)
  • In the present study, I report the functional characterization of AGPAT4 as a lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • also known as LPA acyltransferase) enzymes to produce phosphatidate (reviewed in Refs. (physiology.org)
  • The conversion of phosphatidate occurs through the action of phosphatidate phosphatase-1 (PAP) enzymatic activity, which is conferred by the lipin family of proteins (reviewed in Refs. (physiology.org)
  • 1-Acylglycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase catalyzes the esterification of the sn -2 carbon of lysophosphatidate forming phosphatidate. (aocs.org)
  • The phosphatidate phosphatases (lipins) then dephosphorylate phosphatidate producing 1,2-diacylglycerol, which can then be used to synthesize either phospholipids or TG. (aocs.org)
  • Has also a modest lysophosphatidylinositol acyltransferase (LPIAT) activity, converts lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) into phosphatidylinositol (By similarity). (genecards.org)
  • Treatment of tumor cell lines with these agents results in the attenuation of a number of signaling pathways, including both the Ras/Raf/extracellular signal-related kinase (Erk) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathways, and results in cell death. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Activation of B cells by various ligands is accompanied by Btk membrane translocation mediated by its PH domain binding to phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (3-5). (cellsignal.com)
  • Activation of kinase pathways (including JNK, Erk1/2, p38 MAPK, and NF-κB) promotes the survival of cells, while TNF-α-mediated activation of caspase-8 leads to programmed cell death (1,2). (cellsignal.com)
  • The acyl dihydroxyacetone phosphate pathway enzymes for glycerolipid biosynthesis are present in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (genome.jp)
  • AGPAT9 encodes a member of the lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase protein family. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Figure 1 displays the human chromosome 6 (NCBI Reference Sequence NC_000006.12) and relative localization and orientation of PARK2 and flanking genes. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • However, Homo sapiens cDNA sequences deposited in GenBank and UniGene repositories, coaligned on the genomic sequence and clustered in a minimal non-redundant way, support at least 21 different alternatively spliced mRNAs composed by 17 exons (Figure 3) (La Cognata et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • In the enterocyte, TGs are resynthesized mainly by monoacylglycerol acyltransferase and DGAT. (aocs.org)
  • After antidepressant exposure, we observed increased expression or modification of cytochrome c oxidase, subunit Va, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A interacting protein, dynein, axonemal, heavy polypeptide 3 and RHO GDP-dissociation inhibitor alpha. (hud.ac.uk)
  • The glycerol phosphate pathway, first described more than half a century ago, is the major pathway utilized by most cell types ( 12 , 64 , 65 ). (physiology.org)
  • Diacylglycerol can also be generated via the monoacylglycerol acyltransferase (MGAT) pathway [5]. (aocs.org)
  • In this pathway, 1,2-diacylglycerol is formed by the direct acylation of 2-monoacylglycerol at the sn -1 position. (aocs.org)
  • The second acylation reaction in glycerolipid biosynthesis is catalyzed by an sn -1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase. (wiley.com)
  • Esterifies acyl-group from acyl-ACP to the sn-1 position of glycerol-3-phosphate, an essential step in glycerolipid biosynthesis. (abcam.com)
  • MeCP2-e1 (MeCP2α/B) is encoded by exons 1, 3 and 4 and is more abundant in brain than the previously identified MeCP2-e2 (MeCP2β/A) isoform, which is encoded by exons 2, 3 and 4. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Lysophospholipid acyltransferases: 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferases. (medlineplus.gov)
  • We have isolated a cDNA clone encoding this embryo-specific, microsomal acyltransferase via heterologous complementation of an Escherichia coli mutant deficient in sn -1-acyl-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase activity. (wiley.com)
  • Diacylglycerol synthesized in vitro from sn-glycerol 3-phosphate and the endogenous diacylglycerol are different substrate pools for the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine in rat lung microsomes. (wikipathways.org)
  • 2003). In the centromeric direction PARK2 is flanked by AGPAT4 (1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase), which encodes a member of the 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase family. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Antibody concentration 3 ug/ml. (novusbio.com)
  • 1. Customer may provide cell or tissue lysate for antibody screening. (abnova.com)
  • 2003) [ 1 ], several genes responsible for grain filling in rice were computationally identified. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, a comprehensive genome-wide analysis in four Gossypium species with genome sequences, i.e . , tetraploid G. hirsutum - AD 1 and G. barbadense - AD 2 and its possible ancestral diploids G. raimondii - D 5 and G. arboreum - A 2 , identified 13, 10, 8, and 9 LPAAT genes, respectively, that were divided into four subfamilies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • According to NCBI MapViewer, further elements overlap or surround the PARK2 genetic region, such as two pseudogenes (KRT8P44 and TRE-TTC15-1) and a set of non-coding RNAs (LOC105378094, LOC105378098, LOC105378097 and LOC105369171). (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Currently, the NCBI RefSeq database annotates 3 representative transcripts as full-length PARK2 mRNAs (Figure 2). (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Of the two well conserved acyltransferase motifs, NHX 4 D is present in AGPAT8, whereas arginine in the EGTR motif is substituted by aspartate. (elsevier.com)
  • The HXXXXD motif is essential for acyltransferase activity and may constitute the binding site for the phosphate moiety of the glycerol-3-phosphate. (abcam.com)