A DNA alkylating agent that has been shown to be a potent carcinogen and is widely used to induce colon tumors in experimental animals.
Hydrazines substituted with two methyl groups in any position.
Hydrazines substituted by one or more methyl groups in any position.
Hydrazine substituted by one methyl group.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
Hydrazines are organic compounds containing the functional group R-NH-NH2, where R represents an organic group, and are used in pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and rocket fuels, but can be highly toxic and carcinogenic with potential for environmental damage.
The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.
Clusters of colonic crypts that appear different from the surrounding mucosa when visualized after staining. They are of interest as putative precursors to colorectal adenomas and potential biomarkers for colorectal carcinoma.
Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Products of the hydrolysis of chlorophylls in which the phytic acid side chain has been removed and the carboxylic acids saponified.
The aglycone of CYCASIN. It acts as a potent carcinogen and neurotoxin and inhibits hepatic DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
The combination of two or more different factors in the production of cancer.
F344 rats are an inbred strain of albino laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus) that have been widely used in biomedical research due to their consistent and reliable genetic background, which facilitates the study of disease mechanisms and therapeutic interventions.
Tumors or cancer of the INTESTINES.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced tumors independently of the mechanism involved.
A plant genus of the family ARACEAE. Members contain konjac glucomannan (MANNANS) and SEROTONIN.
A malignant neoplasm arising simultaneously or consecutively in mesodermal tissue and glandular epithelium of the same part. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
Azo compounds are organic compounds characterized by the presence of one or more azo groups, -N=N-, linking two aromatic rings, which can impart various colors and are used in dyes, pharmaceuticals, and chemical research.
Tumors or cancer of the CECUM.
A segment of the LOWER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that includes the CECUM; the COLON; and the RECTUM.
The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
Pathological processes in the COLON region of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE).
The covalent bonding of an alkyl group to an organic compound. It can occur by a simple addition reaction or by substitution of another functional group.
High molecular weight polysaccharides present in the cell walls of all plants. Pectins cement cell walls together. They are used as emulsifiers and stabilizers in the food industry. They have been tried for a variety of therapeutic uses including as antidiarrheals, where they are now generally considered ineffective, and in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.
Guanine is a purine nucleobase, one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of DNA and RNA, involved in forming hydrogen bonds between complementary base pairs in double-stranded DNA molecules.
A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, between the SIGMOID COLON and the ANAL CANAL.
Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.
A potent carcinogen and neurotoxic compound. It is particularly effective in inducing colon carcinomas.
The blind sac or outpouching area of the LARGE INTESTINE that is below the entrance of the SMALL INTESTINE. It has a worm-like extension, the vermiform APPENDIX.
The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.

1,2-Dimethylhydrazine is a chemical compound with the formula (CH3)2N-NH2. It is a colorless liquid with an ammonia-like odor. It is used in research and industry as a reducing agent and a rocket fuel component. It is also a potent carcinogen and is harmful if swallowed, inhaled, or comes into contact with the skin. Long-term exposure can lead to cancer, particularly of the liver and digestive system.

Dimethylhydrazines are organic compounds that consist of two methyl groups (-CH3) bonded to a hydrazine molecule (N2H4). The most common dimethylhydrazine is 1,2-dimethylhydrazine, which is a colorless liquid with an unpleasant odor. It is used as a rocket fuel and in the synthesis of other chemicals.

Dimethylhydrazines are highly reactive and can be hazardous to handle. They can cause skin and eye irritation, and prolonged exposure can lead to more serious health effects such as damage to the respiratory system, liver, and kidneys. Ingestion or inhalation of large amounts of dimethylhydrazines can be fatal.

It is important to handle dimethylhydrazines with care and follow proper safety precautions when working with them. This may include wearing protective clothing, gloves, and eye protection, as well as using appropriate ventilation and storage methods.

Methylhydrazines are a class of organic compounds that contain a hydrazine functional group with one or more methyl substituents. Hydrazine is a simple inorganic compound with the formula N2H4, and it consists of a nitrogen atom bonded to four hydrogen atoms through nitrogen-hydrogen covalent bonds. When one or more of these hydrogens are replaced by a methyl group (CH3), we get methylhydrazines.

The most common methylhydrazine is monomethylhydrazine (MMH), which has the molecular formula CH6N2. It is an colorless, oily liquid with an ammonia-like odor and is highly toxic and reactive. MMH is used as a rocket propellant due to its high specific impulse and density.

Another example of methylhydrazine is unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH), which has the molecular formula C2H8N2. UDMH is also a colorless, oily liquid with an ammonia-like odor and is used as a rocket propellant.

It's important to note that methylhydrazines are highly toxic and reactive compounds, and they require careful handling and storage. They can cause harm to the skin, eyes, respiratory system, and nervous system, and prolonged exposure can lead to serious health effects or death.

Monomethylhydrazine (MMH) is not a medical term, but a chemical compound. It is commonly used in the medical field in relation to the chemistry and pharmacology of certain drugs or as a potential hazardous substance. Here's a definition from a chemistry perspective:

Monomethylhydrazine (MMH) is an organic compound with the formula CH3NHNH2. It is a colorless liquid, highly reactive, and toxic. Monomethylhydrazine is used as a rocket propellant due to its high performance, but it also has applications in chemical synthesis.

In medicine, MMH may be encountered in the context of occupational health and safety or in discussions about chemical hazards and their management in healthcare settings. It is essential for medical professionals to understand the properties and potential risks associated with this compound when handling or working around it.

Colonic neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the large intestine, also known as the colon. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). The two most common types of colonic neoplasms are adenomas and carcinomas.

Adenomas are benign tumors that can develop into cancer over time if left untreated. They are often found during routine colonoscopies and can be removed during the procedure.

Carcinomas, on the other hand, are malignant tumors that invade surrounding tissues and can spread to other parts of the body. Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States, and colonic neoplasms are a significant risk factor for developing this type of cancer.

Regular screenings for colonic neoplasms are recommended for individuals over the age of 50 or those with a family history of colorectal cancer or other risk factors. Early detection and removal of colonic neoplasms can significantly reduce the risk of developing colorectal cancer.

Carcinogens are agents (substances or mixtures of substances) that can cause cancer. They may be naturally occurring or man-made. Carcinogens can increase the risk of cancer by altering cellular DNA, disrupting cellular function, or promoting cell growth. Examples of carcinogens include certain chemicals found in tobacco smoke, asbestos, UV radiation from the sun, and some viruses.

It's important to note that not all exposures to carcinogens will result in cancer, and the risk typically depends on factors such as the level and duration of exposure, individual genetic susceptibility, and lifestyle choices. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classifies carcinogens into different groups based on the strength of evidence linking them to cancer:

Group 1: Carcinogenic to humans
Group 2A: Probably carcinogenic to humans
Group 2B: Possibly carcinogenic to humans
Group 3: Not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans
Group 4: Probably not carcinogenic to humans

This information is based on medical research and may be subject to change as new studies become available. Always consult a healthcare professional for medical advice.

Hydrazines are not a medical term, but rather a class of organic compounds containing the functional group N-NH2. They are used in various industrial and chemical applications, including the production of polymers, pharmaceuticals, and agrochemicals. However, some hydrazines have been studied for their potential therapeutic uses, such as in the treatment of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Exposure to high levels of hydrazines can be toxic and may cause damage to the liver, kidneys, and central nervous system. Therefore, medical professionals should be aware of the potential health hazards associated with hydrazine exposure.

The colon, also known as the large intestine, is a part of the digestive system in humans and other vertebrates. It is an organ that eliminates waste from the body and is located between the small intestine and the rectum. The main function of the colon is to absorb water and electrolytes from digested food, forming and storing feces until they are eliminated through the anus.

The colon is divided into several regions, including the cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum, and anus. The walls of the colon contain a layer of muscle that helps to move waste material through the organ by a process called peristalsis.

The inner surface of the colon is lined with mucous membrane, which secretes mucus to lubricate the passage of feces. The colon also contains a large population of bacteria, known as the gut microbiota, which play an important role in digestion and immunity.

Aberrant crypt foci (ACF) are abnormal, enlarged and dysplastic (abnormally developing) crypts in the lining of the colon or rectum. They are considered to be early preneoplastic lesions, meaning they have the potential to develop into colon cancer. ACF can be detected through a microscopic examination of tissue samples taken during a colonoscopy.

The presence and number of ACF have been associated with an increased risk for developing colorectal cancer. They are often found in individuals with inflammatory bowel disease, particularly those with long-standing ulcerative colitis or Crohn's colitis. The identification and removal of ACF during a colonoscopy may help prevent the development of colorectal cancer.

A precancerous condition, also known as a premalignant condition, is a state of abnormal cellular growth and development that has a higher-than-normal potential to progress into cancer. These conditions are characterized by the presence of certain anomalies in the cells, such as dysplasia (abnormal changes in cell shape or size), which can indicate an increased risk for malignant transformation.

It is important to note that not all precancerous conditions will eventually develop into cancer, and some may even regress on their own. However, individuals with precancerous conditions are often at a higher risk of developing cancer compared to the general population. Regular monitoring and appropriate medical interventions, if necessary, can help manage this risk and potentially prevent or detect cancer at an early stage when it is more treatable.

Examples of precancerous conditions include:

1. Dysplasia in the cervix (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or CIN)
2. Atypical ductal hyperplasia or lobular hyperplasia in the breast
3. Actinic keratosis on the skin
4. Leukoplakia in the mouth
5. Barrett's esophagus in the digestive tract

Regular medical check-ups, screenings, and lifestyle modifications are crucial for individuals with precancerous conditions to monitor their health and reduce the risk of cancer development.

Chlorophyllides are the breakdown products of chlorophyll, which is the green pigment found in plants and algae that is essential for photosynthesis. Chlorophyllides are formed when chlorophyll is broken down by enzymes or through other chemical processes. They differ from chlorophyll in that they lack a phytol tail, which is a long hydrocarbon chain that is attached to the chlorophyll molecule.

Chlorophyllides have been studied for their potential health benefits, as they are thought to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Some research has suggested that chlorophyllides may help protect against certain types of cancer, improve immune function, and reduce the risk of heart disease. However, more research is needed to confirm these potential benefits and to determine the optimal dosages and methods for consuming chlorophyllides.

It's worth noting that chlorophyllides are not typically found in significant quantities in the diet, as they are primarily produced during the breakdown of chlorophyll in plants. However, some supplements and green superfood powders may contain chlorophyllides or chlorophyllin, which is a semi-synthetic form of chlorophyll that is more stable and easier to absorb than natural chlorophyll.

Methylazoxymethanol Acetate (MAM) is not a medication or therapeutic agent used in human medicine. It is a research tool, specifically a neurotoxin, that is used in laboratory studies to help understand the development and organization of the nervous system, particularly in relation to neurodegenerative disorders and brain injuries.

MAM is primarily used in animal models, often rats or mice, to study the effects of early life exposure to neurotoxic substances on brain development. It is known to cause widespread degeneration of nerve cells (neurons) and disruption of normal neural connections, which can provide valuable insights into the processes underlying various neurological conditions.

However, it's important to note that MAM is not used as a treatment or therapy in human medicine due to its neurotoxic properties.

Experimental neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that are induced and studied in a controlled laboratory setting, typically in animals or cell cultures. These studies are conducted to understand the fundamental mechanisms of cancer development, progression, and potential treatment strategies. By manipulating various factors such as genetic mutations, environmental exposures, and pharmacological interventions, researchers can gain valuable insights into the complex processes underlying neoplasm formation and identify novel targets for cancer therapy. It is important to note that experimental neoplasms may not always accurately represent human cancers, and further research is needed to translate these findings into clinically relevant applications.

Cocarcinogenesis is a term used in the field of oncology to describe a process where exposure to certain chemicals or physical agents enhances the tumor-forming ability of a cancer-causing agent (carcinogen). A cocarcinogen does not have the ability to initiate cancer on its own, but it can promote the development and progression of cancer when combined with a carcinogen.

In other words, a cocarcinogen is a substance or factor that acts synergistically with a known carcinogen to increase the likelihood or speed up the development of cancer. This process can occur through various mechanisms, such as suppressing the immune system, promoting inflammation, increasing cell proliferation, or inhibiting apoptosis (programmed cell death).

Examples of cocarcinogens include tobacco smoke, alcohol, certain viruses, and radiation. These agents can interact with carcinogens to increase the risk of cancer in individuals who are exposed to them. It is important to note that while cocarcinogens themselves may not directly cause cancer, they can significantly contribute to its development and progression when combined with other harmful substances or factors.

F344 is a strain code used to designate an outbred stock of rats that has been inbreeded for over 100 generations. The F344 rats, also known as Fischer 344 rats, were originally developed at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and are now widely used in biomedical research due to their consistent and reliable genetic background.

Inbred strains, like the F344, are created by mating genetically identical individuals (siblings or parents and offspring) for many generations until a state of complete homozygosity is reached, meaning that all members of the strain have identical genomes. This genetic uniformity makes inbred strains ideal for use in studies where consistent and reproducible results are important.

F344 rats are known for their longevity, with a median lifespan of around 27-31 months, making them useful for aging research. They also have a relatively low incidence of spontaneous tumors compared to other rat strains. However, they may be more susceptible to certain types of cancer and other diseases due to their inbred status.

It's important to note that while F344 rats are often used as a standard laboratory rat strain, there can still be some genetic variation between individual animals within the same strain, particularly if they come from different suppliers or breeding colonies. Therefore, it's always important to consider the source and history of any animal model when designing experiments and interpreting results.

Intestinal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the tissues of the intestines, which can be benign or malignant. These growths are called neoplasms and they result from uncontrolled cell division. In the case of intestinal neoplasms, these growths occur in the small intestine, large intestine (colon), rectum, or appendix.

Benign intestinal neoplasms are not cancerous and often do not invade surrounding tissues or spread to other parts of the body. However, they can still cause problems if they grow large enough to obstruct the intestines or cause bleeding. Common types of benign intestinal neoplasms include polyps, leiomyomas, and lipomas.

Malignant intestinal neoplasms, on the other hand, are cancerous and can invade surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body. The most common type of malignant intestinal neoplasm is adenocarcinoma, which arises from the glandular cells lining the inside of the intestines. Other types of malignant intestinal neoplasms include lymphomas, sarcomas, and carcinoid tumors.

Symptoms of intestinal neoplasms can vary depending on their size, location, and type. Common symptoms include abdominal pain, bloating, changes in bowel habits, rectal bleeding, weight loss, and fatigue. If you experience any of these symptoms, it is important to seek medical attention promptly.

The intestinal mucosa is the innermost layer of the intestines, which comes into direct contact with digested food and microbes. It is a specialized epithelial tissue that plays crucial roles in nutrient absorption, barrier function, and immune defense. The intestinal mucosa is composed of several cell types, including absorptive enterocytes, mucus-secreting goblet cells, hormone-producing enteroendocrine cells, and immune cells such as lymphocytes and macrophages.

The surface of the intestinal mucosa is covered by a single layer of epithelial cells, which are joined together by tight junctions to form a protective barrier against harmful substances and microorganisms. This barrier also allows for the selective absorption of nutrients into the bloodstream. The intestinal mucosa also contains numerous lymphoid follicles, known as Peyer's patches, which are involved in immune surveillance and defense against pathogens.

In addition to its role in absorption and immunity, the intestinal mucosa is also capable of producing hormones that regulate digestion and metabolism. Dysfunction of the intestinal mucosa can lead to various gastrointestinal disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and food allergies.

Anticarcinogenic agents are substances that prevent, inhibit or reduce the development of cancer. They can be natural or synthetic compounds that interfere with the process of carcinogenesis at various stages, such as initiation, promotion, and progression. Anticarcinogenic agents may work by preventing DNA damage, promoting DNA repair, reducing inflammation, inhibiting cell proliferation, inducing apoptosis (programmed cell death), or modulating immune responses.

Examples of anticarcinogenic agents include chemopreventive agents, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and retinoids; phytochemicals found in fruits, vegetables, and other plant-based foods; and medications used to treat cancer, such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and targeted therapies.

It is important to note that while some anticarcinogenic agents have been shown to be effective in preventing or reducing the risk of certain types of cancer, they may also have potential side effects and risks. Therefore, it is essential to consult with a healthcare professional before using any anticarcinogenic agent for cancer prevention or treatment purposes.

"Amorphophallus" is a genus of flowering plants in the family Araceae, also known as the aroid family. These plants are native to tropical regions of Africa, Asia, and the Pacific Islands. They are characterized by their large, distinctive inflorescences, which are often accompanied by a strong, unpleasant odor that attracts pollinators such as flies and beetles.

The name "Amorphophallus" comes from the Greek words "amorphos," meaning formless, and "phallos," meaning penis, and refers to the shape of the inflorescence in some species. The most well-known species is Amorphophallus titanum, also known as the corpse flower, which produces one of the largest and smelliest inflorescences in the plant kingdom.

In addition to their unusual inflorescences, many species of Amorphophallus are also grown for their large, starchy tubers, which are used as a food source in some cultures.

Adenosarcoma is a rare type of tumor that typically develops in the female reproductive system, particularly in the uterus. It is a mixed tumor, meaning it contains both glandular (epithelial) and connective tissue components.

The glandular component forms glands, which secrete substances, while the connective tissue component is made up of spindle-shaped cells called sarcoma cells. Adenosarcomas usually grow slowly and tend to remain localized, but they can sometimes spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body.

These tumors most commonly occur in the uterus, where they are known as adenosarcomas of the uterus or uterine adenosarcomas. They can also develop in other areas of the body, such as the ovaries, fallopian tubes, and the peritoneum (the lining of the abdominal cavity).

Adenosarcomas are typically treated with surgery to remove the tumor and surrounding tissue. The prognosis for adenosarcoma depends on several factors, including the stage of the disease at diagnosis, the patient's age and overall health, and the presence or absence of certain genetic mutations.

Adenocarcinoma is a type of cancer that arises from glandular epithelial cells. These cells line the inside of many internal organs, including the breasts, prostate, colon, and lungs. Adenocarcinomas can occur in any of these organs, as well as in other locations where glands are present.

The term "adenocarcinoma" is used to describe a cancer that has features of glandular tissue, such as mucus-secreting cells or cells that produce hormones. These cancers often form glandular structures within the tumor mass and may produce mucus or other substances.

Adenocarcinomas are typically slow-growing and tend to spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body through the lymphatic system or bloodstream. They can be treated with surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of these treatments. The prognosis for adenocarcinoma depends on several factors, including the location and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and age.

Azo compounds are organic compounds characterized by the presence of one or more azo groups (-N=N-) in their molecular structure. The term "azo" is derived from the Greek word "azō," meaning "to boil" or "to sparkle," which refers to the brightly colored nature of many azo compounds.

These compounds are synthesized by the reaction between aromatic amines and nitrous acid or its derivatives, resulting in the formation of diazonium salts, which then react with another aromatic compound containing an active methylene group to form azo compounds.

Azo compounds have diverse applications across various industries, including dyes, pigments, pharmaceuticals, and agrochemicals. They are known for their vibrant colors, making them widely used as colorants in textiles, leather, paper, and food products. In addition, some azo compounds exhibit unique chemical properties, such as solubility, stability, and reactivity, which make them valuable intermediates in the synthesis of various organic compounds.

However, certain azo compounds have been found to pose health risks due to their potential carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. As a result, regulations have been imposed on their use in consumer products, particularly those intended for oral consumption or direct skin contact.

Cecal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the cecum, which is the first part of the large intestine or colon. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Common types of cecal neoplasms include adenomas (benign tumors that can become cancerous over time), carcinoids (slow-growing tumors that usually don't spread), and adenocarcinomas (cancers that start in the glands that line the inside of the cecum).

Symptoms of cecal neoplasms may include changes in bowel habits, such as diarrhea or constipation; abdominal pain or cramping; blood in the stool; and unexplained weight loss. Treatment options depend on the type and stage of the neoplasm but may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these approaches. Regular screening is recommended for people at high risk for developing colorectal cancer, including those with a family history of the disease or certain genetic mutations.

The large intestine, also known as the colon, is the lower part of the gastrointestinal tract that extends from the cecum, where it joins the small intestine, to the anus. It is called "large" because it has a larger diameter compared to the small intestine and is responsible for several important functions in the digestive process.

The large intestine measures about 1.5 meters (5 feet) long in adults and consists of four main regions: the ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, and sigmoid colon. The primary function of the large intestine is to absorb water and electrolytes from undigested food materials, compact the remaining waste into feces, and store it until it is eliminated through defecation.

The large intestine also contains a diverse population of bacteria that aid in digestion by breaking down complex carbohydrates, producing vitamins like vitamin K and some B vitamins, and competing with harmful microorganisms to maintain a healthy balance within the gut. Additionally, the large intestine plays a role in immune function and helps protect the body from pathogens through the production of mucus, antimicrobial substances, and the activation of immune cells.

Dietary fiber, also known as roughage, is the indigestible portion of plant foods that makes up the structural framework of the plants we eat. It is composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, gums, lignins, and waxes. Dietary fiber can be classified into two categories: soluble and insoluble.

Soluble fiber dissolves in water to form a gel-like material in the gut, which can help slow down digestion, increase feelings of fullness, and lower cholesterol levels. Soluble fiber is found in foods such as oats, barley, fruits, vegetables, legumes, and nuts.

Insoluble fiber does not dissolve in water and passes through the gut intact, helping to add bulk to stools and promote regular bowel movements. Insoluble fiber is found in foods such as whole grains, bran, seeds, and the skins of fruits and vegetables.

Dietary fiber has numerous health benefits, including promoting healthy digestion, preventing constipation, reducing the risk of heart disease, controlling blood sugar levels, and aiding in weight management. The recommended daily intake of dietary fiber is 25-38 grams per day for adults, depending on age and gender.

"Inbred strains of rats" are genetically identical rodents that have been produced through many generations of brother-sister mating. This results in a high degree of homozygosity, where the genes at any particular locus in the genome are identical in all members of the strain.

Inbred strains of rats are widely used in biomedical research because they provide a consistent and reproducible genetic background for studying various biological phenomena, including the effects of drugs, environmental factors, and genetic mutations on health and disease. Additionally, inbred strains can be used to create genetically modified models of human diseases by introducing specific mutations into their genomes.

Some commonly used inbred strains of rats include the Wistar Kyoto (WKY), Sprague-Dawley (SD), and Fischer 344 (F344) rat strains. Each strain has its own unique genetic characteristics, making them suitable for different types of research.

An adenoma is a benign (noncancerous) tumor that develops from glandular epithelial cells. These types of cells are responsible for producing and releasing fluids, such as hormones or digestive enzymes, into the surrounding tissues. Adenomas can occur in various organs and glands throughout the body, including the thyroid, pituitary, adrenal, and digestive systems.

Depending on their location, adenomas may cause different symptoms or remain asymptomatic. Some common examples of adenomas include:

1. Colorectal adenoma (also known as a polyp): These growths occur in the lining of the colon or rectum and can develop into colorectal cancer if left untreated. Regular screenings, such as colonoscopies, are essential for early detection and removal of these polyps.
2. Thyroid adenoma: This type of adenoma affects the thyroid gland and may result in an overproduction or underproduction of hormones, leading to conditions like hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) or hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid).
3. Pituitary adenoma: These growths occur in the pituitary gland, which is located at the base of the brain and controls various hormonal functions. Depending on their size and location, pituitary adenomas can cause vision problems, headaches, or hormonal imbalances that affect growth, reproduction, and metabolism.
4. Liver adenoma: These rare benign tumors develop in the liver and may not cause any symptoms unless they become large enough to press on surrounding organs or structures. In some cases, liver adenomas can rupture and cause internal bleeding.
5. Adrenal adenoma: These growths occur in the adrenal glands, which are located above the kidneys and produce hormones that regulate stress responses, metabolism, and blood pressure. Most adrenal adenomas are nonfunctioning, meaning they do not secrete excess hormones. However, functioning adrenal adenomas can lead to conditions like Cushing's syndrome or Conn's syndrome, depending on the type of hormone being overproduced.

It is essential to monitor and manage benign tumors like adenomas to prevent potential complications, such as rupture, bleeding, or hormonal imbalances. Treatment options may include surveillance with imaging studies, medication to manage hormonal issues, or surgical removal of the tumor in certain cases.

Colonic diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the colon, also known as the large intestine or large bowel. The colon is the final segment of the digestive system, responsible for absorbing water and electrolytes, and storing and eliminating waste products.

Some common colonic diseases include:

1. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD): This includes conditions such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, which cause inflammation and irritation in the lining of the digestive tract.
2. Diverticular disease: This occurs when small pouches called diverticula form in the walls of the colon, leading to symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel movements.
3. Colorectal cancer: This is a type of cancer that develops in the colon or rectum, often starting as benign polyps that grow and become malignant over time.
4. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS): This is a functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel movements, but without any underlying structural or inflammatory causes.
5. Constipation: This is a common condition characterized by infrequent bowel movements, difficulty passing stools, or both.
6. Infectious colitis: This occurs when the colon becomes infected with bacteria, viruses, or parasites, leading to symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever.

Treatment for colonic diseases varies depending on the specific condition and its severity. Treatment options may include medications, lifestyle changes, surgery, or a combination of these approaches.

Alkylation, in the context of medical chemistry and toxicology, refers to the process of introducing an alkyl group (a chemical moiety made up of a carbon atom bonded to one or more hydrogen atoms) into a molecule, typically a biomolecule such as a protein or DNA. This process can occur through various mechanisms, including chemical reactions with alkylating agents.

In the context of cancer therapy, alkylation is used to describe a class of chemotherapeutic drugs known as alkylating agents, which work by introducing alkyl groups onto DNA molecules in rapidly dividing cells. This can lead to cross-linking of DNA strands and other forms of DNA damage, ultimately inhibiting cell division and leading to the death of cancer cells. However, these agents can also affect normal cells, leading to side effects such as nausea, hair loss, and increased risk of infection.

It's worth noting that alkylation can also occur through non-chemical means, such as in certain types of radiation therapy where high-energy particles can transfer energy to electrons in biological molecules, leading to the formation of reactive radicals that can react with and alkylate DNA.

Pectins are complex polysaccharides that are commonly found in the cell walls of plants. In the context of food and nutrition, pectins are often referred to as dietary fiber. They have a variety of important functions within the body, including promoting digestive health by adding bulk to stools and helping to regulate bowel movements.

Pectins are also used in the medical field as a demulcent, which is a substance that forms a soothing film over mucous membranes. This can be helpful in treating conditions such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

In addition to their use in medicine, pectins are widely used in the food industry as a gelling agent, thickener, and stabilizer. They are commonly found in jams, jellies, and other preserved fruits, as well as in baked goods and confectionery products.

Guanine is not a medical term per se, but it is a biological molecule that plays a crucial role in the body. Guanine is one of the four nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA, along with adenine, cytosine, and thymine (in DNA) or uracil (in RNA). Specifically, guanine pairs with cytosine via hydrogen bonds to form a base pair.

Guanine is a purine derivative, which means it has a double-ring structure. It is formed through the synthesis of simpler molecules in the body and is an essential component of genetic material. Guanine's chemical formula is C5H5N5O.

While guanine itself is not a medical term, abnormalities or mutations in genes that contain guanine nucleotides can lead to various medical conditions, including genetic disorders and cancer.

Cellulose is a complex carbohydrate that is the main structural component of the cell walls of green plants, many algae, and some fungi. It is a polysaccharide consisting of long chains of beta-glucose molecules linked together by beta-1,4 glycosidic bonds. Cellulose is insoluble in water and most organic solvents, and it is resistant to digestion by humans and non-ruminant animals due to the lack of cellulase enzymes in their digestive systems. However, ruminants such as cows and sheep can digest cellulose with the help of microbes in their rumen that produce cellulase.

Cellulose has many industrial applications, including the production of paper, textiles, and building materials. It is also used as a source of dietary fiber in human food and animal feed. Cellulose-based materials are being explored for use in biomedical applications such as tissue engineering and drug delivery due to their biocompatibility and mechanical properties.

"Wistar rats" are a strain of albino rats that are widely used in laboratory research. They were developed at the Wistar Institute in Philadelphia, USA, and were first introduced in 1906. Wistar rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not have a fixed set of genetic characteristics like inbred strains.

Wistar rats are commonly used as animal models in biomedical research because of their size, ease of handling, and relatively low cost. They are used in a wide range of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and behavioral studies. Wistar rats are also used in safety testing of drugs, medical devices, and other products.

Wistar rats are typically larger than many other rat strains, with males weighing between 500-700 grams and females weighing between 250-350 grams. They have a lifespan of approximately 2-3 years. Wistar rats are also known for their docile and friendly nature, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory setting.

The rectum is the lower end of the digestive tract, located between the sigmoid colon and the anus. It serves as a storage area for feces before they are eliminated from the body. The rectum is about 12 cm long in adults and is surrounded by layers of muscle that help control defecation. The mucous membrane lining the rectum allows for the detection of stool, which triggers the reflex to have a bowel movement.

Subcutaneous injection is a route of administration where a medication or vaccine is delivered into the subcutaneous tissue, which lies between the skin and the muscle. This layer contains small blood vessels, nerves, and connective tissues that help to absorb the medication slowly and steadily over a period of time. Subcutaneous injections are typically administered using a short needle, at an angle of 45-90 degrees, and the dose is injected slowly to minimize discomfort and ensure proper absorption. Common sites for subcutaneous injections include the abdomen, thigh, or upper arm. Examples of medications that may be given via subcutaneous injection include insulin, heparin, and some vaccines.

Azoxymethane is a chemical compound that is used primarily in laboratory research. It is an organodihydroazoxy compound, and it is known to cause colon cancer in experimental animals, particularly rats and mice. As such, it is often used as a tool in studies of carcinogenesis and chemically induced colon tumors.

In scientific studies, azoxymethane is typically administered to laboratory animals in order to induce colon tumors. This allows researchers to study the mechanisms of cancer development and test potential therapies or preventive measures. It is important to note that while azoxymethane has been shown to cause cancer in laboratory animals, it does not necessarily mean that it poses the same risk to humans.

The use of azoxymethane in research is subject to strict regulations and guidelines, as with any potentially hazardous chemical. Researchers are required to follow safety protocols and take appropriate precautions when handling this compound to minimize risks to themselves and the environment.

The cecum is the first part of the large intestine, located at the junction of the small and large intestines. It is a pouch-like structure that connects to the ileum (the last part of the small intestine) and the ascending colon (the first part of the large intestine). The cecum is where the appendix is attached. Its function is to absorb water and electrolytes, and it also serves as a site for the fermentation of certain types of dietary fiber by gut bacteria. However, the exact functions of the cecum are not fully understood.

The small intestine is the portion of the gastrointestinal tract that extends from the pylorus of the stomach to the beginning of the large intestine (cecum). It plays a crucial role in the digestion and absorption of nutrients from food. The small intestine is divided into three parts: the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum.

1. Duodenum: This is the shortest and widest part of the small intestine, approximately 10 inches long. It receives chyme (partially digested food) from the stomach and begins the process of further digestion with the help of various enzymes and bile from the liver and pancreas.
2. Jejunum: The jejunum is the middle section, which measures about 8 feet in length. It has a large surface area due to the presence of circular folds (plicae circulares), finger-like projections called villi, and microvilli on the surface of the absorptive cells (enterocytes). These structures increase the intestinal surface area for efficient absorption of nutrients, electrolytes, and water.
3. Ileum: The ileum is the longest and final section of the small intestine, spanning about 12 feet. It continues the absorption process, mainly of vitamin B12, bile salts, and any remaining nutrients. At the end of the ileum, there is a valve called the ileocecal valve that prevents backflow of contents from the large intestine into the small intestine.

The primary function of the small intestine is to absorb the majority of nutrients, electrolytes, and water from ingested food. The mucosal lining of the small intestine contains numerous goblet cells that secrete mucus, which protects the epithelial surface and facilitates the movement of chyme through peristalsis. Additionally, the small intestine hosts a diverse community of microbiota, which contributes to various physiological functions, including digestion, immunity, and protection against pathogens.

Cell division is the process by which a single eukaryotic cell (a cell with a true nucleus) divides into two identical daughter cells. This complex process involves several stages, including replication of DNA, separation of chromosomes, and division of the cytoplasm. There are two main types of cell division: mitosis and meiosis.

Mitosis is the type of cell division that results in two genetically identical daughter cells. It is a fundamental process for growth, development, and tissue repair in multicellular organisms. The stages of mitosis include prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase, followed by cytokinesis, which divides the cytoplasm.

Meiosis, on the other hand, is a type of cell division that occurs in the gonads (ovaries and testes) during the production of gametes (sex cells). Meiosis results in four genetically unique daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell. This process is essential for sexual reproduction and genetic diversity. The stages of meiosis include meiosis I and meiosis II, which are further divided into prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.

In summary, cell division is the process by which a single cell divides into two daughter cells, either through mitosis or meiosis. This process is critical for growth, development, tissue repair, and sexual reproduction in multicellular organisms.

... , or 1,2-dimethylhydrazine, is the organic compound with the formula (CH3NH)2. It is one of the ... Symmetrical dimethylhydrazine is a potent carcinogen that acts as a DNA methylating agent. The compound has no commercial value ... Unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine 74-79-3 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine from PubChem Record of 1,2-Dimethylhydrazin ... "Antioxidant and Anticancer Potentials of the Olive and Sesame Mixture against Dimethylhydrazine-Induced Colorectal Cancer in ...
Symmetrical dimethylhydrazine, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine is also known but is not as useful. UDMH can be oxidized in air to form ... Unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH; 1,1-dimethylhydrazine, НДМГ; Несимметричный диметилгидразин (NDMG / NDMH or codenamed ... Aleksey Milyushkin, Anastasia Karnaeva (2023). "Unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine transformation products: A review". Science of ... "PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATION PROPELLANT, uns-DIMETHYLHYDRAZINE (MIL-PRF-25604F)". ASSIST Database Quicksearch. 2014-03-11. ...
... symmetrical dimethylhydrazine) are hydrazines where two hydrogen atoms are replaced by methyl groups. UDMH is the easier of the ... 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (2,4-DNPH) is commonly used to test for ketones and aldehydes in organic and clinical chemistry. ... 1,1-Dimethylhydrazine is produced by the reduction of N-nitrosodimethylamine. The reduction of benzenediazonium chloride with ... 2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazine is produced by the reaction of 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene with hydrazine. Tetraphenylhydrazine is ...
Look up dimethylhydrazine in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Dimethylhydrazine is the name of two compounds with the molecular ... These are: unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (1,1-dimethylhydrazine), with both methyl groups bonded to the same nitrogen atom ... symmetrical dimethylhydrazine (1,2-dimethylhydrazine), with one methyl group bonded to each of the two nitrogen atoms ...
3.0.CO;2-E. PMID 9028353. S2CID 32446993. Di Marzio L, Di Leo A, Cinque B, Fanini D, Agnifili A, Berloco P, Linsalata M, ... 43 (2): 316-24. doi:10.1016/S0022-2275(20)30174-7. PMID 11861674. Duan RD, Cheng Y, Hansen G, Hertervig E, Liu JJ, Syk I, ... 235 (1): 141-6. doi:10.1016/j.canlet.2005.04.016. PMID 16290921. Soo I, Madsen KL, Tejpar Q, Sydora BC, Sherbaniuk R, Cinque B ... J. 394 (Pt 1): 299-308. doi:10.1042/BJ20051121. PMC 1386028. PMID 16255717. Andersson D, Kotarsky K, Wu J, Agace W, Duan RD ( ...
In a study where rats were treated with Brevetoxin B (PbTx2), there was a noticeable 2-3 fold growth in the amount of DNA seen ... 681 (2-3): 271-298. doi:10.1016/j.mrrev.2008.11.004. PMID 19103303. Wyrobek AJ, Schmid TE, Marchetti F (2005-03-01). "Relative ... 582 (1-2): 116-134. doi:10.1016/j.mrgentox.2005.01.005. PMID 15781217. Vanhauwaert A, Vanparys P, Kirsch-Volders M (January ... Additionally, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine is a known colon carcinogen and shows signs of possessing clastogenic activity. There are ...
The most common hypergolic fuels, hydrazine, monomethylhydrazine and unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine, and oxidizer, nitrogen ... Unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) + nitrogen tetroxide (NTO) - frequently used by Roscosmos, such as in the Proton (rocket ... Ariane 1 through 4, with their hypergolic first and second stages (and optional hypergolic boosters on the Ariane 3 and 4) have ... The earliest ballistic missiles, such as the Soviet R-7 that launched Sputnik 1 and the U.S. Atlas and Titan-1, used kerosene ...
"Anti-Oxidative Effect of Myrtenal in Prevention and Treatment of Colon Cancer Induced by 1, 2-Dimethyl Hydrazine (DMH) in ...
9 (2): 179-88. doi:10.1038/sj/cdd/4400935. PMID 11840168. Lan A, Bruneau A, Bensaada M, Philippe C, Bellaud P, Rabot S, Jan G ( ... 91 (1): 1-26. doi:10.1051/dst/2010032. S2CID 6044008. Jan G, Belzacq AS, Haouzi D, Rouault A, Métivier D, Kroemer G, Brenner C ... Cousin FJ, Mater DD, Foligne B, Jan G (2 August 2010). "Dairy propionibacteria as human probiotics: A review of recent evidence ... 1-29. doi:10.1002/9781118960608.gbm00167. ISBN 9781118960608. Frohnmeyer, Esther; Deptula, Paulina; Nyman, Tuula A.; Laine, Pia ...
... the propellant was a mixture of nitrogen tetroxide and unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH). It was powered by a four-nozzle ... For the Cora 1 only the French Coralie first stage was active. For the Cora 2 version the second German Astris stage was active ... Cora 1 stages diagram Coralie 1st stage diagram Six Cora launches were planned, the first four using the Cora 1 configuration ... The Coralie first stage was 5.5 metres long and had a diameter of 2 metres; when fully fuelled, it weighed 9.85 tonnes; ...
2-Dimethylhydrazine. In 1986 James became a Diplomate of the American Board of Toxicology (DABT). James is the chief scientist ... thesis was entitled The DNA Adducts and Neoplastic Changes Produced in the Large Intestine of ICR/Ha and CSTBI/Ha Mice by 1, ...
132 (2): 656-666. doi:10.1021/ja907716f. PMID 20028024. Yang PY, Wang M, Liu K, Ngai MH, Sheriff O, Lear MJ, et al. (July 2012 ... 240 (2): 221-224. doi:10.1016/j.canlet.2005.09.011. PMID 16377080. Takayama T, Katsuki S, Takahashi Y, Ohi M, Nojiri S, ... ISBN 978-1-56363-527-4. "Chemists to provide obesity pill". BBC News Online. 21 January 2009. Archived from the original on 23 ... 1 June 2009. Archived from the original on 9 June 2009. Retrieved 20 June 2009. Devarajan U (1 March 2009). "Fatty issues". The ...
... made from unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine rocket fuel and methyl iodide. Thus, surplus materials that would have to be ... 384 (1-2): 205-217. doi:10.1016/S0040-6031(01)00806-1. (Articles without EBI source, Articles without KEGG source, Articles ... Dunnite can be used as a precursor to the highly stable explosive TATB (1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene), by first ... November 2, 1911 Dunnite, Firstworldwar.com Ridicule Spy Story: Army Abandoned the Use of Dunnite Years Ago, Officers Say, The ...
... dimethylhydrazines MeSH D02.442.600.400.200 - 1,2-dimethylhydrazine MeSH D02.442.600.601 - monomethylhydrazine MeSH D02.442. ... vitamin k 1 MeSH D02.455.849.291.523.500.844 - vitamin k 2 MeSH D02.455.849.291.523.500.922 - vitamin k 3 MeSH D02.455.849.291. ... 3-oxo-1,5-pentanediyl)bis(n,n-dimethyl-n-2-propenyl-), dibromide MeSH D02.092.146.325 - p-dimethylaminoazobenzene MeSH D02.092. ... 5-nitro-2-furyl)vinyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazole MeSH D02.640.600.290 - fanft MeSH D02.640.600.308 - furagin MeSH D02.640.600.313 - ...
The molecular formula C2H8N2 (molar mass: 60.10 g/mol, exact mass: 60.0688 u) may refer to: Dimethylhydrazine Ethylenediamine, ... or ethane-1,2-diamine This set index page lists chemical structure articles associated with the same molecular formula. If an ...
Members of this class include: Monomethylhydrazine Dimethylhydrazines Symmetrical dimethylhydrazine (1,2-dimethylhydrazine) ... Trimethylhydrazine 1,1,2-trimethylhydrazine 1,1,1-trimethylhydrazinium (cationic and exists as a variety of salts e.g. 1,1,1- ... 1,1,2-tetramethylhydrazinium (cationic and exists as a variety of salts) Pentamethylhydrazinium (cationic and exists as a ...
The Qiam 1's accuracy is also improved with the addition of a separable warhead. Other changes to the warhead include a "baby- ... Far simpler than the V-2's multi-chamber design, and employing an anti-oscillation baffle to prevent chugging, it was a ... with unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH, Russian TG-02 like German Tonka 250) as liquid igniter (self-ignition with IRFNA) ... The earlier R-1 missile had carried the NATO name SS-1 Scunner, but was of a very different design, almost directly a copy of ...
Volumes 1-124". IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Risk to Humans. IARC. July 7, 2019. Retrieved July 14, 2019. "IARC ... 3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea) 4-Chloro-o-toluidine Chlorozotocin Cisplatin Cyclopenta[c,d]pyrene Diazinon Dibenz[a,j]acridine ... Volumes 1 to 124 (Last update: 8 July 2019) (Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, ... July 1, 2016). "Carcinogenicity of drinking coffee, mate, and very hot beverages". The Lancet Oncology. Elsevier. 17 (7): 877-8 ...
Unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) or monomethylhydrazine (MMH) / dinitrogen tetroxide (NTO or N 2O 4) Used in three first ... hydrazine or unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) as fuel were then adopted in the United States and the Soviet Union for use ... The V-2 rockets developed by Nazi Germany used LOX and ethyl alcohol. One of the main advantages of alcohol was its water ... 21,2, Feb. 1979): In a cabled exclusive to The New York Times on 30 September 1929, Fritz von Opel is quoted as saying: "Sander ...
It uses the storable hypergolic propellants unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) and dinitrogen tetroxide (N2O4), and can ... "YZ-1 space tug". B14643.DE. Archived from the original on August 25, 2015. Retrieved 2015-07-25. "长征七号首飞成功 空间实验室任务大幕拉开" [ ... Yuanzheng-2 (AKA YZ-2) (Chinese: 远征二号; pinyin: Yuǎn Zhēng Èr Hào; lit. 'Expedition Two'): New version used with the 5.2 m (17 ... Operational variants are designated YZ-1 for Long March 3B and 3C, YZ-1A for Long March 7, YZ-1S for Long March 2C,
The missile used a hypergolic bipropellant combination of unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) fuel in combination with red ... ISBN 5-7111-0333-1 "Катастрофа на Байконуре: почему погибли 124 человека во главе с маршалом" (The disaster at Baikonur), ... Initial operational capability was achieved on 1 November 1961. The missile continued to serve until 1976, with maximum ... the first flight of the missile took place on 2 February 1961. ...
Dimefox Dimethoate Dimethyl phosphorochloridothioate Dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine Dimethyldichlorosilane Dimethylhydrazine ... 2-(bis(1-methylethyl)amino)ethyl) O-ethyl ester Phosphonothioic acid, methyl-, O-(4-nitrophenyl) O-phenyl ester Phosphoric acid ... July 1, 2008 ed.), Government Printing Office, archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-02-25, retrieved March 8, 2009 ( ... 2-chloroethyl)amine Valinomycin Vinyl acetate monomer Warfarin Warfarin sodium Xylylene dichloride Zinc phosphide List of ...
Proton K is fuelled by very toxic unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide. These are hypergolic fuels which ... During the Cold War, it was designated the D-1/D-1e or SL-12/SL-13 by Western intelligence agencies. Launch capacity to low ... On 2 July 2013, a Proton-M launching three GLONASS navigation satellites experienced a failure reminiscent of the 1960s ... 2 July 2013. "Commercial Launch Heritage , Proton Rocket , International Launch Services". ilslaunch.com. Retrieved 13 ...
... is formed from the rocket fuel unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) and methyl iodide, and acts as a vicarious nucleophilic ... TATB, triaminotrinitrobenzene or 2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5-trinitrobenzene is an aromatic explosive, based on the basic six-carbon ... 384 (1-2): 205-217. doi:10.1016/S0040-6031(01)00806-1. Cooper, Paul W., Explosives Engineering, New York: Wiley-VCH, 1996. ISBN ... TATB is produced by nitration of 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene to 1,3,5-trichloro-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene, then the chlorine atoms are ...
Attitude was controlled by a Sun-star sensor with attitude correction performed by a dimethylhydrazine/nitric acid bipropellant ... Mars 1M No.1, known in the West as Marsnik 1, Mars 1960A and Korabl 4, was destroyed in a launch failure on October 10, 1960. ... Mars 1M No.2, known in the West as Marsnik 2, Korabl 5 and Mars 1960B, was launched on October 14, 1960. Both Mars 1M ... Mars 1M No.2 reached an altitude of 120 km before reentry. Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev had planned to bring models of the ...
Long March 1's 1st and 2nd stage used nitric acid and Unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) propellants, and its upper stage ... The Long March 1 was quickly replaced by the Long March 2 family of launchers. Long March 1 Long March 1 engine After the U.S. ... Retrieved 1 March 2021. "China Aims for Humanity's Return to the Moon in the 2030s". popsci.com. 5 May 2016. Archived from the ... Jones, Andrew (1 October 2020). "China is building a new rocket to fly its astronauts on the Moon". SPACE.com. Jones, Andrew ( ...
... and unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine, (CH3)2NNH2, also known as UDMH (melting point −57 °C). These derivatives are used in two- ... The N-N single bond length is 1.447(2) Å (144.7(2) pm), the N-H distance is 1.015(2) Å, the N-N-H angles are 106(2)° and 112(2 ... For hydrazine the 1-hour SPEGL is 2 ppm, with a 24-hour SPEGL of 0.08 ppm. A complete surveillance programme for hydrazine ... 2 (6): 972-974. Bibcode:1965JSpRo...2..972H. doi:10.2514/3.28327. Vieira R, Pham-Huu C, Kellera N, et al. (2002). "New carbon ...
Furfuryl alcohol - also hypergolic with nitric acid but lower performance Unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine - a higher ... ISBN 0-8135-0725-1. Nodong missile analysis by FAS. data on R-13/SS-N-4 and R-21/SS-N-5 Isayev engine S5.38 Soviet/Russian ... p. 2. IAC-04-IAA-6.15.3.02. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-10-24. (Articles with short description, Short description ...
... and unsymmetric dimethyl hydrazine (UDMH, (CH3)2N2H2) - Soviet Scud-C, aka SS-1-c,-d,-e Nitric acid 73% with dinitrogen ... MIM-3 Nike Ajax Antiaircraft Rocket Unsymmetric dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) and dinitrogen tetroxide (N2O4) - Proton, Rokot, Long ... Examples: Saturn V's F-1 and J-2, Delta IV's RS-68, Ariane 5's HM7B, Falcon 9's Merlin. Tap-off cycle Takes hot gases from the ... Von Braun served as head of the army research station that designed the V-2 rocket weapon for the Nazis. By the late 1930s, use ...
With the use of the newly developed Hydyne, composed of a blend of 60% unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) and 40% ... Hydyne is a mixture of 60% unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) and 40% diethylenetriamine (DETA), developed in 1957 at ... ISBN 1-56347-649-5. NASA. The Mercury-Redstone Project, p. 3-2, 4-42. History of the Redstone Missile System, p. 60 History of ... Hydyne was used as the fuel for the first stage of the Juno I rocket that launched Explorer 1, the first successful satellite ...
symmetrical dimethylhydrazine, or 1,2-dimethylhydrazine, is the organic compound with the formula (CH3NH)2. It is one of the ... Symmetrical dimethylhydrazine is a potent carcinogen that acts as a DNA methylating agent. The compound has no commercial value ... Unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine 74-79-3 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine from PubChem Record of 1,2-Dimethylhydrazin ... "Antioxidant and Anticancer Potentials of the Olive and Sesame Mixture against Dimethylhydrazine-Induced Colorectal Cancer in ...
For more information, you may call the ATSDR Information Center at 1-800-232-4636. This fact sheet is one in a series of ... Working in greenhouses where the chemical Alar is used may result in your being exposed to small amounts of 1,2- ... dimethylhydrazine.. Top of Page. How can hydrazines affect my health?. Breathing hydrazines for short periods may cause ... The EPA requires that spills or accidental releases into the environment of 1 pound or more of hydrazine or 1,2- ...
O,O-Dimethyl 2-ethylmercaptoethyl thiophosphate. 8022-00-2. TG1760000. O,O-Dimethyl O-(2,4,5-trichlorophenyl) phosphorothioate ... 2,3-p-Dioxanethiol-S,S-bis(O,O-diethyl phosphoro-dithioate). 78-34-2. TE3350000. ... Decachlorooctahydro-1,3,4-metheno-2H-cyclobuta(cd)-pentalen-2-one. 143-50-0. PC8575000. ... O,O-Dimethyl-S-4-oxo-1,2,3-benzotriazin-3(4H)-ylmethyl phosphorodithioate. 86-50-0. TE1925000. ...
... kaempferol and their derivatives enriched in ECE that might play vital roles in managing type 1 as well as type 2 diabetes. ... Figure 1. Effects of ECE on body weights (a) and fasting blood glucose levels (b) in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. ... Figure 1. Effects of ECE on body weights (a) and fasting blood glucose levels (b) in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. ... 2.2.2. Effects of ECE on Serum AST Levels. AST is one of the biochemical indicators of liver function [36]. Figure 2 exhibited ...
ASSOCIATED WITH amyotrophic lateral sclerosis type 1 (ortholog); autosomal dominant intellectual developmental disorder 7 ( ... 1 more .... CTD. PMID:20938992 and PMID:22206623. folic acid decreases expression. ISO. Cryzl1 (Mus musculus). 6480464. Folic ... 2.. GOA pipeline. RGD automated data pipeline. 3.. Data Import for Chemical-Gene Interactions. RGD automated import pipeline ... Orthologs 1. Homo sapiens (human):. CRYZL1 (crystallin zeta like 1). HGNC. EggNOG, Ensembl, HomoloGene, Inparanoid, NCBI, OMA, ...
2 more .... CTD. PMID:25510870. 2,2,5,5-tetrachlorobiphenyl multiple interactions. ISO. RGD:1558089. 6480464. [2 more .... ... 2.. OMIM Disease Annotation Pipeline. OMIM Disease Annotation Pipeline. 3.. Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, OMIM (TM).. ... Orthologs 1. Homo sapiens (human):. GALNS (galactosamine (N-acetyl)-6-sulfatase). HGNC. EggNOG, Ensembl, HomoloGene, Inparanoid ... 2 more .... CTD. PMID:25510870. perfluorooctane-1-sulfonic acid multiple interactions. ISO. RGD:1558089. 6480464. [ ...
1,2-Dimethylhydrazine. Blum CA, Xu M, Orner GA, Fong AT, Bailey GS, Stoner GD, Horio DT, Dashwood RH. 2001. beta-Catenin ... beta-Catenin mutation in rat colon tumors initiated by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine and 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline, and ... beta-Catenin mutation in rat colon tumors initiated by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine and 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline, and ... beta-Catenin mutation in rat colon tumors initiated by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine and 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline, and ...
2020:1-10. View abstract.. *Desideri I, Francolini G, Becherini C, et al. Use of an alpha lipoic, methylsulfonylmethane and ... El MSM ha sido utilizado con mayor frecuencia por adultos en dosis de 1 a 6 gramos por vía oral al día durante hasta 16 semanas ... Use of polar solvents in chemoprevention of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colon cancer. Cancer 1988;62:944-8. View abstract. ...
Permission to use biocides in authorisation class 1 So * Application for permission to use biocides (rat poison) ... Permission to use biocides in authorisation class 1 So * Application for permission to use biocides (rat poison) ...
2 In Vivo Delivery of RCAS Virus to Mice. Leanne G. Ahronian and Brian C. Lewis. CHAPTER 11. INTRODUCTION. Transposon ... 2 Induction of Lung Tumors in Mice with Urethane. Kay E. Gurley, Russell D. Moser, and Christopher J. Kemp. 3 Induction of ... 1 Limited Mouse Necropsy. Robert D. Cardiff, Claramae H. Miller, and Robert J. Munn. 2 Mouse Tissue Fixation. Robert D. Cardiff ... PART 1: ORIGINS AND HISTORY OF MOUSE MODELS OF CANCER. CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION. Transgenic Mouse Models A Seminal Breakthrough ...
2 In Vivo Delivery of RCAS Virus to Mice. Leanne G. Ahronian and Brian C. Lewis. CHAPTER 11. INTRODUCTION. Transposon ... 2 Induction of Lung Tumors in Mice with Urethane. Kay E. Gurley, Russell D. Moser, and Christopher J. Kemp. 3 Induction of ... 1 Limited Mouse Necropsy. Robert D. Cardiff, Claramae H. Miller, and Robert J. Munn. 2 Mouse Tissue Fixation. Robert D. Cardiff ... PART 1: ORIGINS AND HISTORY OF MOUSE MODELS OF CANCER. CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION. Transgenic Mouse Models A Seminal Breakthrough ...
Title: DIETARY SELENIUM AND AZADEOXYCYTIDINE TREATMENT AFFECT DIMETHYLHYDRAZINE- INDUCED ABERRANT CRYPT FORMATION IN RAT COLON ... Dietary selenium and azadeoxycytidine treatment affect dimethylhydrazine-induced aberrant crypt formation in rat colon and DNA ... Half of the animals were injected weekly with aza-dC (1 ug/g, sc) and half were injected with the vehicle control. After 3.5 ... Publication Date: 2/1/2002 Citation: Davis, C.D., Uthus, E.O. 2002. ...
N-dimethylhydrazine. Int. Immunopharmacol. 24, 361-368. ... 1-12. In Holzapfel, W.H. and Wood, B.J.B. (eds.), Lactic acid ... Gut microbiota in children with type 1 diabetes differs from that in healthy children: a case-control study. BMC Med. 11, 46. ... Effects of microencapsulated Lactobacillus plantarum LIP-1 on the gut microbiota of hyperlipidaemic rats. Br. J. Nutr. 118, 481 ... Lactobacillus plantarum X1 with α-glucosidase inhibitory activity ameliorates type 2 diabetes in mice. RSC Advances 6, 63536- ...
Reducing type 2-diabetes. [33,45]. [46]. [46]. [45]. Chlorogenic and Caffeic acids. Anti-mutagenic and-carcinogenic activity. [ ... J. 2016, 15, 1-16. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]. *Yeh, R.D.; Chen, J.C.; Lai, T.Y.; Yang, J.S.; Yu, C.S.; Chiang, J.H ... J. Berry Res. 2012, 2, 63-67. [Google Scholar]. *Zhou, Y.; Zheng, J.; Li, Y.; Xu, D.P.; Li, S.; Chen, U.M.; Li, H.B. Natural ... Sci. 2012, 2, 236-240. [Google Scholar]. *Lee, S.J.; Lee, U.S.; Kim, W.J.; Moon, S.K. Inhibitory effect of esculetin on ...
Results The participants were divided into 5 egg intake groups (o1/w, 1-2/w, 1/2d, 1/d, and ≥2/d). There were 203, 1462, 1594, ... the 1 egg/d group: total, 2.05 (95% CI: 1.20-3.52); cancer, 3.20 ... the 1 egg/d group: total, 2.05 (95% CI: 1.20-3.52); cancer, ... Results The participants were divided into 5 egg intake groups (o1/w, 1-2/w, 1/2d, 1/d, and ≥2/d). There were 203, 1462, 1594, ... Results The participants were divided into 5 egg intake groups (o1/w, 1-2/w, 1/2d, 1/d, and ≥2/d). There were 203, 1462, 1594, ...
Monitoring methods for the following compound are included: Acrylonitrile, 1,1-Dimethylhydrazine, N-ethylmorpholine, Monomethyl ...
2000;19(2):53-56. View abstract.. Woo, H. M., Kang, J. H., Kawada, T., Yoo, H., Sung, M. K., and Yu, R. Active spice-derived ... 2008;28(2):156-163. View abstract.. Bezerra, D. P., Pessoa, C., de Moraes, M. O., Silveira, E. R., Lima, M. A., Elmiro, F. J., ... 2003;41(1):41-47. View abstract.. el Mofty, M. M., Soliman, A. A., Abdel-Gawad, A. F., Sakr, S. A., and Shwaireb, M. H. ... 1992;44(2):61-65. View abstract.. Zutshi, R. K., Singh, R., Zutshi, U., Johri, R. K., and Atal, C. K. Influence of piperine on ...
Found 2 results. Author Keyword Title [ Type. ] Year Filters: Author is Horio, D T and First Letter Of Keyword is Q [Clear All ... 22(2):309-14.. Blum CA, Xu M, Orner GA, Fong AT, Bailey GS, Stoner GD, Horio DT, Dashwood RH. 2001. beta-Catenin mutation in ... Post-initiation effects of chlorophyllin and indole-3-carbinol in rats given 1,2-dimethylhydrazine or 2-amino-3-methyl- imidazo ... 2-dimethylhydrazine and 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline, and the effect of post-initiation treatment with chlorophyllin ...
In vitro, willow bark extracts and salicin have exhibited anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects (1) (3) (4) (25) (26) (27), ... Treatment of low back pain exacerbations with willow bark extract: a randomized double-blind study. Am J Med. Jul 2000;109(1):9 ... Bassino E, Gasparri F, Munaron L. Pleiotropic Effects of White Willow Bark and 1,2-Decanediol on Human Adult Keratinocytes. ... Maroon JC, Bost JW, Maroon A. Natural anti-inflammatory agents for pain relief. Surg Neurol Int. 2010;1:80. ...
Dexamethasone (1 mg/kg; subcutaneous route) was used as a positive control. In both preventive and therapeutic ... In addition, dexamethasone treatment reduced IL-1,i,β,/i,. Together, these findings identify ellagic acid as a potential ... Moreover, ellagic acid reduced the COX-2-induced exacerbation of inflammation. These results were similar to the dexamethasone ... B and AP-1, the ellagic acid treatment led to reduced BALF levels of IL-6 and increased levels of IL-10. ...
Sambar, an Indian Dish Prevents the Development of Dimethyl Hydrazine-Induced Colon Cancer: A Preclinical Study. Pharmacognosy ... Dive into the research topics of Sambar, an Indian Dish Prevents the Development of Dimethyl Hydrazine-Induced Colon Cancer: A ... Sambar, an Indian Dish Prevents the Development of Dimethyl Hydrazine-Induced Colon Cancer : A Preclinical Study. In: ... Sambar, an Indian Dish Prevents the Development of Dimethyl Hydrazine-Induced Colon Cancer: A Preclinical Study. / Prasad, ...
Effect of 1,3,6-triaminohexane and 1,4,7-triaminoheptane on growth and polyamine metabolism in SV-3T3 cells treated with 2- ... 2-Mercaptoethylamine, a competitive inhibitor of spermidine synthase in mammalian cells. Hibasami, H., Kawase, M., Tsukada, T ... 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine-induced premalignant alterations in the S-adenosylmethionine/S-adenosylhomocysteine ratio and membrane ... Effect on prostatic growth of 2-difluoromethylornithine, an effective inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase. Danzin, C., ...
In a further supporing study Shibata et al.(1987b) added 0.25 % and 1 % Morpholine oil acid salt (MOAS) (equivalent to 0.06 and ... Experiment 1: 0.5 % in the diet (approx. 220 mg/kg bw). Dose / conc.:. 2 other: %. Remarks:. Experiment 2: in the diet. No. of ... After 1 hour, the food was removed and the animals of groups 1, 2 and 5 received sodium nitrite in distilled water (100 mg/2 mL ... E) 0.1 % 2,2-dihydroxy-di-n-propylnitrosamine (DHPN) in the drinking water for the subsequent 2 weeks.. After a one-week ...
... prolongs survival of rats with dimethylhydrazine-induced colon cancer. (1 November, 1983) Free M Danzi, M R Lewin, J P Cruse, C ... Reply (1 November, 1983) Free P B Boulos, R G Faber, P F Whitfield, J V Parkin, M Hobsley ... Experience with transjugular liver biopsy. (1 November, 1983) Free H J Bull, I T Gilmore, R D Bradley, J H Marigold, R P ... Oesophageal mucosal changes in patients with varices. (1 November, 1983) Free R A Spence, J M Sloan, G W Johnston, A Greenfield ...
Preventive Effect of 1-(2-Tetrahydrofuryl)-5-Fluorouracil in Combination with Uracil on Colonic Carcinogenesis Induced by 1 ,2- ... Dimethylhydrazine in Rats. Shinobu Sakamoto MD, Yasuyuki Kawachi MD, Takeo Iwama MD, Kunio Tsukada MD, Tetsuro Sagara MD, ... Weekly subcutaneous injections of 1,2-dimethethyhydrazine into 6-week-old rats markedly increased thymidylate synthetase (TS) ...
Gem-dimethylhydrazine. ChEBI. N,N-Dimethylhydrazine. ChEBI. Unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine. ChEBI. 1,1-Dimethyhydrazine. HMDB ... 1,1-Dimethyl hydrazine (CHEM003966). IdentificationTaxonomyBiological PropertiesPhysical PropertiesToxicity ProfileSpectra ... A member of the class of hydrazines that is hydrazine substituted by two methyl groups at position 1. ...
Rats in group 2 were treated with Epitalon at a dose of 1 µg, five times a week, for 6 months, from the first injection of DMH ... Eighty 2-month-old male LIO rats were exposed weekly to five subcutaneous injections of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) at a single ... Control rats (group 1) received saline at a dose of 0.1 ml during the entire experiment. ... group 2). It increased the stromal areas, as well as that of lymphoid infiltration in the colon mucosa adjacent to the tumors. ...
2011;11(1):65.. * Ellis BG, Thompson MR. Factors identifying higher risk rectal bleeding in general practice. Br J Gen Pract. ... 1941;1(3):191-195.. * Garland CF, Garland FC. Do sunlight and vitamin D reduce the likelihood of colon cancer? Int J Epidemiol. ... 2011;16(1):58-72.. * Grant WB, Boucher BJ. Requirements for vitamin D across the life span. Biol Res Nurs. 2011;13(2):120-133. ... 2011;71(2):413-423.. * Cox B, Sneyd MJ. School milk and risk of colorectal cancer: A national case-control study. Am J ...
Effect of pioglitazone, thalidomide and 5-fluorouracil in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride induced experimental colon ...
  • 2001. Post-initiation effects of chlorophyllin and indole-3-carbinol in rats given 1,2-dimethylhydrazine or 2-amino-3-methyl- imidazo. . (oregonstate.edu)
  • OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effects of sambar as a preventive measure for 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine (DMH)-induced CC in Wistar albino rats. (manipal.edu)
  • 6 groups of 14 (groups 1, 2 and 6) or 5 rats each (groups 3, 4 and 5) were used. (europa.eu)
  • Combination chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil (5FU) and 1,3-bis(2-chloro-ethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) prolongs survival of rats with dimethylhydrazine-induced colon cancer. (bmj.com)
  • Weekly subcutaneous injections of 1,2-dimethethyhydrazine into 6-week-old rats markedly increased thymidylate synthetase (TS) in the poorly differentiated, and thymidine kinase in the well-differentiated adenocarcinomas of the colon. (cancerprev.org)
  • Eighty 2-month-old male LIO rats were exposed weekly to five subcutaneous injections of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) at a single dose of 21 mg/kg body weight. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Control rats (group 1) received saline at a dose of 0.1 ml during the entire experiment. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Rats in group 2 were treated with Epitalon at a dose of 1 µg, five times a week, for 6 months, from the first injection of DMH till the end of the experiment. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • 15. Sharma SH, Chellappan DR, Chinnaswamy P, Nagarajana S. Protective effect of p-coumaric acid against 1,2 dimethylhydrazine induced colonic preneoplastic lesions in experimental rats. (jptcp.com)
  • Recent studies from our laboratory have demonstrated that dietary supplemental calcium had no significant effect on the incidence of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colonic tumors, but did decrease the number of rats with multiple tumors and reduced tumor size. (archive.org)
  • Acute Inhalation Study of Five Male Rats/Group using Propane, 1,2-dibromo-1-1-2-3-3-hexafluoro. (epa.gov)
  • Acute Inhalation Toxicity Study in Rats with 1,2,2,2- Tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134). (epa.gov)
  • Acute Oral Toxicity Study (Up and Down Method) in Rats with N,N-dimethyl-1, 1,2,2-tetrafluoroethylamine. (epa.gov)
  • Chlorothene Vg: a Chronic Inhalation Toxicity and Oncogenicity Study in Rats and Mice (part 1 & 2) with Cover Letter dated 08/21/1984. (epa.gov)
  • Data on Acute Inhalation Toxicity Study Conducted in Sprague-Dawley Rats with Ethane, 1,1,2,2-tetrafluoro- 1-methoxy. (epa.gov)
  • Embryotoxicity and Teratogenicity Studies in Rats with 1,1-difluoroethane (fc-152a) with Attachments and Cover Sheet Dated 06/12/1989. (epa.gov)
  • 2001. beta-Catenin mutation in rat colon tumors initiated by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine and 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline, and the effect of post-initiation treatment with chlorophyllin and indole-3-carbinol. . (oregonstate.edu)
  • DMH induced proliferation of the secretory epithelium, and this phenomenon was accompanied by a decrease in the size of the stromal area and the area of lymph infiltration in colon tumors and in the colon mucosa adjacent to the tumors (group 1). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • 2. Russell-jone G, Mctavish K, Mcewan J, Rice J, Nowotnik D. Vitamin-mediated targeting as a potential mechanism to increase drug uptake by tumors. (jptcp.com)
  • ess these important issues, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colonic tumors from animals on control, Ca(2+)-supplemented, vitamin D-sufficient, and Ca(2+)-supplemented, vitamin D-deficient diets were examined for the presence of ras oncogene mutations. (archive.org)
  • paniala seeds attenuated the early stage of diethylnitrosamine and 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colorectal carcinogenesis. (bvsalud.org)
  • Colorectal carcinogenesis is considered to develop through multistep genetic or epigenetic alteration along with the pathological change called the adenoma-carcinoma sequence ( 1 - 5 ). (iiarjournals.org)
  • Effects of Moquiniastrum polymorphum ssp floccosum ethnolic extract on colorectal carcinogenesis induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine. (geneticsmr.com)
  • Unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine 74-79-3 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine from PubChem Record of 1,2-Dimethylhydrazin in the GESTIS Substance Database of the Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, accessed on 21 March 2008. (wikipedia.org)
  • After 3.5 weeks on the experimental diets, the animals were given 2 injections of dimethylhydrazine, 25 mg/kg i.p. (usda.gov)
  • Breathing cigarette smoke indirectly or using tobacco products may expose you to small amounts of hydrazine or 1,1-dimethylhydrazine. (cdc.gov)
  • The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) has determined that hydrazine and 1,1-dimethylhydrazine are known carcinogens. (cdc.gov)
  • The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has determined that hydrazine, 1,1-dimethylhydrazine, and 1,2-dimethylhydrazine are possible human carcinogens. (cdc.gov)
  • The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) currently lists hydrazine and 1,1-dimethylhydrazine as suspected carcinogens, but has recently recommended that the listing of hydrazine be changed to that of animal carcinogen, not likely to cause cancer to people under normal exposure conditions. (cdc.gov)
  • There are many kinds of hydrazine compounds, products may expose you to small amounts of hydrazine including hydrazine, 1,1-dimethylhydrazine, and 1,2- or 1,1-dimethylhydrazine. (cdc.gov)
  • The EPA requires that spills or accidental releases into the dimethylhydrazine, and 1,2-dimethylhydrazine are probable environment of 1 pound or more of hydrazine or 1,2- human carcinogens. (cdc.gov)
  • Abbreviations used: ACF: aberrant crypt foci, CC: colon cancer, DMH: 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine, GSH: glutathione, IL-6: Interleukin-6, TNF-α: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha. (manipal.edu)
  • A member of the class of hydrazines that is hydrazine substituted by two methyl groups at position 1. (contaminantdb.ca)
  • The effect of cichorium extract and fluorouracil (5-FU) against colorectal cancer (CRC) induced by 1, 2- Dimethyl hydrazine (DMH) was examined in male albino mice. (arjournals.org)
  • 1,2-dimethylhydrazine are possible human carcinogens. (cdc.gov)
  • Groups 1-6 were administered methylurea plus sodium nitrite (group 1), Morpholine plus sodium nitrite (group 2), methylurea (group 3), Morpholine (group 4), sodium nitrite (group 5) or basal diet alone (group 6). (europa.eu)
  • Twelve C57BL/6 J wild-type mice (WT) and 12 TLR2 knockout mice (TLR2-/-) were used to rapidly establish a colitis-associated cancer (CAC) model via the 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-dextran sodium sulfate (DMH-DSS) method and were divided into the normal WT control group (NC), TLR2 knockout control group (KC), normal wild-type tumor modeling group (NT), and TLR2 knockout tumor modeling group (KT), with 6 mice in each group. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Environmental Tests on the Subject Substance with Butane, 1,1-oxybis(3-methyl): Diisoamyl Ether: Isopentyl Ether: Diisopentyl Ether. (epa.gov)
  • Groups of Kunming mice were immunized at weeks 0 and 2, and challenged intraperitoneally with the Ee strain at week 4. (geneticsmr.com)
  • Role of metformin in suppressing 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colon cancer in diabetic and non-diabetic mice: effect on tumor angiogenesis and cell proliferation. (ac.ir)
  • Exenatide suppresses 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colon cancer in diabetic mice: Effect on tumor angiogenesis and cell proliferation. (ac.ir)
  • Animals were starved overnight, then given 0.4 % methylurea or 2.0 % Morpholine in the diet for 1 hour. (europa.eu)
  • After overnight fasting, but with access to water, animals were given powdered basal diet containing 0.4 % methylurea (groups 1 and 3) or 2.0 % Morpholine (groups 2 and 4). (europa.eu)
  • The first set of OELs in 1986 was identical to 2. (cdc.gov)
  • Occupational exposure limits (OELs) chemicals (asbestos, benzene, and 2-bromopropane) were updated during the last twenty years. (cdc.gov)
  • Symmetrical dimethylhydrazine is a potent carcinogen that acts as a DNA methylating agent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pterostilbene is more potent than resveratrol in preventing azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon tumorigenesis via activation of the NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated antioxidant signaling pathway. (ijpbp.com)
  • Working in greenhouses where the chemical Alar is used may result in your being exposed to small amounts of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine. (cdc.gov)
  • Results: We observed a lower mutation rate in adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) (16.7%(2/12) vs. 75.9%(161/212), respectively, p=0.0001) and KRAS (16.7%(2/12) vs. 42% (89/212), respectively, p=0.04) in colitic cancer than in sporadic CRC. (iiarjournals.org)
  • This study investigated whether the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (aza-dC) would alter the effect of dietary selenium (Se) on the formation of aberrant crypts. (usda.gov)
  • 1,2-Benzenediol, Mixture with Methanol (22:78)-Acute Toxicologic Properties, with Cover Letter dated 11/02/1995 (Sanitized). (epa.gov)
  • Moreover, ellagic acid reduced the COX-2-induced exacerbation of inflammation. (hindawi.com)
  • However, while the anti-inflammatory effects of dexamethasone treatment were due to the reduced activation of NF- κ B and AP-1, the ellagic acid treatment led to reduced BALF levels of IL-6 and increased levels of IL-10. (hindawi.com)
  • During the progression of colitis, genetic alterations associated with mucosal permeability [ e.g. those in extracellular matrix protein 1 ( ECM1 ), cadherin 1 ( CDH1 ), and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha ( HNF4A )] have been observed and considered to confer the risk of severe UC ( 11 , 12 ). (iiarjournals.org)
  • Metformin blocks migration and invasion of tumour cells by inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase‐9 activation through a calcium and protein kinase Cα‐dependent pathway: Phorbol‐12‐myristate‐13‐acetate‐induced/extracellular signal‐regulated kinase/activator protein‐1. (ac.ir)
  • 13. Wu X, Li S, Xue P, Li Y. Liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, facilitates osteogenic proliferation and differentiation in MC3T3-E1 cells through phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT), extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK)1/2, and cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathways involving β-catenin. (ac.ir)
  • Those at greatest risk for colon cancer are carriers of 1 of 2 familial genetic disorders, familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) or hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer (HNPCC), also known as Lynch syndrome. (naturalmedicinejournal.com)
  • These genetic disorders account for 1-2% and 3-5% of all colorectal cancers, respectively. (naturalmedicinejournal.com)
  • It is established that Phycocyanin induces apoptosis in cancer cells by changing the Bcl-2/Bax ratio (Bcl-2 is an anti apoptotic protein, Bax is a pro-apoptotic protein, the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax represents the degree of apoptosis) and the release of Cyt-c in the cytosol (Lu et. (nutraculture.com)
  • Epitalon attenuated this effect, especially when the treatment was continued throughout the experiment (group 2). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine has caused colon cancer in laboratory animals following a single exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • Journal of Applied Microbiology, 110(1), 304-313. (ijpbp.com)
  • Half of the animals were injected weekly with aza-dC (1 ug/g, sc) and half were injected with the vehicle control. (usda.gov)
  • symmetrical dimethylhydrazine, or 1,2-dimethylhydrazine, is the organic compound with the formula (CH3NH)2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thats all, now both carbon atoms have full outer shells since each of them has 8 electrons(2 single bonds means 4 electrons + 1 double bond means 4 electrons). (sportandradio.com)
  • 1. Kratz F, Muller IA, Ryppa C, Warnecke A. Prodrug strategies in anticancer chemotherapy. (jptcp.com)