A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex that encode polymorphic products which control the immune response to specific antigens. The genes are found in the HLA-D region in humans and in the I region in mice.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*03 alleles.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*04 alleles.
HLA-DR antigen subtypes that have been classified according to their affinity to specific ANTIBODIES. The DNA sequence analyses of HLA-DR ALPHA-CHAINS and HLA-DR BETA-CHAINS has for the most part revealed the specific alleles that are responsible for each serological subtype.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A subtype of HLA-DRB beta chains that includes over one hundred allele variants. The HLA-DRB1 subtype is associated with several of the HLA-DR SEROLOGICAL SUBTYPES.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A broad specificity HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*01:15 and DRB1*01:16 alleles.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Plasma glycoprotein member of the serpin superfamily which inhibits TRYPSIN; NEUTROPHIL ELASTASE; and other PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN A. They have a molecular weight of approximately 58 kDa and contain about 470 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component bound covalently to their Fc fragment constant region.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
Transmembrane proteins that form the beta subunits of the HLA-DQ antigens.
Identification of the major histocompatibility antigens of transplant DONORS and potential recipients, usually by serological tests. Donor and recipient pairs should be of identical ABO blood group, and in addition should be matched as closely as possible for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in order to minimize the likelihood of allograft rejection. (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Nonrandom association of linked genes. This is the tendency of the alleles of two separate but already linked loci to be found together more frequently than would be expected by chance alone.
One of the two major pharmacological subdivisions of adrenergic receptors that were originally defined by the relative potencies of various adrenergic compounds. The alpha receptors were initially described as excitatory receptors that post-junctionally stimulate SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction. However, further analysis has revealed a more complex picture involving several alpha receptor subtypes and their involvement in feedback regulation.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
An HLA-DR antigen associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS that are encoded by DRB1*01 alleles.
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is regulated by OXYGEN availability and is targeted for degradation by VHL TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*07 alleles.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Drying and inflammation of the conjunctiva as a result of insufficient lacrimal secretion. When found in association with XEROSTOMIA and polyarthritis, it is called SJOGREN'S SYNDROME.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Normal adult human hemoglobin. The globin moiety consists of two alpha and two beta chains.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
A variable mixture of the mono- and disodium salts of gold thiomalic acid used mainly for its anti-inflammatory action in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. It is most effective in active progressive rheumatoid arthritis and of little or no value in the presence of extensive deformities or in the treatment of other forms of arthritis.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Cell surface receptor for LAMININ, epiligrin, FIBRONECTINS, entactin, and COLLAGEN. Integrin alpha3beta1 is the major integrin present in EPITHELIAL CELLS, where it plays a role in the assembly of BASEMENT MEMBRANE as well as in cell migration, and may regulate the functions of other integrins. Two alternatively spliced isoforms of the alpha subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA3), are differentially expressed in different cell types.
Hemoglobins characterized by structural alterations within the molecule. The alteration can be either absence, addition or substitution of one or more amino acids in the globin part of the molecule at selected positions in the polypeptide chains.
Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-5. They are heterodimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-5 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR COMMON BETA SUBUNIT. Signaling from interleukin-5 receptors can occur through interaction of their cytoplasmic domains with SYNTENINS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A disorder of immunoglobulin synthesis in which large quantities of abnormal heavy chains are excreted in the urine. The amino acid sequences of the N-(amino-) terminal regions of these chains are normal, but they have a deletion extending from part of the variable domain through the first domain of the constant region, so that they cannot form cross-links to the light chains. The defect arises through faulty coupling of the variable (V) and constant (C) region genes.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
Receptors present on a wide variety of hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cell types that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-4. They are involved in signaling a variety of immunological responses related to allergic INFLAMMATION including the differentiation of TH2 CELLS and the regulation of IMMUNOGLOBULIN E production. Two subtypes of receptors exist and are referred to as the TYPE I INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR and the TYPE II INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR. Each receptor subtype is defined by its unique subunit composition.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Cell surface proteins that bind interleukins and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.
A member of the NICOTINIC ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTOR subfamily of the LIGAND-GATED ION CHANNEL family. It consists entirely of pentameric a7 subunits expressed in the CNS, autonomic nervous system, vascular system, lymphocytes and spleen.
Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
An integrin alpha subunit that is unique in that it does not contain an I domain, and its proteolytic cleavage site is near the middle of the extracellular portion of the polypeptide rather than close to the membrane as in other integrin alpha subunits.
An integrin alpha subunit that primarily associates with INTEGRIN BETA1 or INTEGRIN BETA4 to form laminin-binding heterodimers. Integrin alpha6 has two alternatively spliced isoforms: integrin alpha6A and integrin alpha6B, which differ in their cytoplasmic domains and are regulated in a tissue-specific and developmental stage-specific manner.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
An integrin found in FIBROBLASTS; PLATELETS; MONOCYTES, and LYMPHOCYTES. Integrin alpha5beta1 is the classical receptor for FIBRONECTIN, but it also functions as a receptor for LAMININ and several other EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Ordered rearrangement of T-cell variable gene regions coding for the alpha-chain of antigen receptors.
A subtype of HLA-DRB beta chains that includes over 50 allelic variants. The HLA-DRB3 beta-chain subtype is associated with HLA-DR52 serological subtype.
An integrin alpha subunit that occurs as alternatively spliced isoforms. The isoforms are differentially expressed in specific cell types and at specific developmental stages. Integrin alpha3 combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form INTEGRIN ALPHA3BETA1 which is a heterodimer found primarily in epithelial cells.
A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
An RNA polymerase II transcriptional inhibitor. This compound terminates transcription prematurely by selective inhibition of RNA synthesis. It is used in research to study underlying mechanisms of cellular regulation.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
An interleukin-1 subtype that occurs as a membrane-bound pro-protein form that is cleaved by proteases to form a secreted mature form. Unlike INTERLEUKIN-1BETA both membrane-bound and secreted forms of interleukin-1alpha are biologically active.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.
A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.
An interleukin receptor subunit with specificity for INTERLEUKIN-13. It dimerizes with the INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT to form the TYPE II INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR which has specificity for both INTERLEUKIN-4 and INTERLEUKIN-13. Signaling of this receptor subunit occurs through the interaction of its cytoplasmic domain with JANUS KINASES such as the TYK2 KINASE.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
An integrin found on fibroblasts, platelets, endothelial and epithelial cells, and lymphocytes where it functions as a receptor for COLLAGEN and LAMININ. Although originally referred to as the collagen receptor, it is one of several receptors for collagen. Ligand binding to integrin alpha2beta1 triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling, including activation of p38 MAP kinase.
The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.
A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors that mediate contraction of SMOOTH MUSCLE in a variety of tissues such as ARTERIOLES; VEINS; and the UTERUS. They are usually found on postsynaptic membranes and signal through GQ-G11 G-PROTEINS.
Fibrinogens which have a functional defect as the result of one or more amino acid substitutions in the amino acid sequence of normal fibrinogen. Abnormalities of the fibrinogen molecule may impair any of the major steps involved in the conversion of fibrinogen into stabilized fibrin, such as cleavage of the fibrinopeptides by thrombin, polymerization and cross-linking of fibrin. The resulting dysfibrinogenemias can be clinically silent or can be associated with bleeding, thrombosis or defective wound healing.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
This integrin alpha subunit combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form a receptor (INTEGRIN ALPHA5BETA1) that binds FIBRONECTIN and LAMININ. It undergoes posttranslational cleavage into a heavy and a light chain that are connected by disulfide bonds.
The alpha subunits of integrin heterodimers (INTEGRINS), which mediate ligand specificity. There are approximately 18 different alpha chains, exhibiting great sequence diversity; several chains are also spliced into alternative isoforms. They possess a long extracellular portion (1200 amino acids) containing a MIDAS (metal ion-dependent adhesion site) motif, and seven 60-amino acid tandem repeats, the last 4 of which form EF HAND MOTIFS. The intracellular portion is short with the exception of INTEGRIN ALPHA4.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Integrin alpha1beta1 functions as a receptor for LAMININ and COLLAGEN. It is widely expressed during development, but in the adult is the predominant laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) in mature SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, where it is important for maintenance of the differentiated phenotype of these cells. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also found in LYMPHOCYTES and microvascular endothelial cells, and may play a role in angiogenesis. In SCHWANN CELLS and neural crest cells, it is involved in cell migration. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also known as VLA-1 and CD49a-CD29.
A receptor subunit that is a component of the TYPE I INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR and the TYPE II INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR. It signals through interaction of its cytoplasmic domain with JANUS KINASES such as JANUS KINASE 1.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A superfamily of proteins containing the globin fold which is composed of 6-8 alpha helices arranged in a characterstic HEME enclosing structure.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors found on both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes where they signal through Gi-Go G-PROTEINS. While postsynaptic alpha-2 receptors play a traditional role in mediating the effects of ADRENERGIC AGONISTS, the subset of alpha-2 receptors found on presynaptic membranes signal the feedback inhibition of NEUROTRANSMITTER release.
A cell surface receptor mediating cell adhesion to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and to other cells via binding to LAMININ. It is involved in cell migration, embryonic development, leukocyte activation and tumor cell invasiveness. Integrin alpha6beta1 is the major laminin receptor on PLATELETS; LEUKOCYTES; and many EPITHELIAL CELLS, and ligand binding may activate a number of signal transduction pathways. Alternative splicing of the cytoplasmic domain of the alpha6 subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA6) results in the formation of A and B isoforms of the heterodimer, which are expressed in a tissue-specific manner.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.
A group of hereditary hemolytic anemias in which there is decreased synthesis of one or more hemoglobin polypeptide chains. There are several genetic types with clinical pictures ranging from barely detectable hematologic abnormality to severe and fatal anemia.
A subtype of HLA-DRB beta chains that is associated with the HLA-DR53 serological subtype.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
This intrgrin is a key component of HEMIDESMOSOMES and is required for their formation and maintenance in epithelial cells. Integrin alpha6beta4 is also found on thymocytes, fibroblasts, and Schwann cells, where it functions as a laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) and is involved in wound healing, cell migration, and tumor invasiveness.
A phenomenon that is observed when a small subgroup of a larger POPULATION establishes itself as a separate and isolated entity. The subgroup's GENE POOL carries only a fraction of the genetic diversity of the parental population resulting in an increased frequency of certain diseases in the subgroup, especially those diseases known to be autosomal recessive.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The smaller subunits of MYOSINS that bind near the head groups of MYOSIN HEAVY CHAINS. The myosin light chains have a molecular weight of about 20 KDa and there are usually one essential and one regulatory pair of light chains associated with each heavy chain. Many myosin light chains that bind calcium are considered "calmodulin-like" proteins.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.
An integrin alpha subunit that binds COLLAGEN and LAMININ though its I domain. It combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form the heterodimer INTEGRIN ALPHA1BETA1.
Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.
A subtype of HLA-DRB beta chains that is associated with the HLA-DR51 serological subtype.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
DNA sequences encoding the alpha chain of the T-cell receptor. The genomic organization of the TcR alpha genes is essentially the same in all species and is similar to the organization of Ig genes.
Brain waves characterized by a relatively high voltage or amplitude and a frequency of 8-13 Hz. They constitute the majority of waves recorded by EEG registering the activity of the parietal and occipital lobes when the individual is awake, but relaxed with the eyes closed.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-13. Included under this heading are the INTERLEUKIN-13 RECEPTOR ALPHA2 which is a monomeric receptor and the INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR TYPE II which has specificity for both INTERLEUKIN-4 and INTERLEUKIN-13.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.
Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-15. They are widely-distributed heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-15 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2, 15 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.
Deficiency of the protease inhibitor ALPHA 1-ANTITRYPSIN that manifests primarily as PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA and LIVER CIRRHOSIS.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Specific molecular sites on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes which combine with IgEs. Two subclasses exist: low affinity receptors (Fc epsilon RII) and high affinity receptors (Fc epsilon RI).
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
A compound formed by the combination of hemoglobin and oxygen. It is a complex in which the oxygen is bound directly to the iron without causing a change from the ferrous to the ferric state.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors.
Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-7. They are present on T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTE precursors. The receptors are heterodimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-5 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR COMMON BETA SUBUNIT.
The medium-sized, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group D in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 13, 14, and 15.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR GAMMA is important to metabolism of LIPIDS. It is the target of FIBRATES to control HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
A naturally occurring prostaglandin that has oxytocic, luteolytic, and abortifacient activities. Due to its vasocontractile properties, the compound has a variety of other biological actions.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.
A serine protease that catalyses the release of an N-terminal dipeptide. Several biologically-active peptides have been identified as dipeptidyl peptidase 4 substrates including INCRETINS; NEUROPEPTIDES; and CHEMOKINES. The protein is also found bound to ADENOSINE DEAMINASE on the T-CELL surface and is believed to play a role in T-cell activation.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate alpha-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic alpha-antagonists are used in the treatment of hypertension, vasospasm, peripheral vascular disease, shock, and pheochromocytoma.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
High affinity receptors for INTERLEUKIN-3. They are found on early HEMATOPOIETIC PROGENITOR CELLS; progenitors of MYELOID CELLS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS. Interleukin-3 receptors are formed by the dimerization of the INTERLEUKIN-3 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR COMMON BETA SUBUNIT.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
Transmembrane proteins that form the beta subunits of the HLA-DP antigens.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
DQ5 β-chains combine with α-chains, encoded by genetically linked HLA-DQA1 alleles, to form the cis-haplotype isoforms. These ... Since DQ1 recognizes alpha, the DQ5 and DQ6 recognition are to beta chain. Meaning that DQ1 is corecognized with DQ5 and DQ6. ... Wang JF, Zhang D, Zhao JZ, Jia BX, Bi RM (2006). "A study on the relationship between HLA-DR, DQ antigen, and intracranial ... MuSK antibody-positive myasthenia gravis HLA-DR14-DQ5, probably DRB1*1402 : DQA1*0104 : DQB1*0503 (DR14-DQ5). DR1-DQ5 is ...
... alpha chains. DQA1*03, *05 chains process to near identical alpha chains. The *04 chain can potentially complex with DQ2 ... with DRB1*03 it becomes part of the DR3-DQ2 (DR-DQ) serologically defined haplotype. With DQA1*0501 the allele is most ... HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQB1*02 are almost synonymous in meaning. DQ2 β-chains combine with α-chains, encoded by genetically linked HLA ... "New HLA haplotype frequency reference standards: high-resolution and large sample typing of HLA DR-DQ haplotypes in a sample of ...
The serotype is determined by the antibody recognition of α33 subset of HLA-A α-chains. For A33, the alpha "A" chain are ... This includes the A*3303, B*5801, DRB1*1302, and DQB1*0609. The DRB1*0609 haplotype in nodal in east/central Africa in the ... then one can estimate the time of equilibration based on the size of the haplotype, the A-B-DR haplotype is over 2 million ... This haplotype carries the other common DQ2 haplotype, DQ2.2. The Cw*0701 is found in the A*33-B58 haplotype and is like the ...
The DR types associated with DQ8 are DRB1*0403, *0404, *0406, *0407, *0408, and *0401 is split between many DQA1:B1 haplotypes ... Infrequently, DQA1*0302:DQB1*0302, but this substitution of the alpha chain, DQA1**0301 versus *0302, is outside the binding ... DQ8 β-chains combine with α-chains, encoded by genetically linked HLA-DQA1 alleles, to form the cis-haplotype isoforms. There ... "New HLA haplotype frequency reference standards: high-resolution and large sample typing of HLA DR-DQ haplotypes in a sample of ...
DQ5 β-chains combine with α-chains, encoded by genetically linked HLA-DQA1 alleles, to form the cis-haplotype isoforms. These ... Since DQ1 recognizes alpha, the DQ5 and DQ6 recognition are to beta chain. Meaning that DQ1 is corecognized with DQ5 and DQ6. ... Wang JF, Zhang D, Zhao JZ, Jia BX, Bi RM (2006). "A study on the relationship between HLA-DR, DQ antigen, and intracranial ... MuSK antibody-positive myasthenia gravis HLA-DR14-DQ5, probably DRB1*1402 : DQA1*0104 : DQB1*0503 (DR14-DQ5). DR1-DQ5 is ...
The IDDM susceptibility alleles DRB1*03011, DQA1*0501, DQB1*02 and DRB1*0402, DQA1*0301, DQB1*0302 found in Caucasians had a ... The association between HLA-DR and DQ and insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) was analyzed in 47 patients and 76 ... HLA-DQ alpha-Chains * HLA-DQ beta-Chains * HLA-DR Antigens / genetics ... Jews is strongly dependent on the presence of the susceptibility HLA alleles and on the absence of the DRB1*07 haplotype. The ...
... mixing the HLA allele products within an individual. For example, the DQ α chain of each haplotype can pair with the DQ β chain ... DR, DQ, and DP, where each encodes for at least one pair of α and β chains. Both class I and class II molecules are polymorphic ... Binding of peptides to HLA-DQ molecules: peptide binding properties of the disease-associated HLA-DQ(alpha-1-∗-0501, beta-1-∗- ... Combinations of specific DRB1, DQA1, DQB1 haplotypes are associated with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in Sardinia. Hum. ...
... respectively HLA DR has but one locus for the alpha chain, which is largely invariable, but nine loci for the beta chain, ... HLA DQ, and HLA DR. Genes encoding the HLA DP apha and beta chains may have as m any as 23 and 120 alleles circulating in a ... the term haplotype, for haploid genotype, was coined due to the study of the HLA region [ 40 41] The HLA DR/DQ haplotypes that ... Evidence of at least two type 1 diabetes susceptibility genes in the HLA complex distinct from HLA DQB1, DQA1 and DRB1 Genes ...
HLA DQB1*0401, and HLA DQB1*0402. These beta chains are linked to certain alpha chain genes (alleles) such as DQB1*0302, *0303 ... 20 of the most common DR-DQ haplotypes in Japanese DQ DR-DQ DR DQ Freq ... derived from IMGT/HLA DQB1*0401. DQA1*0303:DQB1*0401 is linked to DRB1*0405 and is commmon on the west pacific rim, from ... HLA DQ4 is an HLA-DQ serotype grouping based on antibody recognition of the HLA DQ beta chain. It is synonymous with the HLA- ...
The studies about its genetic susceptibility show strong association with class II antigens of the HLA system (particularly DQ ... In Caucasians, the heterodimers HLA-DQ (alpha chains denominated DQA1 and beta chains, DQB1) codified by the alleles DQA1*0301 ... On the other hand, among four common DR2 haplotypes, observed in Caucasians, DQA1*0102, DQB1*0602, DRB1*1501 are negatively ... The use of vaccines constituted from fragments 9-23 of the insulin B chain, as recently performed with GAD-65, has been tested ...
HLA-B, HLA-DR, and HLA-DQ alleles was typed by means of PCR sequence-specific priming.. RESULTS: HLA-B*18, HLA-DRB1*03, *07, ... HLA-DQB1 belongs to the HLA class II beta chain paralogs. This class II molecule is a heterodimer consisting of an alpha (DQA) ... One lost HLA-DRB1, DQB1, and DPB1 alleles, and the other lost one HLA haplotype of the leukemic blasts at relapse. HLA class II ... HLA-B*07 (21·3% and 11·1%), HLA-C*07 (46·7 and 28·2%), HLA-DQB1*03 (62·7% and 37·3%), HLA-DRB1*11 (30·0% and 16·0%) and HLA- ...
HLA-DP, HLA-DQ, and HLA-DR. [0053] According to some embodiments of the invention, the beta chain of the MHC class II is DR-B1* ... 8A-B depict the amino acid sequence of the recombinant beta (DRB1*0401; FIG. 8A) and alpha (DRA1*0101; FIG. 8B) chains ... 0096] Non-limiting examples of DP haplotypes include HLA-DPA1*0103/DPB1*0401 (DP401); and HLA-DPA1*0103/DPB1*0402 (DP402). [ ... Examples include, but are not limited to HLA-DM, HLA-DO, HLA-DP, HLA-DQ (e.g., DQ2, DQ4, DQ5, DQ6, DQ7, DQ8, DQ9), HLA-DR (e.g ...
... and DRB1*1401-positive haplotypes in Caucasians, Africans and Orientals. Tissue Antigens. 1994. 44. 19-24. Dr Olle Olerup. ... Both alpha and beta chains of HLA-DC class II histocompatibility antigens display extensive polymorphism in their amino- ... cDNA clone for the heavy chain of the human B cell alloantigen DC1: strong sequence homology to the HLA-DR heavy chain. Proc ... Three new HLA class II alleles: DRB1*08:70, DQA1*01:13 and DQA1*03:01:03.. Int. J. Immunogenetics. 2016. 43. 107-108. Dr ...
HLA DR-DQ haplotypes and genotypes and type 1 diabetes risk: Analysis of the type 1 diabetes genetics consortium families. ... Relative predispositional effects of HLA class II DRB1-DQB1 haplotypes and genotypes on type 1 diabetes: A meta-analysis. ... immunodominant islet epitopes are elicited by HLA-DQ8 transdimer. Mutagenesis at the α chain of HLA-DQ8 transdimer in complex ... The root mean square deviation in the alpha carbons (Cαs) of the two structures was very small, both in the histocompatibility ...
HLA-DP, HLA-DQ, and HLA-DR Have Different Requirements for Invariant Chain and HLA-DM ... HLA-DR{alpha}1 Constructs Block CD74 Expression and MIF Effects in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis ... Complexes of Two Cohorts of CLIP Peptides and HLA-DQ2 of the Autoimmune DR3-DQ2 Haplotype Are Poor Substrates for HLA-DM ... Backbone structure of HLA-DQ α- and β-chains are shown in green and blue ribbon plots, respectively, and side chains engaged in ...
hla dq antigens. Website summaries. Medical Information Search ... Historically it was identified as a DR-like alpha chain called ... The analysis of haplotype estimated frequencies (by EM algorithm) had revealed an increased frequency of the DRB1*0301-DQA1* ... Class IIMinor Histocompatibility AntigensHistocompatibility AntigensHLA-DQ AntigensHLA-DQ alpha-ChainsHLA-DQ beta-Chains ... HLA Class II DR, 0.1 mg. ,p,HLA DR antigen is an HLA class II antigen with homology to murine H-2E. HLA-DR is an αβ heterodimer ...
A diabetes-susceptible HLA haplotype is best defined by a combination of HLA-DR and -DQ alleles. J Clin Invest 1989;83:830-835 ... Transcomplementation of HLA genes in IDDM. HLA-DQ alpha- and beta-chains produce hybrid molecules in DR3/4 heterozygotes. ... can form two extra functional HLA molecules: a DQ8 transdimer composed of the DQ2α chain paired with the HLA-DQ8β chain (DQA*05 ... His HLA type was HLA-A*01:01, 02:01; B*08:01, 51:01; DRB1*03:01, 04:04; DQA1*03:01, DQB1*03:02; DQA1*05:01, DQB1*02:01. Genetic ...
  • HLA-DQ5 (DQ5) is a human leukocyte antigen serotype subgroup within HLA-DQ(DQ) serotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • A study on the relationship between HLA-DR, DQ antigen, and intracranial aneurysm in the Han nationality show DQ5 more likely, AIDP type of Guillain Barré syndrome, and irritable bowel disease but not crohn's disease in the same (Jewish) population. (wikipedia.org)
  • The major histocompatibility complex, known as the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex in humans, forms an integral component of adaptive T cell immunity by presenting self and non-self peptides to the T cell receptor, thereby allowing clonal expansion of responding peptide-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cel s. (who.int)
  • HLA-A, -B, and -C. The HLA-B locus is the chains are the variable regions within the antigen (HLA) complex in humans, is most polymorphic of the class I genes,[4] class I genes. (who.int)
  • Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQ8 transdimer (HLA-DQA1*0501/DQB1*0302) confers exceptionally high risk in autoimmune diabetes. (sciencemag.org)
  • Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes, also known as human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes in humans, are the prominent susceptibility factor for many autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS), autoimmune diabetes (type 1 diabetes or T1D), and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). (sciencemag.org)
  • Subsequent analysis on human leukocyte antigen [HLA] region shows that HLA-DRB1 and -DQB1 genes have the strongest association with T1D. (bvsalud.org)
  • The human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B27 is a predisposing factor of ankylosing spondylitis and HLA-DR4 is a predisposing factor of rheumatoid arthritis. (bvsalud.org)
  • To explore the association of the expressions of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR4, peptidyl arginine deiminase type4(PAD4), and signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (STAT4) in the peripheral blood with the disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). (bvsalud.org)
  • These beta chains are linked to certain alpha chain genes ( alleles ) such as DQB1*0302, *0303, and *0401. (wikidoc.org)
  • 3] The turn are recognised by the TCR on CD8+ adaptive immune responses through binding classic HLA class I genes consist of eight T cel s. (who.int)
  • The QuantiGene Plex method was used to measure the expression level of HLA-DR4, PAD4, and STAT4 mRNA, and the relationship between the expressions of these genes and the DAS28 score, levels of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody (anti-CCP antibody) and rheumatoid factor (RF) was analyzed. (bvsalud.org)
  • DQ5 β-chains combine with α-chains, encoded by genetically linked HLA-DQA1 alleles, to form the cis-haplotype isoforms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The IDDM susceptibility alleles DRB1*03011, DQA1*0501, DQB1*02 and DRB1*0402, DQA1*0301, DQB1*0302 found in Caucasians had a very strong predisposing effect also in the Yemenite IDDM group. (nih.gov)
  • The DRB1*07, DQA1*0201 and DQB1*02 alleles were found to have a strong negative association with IDDM. (nih.gov)
  • 81% of the patients compared to 1.3% of controls carried the susceptibility alleles on both haplotypes. (nih.gov)
  • In conclusion, the development of IDDM in Yemenite Jews is strongly dependent on the presence of the susceptibility HLA alleles and on the absence of the DRB1*07 haplotype. (nih.gov)
  • This region encodes cell surface in the HLA database, while HLA-A has endogenously derived peptides, which in proteins that form part of the innate and 4 846 and HLA-C 4 654 alleles. (who.int)
  • Our results indicate that DRB1*04:01, DQB1*03:02 alleles and DRB1*04:01-DQB1*03:02 haplotype were significantly more frequent in male T1D patients than females. (bvsalud.org)
  • Also, DRB1*03:01, DRB1*15:01, DQB1*06:01 alleles, DQB1*03:01/05:01 genotype, DRB1*03:01-DQB1*02:01 and DRB1*15:01-DQB1*06:01 haplotypes were significantly higher in female T1D group than males. (bvsalud.org)
  • Furthermore, our results showed that DRB1*04:01 and DQB1*03:02 alleles were significantly more frequent in male T1D patients 1-5 years old at onset than females with similar condition. (bvsalud.org)
  • The β-chain of DQ is encoded by HLA-DQB1 locus and DQ5 are encoded by the HLA-DQB1*05 allele group. (wikipedia.org)
  • HLA-DQ5 and HLA-DQB1*05 are almost synonymous in meaning. (wikipedia.org)
  • MuSK antibody-positive myasthenia gravis HLA-DR14-DQ5, probably DRB1*1402 : DQA1*0104 : DQB1*0503 (DR14-DQ5). (wikipedia.org)
  • Our analysis revealed that the DRB1*03011 DQA1*0501 DQB1*02/DRB1*04 DQA1*03 DQB1*0302 heterozygous genotype confers the highest susceptibility (59.6% in patients vs. 0% in controls). (nih.gov)
  • It is synonymous with the HLA-DQB1*04 allelegroup. (wikidoc.org)
  • DQA1*0303:DQB1*0401 is linked to DRB1*0405 and is commmon on the west pacific rim, from Indonesia to Japan and inland areas of Eastern Asia. (wikidoc.org)
  • The node of DQ4 is with the DQA1*0401:DQB1*0402 (DQ4.24 for this page) haplotype in Northwestern Mexico and the highland region of western South America reaching 40% haplotype frequencies in that area. (wikidoc.org)
  • Haplotype diversity of DQB1*0402 appears to be centered around the Amur River/Japanese Island Chain, and diversity of DQB1*0401 very roughly follows a similar pattern. (wikidoc.org)
  • HLA-DQB1 belongs to the HLA class II beta chain paralogs. (cancerindex.org)
  • The primary HLA association in the great majority of celiac disease patients is with DQ2 (DQA*05/DQB1*02) and in a minority of patients with DQ8 (DQA1*03/DQB1*0302) ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • In this study, for the first time, we investigated the influence of gender on the HLA-DRB1 and -DQB1 association with type 1 diabetes mellitus in Iranian patients in order to determine gender dependent HLA heterogeneity in Iranian T1D patients. (bvsalud.org)
  • In this case control study, the HLA-DRB1 and -DQB1 typing were performed on 105 Iranian T1D patients and 100 healthy controls. (bvsalud.org)
  • The DRB1*03:01 allele and DRB1*03:01-DQB1*02:01 haplotype were significantly higher in female T1D patients 6-10 years old at onset than males with similar condition. (bvsalud.org)
  • The studies about its genetic susceptibility show strong association with class II antigens of the HLA system (particularly DQ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • These isoforms, are all HLA-DQ1 encoded by the DQA1*01 allele group. (wikipedia.org)
  • derived from IMGT/HLA Krasowska-Kwiecień A, Sancewicz-Pach K, Moczulska A (2006). (wikipedia.org)
  • The serotype is determined by the antibody recognition of β5.x subset of DQ β-chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • HLA DQ4 is an HLA-DQ serotype grouping based on antibody recognition of the HLA DQ beta chain. (wikidoc.org)
  • The association between HLA-DR and DQ and insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) was analyzed in 47 patients and 76 controls of Yemenite Jewish origin. (nih.gov)
  • The table to the left shows the values of Japanese [13] (values converted from phenotype frequencies to haplotype frequencies for sake of consistency) DR-DQ types. (wikidoc.org)
  • In addition, CD4 T cells from RA patients were stimulated with the citrullinated fibrinogen peptide, Fib-alpha R84Cit, identified as a DRB1*0401-restricted T cell epitope in HLA-DR4 transgenic mice, and the degree of T cell activation was examined similarly. (bvsalud.org)
  • Here, we assessed whether HLA-A2 transgenic humanized NSG mice treated with the immunosuppressant FK506 could be used to model EBV-PTLD. (bvsalud.org)
  • Here, we report a high degree of epitope overlap and T cell promiscuity between susceptible HLA-DQ8 and HLA-DQ8 transdimer. (sciencemag.org)
  • DQ4.24 is also high in the Swedes however this may be due to east to west gene flow tracable at other HLA loci. (wikidoc.org)
  • Positioning of proline residues such that they do not interfere with backbone hydrogen bonding results in a reduction in the number of registers available for gluten peptides to bind to MHC class II molecules and presumably impairs the likelihood of establishing favorable side-chain interactions. (pnas.org)
  • The HLA association in celiac disease can be explained by a superior ability of DQ2 to bind the biased repertoire of proline-rich gluten peptides that have survived gastrointestinal digestion and that have been deamidated by tissue transglutaminase. (pnas.org)
  • Gluten-reactive T cells recognize peptides from gluten in the context of HLA-DQ2 or HLA-DQ8, but not in the context of any other HLA molecules expressed by patients ( 6 , 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • Here, we characterize a disulfide-stabilized version of the human class I molecule HLA-A*02:01 that is stable in the absence of peptide and can readily exchange cognate peptides. (bvsalud.org)
  • In silico prediction with three algorithms indicated 13 peptides of Cyclin A1 9 to 11 amino acids of length to have high affinity to HLA-A*02:01. (bvsalud.org)
  • Within the DQ molecule both the alpha chain and the beta chain contain the polymorphisms specifying the peptide binding specificities, resulting in up to four different molecules. (cancerindex.org)
  • HLA likewise forms an integral part of the innate immune response through the binding of killer- cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) molecules, which regulate the response of natural killer (NK) cel s. (who.int)
  • HLA molecules mediate inhibitory or activating stimuli. (who.int)
  • Another 1B subtype is the fulminant diabetes most described in Asian peoples, mainly Japan, China and Korea, characterized by a short clinical history, before to the first acute metabolic decompensation, presents the impairment of beta and alpha cells of the pancreatic islet and no autoimmune etiology [ 6 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Accordingly, a structurally promiscuous but nondegenerate TCR-HLA-peptide interface is pivotal for HLA-DQ8 transdimer-mediated autoimmune diabetes. (sciencemag.org)
  • Celiac disease, also known as celiac sprue, is a gluten-induced autoimmune-like disorder of the small intestine, which is strongly associated with HLA-DQ2. (pnas.org)
  • The HLA complex is found on the short arm of chromosome 6 and is the most polymorphic region in the human genome. (who.int)
  • The HLA region on chromosome 6. (who.int)
  • Mutagenesis at the α chain of HLA-DQ8 transdimer in complex with the disease-relevant GAD65 250-266 peptide and in silico analysis reveal the DQ α52 residue located within the N-terminal edge of the peptide-binding cleft for the enhanced T cell reactivity, altering avidity and biophysical affinity between TCR and HLA-peptide complexes. (sciencemag.org)
  • The TCR-p53R175H-HLA-A2 complexes provide a framework for designing TCRs to improve potency for ACT without sacrificing specificity. (bvsalud.org)
  • The level of HLA-DR4 mRNA in the two RA groups showed no significant difference, but was significantly higher than that in the healthy controls. (bvsalud.org)
  • The homozygous DRB1*03 and DRB1*04 genotypes were also found to be positively associated with the disease. (nih.gov)
  • Paucity of African HLA data limits our understanding of disease associations, the ability to identify donor-recipient matches for transplantation and the development of disease-specific vaccines. (who.int)
  • This review discusses the importance of HLA in the clinical setting in South Africans and highlights how tools such as HLA imputation might augment standard HLA typing methods to increase our understanding of HLA diversity in our populations, which will better inform disease association studies, donor recruitment strategies into bone marrow registries and our understanding of human genetic diversity in South Africa. (who.int)
  • Despite preservation of putative residues for T cell receptor (TCR) contact, stronger disease-associated responses to cross-reactive, immunodominant islet epitopes are elicited by HLA-DQ8 transdimer. (sciencemag.org)
  • Celiac disease is a polygenic disorder, and HLA is the single most important genetic factor ( 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • Of the many HLA-associated disorders, celiac disease has one of the better-understood pathogenesis. (pnas.org)
  • The expressions of PAD4 and STAT4, but not HLA-DR4, are closely related to the disease activity of RA. (bvsalud.org)
  • Since DQ1 recognizes alpha, the DQ5 and DQ6 recognition are to beta chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, little is known about HLA-DQ8 transdimer-restricted CD4 T cell recognition, an event crucial for triggering HLA-DQ8 transdimer-specific anti-islet immunity. (sciencemag.org)
  • These structural snapshots reveal that the amino acid side chains lining the binding pockets switch in a coordinated fashion between a peptide-free unlocked state and a peptide-bound locked state. (bvsalud.org)
  • This class II molecule is a heterodimer consisting of an alpha (DQA) and a beta chain (DQB), both anchored in the membrane. (cancerindex.org)
  • 5. The isolated complex of claim 1, wherein said diabetes-associated autoantigenic peptide is covalently embedded between amino acids 1-6 of an extracellular domain of a beta chain of said MHC class II. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 8. The isolated complex of claim 7, wherein said beta chain of said MHC class II comprises a first member of a binding pair which upon expression in eukaryotic cells binds to a second member of said binding pair, wherein said second member is comprised in an alpha chain of said MHC class II, wherein said beta chain and said alpha chain form said MHC class II. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • however, information on HLA diversity among southern Africans, including South African populations, is limited. (who.int)
  • Here we report structures of wild-type and mutant p53-HLA-A2 ligands, as well as structures of three tumor-specific TCRs bound to p53R175H-HLA-A2. (bvsalud.org)
  • We present X-ray crystal structures of the peptide-free state of HLA-A*02:01, together with structures that have dipeptides bound in the A and F pockets. (bvsalud.org)
  • The beta chain is approximately 26-28 kDa and it contains six exons. (cancerindex.org)
  • The HLA region is the most polymorphic region in the human genome. (who.int)
  • HLA region. (who.int)
  • This study was conducted to determine whether CD4 T cell responses to citrullinated fibrinogen occur in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), especially in HLA-DR4-positive subjects. (bvsalud.org)
  • This patient was HLA-B27 and HLA-DR4 positive, and ankylosing spondylitis manifested before rheumatoid arthritis. (bvsalud.org)
  • Other diseases mentioned are high altitude pulmonary edema , Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome (DRB1*0405, see above table for Japanese), HIV resistance in the US, and haemophilia A (anti-FVIII inhibitor response). (wikidoc.org)
  • This group is composed of two similar beta chains. (wikidoc.org)
  • HLA-DR4 expression was not found to correlated to DAS28 score, anti-CCP antibody level or RF in the RA patients. (bvsalud.org)
  • 14. An isolated high affinity entity comprising complementarity determining regions (CDRs) set forth by SEQ ID NOs:171-173 and 177-179 (CDRs 1-3 of light and heavy chains of G3H8), or SEQ ID NOs:183-185 and 189-191 (CDRs 1-3 of light and heavy chains G1H12). (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • HLA-DR4, PAD4 and STAT4 are overexpressed in RA patients and may be involved in the pathogenesis of RA. (bvsalud.org)
  • There are a number of other A-B haplotypes that suggest a connection between the Ainu and the Meso-American and Andean populations as well as Lakota Souix all have DQ4 levels higher than the Ainu. (wikidoc.org)
  • The linkage of DQ4 in Asia appears to be heaviest with DR8 (DR*0801, DR*0802, DR*0804) for DQ4.24 and the frequency is elevated from the Ryukyu Islands to Okhotsk, Ulchi, Negidal, Tofalar at approximately 10% falling off in the Mansi at 4% and punctate levels in between. (wikidoc.org)
  • We studied oligoclonal T-cell receptors (TCRs) that recognize a shared neoepitope arising from a driver mutation in the p53 oncogene (p53R175H) presented by HLA-A2. (bvsalud.org)