An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to water and oxygen. It is present in many animal cells. A deficiency of this enzyme results in ACATALASIA.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.
Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC
A non-selective post-emergence, translocated herbicide. According to the Seventh Annual Report on Carcinogens (PB95-109781, 1994) this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen. (From Merck Index, 12th ed) It is an irreversible inhibitor of CATALASE, and thus impairs activity of peroxisomes.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
A rare autosomal recessive disorder resulting from the absence of CATALASE activity. Though usually asymptomatic, a syndrome of oral ulcerations and gangrene may be present.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in peptidoglycan and thus have low affinity for violet stain and high affinity for the pink dye safranine.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A large group of anaerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the Gram-staining method.
Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
An enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of 2 moles of glutathione in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to yield oxidized glutathione and water. EC
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
A group of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria that is able to oxidize acetate completely to carbon dioxide using elemental sulfur as the electron acceptor.
Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A group of the proteobacteria comprised of facultatively anaerobic and fermentative gram-negative bacteria.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.
Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.
Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
A phylum of bacteria consisting of the purple bacteria and their relatives which form a branch of the eubacterial tree. This group of predominantly gram-negative bacteria is classified based on homology of equivalent nucleotide sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA or by hybridization of ribosomal RNA or DNA with 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA.
Electron-dense cytoplasmic particles bounded by a single membrane, such as PEROXISOMES; GLYOXYSOMES; and glycosomes.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
Electron-accepting molecules in chemical reactions in which electrons are transferred from one molecule to another (OXIDATION-REDUCTION).
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised of chemoheterotrophs and chemoautotrophs which derive nutrients from decomposition of organic material.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
A genus of gram-negative gliding bacteria found in SOIL; HUMUS; and FRESHWATER and marine habitats.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A genus of gram-positive, spherical bacteria found in soils and fresh water, and frequently on the skin of man and other animals.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.
Catalyzes the oxidation of GLUTATHIONE to GLUTATHIONE DISULFIDE in the presence of NADP+. Deficiency in the enzyme is associated with HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA. Formerly listed as EC
Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.
A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.
A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of man and animals, animal and plant products, infections of soft tissue, and soil. Some species may be pathogenic. No endospores are produced. The genus Eubacterium should not be confused with EUBACTERIA, one of the three domains of life.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.
The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
A genus of asporogenous bacteria that is widely distributed in nature. Its organisms appear as straight to slightly curved rods and are known to be human and animal parasites and pathogens.
A phylum of bacteria comprised of three classes: Bacteroides, Flavobacteria, and Sphingobacteria.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The dialdehyde of malonic acid.
An iron-molybdenum flavoprotein containing FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE that oxidizes hypoxanthine, some other purines and pterins, and aldehydes. Deficiency of the enzyme, an autosomal recessive trait, causes xanthinuria.
A group of compounds that contain a bivalent O-O group, i.e., the oxygen atoms are univalent. They can either be inorganic or organic in nature. Such compounds release atomic (nascent) oxygen readily. Thus they are strong oxidizing agents and fire hazards when in contact with combustible materials, especially under high-temperature conditions. The chief industrial uses of peroxides are as oxidizing agents, bleaching agents, and initiators of polymerization. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
A poisonous dipyridilium compound used as contact herbicide. Contact with concentrated solutions causes irritation of the skin, cracking and shedding of the nails, and delayed healing of cuts and wounds.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.
Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of beta-D-glucose and oxygen to D-glucono-1,5-lactone and peroxide. It is a flavoprotein, highly specific for beta-D-glucose. The enzyme is produced by Penicillium notatum and other fungi and has antibacterial activity in the presence of glucose and oxygen. It is used to estimate glucose concentration in blood or urine samples through the formation of colored dyes by the hydrogen peroxide produced in the reaction. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
Class of BACTERIA with diverse morphological properties. Strains of Actinobacteria show greater than 80% 16S rDNA/rRNA sequence similarity among each other and also the presence of certain signature nucleotides. (Stackebrandt E. et al, Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1997) 47:479-491)
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).
A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.
Low-molecular-weight end products, probably malondialdehyde, that are formed during the decomposition of lipid peroxidation products. These compounds react with thiobarbituric acid to form a fluorescent red adduct.
Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in SOIL and WATER. Its organisms are also found in raw meats, MILK and other FOOD, hospital environments, and human clinical specimens. Some species are pathogenic in humans.
The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.
Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.
The univalent radical OH. Hydroxyl radical is a potent oxidizing agent.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.
A group of PROTEOBACTERIA represented by morphologically diverse, anaerobic sulfidogens. Some members of this group are considered bacterial predators, having bacteriolytic properties.
A group of gram-negative bacteria consisting of rod- and coccus-shaped cells. They are both aerobic (able to grow under an air atmosphere) and microaerophilic (grow better in low concentrations of oxygen) under nitrogen-fixing conditions but, when supplied with a source of fixed nitrogen, they grow as aerobes.
A hemeprotein from leukocytes. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to a hereditary disorder coupled with disseminated moniliasis. It catalyzes the conversion of a donor and peroxide to an oxidized donor and water. EC
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
An organization of cells into an organ-like structure. Organoids can be generated in culture. They are also found in certain neoplasms.
Inorganic compounds that contain the OH- group.
A phylum of anoxygenic, phototrophic bacteria including the family Chlorobiaceae. They occur in aquatic sediments, sulfur springs, and hot springs and utilize reduced sulfur compounds instead of oxygen.
An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Live microbial DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Antibiotics and other related compounds are not included in this definition. In humans, lactobacilli are commonly used as probiotics, either as single species or in mixed culture with other bacteria. Other genera that have been used are bifidobacteria and streptococci. (J. Nutr. 1995;125:1401-12)
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A rod-shaped, gram-positive, non-acid-fast, non-spore-forming, non-motile bacterium that is a genus of the family Bifidobacteriaceae, order Bifidobacteriales, class ACTINOBACTERIA. It inhabits the intestines and feces of humans as well as the human vagina.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of humans and other animals. No endospores are formed. Some species are pathogenic and occur in various purulent or gangrenous infections.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Coccus-shaped bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
A family of gram-positive bacteria found regularly in the mouth and intestinal tract of man and other animals, in food and dairy products, and in fermenting vegetable juices. A few species are highly pathogenic.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.
The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
A phenomenon where microorganisms communicate and coordinate their behavior by the accumulation of signaling molecules. A reaction occurs when a substance accumulates to a sufficient concentration. This is most commonly seen in bacteria.
A genus of GRAM-NEGATIVE AEROBIC BACTERIA of marine origin. Many species were formerly classified under ALTEROMONAS.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Organisms in this genus had originally been classified as members of the PSEUDOMONAS genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings indicated the need to separate them from other Pseudomonas species, and hence, this new genus was created.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria whose growth is dependent on the presence of a fermentable carbohydrate. No endospores are produced. Its organisms are found in fermenting plant products and are nonpathogenic to plants and animals, including humans.
A family of gram-negative bacteria found primarily in the intestinal tracts and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Its organisms are sometimes pathogenic.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
The discarding or destroying of liquid waste products or their transformation into something useful or innocuous.
Chemical groups containing the covalent sulfur bonds -S-. The sulfur atom can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are nonmotile. Filaments that may be present in certain species are either straight or wavy and may have swollen or clubbed heads.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
A dye that is a mixture of violet rosanilinis with antibacterial, antifungal, and anthelmintic properties.
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped or pleomorphic bacteria which are halotolerant. Members of this genus are capable of growth in sodium chloride concentrations of up to 20% or more. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the intestines of humans and a wide variety of animals, as well as in manure, soil, and polluted waters. Its species are pathogenic, causing urinary tract infections and are also considered secondary invaders, causing septic lesions at other sites of the body.
Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)
A species of nonpathogenic fluorescent bacteria found in feces, sewage, soil, and water, and which liquefy gelatin.
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
... is a Gram-negative, aerobic, oxidase- and catalase-positive bacterium with a single polar flagellum from the ... 58 (Pt 1): 6-11. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.65169-0. PMID 18175673. Type strain of Roseateles terrae at BacDive - the Bacterial ...
... is a Gram-negative, oxidase-positive, catalase-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacterium with a single polar ... Type strain of Roseateles aquatilis at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity ... 58 (Pt 1): 6-11. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.65169-0. PMID 18175673. http:// ...
The alpha-hemolytic bacteria are ones that exhibit a partial hemolysis with green coloration when grown on sheep blood agar ( ... They are non-sporulating and catalase-negative The majority of specimens test positive for the production of acetoin (Vogues- ... 53 (Pt 1): 143-6. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.02246-0. PMID 12656166. "Center for Disease Control and Prevention". Retrieved 5 April 2012 ... "BACTERIOLOGY - CHAPTER TWELVE Streptococci GROUPS A, B, D AND OTHERS". Retrieved 11 April 2012. CS1 maint: discouraged ...
The catalase test is one of the three main tests used by microbiologists to identify species of bacteria. If the bacteria ... Xi S, Chen LH (2000). "Effects of dietary fish oil on tissue glutathione and antioxidant defense enzymes in mice with murine ... Many bacteria are catalase positive, but some are better catalase-producers than others. The mnemonic "cats Need PLACESS to ... If bubbles form on contact, this indicates a positive catalase result. This test can detect catalase-positive bacteria at ...
The bacterium readily ferments and oxidizes glucose, and is catalase- and cytochrome oxidase-positive. Its molecular properties ... The bacterium grows optimally at temperatures between 22 and 25 °C. The maximum temperature at which it can grow is 34.5 °C. ... The bacterium is pathogenic for fish, and causes the disease known as furunculosis. The symptoms the fish show are external and ... The bacterium can maintain its pathogenicity in freshwater conditions for 6-9 months, and in saltwater conditions for up to 10 ...
The bacteria is gram-negative, and catalase- and oxidase-positive. Bosea lupini colonies tend to be round, smooth, and white. ... Bosea lupini is a bacterium from the genus of Bosea. B. lupini is an aerobic and gram-negative bacterium capable of ... Bosea lupini growth on Lupinus polyphyllus medium (LMG medium at 155), at 25, 28, and 33 °C. The bacteria showed growth from β- ... "Oxidation of Thiosulfate by a New Bacterium, Bosea thiooxidans. (strain BI-42) gen. nov., sp. nov.: Analysis of Phylogeny Based ...
This bacterium is able to degrade arginine and produce substantial amounts of citrulline, ornithine and ammonia. Arginine and ... C. curutm also had negative results for indole, catalase, and urease tests. According to Mavrommatis and colleagues, the genome ... Cryptobacterium curtum are Gram-positive, obligately anaerobic, non-spore-forming, and rod-shaped bacteria. C. curtum has been ... Cryptobacterium curtum is a Gram-positive anaerobic rod bacteria isolated from human mouths. ...
... bacteria are primarily found in the mucous membranes of humans and other animals, particularly in the oral cavity and ... They are facultatively anaerobic and give negative reactions to both oxidase and catalase tests. They are obligately ... Gemella is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria that thrive best at high partial pressure of CO2. A Gemella species was first ... doi:10.1099/0096266x-11-1-17. "gemellus - Wiktionary". Retrieved 2015-10-31. Stackebrandt, E.; B. Wittek; E ...
... is a gram-negative, oxidase and catalase-positiv, motile bacterium from the genus Paraburkholderia ... 57 (11): 2583-2590. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.64660-0. PMID 17978222 - via "Paraburkholderia rhizoxinica HKI 454 ... 6 (1): e15731. Bibcode:2011PLoSO...615731G. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0015731. PMC 3022634. PMID 21267449. Partida-Martinez, ... Laila P.; Groth, Ingrid; Schmitt, Imke; Richter, Walter; Roth, Martin; Hertweck, Christian (1 November 2007). "Burkholderia ...
... is a Gram-negative, catalase- and oxidase-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria from the genus of ... 61 (Pt 11): 2722-8. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.027029-0. PMID 21186293. Type strain of Aureimonas frigidaquae at BacDive - the Bacterial ... 58 (5): 1142-6. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.65421-0. PMID 18450703. Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen [1] Rathsack, ...
It is catalase-negative, aerobic, beta-hemolytic, and not motile. It has been known to cause head and neck infections, ... Due to its resemblance to another genus of bacteria, Corynebacterium, A. haemolyticum was initially classified as C. pyogenes ... Organisms are Gram-positive, facultative anaerobic, catalase-negative rods (but transition to the coccal shape occurs as the ... Arcanobacterium haemolyticum, formerly known as Corynebacterium hæmolyticum, is a species of bacteria classified as a gram- ...
The commonest mode of entry of the bacteria into the body is through the injured skin coming in contact with soil or water ... It is positive for catalase and oxidase reactions. Bacterial isolates in many cases can show high level resistance to a range ... The disease usually starts as a limited infection of the skin at the point of entry of the bacteria, which progresses to ... Though the bacteria is reported to be resistant to first generation cephalosporins, susceptibility to the newer cephalosporins ...
It has also been reported as among the most common bacteria present in teeth with cysts that do not resolve after repeated root ... and other Aerobic Catalase-Negative, Gram Positive Cocci in Manual of Clinical Microbiology 10th Ed. Washington DC: ASM Press. ... Gemella morbillorum is a species of bacteria within the genus Gemella. It is a facultative anaerobic Gram positive coccus ... Bacteremia with G. morbillorum, among other bacteria, has been associated with colorectal cancer. Journal of Medical ...
B. trematum is catalase positive. It is unique in being oxidase negative, since all other species of Bordetella are oxidase ... The lipid A unit of B. trematum is identical to that of the opportunistic bacterium B. hinzii, but unlike any other Bordetella ... "Trematum" pertains to open things, and refers to the presence of bacteria in wounds and other exposed parts of the body. Strain ... Bordetella trematum is a species of Gram-negative bacteria identified in 1996 by comparison of 10 strains of B. trematum ...
AnSOB include some purple sulfur bacteria (Chromatiaceae) such as Allochromatium, and green sulfur bacteria (Chlorobiaceae), as ... Burton SD, Morita RY (December 1964). "Effect of Catalase and Cultural Conditions on Growth of Beggiatoa". Journal of ... Kelly DP (1989). "Physiology and biochemistry of unicellular sulfur bacteria. Autotrophic Bacteria (Schlegel HG & Bowien B, ( ... Aragno M (1992). "The aerobic, chemolithoautotrophic, thermophilic bacteria". In Kristjansson JK (ed.). Thermophilic Bacteria. ...
S. moniliformis can be biochemically differentiated by similar bacteria by their negative production of indole, catalase, and ... The bacteria vary in size from 0.1 to 0.5 μm by 2.0 to 5.0 μm, and can potentially grow up to 10 to 15 μm, with long, curved ... Transmission of the bacterium is also known to occur via consumption of infected water, close contact with, or handling of rats ... Although S. moniliformis is believed to be part of the commensal bacteria of the respiratory tract of rats, rats have ...
C. upsaliensis is catalase negative, distinguishing it from some other Campylobacter species which are catalase positive. This ... The bacterium either have one polar flagellum, or two flagella with one at either end, and can range from 0.2μm to 0.5μm in ... Marks, S.L.; Rankin, S.C.; Byrne, B.A.; Weese, J.S. (November 2011). "Enteropathogenic Bacteria in Dogs and Cats: Diagnosis, ... Campylobacter upsaliensis is a gram negative bacteria in the Campylobacter genus. C. upsaliensis is found worldwide, and is a ...
Some bacteria, such as Lactobacillus species, are able to produce bacteriocins which prevent the growth of bacterial ... Of primary interest among the intracellular components are microbial enzymes: catalase, amylase, protease, pectinase, cellulase ... These compounds are of obvious value to humans wishing to prevent the growth of bacteria, either as antibiotics or as ... In the process of sewage treatment, sewage is digested by enzymes secreted by bacteria. Solid organic matters are broken down ...
This bacteria is also catalase and oxidase positive. It is not capable of acid-production from glucose, maltose, fructose, ... Lastly, this bacteria has also been the pathogen behind a case of endocarditis. Testing β-lactamase positive, Neisseria ... These bacteria are gram-negative and diplococcus, rendering them virtually indistinguishable from the other Neisseria species. ... And it is through this yellow-gold color that this bacteria earned its name, with flavescens precisely translating as "becoming ...
It also contains phenol red pH indicator which turns pink when it reacts with alkaline byproducts generated by the bacteria ... Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC), or simply Burkholderia cepacia, is a group of catalase-producing, lactose-nonfermenting, ... Diagnosis of BCC involves culturing the bacteria from clinical specimens, such as sputum or blood. BCC organisms are naturally ... OFPBL contains polymyxin (which kills most Gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and bacitracin (which ...
The bacteria can survive only a couple of weeks as free bacteria in soil. Multiple factors go into survival of a bacterial ... and cells containing catalase. In the interest of studying pathogenicity in plants, the species Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens ... Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens is a Gram-positive bacterium that causes disease on a variety of plants. Gram-positive bacterium ... is a beginners diagnostic tool used to identify this bacterium. Bacteria may be detected beneath the seedcoat by means of a ...
L. monocytogenes is a Gram-positive, non-spore-forming, motile, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium. It is catalase- ... Because L. monocytogenes is an intracellular bacterium, some studies have used this bacterium as a vector to deliver genes in ... When this bacterium is present within a host organism, quorum sensing and other signals cause the up-regulation of several ... Most bacteria can survive near freezing temperatures, but cannot absorb nutrients, grow or replicate; however, L. monocytogenes ...
Sexual activity increases the risk of S. saprophyticus UTIs because bacteria are displaced from the normal flora of the vagina ... S. saprophyticus is identified as belonging to the genus Staphylococcus using the Gram stain and catalase test. It is ... 25 (1): 50-61. doi:10.1099/00207713-25-1-50. ISSN 0020-7713. Kuroda, M; Yamashita, A; Hirakawa, H; Kumano, M; et al. (September ... 31 (1): 7-20. doi:10.1007/s10096-011-1270-6. PMID 21533877. S2CID 7162887. Rupp, ME; Soper, DE; Archer, GL (November 1992). " ...
... is found in nearly all organisms, from bacteria to mammals, but is inactive in humans and several other great ... This mechanism is similar to that of catalase, which reverses hydrogen peroxide back to oxygen and also sequentially drives ... 264 (1): 156-8. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(90)80789-L. PMID 2338140. S2CID 36132942. Wu XW, Lee CC, Muzny DM, Caskey CT (December ... 4 (11): 947-52. doi:10.1038/nsb1197-947. PMID 9360612. S2CID 1282767. Oksanen E, Blakeley MP, El-Hajji M, Ryde U, Budayova- ...
They are gram-positive, catalase-positive, non-spore-forming, non-motile, rod-shaped bacteria that are straight or slightly ... The bacteria group together in a characteristic way, which has been described as the form of a "V", "palisades", or "Chinese ... The bacteria grow in Loeffler's medium, blood agar, and trypticase soy agar (TSA). They form small, grayish colonies with a ... Unlike gram-negative bacteria, the gram-positive Corynebacterium species lack lipopolysaccharides that function as antigenic ...
Additionally, these bacteria do not reduce nitrate and are catalase-negative (inability to breakdown hydrogen peroxide into ... Parasutterella is a genus of Gram-negative, circular/rod-shaped, obligate anaerobic, non-spore forming bacteria from the ... and uncultured bacterium. In the Silva 16S rRNA reference library, each group can then be further divided into various ... non-motile bacteria. When cultured, colonies from both P. excrementihominis and P. secunda appeared translucent to beige in ...
The tooth bacteria caused a major infection in the man's hand. For accurate diagnoses, a high degree of suspicion is required ... catalase-negative, urease-negative, and indole-negative, and reduce nitrate to nitrite.[citation needed] In 2006, Azakami et al ... Karim et al reported that this bacteria can produce AI-2 inactivation enzyme during its stationary phase. Karim et al also ... however due to the resistant nature of the bacteria ongoing and recurring symptoms can be expected despite rigorous and ...
The catalase test tests whether a microbe produces the enzyme catalase, which catalyzes the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide. ... Anaerobic bacteria collection can come from a variety of sources in patient samples, including blood, bile, bone marrow, ... "Catalase and Oxidase Test" (PDF). Austin CC. "CLO Test: Reasons, Procedure and Results". Retrieved ... This method, which is commonly used with Mueller-Hinton agar, is used by evenly seeding bacteria over a petri dish and applying ...
... is a Gram-negative, catalase-positive, oxidase-negative, strictly aerobic rod-shaped, nonmotile bacterium ... 49 (6): 2283-2285. doi:10.1128/JCM.00326-11. PMC 3122775. PMID 21525230. Type strain of Acinetobacter soli at BacDive - the ... 1 ed.). Crc Pr Inc. ISBN 978-1439812389. Kim, D.; Baik, K. S.; Kim, M. S.; Park, S. C.; Kim, S. S.; Rhee, M. S.; Kwak, Y. S.; ...
All are catalase positive and motile, with flagella. They produce acid from arabinose, glucose and xylose. They do not produce ... The bacteria have been present in cases of bacteraemia. To accurately identify C. hongkongensis, 16S rRNA sequencing is ... Other identification methods such as MALDI-TOF, have not been able to identify the bacteria correctly. Antibiotic treatment is ... Lau, S. K. P.; McNabb, A.; Woo, G. K. S.; Hoang, L.; Fung, A. M. Y.; Chung, L. M. W.; Woo, P. C. Y.; Yuen, K.-Y. (2006-11-22 ...
Roseateles terrae is a Gram-negative, aerobic, oxidase- and catalase-positive bacterium with a single polar flagellum from the ... 58 (Pt 1): 6-11. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.65169-0. PMID 18175673. Type strain of Roseateles terrae at BacDive - the Bacterial ...
... the most effective for production of catalase, was... ... Horikoshi, K. (1995) Discovering novel bacteria, with an eye to ... Catalase psychrotroph screening arctic fungi Penicillium cyclopium This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check ... Catalase activity showed its maximum at 15 °C, indicating adaptation of the enzyme to lower temperatures of the arctic ... The time course of growth and catalase production by this strain showed the intracellular activity of this enzyme to be about 3 ...
Roseateles aquatilis is a Gram-negative, oxidase-positive, catalase-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacterium with a single polar ... Type strain of Roseateles aquatilis at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity ... 58 (Pt 1): 6-11. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.65169-0. PMID 18175673. http:// ...
... catalase-negative organism commonly referred to as pneumococcus. S pneumoniae is the most common cause of community-acquired ... Bacteria surface coat is changed via gene expression to avoid host defenses and complete translocation. Invasion is also ... S pneumoniae is a gram-positive, catalase-negative coccus that has remained an extremely important human bacterial pathogen ... Of these cases, one or more viruses were retrieved in 23% of cases and bacteria in 11%. A combination of bacterial and viral ...
Biochemistry: Re: About bovine catalase and NADP?, Artem Evdokimov, Research Scientist Tue Feb 3 19:42:27 2004. ... Microbiology: Re: Why havent harmful heat resistant bacteria evolved?, Steve Mack, Post-doc/Fellow, Molecular and Cell Biology ... Microbiology: Re: What bacteria or fungi cause decomposition in organic matter (leaves?), Mark Schneegurt, Assistant Professor ... Do bacteria make cheese rinds?, Don Schaffner, Faculty, Food Science, Rutgers University Mon Jan 31 18:38:35 2005. ...
Purification and characterization of a catalase from the facultatively psychrophilic bacterium Vibrio rumoiensis S-1(T) ... nov., a novel alkaliphile exhibiting high catalase activity. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54:2013-2017PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... nov., an alkaliphilic purple nonsulfur bacterium from African Rift Valley soda lakes. Arch Microbiol 174:18-27PubMedCrossRef ... Nicholls P, Fita I, Loewen PC (2001) Enzymology and structure of catalases. Adv Inorg Chem 51:51-106CrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
Thus, plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) have been proposed as alternatives. This study aims to test the growth-promoting ... Catalase, oxidase, and protease represent some of the hydrolytic enzymes used by rhizobacteria. They act by hydrolyzing cell ... Co-inoculation of an antibiotic-producing bacterium and a lytic enzyme-producing bacterium for the biocontrol of tomato wilt ... Bacteria found in the rhizosphere are called rhizobacteria. They can either be beneficial or non-beneficial to the plants. The ...
Fluorescent bacteria were visible as early as 12 hr after infection, and the intensity continued to increase up to 48 hr after ... which was then plated on 7H11-oleic acid-dextrose-catalase-hygromycin (Remel, Lenexa, KS) (50 μg/ml). Hygromycin-resistant ... The bacteria were harvested by centrifugation, washed with PBS-Tween-80 (0.05%), and lysed in a Bead-Beater 8 (BioSpec Products ... bacteria were easily observed within these cells 12-48 hr later (Fig. 2B). With the acr promoter region in the opposite ...
Ex 46 Known Bacteria for Biochemical Testing. Ex 47 Identification of Unknown Bacteria. Credits. Index ... Ex 22 Catalase Ex 23 Oxidase. Control of Microbial Growth. Ex 24 Killing by Ultraviolet Light. Ex 25 Antimicrobial ... Ex 1 Use of the Microscope. Ex 2 Aseptic Techniques. Ex 3 Isolation Streak Plate. Survey of the Microbial World. Ex 4 Microbial ... Ex 11 Gram Stain. Ex 12 Acid-Fast Staining (Ziehl-Neelsen and Kinyoun Methods). Ex 13 Endospore Stain (Schaeffer-Fulton Method) ...
Brucella ceti was isolated from cerebrospinal fluid of 6 dolphins and 1 fetus. S. coeruleoalba constitutes a highly susceptible ... Organisms compatible with Brucella (nonmotile; urease-, catalase-, and oxidase positive; gram-negative bacteria not requiring ... Bacteria were isolated from the same organs and fluids. The pregnant animal had bacteria in the placenta (Figure 1, panel D), ... Moreover, the localization of the bacteria in particular organs suggests the possibility of transmission through sexual ...
The infecting organisms were catalase producing bacteria. Three nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) slide tests sent to a reference ... Chapter XI.8. Neutrophil Disorders Wade T. Kyono, MD March 2003 Return to Table of Contents. Case 1 This is a 13 month old ... 4. Neutrophil defect associated with increased infections with catalase-negative organisms . . . . . a. Hyper-IgE syndrome ... 1.b, 2.c, 3.e, 4.d, 5.e Return to Table of Contents. University of Hawaii Department of Pediatrics Home Page. ...
These bacteria use fermentation and have no electron transport system. They can tolerate LOW amounts of oxygen, because they ... Catalase - breaks down hydrogen peroxide.. 2. Peroxidase - also breaks down hydrogen peroxide.. 3. Superoxide dismutase - ... Dont let this name fool you! These bacteria are aerobic.. They have the faculty to be anaerobic - just like the switch to ... 2. To separate the gram positive from the gram negative bacteria.. 3. To determine whether the organism is round or rod-shaped ...
Bactericidal activities of essential oils of basil and sage against a range of bacteria and the effect of these essential oils ... Sequence of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CATI gene and amino acid sequence of catalase A derived from it ... Heat resistance ofPectinatussp., a beer spoilage anaerobic bacterium. D. Watier, I. Leguerinel, J.P. Hornez, I. Chowdhury, H.C ... Catalase activity is necessary for heat-shock recovery in Aspergillus nidulans germlings ... Both need high load of bacteria to cause infection in human ... Does not ferment lactose, but produce catalase and coagulase ... 4.1.1. - most known species: E. coli - motile and most appear as lactose-fermenter - grows easily in many culture medium and ... 4.5.1. - notable pathogen: P. mirabilis, P. vulgaris which are both motile and cause swarming in agar plates - all members can ...
Multidrug-resistant bacteria isolated from cell phones in five intensive care units: Exploratory dispersion analysis.(Original ... article, Report) by GERMS; Health, general Antibacterial agents Analysis Bacteria Cellular telephones Usage Drug resistance ... isolates were classified using the catalase test and the esculin degradation on Bile esculin agar. Antimicrobial resistance and ... Multidrug-resistant bacteria isolated from cell phones in five intensive care units: Exploratory dispersion analysis.. ...
Study Week 1 Bacterial Skin Infections - Diebel flashcards from Alisha Lindberg ... bacteria grow in ANAEROBIC To cure gas gangrene surgically remove, or hyperbaric oxygen, antibiotics not effective ... bacteria realease lipases to digest trapped oil, bacterial metabolism activates local inflammation ... TSST-1 (superantigen that promotes excessive release of IL-1 and TNF). Scalded Skin syndrome- ET-A and ET-B (epidermis ...
p>Perfect your lab skills with the gold standard in microbiology! Serving as both the #1 bench reference for practicing ... Cell Wall-Deficient Bacteria: Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma 45. The Spirochetes. Part IV: Parasitology 46. Overview of the Methods ... Streptococcus, Enterococcus, and Similar Organisms Section 4: Non-Branching, Catalase-Positive, Gram-Positive Bacilli 15. ... Laboratory Considerations Section 14: Mycobacteria and Other Bacteria with Unusual Growth Requirements 42. Mycobacteria 43. ...
... why is the size of a virus and bacteria importany. *2. What is the human genome project? ... This reaction iscatalyzed by catalase enzyme Need a fast experts response?. Submit order and get a quick answer at the best ... 2014-04-25T09:11:26-0400. An example of biochemical reactions catalyzed by enzymes is glycolysis,which occurs in several steps ... 1. Splittings of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate / Hexokinase. 2. Conversion of glucose-6-phosphate to fructose-6-phosphate / ...
Streptococcus, Enterococcus, and Other Catalase-Negative, Gram-Positive Cocci 16. Aerobic Gram-Positive Bacilli 17. Neisseria ... Biochemical Identification of Gram-Negative Bacteria 10. Immunodiagnosis of Infectious Diseases 11. Applications of Molecular ... Part 1: Introduction to Clinical Microbiology 1. Bacterial Cell Structure, Physiology, Metabolism, and Genetics 2. Host- ... Performance Improvement in the Microbiology Laboratory 6. Specimen Collection and Processing 7. Microscopic Examination of ...
All bacteria were washed 3 times with 10 mM phosphate-buffered saline (PBS; pH 7.4), bacterial cell pellets were collected ... oleic acid-albumin-dextrose-catalase (OADC; Difco Laboratories, MD) supplemented with 2 μg/ml of mycobactin J (Allied Monitor, ... 11.↵. Feller, L., and J. Lemmer. 2007. Aspects of immunopathogenic mechanisms of HIV infection. SADJ 62 : 432-434, 436. ... 6.↵. Biet, F., M. L. Boschiroli, M. F. Thorel, and L. A. Guilloteau. 2005. Zoonotic aspects of Mycobacterium bovis and ...
These microbes are described as mesophilic, strictly marine (therefore requiring NaCl for growth), and oxidase and catalase ... DISTRIBUTION OF BACTERIA BELONGING TO THE PSEUDOVIBRIO GENUS. *BACTERIA BELONGING TO THE PSEUDOVIBRIO GENUS ARE METABOLICALLY ... The role of sponge-bacteria interactions: the sponge Aplysilla rosea challenged by its associated bacterium Streptomyces ACT- ... Isolation of marine bacteria by in situ culture on media-supplemented polyurethane foam. Mar Biotechnol 8:227-237. doi:10.1007/ ...
Tpx may play a role of particular importance in the survival of bacteria, such as S. parasanguis, that lack catalase. ... Homologues of the PepO endopeptidase occur in many animals but in only a limited group of bacteria, the majority of which are ... 1994) Virulence factors among gram-positive bacteria in experimental endocarditis. Infect. Immun. 62:2143-2148. ... Adhesion of the oral bacterium Streptococcus parasanguisFW213 to an in vitro tooth surface model, saliva-coated hydroxyapatite ...
If the strains are catalase negative, gram-positive and cocci shaped they can be identified as lactic acid bacteria. ... 2, A and B). The catalase activity test proved the catalase negative nature of the isolates as they could not hydrolyse H2O2, ... Catalase activity test of the isolates showing their catalase negative nature (A) (B) SPO (C) SPA ... The catalase activity of the isolates was deduced by adding few drops of 3% H2O2 on 5 ml of 12h grown culture [22]. The E. coli ...
Catalase (1 U/ml) was added to prevent killing by H2O2 during the assay. Percent survival was determined at 0, 1, and 3 h ... Bacteria were exposed to superoxide generated by combining 250 μM hypoxanthine with 0.1 U of xanthine oxidase (Sigma) per ml in ... KatG is a catalase peroxidase (32) that protects M. tuberculosis from killing by hydrogen peroxide (26). KatG also has ... Cu,Zn SOD genes have been detected in a number of other bacteria, including Haemophilus (34),Neisseria (41), Escherichia(17), ...
Exercise 66 Catalase Test Exercise 67 Oxidase Test Exercise 68 Nitrate Reduction Test Exercise 69 Coagulase Test Exercise 70 ... Case Study Exercise 21 Phage Typing of Bacteria Case Study Exercise 22 Simulated Epidemic Case Study Exercise 23 Morbidity and ... Exercise 66 Catalase Test Exercise 67 Oxidase Test Exercise 68 Nitrate Reduction Test Exercise 69 Coagulase Test Exercise 70 ... Case Study Exercise 21 Phage Typing of Bacteria Case Study Exercise 22 Simulated Epidemic Case Study Exercise 23 Morbidity and ...
The bacteria were isolated by sowing material from the mentioned skin areas and from organs (liver, spleen and kidneys) on two ... catalase was positive; V.P. was negative; esculin was positive. There was a zone of hemolysis around the grown colonies. ... All isolated bacteria strains were immobile. The examined strains multiplied at a temperature of 22-23°C, while there was no ... In tendency of determination the presence of this bacteria in trout it has been done the rapid agglutination with the "O" ...
Culture of the bacteria reveals a catalase-positive, gram-positive cocci. Which of the following bacteria is most likely to be ... note that infection can be due to bacteria, fungi, and mycobacteria. *microbiology *Staphylococcus auerus *most common cause ... Male: 6-23 mIU/mL. Female: follicular phase: 5-30 mIU/mL. midcycle: 75-150 mIU/mL. postmenopause 30-200 mIU/mL. ...
Gram Positive Rods - Catalase Positive. About microscopic forms of life, including Bacteria, Archea, protozoans, algae and ... Gram Positive Rods - Catalase Positive. by thurley999 » Sun Dec 06, 2009 11:45 pm ... Catalase Positive +. Oxidase negative. Oxidation-Fermentation - no sugar metabolism. phenol red broth w/mannitol ---- -/-. ... Re: Gram Positive Rods - Catalase Positive. by billw » Mon Dec 07, 2009 12:36 am ...
Bacteria grown on the latter medium were tested for catalase reactivity, which was absent. Acid was produced from glucose, ... A gram-positive bacillus was the only bacterium isolated from her urine at that time. This bacterium, recovered by a private ... Some bacteria were poorly stained with the Gram stain, and a few exhibited branching. Growth was observed, although it was ... Oxidase and catalase activities were evaluated by routine procedures. Additional biochemical tests were performed by ...
  • Antioxidant enzymes like catalase and superoxide dismutase are located in the periplasmic space which is the space between the inner and outer membranes of the cell wall. (
  • By contrast, the expression levels of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and catalase (CAT) were reduced. (
  • Feeding of high CLA enhanced ghee during pubescent period in rats lead to an increase in catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme activities in blood and increased CAT, SOD and glutathione transferase (GST) enzymes activities in liver by 27, 130 and 168 percent, respectively. (
  • Antioxidants are the molecules that inhibit the oxidation of other molecules and these include glutathione, vitamin C, vitamin A, and vitamin E as well as enzymes such as catalase, superoxide dismutase and various peroxidases [ 3 ]. (
  • Additionally, SaMR12 inoculation promoted the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and facilitated the relative gene expression levels of dehydroascorbate reductase ( DHAR ) and glutathione reductase ( GR ) involved in the glutathione (GSH)-ascorbic acid (AsA) cycle. (
  • Phenolic glycolipids (( 8 )) and cyclopropanated mycolic acids (( 9 )) protect the cell wall, while catalase, alkylhydroperoxide reductase (( 10 )), and superoxide dismutase (( 11 ), ( 12 )) guard the cytosol. (
  • Grass fed meat is also higher in antioxidants like vitamins E and A, the report noted, along with the enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase, which mop up free radicals that could otherwise hasten oxidation and spoilage. (
  • These antioxidative strategies could be based on the activity of two enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD) which reduced superoxides and catalases which catabolized in H 2 O + O 2 the hydrogen peroxide resulting from the reduction of superoxides. (
  • Superoxide dismutase [ Cu- Zn] also known as superoxide dismutase 1 or SOD1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the SOD1 gene, located on chromosome 21. (
  • Several protocols like comet assay, gel electrophoresis for DNA ladder and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and biomarker measurement like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were conducted. (
  • The time course of growth and catalase production by this strain showed the intracellular activity of this enzyme to be about 3-fold higher than its extracellular level. (
  • Catalase activity showed its maximum at 15 °C, indicating adaptation of the enzyme to lower temperatures of the arctic environment. (
  • In E. coli , Tpx is an enzyme that prevents the formation of reactive oxygen species toxic for many bacteria. (
  • Two novel isolates of lactic acid bacteria with higher enzyme activity were screened and characterized based on a battery of microscopic, staining, metabolic, physiological and antibiotic sensitivity tests. (
  • Catalase is an enzyme present in the cells of plants, animals and aerobic (oxygen requiring) bacteria. (
  • The catalase found here can act on toxic molecules that are transported to the periplasm or the enzyme can be released outside the bacterial wall where it can act on toxic molecules in the environment. (
  • The rate at which an enzyme works is influenced by several factors including the concentration of substrate (hydrogen peroxide in the case of catalase), temperature, pH, salt concentration and the presence of inhibitors or activators. (
  • Catalase is a common enzyme found in nearly all living organisms exposed to oxygen (such as bacteria, plants, and animals).It catalyzes the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen. (
  • To degrade the detected toxins, we expressed the enzyme microcystinase, which is naturally found in some Gram-negative bacteria. (
  • The compound itself could be harmful if touched or swallowed and this is why we have enzyme, catalase (a protein), to break it down into two harmless element and compound. (
  • Enzyme Action: Testing Catalase Activity Introduction Many organisms can decompose hydrogen peroxide enzymatically. (
  • LABORATORY REPORT (Click on the Save a Copy button on the panel above to save your report) Activity: Enzyme Activity Predictions 1. (
  • Introductory Biology 1 Biology 1003 Fall Term 2011 Lab Number: 3 Title: Cell Energetics: Enzyme Role in Biological Reactions Name: Brandon Moore Student Number: 100819124 Lab day and time: Wednesday pm Date: Wednesday November 23, 2011 Introduction Enzymes are a key aspect in our everyday life and are a key to sustaining life. (
  • Enzyme Lab By: Gaurav Sahota March 19, 2014 Ms. Lukas Background Information: This lab discusses the enzyme, Catalase, and the factors that affect its performance. (
  • Studies with recombinant CYP3A4 revealed that 6′,7′-dihydroxybergamottin is a mechanism-based inactivator, which supports the idea that loss of CYP3A4 results from accelerated degradation of the enzyme. (
  • The grapefruit juice effect has been postulated to be the result of competitive inhibition of CYP3A4 in the enterocytes lining the small intestine ( 1 , 2 ) because grapefruit juice has been shown to contain substances capable of competitively inhibiting this enzyme ( 9-11 ). (
  • Lipid peroxidation, catalase, peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase enzyme activities played an important role in overcoming Cr-induced oxidative stress on the plant. (
  • Enzyme Catalase. (
  • Bio-catalytic mesoporous Janus nano-motors powered by catalase enzyme. (
  • Catalase (EC is one of the important industrial enzyme employed in diagnostic and analytical methods in the form of biomarkers and biosensors in addition to their enormous applications in textile, paper, food and pharmaceutical sectors. (
  • Not only are nosocomial infec- nurses disinfect skin with 70% alcohol fol- tions increasing, they are more frequently lowed by 2% povidone-iodine before col- being caused by pathogenic bacteria that lecting blood samples. (
  • Presence of pathogenic bacteria in fresh chicken sold in some retail outlets in Accra was confirmed. (
  • Antibiotic-resistant genes are found in some microbes, and when present in the gut these genes can potentially be passed on to pathogenic bacteria. (
  • Molecular Hydrogen Metabolism: a Widespread Trait of Pathogenic Bacteria and Protists. (
  • According to the FDA declaration, pathogenic bacteria such as B. cereus and S. aureus have been associated with food borne diseases (FBD). (
  • Serving as both the #1 bench reference for practicing microbiologists and as a favorite text for students in clinical laboratory science programs, Bailey & Scott's Diagnostic Microbiology, 14th Edition covers all the topical information and critical thinking practice you need for effective laboratory testing. (
  • Part I: Basic Medical Microbiology 1. (
  • Part II: General Principles in Clinical Microbiology Section 1:Safety and Specimen Management 4. (
  • Part 1: Introduction to Clinical Microbiology 1. (
  • Performance Improvement in the Microbiology Laboratory 6. (
  • Journal of General Microbiology ( 1976), 93, Printed in Great Britain- Differentiation of Micrococcus luteus and Micrococcus varians on the Basis of Catalase Isoenzymes By R. Based on an ancient recipe from Teregova, in Western Romania, Ciprian Homorodean arrived at a distilled, clear alcohol of 42°, a variant of the national beverage ( Tuica). (
  • Most of these treatments are usually not sufficient to destroy microorganisms and in some cases psychrotolerant pathogenic such as Listeria monocytogenes or spoilage causing bacteria can develop during prolonged shelf-life of these products [2,5,6]. (
  • Majority of these foods are fermented by desirable microorganisms like lactic acid bacteria and yeasts (starter cultures). (
  • The types and number of microorganisms in an environment are influenced by environmental characteristics and the substances that are introduced in the environment ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • 1 With this perception in mind, curiously, microorganisms have been developing an amazing ability to resist diverse, and sometimes drastic, environmental insults and stresses. (
  • The spectrum of microorganisms that imately 1-5 mL collected from children at invade the bloodstream has been systemi- each phlebotomy. (
  • Gastric acid and bile salts tolerance, production of antagonistic substances against pathogenic microorganisms, and adhesive ability to gut epithelium are other important characteristics that make these bacteria useful for oral immunization. (
  • The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is colonized by a complex community of microorganisms, known as the intestinal microbiota, consisting mainly of bacteria that are classified as indigenous or transient. (
  • Many strategies have been employed for the synthesis of catalase from microorganisms, which include optimization of critical factors, induction by H 2 O 2 , mutagenesis and other advanced genetic engineering approaches. (
  • Cellulases are inducible enzymes synthesized by a large diversity of microorganisms including both fungi and bacteria during their growth on cellulosic materials [ 5 ]. (
  • The susceptibility contamination of poultry or other meats, raw milk, other pattern of isolates from humans (11, 12) and food milk products and surface water (1). (
  • Identification of the bacterial isolates was performed according to standard protocols ( 11 , 12 ). (
  • 9 ). Genotyping of Brucella isolates was performed by PCR, using 5′-GGCTGATCTCGCAAAGAT-3′ and 5′-CCAGGTCCTTGGCTTCCTTGAG-3′ primers (Invitrogen Corporation, Carlsbad, CA, USA) for the amplification of ribosomal protein L12 and PCR- StyI restriction fragment length polymorphism of the omp2b locus, as described ( 11 , 12 ). (
  • isolates were classified using the catalase test and the esculin degradation on Bile esculin agar. (
  • The two isolates of LAB named SPO and SPA were cocci shaped, Gram Positive, catalase negative, heterofermentative, vancomycin resistant, broad spectrum carbohydrate fermentating with exopolysaccharide synthesizing activity. (
  • Diminished susceptibility to penicillin was noted in 19 isolates (17%), with 12 (11%) having an intermediate level of sensitivity and 7 (6%) showing outright resistance. (
  • Only 1 of the 19 isolates resistant to penicillin also showed resistance to ceftriaxone. (
  • Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out on 6 of the obtained isolates. (
  • Mutations of the inhA operon have been associated with INH-resistant M. tuberculosis isolates ( 1 , 10 , 11 ). (
  • The most frequently encountered rpoB mutations in the RMP-resistant isolates are concentrated on a short, 69-bp region of the gene ( 5 , 6 , 19 ), and consequently it has been possible to develop targeted gene technology applications for diagnosis of RMP-resistant tuberculosis ( 2 , 3 , 19 ). (
  • Whole genome sequencing of 15 GBS isolates from 11 laboratories revealed four unique deletions of chromosomal DNA ranging from 181 base pairs to 49 kilobases. (
  • Non-fermenting Gram-negative bacteria (NFGNB) such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter species, as well as Gram-positive cocci (GPC) like Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus species, are human pathogens that frequently cause nosocomial infections in developing countries. (
  • ESKAPE bacteria which includes Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter cloacae are considered the most important, because of their close relationship with the development of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). (
  • Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most common isolate in 2001 followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, whereas in 2002 coliform bacteria were the highest, followed by P. aeruginosa. (
  • Staphylococcus epidermidis était l'isolat le plus fréquent en 2001, suivi de Pseudomonas aeruginosa, alors qu'en 2002, les colibacilles étaient les plus répandus, suivis de P. aeruginosa. (
  • The pathogenic bacterium Staphylococcus aureus has the ability to cause a wide variety of human diseases ranging from superficial abscesses and wound infections to deep and systemic infections, such as osteomyelitis, endocarditis, and septicemia. (
  • The detected bacteria were from genera Bacillacea , Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas. (
  • Mupirocin nasal ointment is used to treat or prevent infections in the nose due to certain strains of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. (
  • According to this study, over the next five years the Catalase market will register a 2.4% CAGR in terms of revenue, the global market size will reach US$ 450 million by 2024, from US$ 400 million in 2019. (
  • In this study, 2018 has been considered as the base year and 2019 to 2025 as the forecast period to estimate the market size for Catalase. (
  • Sci Rep . 2019 Nov 25;9(1):17813. (
  • Sci Rep . 2019 Sep 25;9(1):13851. (
  • Catalase has one of the highest turnover rates for all enzymes: one molecule of catalase can convert 6 million molecules of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen each minute. (
  • It is demonstrated that the genome of C. cochliodes contains genes encoding putative enzymes from all four known heme peroxidase superfamilies including bifunctional catalase-peroxidase (KatG), cytochrome c peroxidase (CcP), manganese peroxidase, two paralogs of hybrid B peroxidases (HyBpox), cyclooxygenase, linoleate diol synthase, dye-decolorizing peroxidase (DyP) of type B and three paralogs of heme thiolate peroxidases. (
  • Interestingly, representatives from all five (super)families were found including putative bifunctional catalase-peroxidase, cytochrome c peroxidase, hybrid B peroxidases, cyclooxygenase-like enzymes, dye-decolorizing peroxidases, heme thiolate peroxidases as well as large- and small-subunit monofunctional catalases. (
  • recently reported that 6′,7′-dihydroxybergamottin (DHB) 1 , a furanocoumarin present in grapefruit juice, is a potent inhibitor of CYP3A enzymes in rat liver microsomes ( 14 ). (
  • Industrial demand for microbial enzymes has emerged as the fastest growing market and catalase is one of them. (
  • Cellulase is a family of at least 3 groups of enzymes, endo-(1, 4)-β-Dglucanase, exo-(1,4)-β-D-glucanase and β-glucosidases. (
  • Among these strains Penicillium cyclopium 1, the most effective for production of catalase, was selected by the method of test-tube microculture. (
  • Fiedurek, J., Gromada, A. (2000) Production of catalase and glucose oxidase by Aspergillus niger using unconventional oxygenation of culture. (
  • The production of catalase was maximum at the MIC and decreased thereafter. (
  • The present study demonstrates the utility of a newly isolated and adapted strain of genus Geobacillus possessing unique combination of several industrially important extremophilic properties for the hyper production of catalase. (
  • A novel extremophilic strain belonging to genus Geobacillus was exploited for the production of catalase by tailoring its nutritional requirements and process variables. (
  • The extraordinary high production of catalase from Geobacillus sp. (
  • Sci Rep . 2017 Nov 27;7(1):16447. (
  • Ara K, Saeki K, Igarashi K, Takaiwa M, Uemura T, Hagihara H, Kawai S, Ito S (1995) Purification and characterization of an alkaline amylopullulanase with both α-1, 4 and α-1, 6 hydrolytic activity from alkalophilic Bacillus sp. (
  • On a direct Gram stain of a clinical specimen, Bacillus, Lactobacillus, and Corynebacterium all have distinctive, characteristic morphologies and arrangements so that in fact the genus designation is usually apparent from the Gram stain alone, although catalase testing of colonies is also very helpful (the anaerobic clostridia are or may be indistinguishable from Bacillus on Gram stain). (
  • A gram-positive bacillus was the only bacterium isolated from her urine at that time. (
  • For example, the survival of Bacillus anthracis ( B.anthracis ) in macrophages strictly depends on bNOS activity, which is an important virulence factor that protects this pathogen from immunological oxidative bursts (6). (
  • At higher concentrations, it kills bacteria, whereas, at lower concentrations it induces them to synthesize silver nanoparticles where Bacillus licheniformis (MTCC1483) is used for analysis. (
  • 6. The method according to claim 2, wherein said PGPR has the identifying characteristics of Bacillus thuringiensis strain NEB17 (deposited at the International Depositary Authority of Canada (IDAC) on Mar. 27, 2003 under Accession No. 270303-02), B. thuringiensis strain BUPM4 or B. cereus strain UW85 (ATCC 53522). (
  • Normally, bacteria belonging mostly to the Lactobacillus family live harmlessly in the vagina and produce chemicals that keep the vagina mildly acidic. (
  • It has also been shown that B.Subtilis suppresses the growth of harmful pathogens (11) and enhances the growth of Lactobacillus (12). (
  • We previously showed that the heterologous production of the Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC14431 manganese-dependant catalase (MnKat) in Lb. casei BL23 successfully enhances its survival when exposed to oxidative stress. (
  • Here, we proposed to evaluate the efficiency of in situ delivery of one catalase by the lactic acid bacterium (LAB) Lactobacillus casei . (
  • Roseateles aquatilis is a Gram-negative, oxidase-positive, catalase-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacterium with a single polar flagellum from the genus Roseateles, which was isolated from industrial water and fresh water. (
  • This forming, helical bacteria with a distinctive `darting' underlines the need to limit the use of antimicrobials in motility, and are catalase and oxidase positive. (
  • 1993). It is oxidase positive, catalase positive, glucose-fermenting, facultative anaerobic species (Abbott et al. (
  • bNOS genes are also present in the genomes of numerous nonpathogenic soil bacteria (4). (
  • Real-time PCR showed that expression of activating protein-1 (AP-1) and the antioxidative-related genes was increased. (
  • Based on analyses of the ratio of synonymous to nonsynonymous mutations in protein-coding genes, DNA loss in parasitic and symbiotic bacteria appears to be driven by genetic drift associated with transmission bottlenecks, insulation from horizontal gene transfer (HGT), and the relaxation of selection on certain functions ( 9 ). (
  • We support our genomic findings with quantitative transcription analysis of nine peroxidase & catalase genes. (
  • Analysis of the genome of C. thermophilum [ 1 ] mainly focused on the presence of genes coding for nucleoporins of high thermal stability, whereas the draft genome of Chaetomium globosum [ 2 ] was mainly asked for diverse genes coding cellulolytic pathways. (
  • Of the two genes, however, katG seems to be more frequently altered ( 11 ). (
  • It has a range of inherent resistance mechanisms that can be upregulated when required (antibiotic pressure), as well as a great ability to acquire resistance genes from other bacteria through mobile genetic elements such as plasmids. (
  • En la segunda fase, los tres genes se expresaron en las dos concentraciones, la TCTP y la SOD a mayores niveles en 5 mg/kg de PbAc 2 . (
  • Microbiol Mol Biol Rev . 2020 Jan 29;84(1). (
  • The resulting Δ acr ∷ hpt strain was shown to be equivalent to wild-type H37Rv in in vitro growth rate and infectivity but was significantly impaired for growth in both mouse bone marrow derived macrophages and THP-1 cells. (
  • and finally, Pseudovibrio stylochi strain UST20140214-052 T and Pseudovibrio hongkongensis strain UST20140214-015B T were both isolated from marine polyclad flatworms collected in Hong Kong ( 5 , 6 ). (
  • Bacterial cells of strain G100 that were starved for 6 weeks attained a higher growth rate and a higher biomass yield when resuscitated in the presence of cAMP instead of AMP. (
  • 2003 (12), the mutated strain UM1 (katE katG), deficient in catalase, was found to be more sensitive to both silver zeolite and silver nitrate than its parent. (
  • M. tuberculosis H37Rv and an isogenic BTZ-resistant strain (H37Rv-BTZ-R) that carries a point mutation in dprE1 (C387S) were routinely grown at 37°C in 7H9 broth (Difco) supplemented with Middlebrook albumin-dextrose-catalase (ADC) enrichment, 0.2% glycerol, and 0.05% Tween 80 or on solid Middlebrook 7H10 medium (Difco) supplemented with 0.5% glycerol and Middlebrook oleic acid-albumin-dextrose-catalase (OADC). (
  • Comparison with the periplasmic (per)chlorate reductase of strain GR-1 showed that the cytoplasmic chlorate reductase of P. chloritidismutans reduced only chlorate and bromate. (
  • Pseudomonas chloritidismutans (strain AW-1) is a recently isolated facultative anaerobic chlorate-reducing bacterium ( 22 ). (
  • A second (per)chlorate reductase has been purified from strain GR-1 ( 10 ). (
  • Besides (per)chlorate, nitrate, iodate, and bromate were also reduced by the (per)chlorate reductase of strain GR-1. (
  • Strain GR-1 (DSM 11199) was grown as described previously ( 10 , 17 ). (
  • A Gram-positive, non-motile, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium, strain 7087 T , was isolated from rhizosphere of maize in China. (
  • BSS-7 makes the isolated strain a prospective candidate for bulk catalase production on an industrial scale. (
  • The β- glucosidases activity of these three potential cellulolytic bacteria was performed by measuring the release of PNP using pNPG as a substrate and interestingly D4 strain was resulted with β-glucosidases negative where B1 strain was found to have efficient for β-glucosidases activity. (
  • KatG is a catalase peroxidase ( 32 ) that protects M. tuberculosis from killing by hydrogen peroxide ( 26 ). (
  • Deletion and mutations of the katG gene encoding catalase-peroxidase have been shown to cause resistance to INH ( 21 ). (
  • Catalase Market report 2018-2023 begins from overview of Industry Chain structure, and describes industry environment, then analyses market size and forecast of Catalase by product, region and application, in addition, this report introduces market competition situation among the vendors and company profile, besides, market price analysis and value chain features are covered in this report. (
  • Global Catalase market size will increase to 480 Million US$ by 2025, from 400 Million US$ in 2018, at a CAGR of 2.7% during the forecast period. (
  • Pediatr Int . 2018 Jun;60(6):604-605. (
  • Sci Rep . 2018 May 31;8(1):8486. (
  • 2018 Mar 25;498(1):45-51. (
  • 2018 Jan 2;32(1):128-129. (
  • Sci Rep . 2018 Sep 21;8(1):14203. (
  • Print 2018 Sep 1. (
  • Fiedurek, J., Gromada, A. (1997) Selection of biochemical mutants of Aspergillus niger with enhanced catalase production. (
  • 1997;38:71-6. (
  • 6,12) Cell phones are susceptible to contamination by bacterial pathogens and could be involved in nosocomial transmission. (
  • As a prime and most fundamental process that may account for the increased fat content in pept-1(lg601) we identified a highly accelerated absorption of free fatty acids from the bacterial food in the intestine. (
  • In view of several similarities between these bacteria and the aerococci described by Shaw, Stitt & Cowan (1951), and later by Williams, Hirch & Cowan (1953), it is proposed that both groups should be incorporated in a new bacterial family, Aerococcaceae, despite the fact that the aerococci are catalase-negative and nitratase-negative. (
  • Each year, Mycobacterium tuberculosis kills nearly three million among the one-third of the world's population who are infected (( 1 )), making it the most deadly as well as one of the most successful bacterial pathogens of the human species. (
  • 1 Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Institute of Bacterial Infections and Zoonoses, Naumburger Str. (
  • 6: Cano RJ, Borucki MK (1995) Revival and identification of bacterial spores in 25- to 40-million-year-old Dominican amber. (
  • The outcome of Mtb infection is largely determined by a delicate balance between the host immune response and bacterial evasion and/or subversion of this response, resulting in successful control of the infection or manifestations of active disease of different severity [5] , [6] . (
  • Indeed, the addition of pyruvate or catalase to reduce oxidative stress yields increased colony counts in some instances ( 10 ), and the addition of carbon substrates at only low concentrations increases the cultivation success ( 7 ). (
  • Previously, it has been demonstrated that bNOS protects bacteria against oxidative stress (5, 6). (
  • Helicobacter Catalase Devoid of Catalytic Activity Protects the Bacterium against Oxidative Stress. (
  • The drug-treated and placebo-treated bacteria were subjected to assay for DNA damage and oxidative stress 90 min after UV exposure. (
  • The UV-exposed bacteria showed DNA damage and oxidative stress, as revealed by an increase in ROS generation, and a decrease in SOD, CAT and GSH activities. (
  • As compared to placebo, the AM-30C-treated bacteria showed less DNA damage and oxidative stress as manifested by a decrease in ROS generation, and an increase in SOD, CAT and GSH activities. (
  • Of these NTM, Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) species are the most common cause of human and animal disease globally ( 6 , 14 , 16 , 24 ). (
  • Indeed, Gould ( 1 ) argued that the appearance of progress in the fossil record is a mere artifact: because there is a minimum complexity necessary to sustain life but no apparent upper limit to complexity, even undirected change may produce more complex species by a "drunkard's walk" mechanism while preserving relatively simple bacteria as the dominant mode of life. (
  • Patterns of drug resistance varied according to species of bacteria but were generally quite high. (
  • The new family ought to include one genus, Aerococcus , and two species, one of which, A. viridans , should comprise catalase-negative and nitratase-negative strains, and the other, A. catalasicus , strains which are obligate catalase-positive and may also be nitratase-positive. (
  • These results provide a theoretical foundation for the potential application of hyperaccumulator endophytic bacteria as remediating agents to improve heavy metal tolerance within non-host plant species, which could further improve phytoextraction efficiency. (
  • Acinetobacter species are gram-negative, non-fermenting, often coccobacillary bacteria that belong in the family Moraxellaceae. (
  • A. baumannii is part of the A. calcoaceticus-A. baumannii complex, which includes A. calcoaceticus (genomic species 1, an environmental species of limited clinical significance), A. baumannii (genomic species 2), A. pittii (genomic species 3) and A. nosocomialis (genomic species 13TU), which are all genetically highly related and difficult to distinguish phenotypically. (
  • The effect of signal molecules on the cultivation efficiency of bacteria from the Gotland Deep in the central Baltic Sea was investigated. (
  • In gram-negative bacteria, N -acyl homoserine lactones are major autocrine molecular signal molecules which trigger processes as diverse as resuscitation from the lag phase ( 8 ), bioluminescence ( 28 ), and virulence ( 46 ). (
  • In contrast, the typical signal molecules of gram-positive bacteria are posttranslationally processed peptides. (
  • However, BTZ, like other mycobacterial cell wall inhibitors, appear to be poorly active on nonreplicating bacteria and require association with molecules that target this reservoir of latent bacilli ( 11 ). (
  • of complement represents about 3 × 10 9 virus particles and 6 × 10 11 molecules of albumin. (
  • Unlike Escherichia coli , marine planktonic bacteria express high-affinity uptake systems for cAMP and, despite the low ambient concentrations, are therefore capable of increasing intracellular cAMP to levels (up to 2.8 μM) typical for E. coli and other prokaryotes ( 3 ). (
  • CONCLUSIONS: The influx of free fatty acids into intestinal epithelial cells is strongly dependent on alterations in intracellular pH which is regulated by the interplay of PEPT-1 and the sodium-proton exchanger NHX-2. (
  • Loss of PEPT-1 decreases intestinal proton influx leading to a higher uptake of free fatty acids with fat accumulation whereas loss of NHX-2 causes intracellular acidification by the PEPT-1 mediated proton/dipeptide symport with an almost abolished uptake of fatty acids and a lean phenotype. (
  • This is the first serious study covering intracellular catalase production from thermophilic genus Geobacillus . (
  • An increase in intracellular catalase production by 214.72 % was achieved in the optimized medium when transferred from the shake flask to the fermenter level. (
  • 1-4) These pathogens have been isolated from the environment and fomites in critical care settings. (
  • The data so far available indicate that these bacteria are mainly beneficial to the host, and besides being involved in major nutrient cycles, they could provide the host with both vitamins/cofactors and protection from potential pathogens via the synthesis of antimicrobial secondary metabolites. (
  • This behaviour has posed a major challenge with reference to human health and environment as it enhances the appearance and spreading of antibiotic resistant bacteria among other pathogens ( 6 ). (
  • When genetically modified, these bacteria can induce a specific local and systemic immune response against selected pathogens. (
  • LAB capable of secreting antimicrobial peptides are used as food preservatives as well as health-promoting agents for humans [6]. (
  • To cover the possibility of undiagnosed pneumococcal pneumonia, World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for the management of ARI include empirical use of antimicrobial agents such as procaine penicillin, ampicillin, and co-trimoxazole (trimethoprim + sulfa methoxazole) ( 6, 7 ). (
  • Antimicrobial biocide is the term used for chemical agents (disinfectants and antiseptics) used to kill bacteria, viruses, and moulds. (
  • For quite a long time, silver has been known to impart antimicrobial activity to bacteria. (
  • To analyze the antimicrobial function of AgNO 3 , bacteria was treated with various concentrations of silver nitrate and incubated for 2 mins. (
  • The results of our study suggest that changes in Mtb gene expression, in response to changes in the host immune response, can alter the responsiveness of the bacteria to antimicrobial agents. (
  • Both KatG and DyP-type B are shown to be introduced into ascomycetes genomes by horizontal gene transfer from various bacteria. (
  • To Cite : Tomilayo Idowu E, Inuwa Ja'afaru M, Olajide Ajayi A, Akinterinwa A. Preliminary Investigation on the Resistance of Some Environmental Bacteria in Yola Metropolis, Adamawa State, Nigeria, to Biocides and Antibiotics, Avicenna J Clin Microb Infec. (
  • The aim of this study was to isolate and identify environmental bacteria and investigate their ability to resist antibacterial effects of biocides and antibiotics. (
  • Gram positive bacteria are an important cause of serious infections particularly form hospitals and are getting resistance to many antibiotics (16). (
  • Use of antibiotics in cattle leads to antibiotic-resistance of mastitis-causing bacteria. (
  • Khomeini Hospital was reviewed to identify patients who had nosocomial bacteraemia between 1 May 1999 and 31 May 2001 and identify the pathogen responsible and its resisitance to antibiotics. (
  • Typically 10 mL of are resistant to antibiotics [ 1-3 ]. (
  • In a Consumer Reports study of 300 raw ground beef samples, grass fed beef raised without antibiotics was three times less likely to be contaminated with multidrug-resistant bacteria compared to conventional (CAFO) samples. (
  • A large proportion of active tuberculosis cases arise not from initial infection with actively growing bacilli but from reactivation of previously implanted organisms that have been dormant or growing very slowly within the mammalian host ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • The infecting organisms were catalase producing bacteria. (
  • Since time immemorial, lactic acid bacteria are regarded as food grade micro-organisms. (
  • Pneumonia simply means a chronic or acute inflammation of the lungs caused by a virus, bacteria, and other types of micro-organisms. (
  • Prokaryotes, organisms like bacteria that lack a nuclear membrane, also lack membrane bound organelles such as peroxisomes. (
  • In addition to daily visual examination, and other organisms likely to inhabit the blood subcultures are performed 6 to 12 hospital environment and the gastrointesti- hours after the first incubation on well- nal tracts of hospitalized patients [ 4,5 ]. (
  • presumably these organisms are able to synthesize the apoenzyme but not the prosthetic group of catalase. (
  • Certainly they might have come in contact with pathogenic organisms, but exposure to a variety of microbes during the early years of life would have strengthened their microbiome and immune system (1). (
  • Pneumococcal infections are caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, a gram-positive, catalase-negative organism commonly referred to as pneumococcus. (
  • Adhesion of the oral bacterium Streptococcus parasanguis FW213 to an in vitro tooth surface model, saliva-coated hydroxyapatite (SHA), is mediated by peritrichous surface fimbriae ( 15 , 21 , 22 ). (
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae cells are Gram-positive, coccus bacteria. (
  • Streptococcus pyogene, a gram positive cocci, non motile and non spore forming bacteria, causes streptococcal pharyngitis, which is popularly known as strep throat. (
  • Multidrug-resistant bacteria isolated from cell phones in five intensive care units: Exploratory dispersion analysis. (
  • The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria has created a situation in which there are few or no options for treating certain infections. (
  • This bacterium, recovered by a private laboratory and thought to be a vaginal contaminant, was not identified, nor was it tested for its antibiotic susceptibility. (
  • Generally, only a small fraction of the bacteria present in natural samples multiply in laboratory media. (
  • The addition of extracellular cAMP has been shown to prevent substrate-accelerated death in starved laboratory cultures ( 11 ). (
  • Other reports suggest that a range of micro-environmental conditions exist even within purified water systems which are intended for laboratory use or for irrigation, leading to variable populations of contaminant bacteria [3]. (
  • Although to date only six type strains have been described, in the last 15 years, Pseudovibrio -like bacteria have been detected via cultivation-dependent and -independent methods worldwide, mostly associated with marine invertebrates. (
  • In this perspective, it is essential to explore the natural biodiversity for novel strains of exopolysaccharide synthesizing lactic acid bacteria (LAB). (
  • The present study reports the isolation of two new strains of lactic acid bacteria from the soil samples, their characterization. (
  • The aim was to determine if the bacteria Aeromonas salmonicida was the cause of the disease furunculosis, in Californian trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss , Walbaum 1792), as well as certain biochemical activities of the isolated strains. (
  • Shigella bacteria are thought to be derived from different strains of Escherichia coli. (
  • The majority of the strains were both catalase-positive and nitratase-positive. (
  • However, in addition to nitrate reductase activity, these strains also showed chlorate reductase activity, which has been observed before for other denitrifying bacteria ( 6 , 15 ). (
  • Amorim AM, Gasques MD, Andreaus J, Scharf M (2002) The application of catalase for the elimination of hydrogen peroxide residues after bleaching of cotton fabrics. (
  • Also, I did a lab with catalase and I realized that it worked better in the control test tube (which was just catalase and hydrogen peroxide) than in the one which had catalase, hydroxen peroxide and pH7. (
  • It even worked better when I mixed catalase, hydrogen peroxide and pH11 so I don't understand why the one with pH7 didn't work better. (
  • Catalase also uses hydrogen peroxide to oxidize toxins including phenols , formic acid, formaldehyde and alcohols. (
  • White blood cells produce hydrogen peroxide to kill bacteria. (
  • In both cases catalase prevents the hydrogen peroxide from harming the cell itself. (
  • Aerobic (oxygen requiring) bacteria produce hydrogen peroxide as a byproduct of metabolism. (
  • Catalase is one of the known free radical scavengers that scavenges hydrogen peroxide (2) a known active free radical. (
  • If catalase has a pH higher than 7, then hydrogen peroxide would not be broken down. (
  • Bacteria isolated on de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe medium (MRS) from different gastrointestinal portions of broiler chicks were evaluated for their resistance to artificial gastric acid and bile salts, production of hydrogen peroxide, and cell surface hydrophobicity. (
  • Part I - PROCEDURE -- Normal Catalase Activity Place 2 ml of the 3% hydrogen peroxide solution into a clean test tube Add a small piece of liver to one test tube. (
  • Examination of surgically removed human lung tissue from tuberculous lesions has demonstrated that bacilli are present in blocked airways of tuberculosis patients for years after conversion to sputum-negative status, but such bacteria do not appear to be metabolically active ( 7 ). (
  • Because of the location of SodC on the surface of the bacteria, we examined the role of the Cu,Zn SOD in protecting M. tuberculosis from exogenous sources of ROS. (
  • TMC207 at a quarter of the MIC (20 ng/ml) used in combination with BTZ043 (1/4 MIC, 0.375 ng/ml) had a stronger bactericidal effect on M. tuberculosis than TMC207 alone at a concentration of 80 ng/ml. (
  • Tuberculosis arises in a small proportion of infected individuals in whose macrophages the bacteria replicate extensively, when, for example, malnutrition (( 2 )) or HIV (( 3 )) impede the cell-mediated immune response that normally leads to the activation of macrophages. (
  • Despite effective chemotherapy available for over 50 years, and development of a control strategy of directly observed therapy short-course (DOTS), tuberculosis (TB) remains the leading cause of adult mortality attributable to a single infectious disease [1] . (
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a natural mutant in oxyR , a close homolog of the central regulator of peroxide stress response in enteric bacteria. (
  • Importantly, the levels of vaccine-induced mycobacterial growth-inhibitory responses seen in vitro after 1 week of coculture correlated with the protective immune responses detected in vivo at 28 days postchallenge in a mouse model of pulmonary tuberculosis. (
  • Allgood GS, Perry JJ (1986) Characterization of a manganese-containing catalase from the obligate thermophile Thermoleophilum album . (
  • Roseateles terrae is a Gram-negative, aerobic, oxidase- and catalase-positive bacterium with a single polar flagellum from the genus Roseateles, which was isolated from soil in Japan. (
  • Members of the genus Pseudovibrio have been isolated worldwide from a great variety of marine sources as both free-living and host-associated bacteria. (
  • The genus Pseudovibrio belongs to the class Alphaproteobacteria , as a member of the family Rhodobacteraceae that includes the highly diverse and environmentally abundant bacteria of the Roseobacter clade. (
  • Moreover, several findings date back to earlier years when the genus was not yet established, keeping some important features of these bacteria undisclosed. (
  • The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the distribution, abundance, and metabolic characteristics of bacteria belonging to the Pseudovibrio genus. (
  • The genus Weissella belongs to a group of heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria (LAB) commonly associated with foods. (
  • Feeding of C. elegans with [U-(13)C]-labelled E. coli revealed a decreased de novo synthesis of long-chain fatty acids in pept-1(lg601) and reduced levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids. (
  • Furthermore, TLR4 promoted γ -GCS translation through the AP-1 pathway, which was essential for GSH synthesis. (
  • Moreover, during the synthesis of silver nanoparticles the bacteria remained alive, and resumed their growth when the silver is removed from their environment (7). (
  • Proteomic profiling of UV-exposed cells identified up-regulated proteins such as a specific cytoplasmic catalase, a putative regulator, and proteins associated to amino acid and protein synthesis. (
  • At the time, two issues limited the overall usefulness of ATP as a test parameter: inability to differentiate between bacteria and fungi and inability to detect dormant microbes. (
  • As it is considered one of the highest UV-exposed environments, HAAL microbes constitute model systems to study UV-resistance mechanisms in environmental bacteria at various complexity levels. (
  • Beneficial Microbes 1: 93-106. (
  • In chlorate-reducing bacteria, chlorate is reduced to chlorite by a chlorate reductase, and in a second reaction, chlorite is disproportionated to chloride and oxygen by a chlorite dismutase. (
  • The purified chlorate reductase of P. chloritidismutans reported here is the first chlorate reductase derived from a chlorate-reducing bacterium that is capable of only dissimilatory chlorate reduction. (
  • The chlorate reductase eluted at the start of a linear gradient of 0 to 1 M potassium chloride in 50 mM Tris-HCl buffer, pH 7.5. (
  • Re: Why haven't harmful heat resistant bacteria evolved? (
  • This asymptomatic stage of the disease can last for decades during which time the bacilli are resistant to available chemotherapies ( 3 - 6 ). (
  • Despite successive therapy with amoxicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, in October 2001 the same organism was recovered from the patient's urine at a high concentration (10 6 bacteria/ml), and it was then resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. (
  • Genome size in eukaryotes is subject to diverse evolutionary forces and is not necessarily associated with genetic or phenotypic complexity ( 6 - 8 ). (
  • In bacteria, however, reductive genome evolution often causes losses of function. (
  • 6%). The most effective biocides were the Tiscol disinfectant and Dettol antiseptics while the most effective antibiotic was Tarivid. (
  • The filamentous fungus Chaetomium cochliodes was long considered to be a variant of Chaetomium globosum (cf. the NCBI taxonomy database at ) but already in very early studies e.g. [ 3 ] it was shown that C. cochliodes produces the antibiotic chaetomin which was shown to be highly active mainly against Gram-positive bacteria. (
  • Expression of noxR1 conferred upon Escherichia coli and Mycobacterium smegmatis enhanced ability to resist RNI and ROI, whether the bacteria were exposed to exogenous compounds in medium or to endogenous products in macrophages. (
  • Sur 1 216 prélèvements recueillis sur les surfaces, matériel et solutions antiseptiques de différentes salles d'opération en 2001 et 2002, le taux de cultures positives était de 3,7 % en 2001 et de 4,0 % en 2002. (
  • 2002. p. 1-9. (
  • These findings suggested that study of cultures of thermophilic bacteria might contribute to understanding the bio-clogging phenomena mediated by A. tepidamans in regard to GWHP-related thermal efficiency. (
  • 6,8 The purpose of the present study was to retest our previous findings in the KIHD study using a longer follow-up period. (
  • How the intestinal peptide transporter PEPT-1 contributes to an obesity phenotype in Caenorhabditits elegans. (
  • BACKGROUND: Amino acid absorption in the form of di- and tripeptides is mediated by the intestinal proton-coupled peptide transporter PEPT-1 (formally OPT-2) in Caenorhabditits elegans. (
  • by this stage, the Shigella bacteria have penetrated the intestinal mucosa. (
  • These bacteria are gram-positive, non-motile, non-spore-forming rods and facultative anaerobes. (
  • Non-fermenting, aerobic Gram-negative rod [ Fig 1 ]. (
  • Some lactic acid bacteria formed detectable H 2 O 2 and some did not, regardless of their preference or requirement for aerobic or anaerobic conditions. (
  • We have previously shown that the 16-kDa α-crystallin (Acr) (Hsp16.3) or Acr protein (encoded by the acr gene), which is undetectable during logarithmic growth of the tubercle bacilli, is strongly induced and becomes the dominant protein component of old, stationary phase viable cultures ( 11 ). (
  • Some of the lipid vacuoles may contain sparse, rod-shaped, gram-positive bacilli (GPB) ( figure 1 ). (
  • The capsule plays a big role in causing diseases of a bacteria as it strongly protects the bacteria cells from being engulfed by eukaryotic cells. (
  • DN34 was described as a Gram-negative motile rod-shaped bacterium capable of growing anaerobically by performing either denitrification or fermentation ( 1 ). (
  • LAB have found wide applications as food preservatives, flavouring and texturizing agents for centuries [1] and are now used as starter culture in dairy industry, meat and vegetable fermentation. (
  • Methyl red testing is positive, meaning that the bacteria uses a mixed acid fermentation pathway. (
  • A simple fermentation media containing only three components namely sucrose (0.55 %, w/v), yeast extract (1.0 %, w/v) and BaCl 2 (0.08 %, w/v) was designed for the hyperproduction of catalase. (
  • The present paper reports high quantum of catalase production (105,000 IU/mg of cells) in a short fermentation time of 12 h. (
  • Reference may be made to the study of Hylman and Teply (1970), wherein newer technique of drying microbial cultures including yeasts, molds and bacteria for use in cheese making is described using fluidized-bed drier after absorption and concentration in as curd mass. (
  • Gram staining of the pus showed a lot of neutrophils with Gram negative coccobacilli and the next day cultures revealed a pure culture of small, high-convex, grey colonies only growing on chocolate culture medium (Fig. 1 ) (Polyvitex PVX, bioMérieux, France) under 5 % CO 2 . (
  • While spore forming bacteria aren't necessarily able to permanently colonize the GI tract, probiotic effect may result from action at a variety of sites and a variety of mechanisms. (
  • Oxalate is involved in various metabolic and homeostatic mechanisms in fungi and bacteria and may play an important role in various aspects of animal metabolism, including mitochondrial activity regulation, thyroid function, gluconeogenesis, and glycolysis. (
  • Lower resistance rates (2-6%) were observed for amoxicillin, chloramphenicol and erythromycin than (10-20%) for ampicillin, gentamicin, kanamycin, streptomycin and tetracycline. (
  • Knowledge of resistance patterns would also allow for better therapeutic case management ( 11 ). (
  • Bacteria are capable of developing resistance against the effect of antibacterial agents used in eliminating them from their typical environment. (
  • [6] Multi-drug resistance is common. (
  • Resistance to streptomycin, ethionamide, and kanamycin was also determined (Fig. 1 ). (
  • 1. A method for promoting plant growth and/or disease resistance comprising applying a purified polypeptide that is a bacteriocin and that possesses plant growth and/or disease resistance promoting activity to a plant or plant seed, or to the growing environment thereof. (
  • Thus, plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) have been proposed as alternatives. (
  • The beneficial rhizobacteria are called plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) [ 1 ]. (
  • The plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) SaMR12 from the cadmium (Cd)/zinc hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance could promote the growth of a non-host plant, oilseed rape, under Cd stress. (
  • Initially, the MTB Acr was characterized as a major membrane protein ( 15 ), but subsequent work has revealed that it is a potent, ATP-independent, chaperone whose complex oligomeric active structure probably consists of a trimer of trimers ( 11 , 21 ). (
  • However, in a recent study performed in healthy volunteers, consumption of grapefruit juice for 6 days resulted in a mean 62% decrease in enterocyte CYP3A4 immunoreactive protein concentration with no change in CYP3A4 mRNA concentration ( 12 ). (
  • Different suppurative T. pyogenes infections in livestock and companion animals are associated with a variety of virulence factors, particularly exotoxin pyolysin and adhesins (fimbriae, neuraminidases, and collagen-binding protein) [ 6 ]. (
  • Furthermore, extracellular cAMP occurs in seawater at concentrations between 1 and 35 pM ( 3 ). (
  • Both animals lived on a dairy farm with recurrent cases of abortion and mastitis due to Brucella (B.) abortus biovar (bv) 1 infections [ 7 ]. (
  • Respiratory infections caused by bacteria are quite so many. (