An infant during the first month after birth.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Diseases of newborn infants present at birth (congenital) or developing within the first month of birth. It does not include hereditary diseases not manifesting at birth or within the first 30 days of life nor does it include inborn errors of metabolism. Both HEREDITARY DISEASES and METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS are available as general concepts.
The identification of selected parameters in newborn infants by various tests, examinations, or other procedures. Screening may be performed by clinical or laboratory measures. A screening test is designed to sort out healthy neonates (INFANT, NEWBORN) from those not well, but the screening test is not intended as a diagnostic device, rather instead as epidemiologic.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.
Care of infants in the home or institution.
A condition of the newborn marked by DYSPNEA with CYANOSIS, heralded by such prodromal signs as dilatation of the alae nasi, expiratory grunt, and retraction of the suprasternal notch or costal margins, mostly frequently occurring in premature infants, children of diabetic mothers, and infants delivered by cesarean section, and sometimes with no apparent predisposing cause.
The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.
Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.
Respiratory failure in the newborn. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
A subspecialty of Pediatrics concerned with the newborn infant.
Yellow discoloration of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA in the NEWBORN. It is a sign of NEONATAL HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA. Most cases are transient self-limiting (PHYSIOLOGICAL NEONATAL JAUNDICE) occurring in the first week of life, but some can be a sign of pathological disorders, particularly LIVER DISEASES.
Exchange of substances between the maternal blood and the fetal blood at the PLACENTA via PLACENTAL CIRCULATION. The placental barrier excludes microbial or viral transmission.
Hospital facilities which provide care for newborn infants.
Hospital units providing continuing surveillance and care to acutely ill newborn infants.
A condition characterized by the abnormal presence of ERYTHROBLASTS in the circulation of the FETUS or NEWBORNS. It is a disorder due to BLOOD GROUP INCOMPATIBILITY, such as the maternal alloimmunization by fetal antigen RH FACTORS leading to HEMOLYSIS of ERYTHROCYTES, hemolytic anemia (ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC), general edema (HYDROPS FETALIS), and SEVERE JAUNDICE IN NEWBORN.
Part of an ear examination that measures the ability of sound to reach the brain.
Errors in metabolic processes resulting from inborn genetic mutations that are inherited or acquired in utero.
Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of infants.
The care of women and a fetus or newborn given before, during, and after delivery from the 28th week of gestation through the 7th day after delivery.
Abnormal increase in RESPIRATORY RATE in the newborn. It is self-limiting and attributed to the delayed fetal lung fluid clearance often in CAESAREAN SECTION delivery.
The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A method, developed by Dr. Virginia Apgar, to evaluate a newborn's adjustment to extrauterine life. Five items - heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, reflex irritability, and color - are evaluated 60 seconds after birth and again five minutes later on a scale from 0-2, 0 being the lowest, 2 being normal. The five numbers are added for the Apgar score. A score of 0-3 represents severe distress, 4-7 indicates moderate distress, and a score of 7-10 predicts an absence of difficulty in adjusting to extrauterine life.
Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.
A disorder characterized by a reduction of oxygen in the blood combined with reduced blood flow (ISCHEMIA) to the brain from a localized obstruction of a cerebral artery or from systemic hypoperfusion. Prolonged hypoxia-ischemia is associated with ISCHEMIC ATTACK, TRANSIENT; BRAIN INFARCTION; BRAIN EDEMA; COMA; and other conditions.
Delivery of the FETUS and PLACENTA under the care of an obstetrician or a health worker. Obstetric deliveries may involve physical, psychological, medical, or surgical interventions.
Accumulation of BILIRUBIN, a breakdown product of HEME PROTEINS, in the BLOOD during the first weeks of life. This may lead to NEONATAL JAUNDICE. The excess bilirubin may exist in the unconjugated (indirect) or the conjugated (direct) form. The condition may be self-limiting (PHYSIOLOGICAL NEONATAL JAUNDICE) or pathological with toxic levels of bilirubin.
The taking of a blood sample to determine its character as a whole, to identify levels of its component cells, chemicals, gases, or other constituents, to perform pathological examination, etc.
An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.
The thick green-to-black mucilaginous material found in the intestines of a full-term fetus. It consists of secretions of the INTESTINAL GLANDS; BILE PIGMENTS; FATTY ACIDS; AMNIOTIC FLUID; and intrauterine debris. It constitutes the first stools passed by a newborn.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
A condition in infancy or early childhood due to an in-utero deficiency of THYROID HORMONES that can be caused by genetic or environmental factors, such as thyroid dysgenesis or HYPOTHYROIDISM in infants of mothers treated with THIOURACIL during pregnancy. Endemic cretinism is the result of iodine deficiency. Clinical symptoms include severe MENTAL RETARDATION, impaired skeletal development, short stature, and MYXEDEMA.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.
Continuous care and monitoring of newborn infants with life-threatening conditions, in any setting.
The thin, yellow, serous fluid secreted by the mammary glands during pregnancy and immediately postpartum before lactation begins. It consists of immunologically active substances, white blood cells, water, protein, fat, and carbohydrates.
Hemorrhage caused by vitamin K deficiency.
Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.
Female parents, human or animal.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.
Childbirth taking place in the home.
The care provided to women and their NEWBORNS for the first few months following CHILDBIRTH.
An abnormal increase in the amount of oxygen in the tissues and organs.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
The nursing of an infant at the breast.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
Treatment of disease by exposure to light, especially by variously concentrated light rays or specific wavelengths.
The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.
Any observable response or action of a neonate or infant up through the age of 23 months.
The flexible rope-like structure that connects a developing FETUS to the PLACENTA in mammals. The cord contains blood vessels which carry oxygen and nutrients from the mother to the fetus and waste products away from the fetus.
A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.
CHILDBIRTH at the end of a normal duration of PREGNANCY, between 37 to 40 weeks of gestation or about 280 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period.
Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.
Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.
A flavoprotein oxidoreductase that has specificity for medium-chain fatty acids. It forms a complex with ELECTRON TRANSFERRING FLAVOPROTEINS and conveys reducing equivalents to UBIQUINONE.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.
Care provided the pregnant woman in order to prevent complications, and decrease the incidence of maternal and prenatal mortality.
Special hospitals which provide care to women during pregnancy and parturition.
A group of autosomal recessive disorders marked by a deficiency of the hepatic enzyme PHENYLALANINE HYDROXYLASE or less frequently by reduced activity of DIHYDROPTERIDINE REDUCTASE (i.e., atypical phenylketonuria). Classical phenylketonuria is caused by a severe deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase and presents in infancy with developmental delay; SEIZURES; skin HYPOPIGMENTATION; ECZEMA; and demyelination in the central nervous system. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p952).
Hospital units equipped for childbirth.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
Young, unweaned mammals. Refers to nursing animals whether nourished by their biological mother, foster mother, or bottle fed.
Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero.
Detection of a MUTATION; GENOTYPE; KARYOTYPE; or specific ALLELES associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing.
A method of continuously holding a partially wrapped baby to the chest, involving skin-to-skin contact. Originally it was a method of caring for LOW-BIRTH-WEIGHT INFANT in developing countries and is now more widespread in developed nations. Aside from encouraging breast feeding, the extra sleep that the infant gets assists in regulating body temperature, helps the baby conserve energy, and redirects calorie expenditures toward growth and weight gain.
An infant having a birth weight lower than expected for its gestational age.
A general term for the complete or partial loss of the ability to hear from one or both ears.
Fetal and neonatal addiction and withdrawal as a result of the mother's dependence on drugs during pregnancy. Withdrawal or abstinence symptoms develop shortly after birth. Symptoms exhibited are loud, high-pitched crying, sweating, yawning and gastrointestinal disturbances.
Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to mothers and children.
Mechanical or anoxic trauma incurred by the infant during labor or delivery.
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
To utter an inarticulate, characteristic sound in order to communicate or express a feeling, or desire for attention.
A condition in which the death of adipose tissue results in neutral fats being split into fatty acids and glycerol.
Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.
A fetal blood vessel connecting the pulmonary artery with the descending aorta.
Syphilis acquired in utero and manifested by any of several characteristic tooth (Hutchinson's teeth) or bone malformations and by active mucocutaneous syphilis at birth or shortly thereafter. Ocular and neurologic changes may also occur.
Repetitive withdrawal of small amounts of blood and replacement with donor blood until a large proportion of the blood volume has been exchanged. Used in treatment of fetal erythroblastosis, hepatic coma, sickle cell anemia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, septicemia, burns, thrombotic thrombopenic purpura, and fulminant malaria.
Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the mother.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
The restoration to life or consciousness of one apparently dead. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A chronic lung disease developed after OXYGEN INHALATION THERAPY or mechanical ventilation (VENTILATION, MECHANICAL) usually occurring in certain premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE) or newborn infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME, NEWBORN). Histologically, it is characterized by the unusual abnormalities of the bronchioles, such as METAPLASIA, decrease in alveolar number, and formation of CYSTS.
A term used pathologically to describe BILIRUBIN staining of the BASAL GANGLIA; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM and clinically to describe a syndrome associated with HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA. Clinical features include athetosis, MUSCLE SPASTICITY or hypotonia, impaired vertical gaze, and DEAFNESS. Nonconjugated bilirubin enters the brain and acts as a neurotoxin, often in association with conditions that impair the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER (e.g., SEPSIS). This condition occurs primarily in neonates (INFANT, NEWBORN), but may rarely occur in adults. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p613)
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Prenatal protozoal infection with TOXOPLASMA gondii which is associated with injury to the developing fetal nervous system. The severity of this condition is related to the stage of pregnancy during which the infection occurs; first trimester infections are associated with a greater degree of neurologic dysfunction. Clinical features include HYDROCEPHALUS; MICROCEPHALY; deafness; cerebral calcifications; SEIZURES; and psychomotor retardation. Signs of a systemic infection may also be present at birth, including fever, rash, and hepatosplenomegaly. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p735)
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The failure of a FETUS to attain its expected FETAL GROWTH at any GESTATIONAL AGE.
The nursing specialty that deals with the care of newborn infants during the first four weeks after birth.
The practice of assisting women in childbirth.
A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Disorders affecting amino acid metabolism. The majority of these disorders are inherited and present in the neonatal period with metabolic disturbances (e.g., ACIDOSIS) and neurologic manifestations. They are present at birth, although they may not become symptomatic until later in life.
The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.
An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.
The pit in the center of the ABDOMINAL WALL marking the point where the UMBILICAL CORD entered in the FETUS.
A constituent of STRIATED MUSCLE and LIVER. It is an amino acid derivative and an essential cofactor for fatty acid metabolism.
An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1500 grams (3.3 lbs), regardless of gestational age.
A condition characterized by an abnormal increase of BILIRUBIN in the blood, which may result in JAUNDICE. Bilirubin, a breakdown product of HEME, is normally excreted in the BILE or further catabolized before excretion in the urine.
Liquid formulations for the nutrition of infants that can substitute for BREAST MILK.
Morphological and physiological development of FETUSES.
A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A respiratory distress syndrome in newborn infants, usually premature infants with insufficient PULMONARY SURFACTANTS. The disease is characterized by the formation of a HYALINE-like membrane lining the terminal respiratory airspaces (PULMONARY ALVEOLI) and subsequent collapse of the lung (PULMONARY ATELECTASIS).
The back (or posterior) of the FOOT in PRIMATES, found behind the ANKLE and distal to the TOES.
Self-generated faint acoustic signals from the inner ear (COCHLEA) without external stimulation. These faint signals can be recorded in the EAR CANAL and are indications of active OUTER AUDITORY HAIR CELLS. Spontaneous otoacoustic emissions are found in all classes of land vertebrates.
Testing or screening required by federal, state, or local law or other agencies for the diagnosis of specified conditions. It is usually limited to specific populations such as categories of health care providers, members of the military, and prisoners or to specific situations such as premarital examinations or donor screening.
The innermost layer of the three meninges covering the brain and spinal cord. It is the fine vascular membrane that lies under the ARACHNOID and the DURA MATER.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.
Maintenance of the hygienic state of the skin under optimal conditions of cleanliness and comfort. Effective in skin care are proper washing, bathing, cleansing, and the use of soaps, detergents, oils, etc. In various disease states, therapeutic and protective solutions and ointments are useful. The care of the skin is particularly important in various occupations, in exposure to sunlight, in neonates, and in PRESSURE ULCER.
The determination of oxygen-hemoglobin saturation of blood either by withdrawing a sample and passing it through a classical photoelectric oximeter or by electrodes attached to some translucent part of the body like finger, earlobe, or skin fold. It includes non-invasive oxygen monitoring by pulse oximetry.
A condition caused by inhalation of MECONIUM into the LUNG of FETUS or NEWBORN, usually due to vigorous respiratory movements during difficult PARTURITION or respiratory system abnormalities. Meconium aspirate may block small airways leading to difficulties in PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE and ASPIRATION PNEUMONIA.
The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.
Erythrocyte isoantigens of the Rh (Rhesus) blood group system, the most complex of all human blood groups. The major antigen Rh or D is the most common cause of erythroblastosis fetalis.
Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).
GRAY MATTER situated above the GYRUS HIPPOCAMPI. It is composed of three layers. The molecular layer is continuous with the HIPPOCAMPUS in the hippocampal fissure. The granular layer consists of closely arranged spherical or oval neurons, called GRANULE CELLS, whose AXONS pass through the polymorphic layer ending on the DENDRITES of PYRAMIDAL CELLS in the hippocampus.
The event that a FETUS is born dead or stillborn.
Any suction exerted by the mouth; response of the mammalian infant to draw milk from the breast. Includes sucking on inanimate objects. Not to be used for thumb sucking, which is indexed under fingersucking.
Use of nursing bottles for feeding. Applies to humans and animals.
ENTEROCOLITIS with extensive ulceration (ULCER) and NECROSIS. It is observed primarily in LOW BIRTH WEIGHT INFANT.
A group of inherited enzyme deficiencies which feature elevations of GALACTOSE in the blood. This condition may be associated with deficiencies of GALACTOKINASE; UDPGLUCOSE-HEXOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYLYLTRANSFERASE; or UDPGLUCOSE 4-EPIMERASE. The classic form is caused by UDPglucose-Hexose-1-Phosphate Uridylyltransferase deficiency, and presents in infancy with FAILURE TO THRIVE; VOMITING; and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. Affected individuals also may develop MENTAL RETARDATION; JAUNDICE; hepatosplenomegaly; ovarian failure (PRIMARY OVARIAN INSUFFICIENCY); and cataracts. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp61-3)
The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.
A form of electrophysiologic audiometry in which an analog computer is included in the circuit to average out ongoing or spontaneous brain wave activity. A characteristic pattern of response to a sound stimulus may then become evident. Evoked response audiometry is known also as electric response audiometry.
Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.
A pathological condition caused by lack of oxygen, manifested in impending or actual cessation of life.
A bacterium which causes mastitis in cattle and occasionally in man.
Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the postimplantation EMBRYO; FETUS; or pregnant female before birth.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Errors in the metabolism of LIPIDS resulting from inborn genetic MUTATIONS that are heritable.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and parasitic diseases. The parasitic infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
Conditions that impair the transmission of auditory impulses and information from the level of the ear to the temporal cortices, including the sensorineural pathways.
A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Substances and drugs that lower the SURFACE TENSION of the mucoid layer lining the PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
A bilateral retinopathy occurring in premature infants treated with excessively high concentrations of oxygen, characterized by vascular dilatation, proliferation, and tortuosity, edema, and retinal detachment, with ultimate conversion of the retina into a fibrous mass that can be seen as a dense retrolental membrane. Usually growth of the eye is arrested and may result in microophthalmia, and blindness may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A severe, sometimes fatal, disorder of adipose tissue occurring chiefly in preterm or debilitated infants suffering from an underlying illness and manifested by a diffuse, nonpitting induration of the affected tissue. The skin becomes cold, yellowish, mottled, and inflexible.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Identification of genetic carriers for a given trait.
The inactive proenzyme of trypsin secreted by the pancreas, activated in the duodenum via cleavage by enteropeptidase. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
The fluid excreted by the SWEAT GLANDS. It consists of water containing sodium chloride, phosphate, urea, ammonia, and other waste products.
Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.
An unctuous substance composed of sebum and desquamated epithelial cells, which covers the skin of the fetus.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
The process of giving birth to one or more offspring.
Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.
Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.
Nutritional physiology of children from birth to 2 years of age.
The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.
The last third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 29th through the 42nd completed week (197 to 294 days) of gestation.
Partial hearing loss in both ears.
The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.
Congenital obliteration of the lumen of the intestine, with the ILEUM involved in 50% of the cases and the JEJUNUM and DUODENUM following in frequency. It is the most frequent cause of INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION in NEWBORNS. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Informed consent given by a parent on behalf of a minor or otherwise incompetent child.
Inborn errors of metabolism characterized by defects in specific lysosomal hydrolases and resulting in intracellular accumulation of unmetabolized substrates.
The techniques used to draw blood from a vein for diagnostic purposes or for treatment of certain blood disorders such as erythrocytosis, hemochromatosis, polycythemia vera, and porphyria cutanea tarda.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A subtype of HLA-DRB beta chains that includes over 50 allelic variants. The HLA-DRB3 beta-chain subtype is associated with HLA-DR52 serological subtype.
Acute conjunctival inflammation in the newborn, usually caused by maternal gonococcal infection. The causative agent is NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE. The baby's eyes are contaminated during passage through the birth canal.
Disorders in which there is a delay in development based on that expected for a given age level or stage of development. These impairments or disabilities originate before age 18, may be expected to continue indefinitely, and constitute a substantial impairment. Biological and nonbiological factors are involved in these disorders. (From American Psychiatric Glossary, 6th ed)
A species of SWINE, in the family Suidae, comprising a number of subspecies including the domestic pig Sus scrofa domestica.
The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.
The branch of medicine dealing with the fetus and infant during the perinatal period. The perinatal period begins with the twenty-eighth week of gestation and ends twenty-eight days after birth. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The state of PREGNANCY in women with DIABETES MELLITUS. This does not include either symptomatic diabetes or GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE induced by pregnancy (DIABETES, GESTATIONAL) which resolves at the end of pregnancy.
A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.
A chlorinated bisphenol antiseptic with a bacteriostatic action against Gram-positive organisms, but much less effective against Gram-negative organisms. It is mainly used in soaps and creams and is an ingredient of various preparations used for skin disorders. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p797)
A subtype of HLA-DRB beta chains that is associated with the HLA-DR53 serological subtype.
Food processed and manufactured for the nutritional health of children in their first year of life.
Methods to determine in patients the nature of a disease or disorder at its early stage of progression. Generally, early diagnosis improves PROGNOSIS and TREATMENT OUTCOME.
Organized services to provide health care for children.
Abnormally low BODY TEMPERATURE that is intentionally induced in warm-blooded animals by artificial means. In humans, mild or moderate hypothermia has been used to reduce tissue damages, particularly after cardiac or spinal cord injuries and during subsequent surgeries.
Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Medical problems associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR, such as BREECH PRESENTATION; PREMATURE OBSTETRIC LABOR; HEMORRHAGE; or others. These complications can affect the well-being of the mother, the FETUS, or both.
A clear, yellowish liquid that envelopes the FETUS inside the sac of AMNION. In the first trimester, it is likely a transudate of maternal or fetal plasma. In the second trimester, amniotic fluid derives primarily from fetal lung and kidney. Cells or substances in this fluid can be removed for prenatal diagnostic tests (AMNIOCENTESIS).
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
The capability of the LUNGS to distend under pressure as measured by pulmonary volume change per unit pressure change. While not a complete description of the pressure-volume properties of the lung, it is nevertheless useful in practice as a measure of the comparative stiffness of the lung. (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p562)
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
In 2010 was registered 8 141 new born, and the infant mortality rate as 9.7/ every 1 000 born child and 99.8% of all the new ... On June 1, 1966 was inaugurated the new railway station, now owned by Centro- Atlantic (FCA), which received passengers until ... The Pinguim beer house was named after the Antarctica company's logo (see at [1]).Many small "alambiques" exist in the region, ... The medium Basic Education Performance Index (IDEB) among the city's public schools was, in 2009, 4.0 (in a scale from 1 to 10 ...
25 September 2018 ... Nearly 1, 50, 000 surgeries were done in 2012. Its bed occupancy rate is more than 100%. The expansion of the hospital campus ...
Apgar, Virginia (1953). "A proposal for a new method of evaluation of the newborn infant". Current Research in Anesthesia and ... August 1 - Around 9 o'clock AM,[verification needed] the San Benedicto rock wren goes extinct as its island home is smothered ... 36 (1): 39-56. doi:10.1085/jgp.36.1.39. PMC 2147348 . PMID 12981234. Gross, J.; Pitt-Rivers, R. (1952). "The Identification of ... March 1 - The British Psychological Society is founded. September 2 - The first successful operation to correct a cardiac shunt ...
Control Ira Newborn Alfred Newman (1900-1970) - The King and I, Mother Wore Tights, Love Is a Many-Splendored Thing, How the ... Happy Feet 1 and 2, Antz, Chicken Run, Rio 1 and 2 Devi Sri Prasad Pray for Rain Zbigniew Preisner Don Preston André Previn ... Volume 1, Afro Samurai S.E.N.S. (formed 1988) - A City of Sadness, xxxHolic, Kurau Phantom Memory Haim Saban (usually credited ... 3 1/2 Minutes, 10 Bullets, Ballets Russes Ed Bogas (born 1942) - Fritz the Cat, Heavy Traffic, Bon Voyage, Charlie Brown (and ...
Simion, F.; Regolin, L.; Bulf, H. (2008). "A predisposition for biological motion in the newborn baby". PNAS. 105 (2): 809-813 ... 71 (1): 44-56. doi:10.1111/1467-8624.00117. JSTOR 1132216. PMID 10836557. Hedden, T.; Ketay, S.; Aron, A.; Markus, H. R.; ... 1. Vygotsky believes culture affects cognitive development more. Piaget thinks that cognitive development is the same across ... 19 (1): 12-17. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.2008.02038.x. PMID 18181784. S2CID 14439636. han, S.; Northoff, Georg (2008). "Culture ...
... perinatal care regionalization process from May 2015 is a significant step forward in strengthening the maternal and newborn ... From July 1, 2017 for people with chronic illnesses who are registered in the unified database of "socially unprotected ... 1, Tbilisi Clinical Hospital No. 4, Tbilisi Clinical Hospital No. 9, Tbilisi Clinical Hospital of The Tbilisi I. Javakhishvili ... and 1% respectively), funds allocated for Healthcare from the territorial budgets, official co-payment for medical services, ...
Newborns, for the most part, remain at the mother's side after being examined by health professionals. Public hospitals do a ... Lastly, newborns might go through particular rites of passages according to the religion of their family. For instance, most ... Private facilities have no Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU). If a newborn is admitted to the NICU, mothers have to adhere ... Furthermore, as of 2013, only 12.8% of newborns are exclusively breastfed in the first six months after birth and 83.4% are ...
In high risk newborns, tracking SEP findings over time can be helpful for outcome prognostication. Several neurodegenerative ... 28 (1): 187-191. doi:10.1016/S0042-6989(88)80018-X. PMID 3413995. Regan D.; Regan M.P. (1987). "Nonlinearity in human visual ... 1, pp. 399-400, xli). Los Angeles: Sage. ISBN 978-1-4129-4081-8 Long KJ, Allen N (1984). "Abnormal Brainstem Auditory Evoked ... ISBN 978-1-4338-1944-5. Sugerman, Richard A (2014). "CHAPTER 15 - Structure and Function of the Neurologic System". In McCance ...
The proportion of newborns with immigrant background was per. 2017 at 70%[1]. Because of these statistics Grorud is a recurring ... The borough is the smallest in Oslo, with fewer than 30 000 inhabitants. The area now known as Grorud was mostly farm land ... 1 from the Green Party (Miljøpartiet de Grønne) Trygve Lie, First Secretary-General of the United Nations, Jan Bøhler (b. 1952 ... 1 from the Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti) ...
A homicide of a newborn by its mother is penalized with 3 months to 5 years' imprisonment. Similarly, euthantic homicide is ... 1 describes the penalty for the basic type of the crime. It is penalized by no less than 8 years of imprisonment, 25 years' ... Article 1 of the code defined the penal responsibility, stating that a person is a subject to punishment only when its conduct ... On September 1, 1939 Poland was attacked by the Nazi army. On September 17, the Red Army invaded as well. Poland ceased to ...
"Infection in the Newborn as a Cause of Cerebral Palsy, 12/2004". United Cerebral Palsy Research and Education Foundation (U.S ... In Africa birth asphyxia, high bilirubin levels, and infections in newborns of the central nervous system are main cause. Many ... Retrieved 1 August 2017.. *^ a b c d e Donkervoort, M.; Roebroeck, M.; Wiegerink, D.; Van der Heijden-Maessen, H.; Stam, H.; ... 1 (1): CD003311. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003311.pub3. PMID 23440789.. *^ a b c d e Novak, Iona; Mcintyre, Sarah; Morgan, ...
... mechanisms of lung injury and newborn resuscitation. In 2010, international guidelines for newborn resuscitation were amended, ... Saugstad was appointed senior consultant in newborn medicine at Rikshospitalet in 1986. In 1991, he also became Professor of ... a discovery that is estimated to save the lives of 200,000 newborn children each year. He is an advisor to the World Health ... oxygen in the resuscitation of newborn children. This would lead to his major discovery of the dangers of using 100% oxygen, ...
Infection in the newborn is accompanied by a strong immune response and is correlated with the need for prolonged mechanical ... 234 (1): 100-9107. doi:10.1002/jcp.26952. PMID 30078192. "Ureaplasma Urealyticum and Parvum Test Online". ... 26 (3): 150-2. doi:10.1007/s12019-000-0001-1. PMID 10984817. S2CID 11629600. Cunningham, F, Leveno KJ, Bloom SL, Spong CY, ...
A wider selection of maternal and newborn health indicators on the surveyor questionnaires during data harvest would have ... The study was able to maintain a cost of less than US$1 per household surveyed by using the existing SRS framework and ... It began in 1998 and end in 2014 . Among a sample size of 14 million Indians, approximately 1 million deaths are assigned ... The study had two main phases: the first, from 1998-2003, gathered information on 300 000 deaths within the sample, and the ...
... of all newborns dying in the first year of their life in 1960, to 0.31% in 2017. This improvement was mainly due to the ... Its population was of 10,283,822 people, by 1 July 2019. WHO estimates that 21.7% of the population is 65 or more years of age ... Of these 7 causes of death, cardiovascular diseases were responsible for 345.86 deaths per 100 000, being ischemic heart ... As shown in Table 1, in 2017, 7 out of 10 most common causes of death in Portugal were non-communicable. ...
The newborn and pediatric simulators, Resusci Junior and Resusci Baby, also allow for CPR feedback technology. Laerdal's most ... the is the not-for-profit sister company established in 2010 to help save the lives of mothers and newborns in low-income ... Successful implementation of Helping Babies Survive and Helping Mothers Survive programs-An Utstein formula for newborn and ... One of these programs, Helping Babies Breathe (10) has been used to train 500 000 midwives in 80 low-income countries (11). The ...
Nengovhela) made world news by performing a difficult rescue of a mother and her new born baby from a tree. On 21 May 2003 the ... Level 1-3 Basic Life Support. Level 5 Advanced Life Support: During this phase the candidate learns the skills of the ... Cpl Fidler's name appears on the roll of honour of both 1 Parachute Battalion and 7 Medical Battalion Group. It is believed ... The details are sketchy but it is understood that Corporal Fidler supported a "clandestine" unit of the SADF most probably 1 ...
As per Hindu rituals, the newborn baby was thrown into the river. Meanwhile, the snake deity Deva Kaljayi appeared in the ... Nagraj displayed this power for the first time fusing with Lava to become Agni-Nagraj (Fire-Nagraj). The newborn identity could ... ISBN 978-1-000-73697-7. Ecke, Jochen; Haberkorn, Gideon (10 March 2010). Comics as a Nexus of Cultures: Essays on the Interplay ... Utilizing this power Nagraj can cast a hypnotic reality upon his surroundings using his eyes.[1] Breaking this hypnotic fate is ...
Members observe kashrut, circumcise newborn boys, and celebrate Bar and Bat Mitzvahs, and their synagogue has a mechitza to ... Men wear tzitzit on their African print shirts, women follow the niddah (biblical laws concerning menstruation), and newborn ... Retrieved January 1, 2018. "Chief Rabbi Jehu A. Crowdy, Jr., G.F.A." Church of God and Saints of Christ. Retrieved January 1, ... 15 (1): 63. JSTOR 23258489. Crowdy claimed to be the recipient of a series of revelations in which, among other things, he was ...
Social welfare aid of RM 100 is awarded annually to senior citizens, single mothers, disabled individuals, new-born babies, and ... The DAP won 19 seats, PKR 9 seats, and PAS 1. Even though Lim is not a Penangite, he was nominated to be the Chief Minister (CM ... On 1 August 2014, the Penang state government implemented a bicycle sharing system in its effort to transform George Town into ... Retrieved 1 January 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) "Penang CM: Purchase of 14 Mercedes was not value for money ...
TEDDY researchers screened a total of 421,047 newborns, with 26,239 eligible for the study. Slightly over 22% of newborns with ... Parents of newborns with HLA DR/DQ genotypes associated with a high risk for T1D were approached for enrollment in the study. ... Only about 5% of newborns from the general population (no first degree relative with T1D) were eligible. Several publications ... Children followed in the TEDDY study are diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes at an early stage of disease. Pediatric Diabetes. 2013 ...
In particular, he has collaborated with Ola Didrik Saugstad in research on secondary brain injury in newborn infants as a ... An experimental study in newborn pigs. Oslo: Department of Pediatric Research and Institute for Surgical Research, ... oxygen in newborn pigs". Biology of the Neonate. 82 (3): 197-206. doi:10.1159/000063613. PMID 12373071. S2CID 25527292. Solås, ... oxygen in newborn piglets: effects on extracellular levels of excitatory amino acids and microcirculation". Pediatric Critical ...
... Archived 2017-07-31 at the Wayback Machine article in New Jersey ... 1 February 2019. Retrieved 2020-04-27. "About Our Organization , Children's Specialized Hospital". www.childrens-specialized. ... A9al-usa-raises-625-000-for-children%E2%80%99s-specialized-hospital-foundation Archived 2017-07-31 at the Wayback Machine press ...
Later on, Ávalos decided to retire for a while to take care of her newborn Valentina Benaglio. In 1997, Ávalos is hired to ... On September 15, 2009, Ávalos gave a concert in front of an audience of over 80 000 people at Zócalo (Mexico City Main Square ... ISBN 978-1-4016-0298-7. Retrieved 2 May 2017. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Fashion Shoot w/ Valentina Benaglio" (in ... June 1, 2014. Retrieved 2017-04-14. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Viña 06 Competencia Internacional" (in Spanish). ...
Maternal health aid contributions tend to be lumped together with newborn and child health, so it is difficult to assess how ... During this time, bleeding, sepsis and hypertensive disorders can occur, and newborns are extremely vulnerable in the immediate ... "The State of the World's Children 2009: Maternal and newborn health" (PDF). United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). December ... These efforts include education and training for midwives, supporting access to emergency services in obstetric and newborn ...
16% of newborns in France between 2006 and 2008 have at least one Maghrebi grandparent. According to other sources between 5 ... About one quarter (24%) of all the newborns had at least one parent born outside of Europe including about 17% from Africa (11 ... Between 2006 and 2008 about 22% of newborns in France had at least one foreign-born grandparent (9% born in another European ... Including grandparents, about 22% of newborns in France between 2006 and 2008 had at least one foreign-born grandparent (9% ...
... for the purchase of equipment for non-invasive breathing support in newborns at the Specialist Hospital in Ciechanów, for ... 1 best-selling album in Poland in OLiS charts and remained in 1 st place for three weeks. It was also the best-selling album in ... On 1 April, they released the entire tracklist of the main album and the bonus called "0,25 mg". They also revealed the names ... On 1 April, Quebonafide was a guest of Kuba Wojewódzki in his show '250m² of Kuba Wojewódzki'. In an interview, Kuba talked ...
Hippocampus-dependent learning, for example, can promote the survival of newborn neurons which may serve as a foundation for ... ISBN 978-1-118-94449-3. OCLC 955939138. Madigan, Robert. (2015-06-11). How memory works-and how to make it work for you. ISBN ... 24:1-27. McEwen, B.S. (1998). Protective and damaging effects of stress mediators. New Engl. J. Med. 238, 171−179. Shiffrin, R. ... Brainresearch, 1341, 1 2 - 2 4. Colcombe, S. J., Kramer, A. F. (2003). Fitness effects on the cognitive function of older ...
James Sweeney with wife Vicki and their newborn baby. Maidenhead father angry over baby registration in Slough A new Maidenhead ...
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