Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.
A key regulator of CELL CYCLE progression. It partners with CYCLIN E to regulate entry into S PHASE and also interacts with CYCLIN A to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. Its activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P21.
Protein encoded by the bcl-1 gene which plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle. Overexpression of cyclin D1 is the result of bcl-1 rearrangement, a t(11;14) translocation, and is implicated in various neoplasms.
A cyclin subtype that has specificity for CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2. It plays a role in progression of the CELL CYCLE through G1/S and G2/M phase transitions.
A 50-kDa protein that complexes with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2 in the late G1 phase of the cell cycle.
A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.
Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 is a key regulator of G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. It partners with CYCLIN D to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. CDK4 activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P16.
A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that coordinates the activation of CYCLIN and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES during the CELL CYCLE. It interacts with active CYCLIN D complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 in proliferating cells, while in arrested cells it binds and inhibits CYCLIN E complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2.
A family of cell cycle-dependent kinases that are related in structure to CDC28 PROTEIN KINASE; S CEREVISIAE; and the CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE found in mammalian species.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that mediates TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53-dependent CELL CYCLE arrest. p21 interacts with a range of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and associates with PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN and CASPASE 3.
A serine-threonine kinase that plays important roles in CELL DIFFERENTIATION; CELL MIGRATION; and CELL DEATH of NERVE CELLS. It is closely related to other CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES but does not seem to participate in CELL CYCLE regulation.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
A cyclin subtype that is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE. It stimulates the G2/M phase transition by activating CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE.
A cyclin subtype that binds to the CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 3 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 8. Cyclin C plays a dual role as a transcriptional regulator and a G1 phase CELL CYCLE regulator.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.
A cyclin subtype that is specific for CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 6. Unlike most cyclins, cyclin D expression is not cyclical, but rather it is expressed in response to proliferative signals. Cyclin D may therefore play a role in cellular responses to mitogenic signals.
The period of the CELL CYCLE preceding DNA REPLICATION in S PHASE. Subphases of G1 include "competence" (to respond to growth factors), G1a (entry into G1), G1b (progression), and G1c (assembly). Progression through the G1 subphases is effected by limiting growth factors, nutrients, or inhibitors.
A product of the p16 tumor suppressor gene (GENES, P16). It is also called INK4 or INK4A because it is the prototype member of the INK4 CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITORS. This protein is produced from the alpha mRNA transcript of the p16 gene. The other gene product, produced from the alternatively spliced beta transcript, is TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P14ARF. Both p16 gene products have tumor suppressor functions.
A group of cell cycle proteins that negatively regulate the activity of CYCLIN/CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE complexes. They inhibit CELL CYCLE progression and help control CELL PROLIFERATION following GENOTOXIC STRESS as well as during CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
A broadly expressed type D cyclin. Experiments using KNOCKOUT MICE suggest a role for cyclin D3 in LYMPHOCYTE development.
A cyclin B subtype that colocalizes with MICROTUBULES during INTERPHASE and is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE.
Product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. It is a nuclear phosphoprotein hypothesized to normally act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Rb protein is absent in retinoblastoma cell lines. It also has been shown to form complexes with the adenovirus E1A protein, the SV40 T antigen, and the human papilloma virus E7 protein.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Cyclin-dependent kinase 6 associates with CYCLIN D and phosphorylates RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN during G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. It helps regulate the transition to S PHASE and its kinase activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P18.
A potent inhibitor of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES in G1 PHASE and S PHASE. In humans, aberrant expression of p57 is associated with various NEOPLASMS as well as with BECKWITH-WIEDEMANN SYNDROME.
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
Phase of the CELL CYCLE following G1 and preceding G2 when the entire DNA content of the nucleus is replicated. It is achieved by bidirectional replication at multiple sites along each chromosome.
Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.
A cyclin D subtype which is regulated by GATA4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR. Experiments using KNOCKOUT MICE suggest a role for cyclin D2 in granulosa cell proliferation and gonadal development.
A cyclin A subtype primarily found in male GERM CELLS. It may play a role in the passage of SPERMATOCYTES into meiosis I.
High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A and activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F1 is involved in DNA REPAIR and APOPTOSIS.
A widely-expressed cyclin A subtype that functions during the G1/S and G2/M transitions of the CELL CYCLE.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
A cyclin subtype that is found associated with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 5; cyclin G associated kinase, and PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 2.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
A cyclin G subtype that is constitutively expressed throughout the cell cycle. Cyclin G1 is considered a major transcriptional target of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53 and is highly induced in response to DNA damage.
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
A transcription factor that possesses DNA-binding and E2F-binding domains but lacks a transcriptional activation domain. It is a binding partner for E2F TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and enhances the DNA binding and transactivation function of the DP-E2F complex.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
The period of the CELL CYCLE following DNA synthesis (S PHASE) and preceding M PHASE (cell division phase). The CHROMOSOMES are tetraploid in this point.
A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.
A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.
A cyclin B subtype that colocalizes with GOLGI APPARATUS during INTERPHASE and is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE.
A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A cyclin subtype that is found associated with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 9. Unlike traditional cyclins, which regulate the CELL CYCLE, type T cyclins appear to regulate transcription and are components of positive transcriptional elongation factor B.
A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.
A family of serine-threonine kinases that bind to and are activated by MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS such as RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS and CDC42 GTP-BINDING PROTEIN. They are intracellular signaling kinases that play a role the regulation of cytoskeletal organization.
A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.
A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A cyclin subtype that is found as a component of a heterotrimeric complex containing cyclin-dependent kinase 7 and CDK-activating kinase assembly factor. The complex plays a role in cellular proliferation by phosphorylating several CYCLIN DEPENDENT KINASES at specific regulatory threonine sites.
An unusual cyclin subtype that is found highly expressed in terminally differentiated cells. Unlike conventional cyclins increased expression of cyclin G2 is believed to cause a withdrawal of cells from the CELL CYCLE.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.
Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAPKKKs) are serine-threonine protein kinases that initiate protein kinase signaling cascades. They phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKs) which in turn phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs).
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A ubiquitous casein kinase that is comprised of two distinct catalytic subunits and dimeric regulatory subunit. Casein kinase II has been shown to phosphorylate a large number of substrates, many of which are proteins involved in the regulation of gene expression.
A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A family of protein serine/threonine kinases which act as intracellular signalling intermediates. Ribosomal protein S6 kinases are activated through phosphorylation in response to a variety of HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Phosphorylation of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 by enzymes in this class results in increased expression of 5' top MRNAs. Although specific for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 members of this class of kinases can act on a number of substrates within the cell. The immunosuppressant SIROLIMUS inhibits the activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases.
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
An abundant 43-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase subtype with specificity for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 1 and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 3.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.
A group of protein-serine-threonine kinases that was originally identified as being responsible for the PHOSPHORYLATION of CASEINS. They are ubiquitous enzymes that have a preference for acidic proteins. Casein kinases play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by phosphorylating a variety of regulatory cytoplasmic and regulatory nuclear proteins.
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC 2.7.1.40.
A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and thymidine to ADP and thymidine 5'-phosphate. Deoxyuridine can also act as an acceptor and dGTP as a donor. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.21.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and the RETINOID X RECEPTORS. It takes part in a SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathway that is activated in response to cellular stress.
A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
A group of enzymes that transfers a phosphate group onto an alcohol group acceptor. EC 2.7.1.
A protein serine-threonine kinase that catalyzes the PHOSPHORYLATION of I KAPPA B PROTEINS. This enzyme also activates the transcription factor NF-KAPPA B and is composed of alpha and beta catalytic subunits, which are protein kinases and gamma, a regulatory subunit.
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
An E2F transcription factor that represses GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F4 recruits chromatin remodeling factors indirectly to target gene PROMOTER REGIONS through RETINOBLASTOMA LIKE PROTEIN P130 and RETINOBLASTOMA LIKE PROTEIN P107.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidylinositol (PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS) to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, the first committed step in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.
A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.
A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.
A cytoplasmic serine threonine kinase involved in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELLULAR PROLIFERATION. Overexpression of this enzyme has been shown to promote PHOSPHORYLATION of BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and chemoresistance in human acute leukemia cells.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Cell regulatory signaling system that controls progression through S PHASE and stabilizes the replication forks during conditions that could affect the fidelity of DNA REPLICATION, such as DNA DAMAGE or depletion of nucleotide pools.
A ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that is involved in a variety of cellular SIGNAL PATHWAYS. Its activity is regulated by a variety of signaling protein tyrosine kinase.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Proteins coded by oncogenes. They include proteins resulting from the fusion of an oncogene and another gene (ONCOGENE PROTEINS, FUSION).
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
A cyclin subtype that is found abundantly in post-mitotic tissues. In contrast to the classical cyclins, its level does not fluctuate during the cell cycle.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
An enzyme of the transferase class that uses ATP to catalyze the phosphorylation of diacylglycerol to a phosphatidate. EC 2.7.1.107.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
A ubiquitously expressed regulatory protein that contains a retinoblastoma protein binding domain and an AT-rich interactive domain. The protein may play a role in recruiting HISTONE DEACETYLASES to the site of RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN-containing transcriptional repressor complexes.
A non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that is localized to FOCAL ADHESIONS and is a central component of integrin-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. Focal adhesion kinase 1 interacts with PAXILLIN and undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to adhesion of cell surface integrins to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. Phosphorylated p125FAK protein binds to a variety of SH2 DOMAIN and SH3 DOMAIN containing proteins and helps regulate CELL ADHESION and CELL MIGRATION.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
A Janus kinase subtype that is involved in signaling from GROWTH HORMONE RECEPTORS; PROLACTIN RECEPTORS; and a variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS such as ERYTHROPOIETIN RECEPTORS and INTERLEUKIN RECEPTORS. Dysregulation of Janus kinase 2 due to GENETIC TRANSLOCATIONS have been associated with a variety of MYELOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
An enzyme that phosphorylates myosin light chains in the presence of ATP to yield myosin-light chain phosphate and ADP, and requires calcium and CALMODULIN. The 20-kDa light chain is phosphorylated more rapidly than any other acceptor, but light chains from other myosins and myosin itself can act as acceptors. The enzyme plays a central role in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction.
A family of non-receptor, PROLINE-rich protein-tyrosine kinases.
A family of ribosomal protein S6 kinases that are structurally distinguished from RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, 70-KDA by their apparent molecular size and the fact they contain two functional kinase domains. Although considered RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, members of this family are activated via the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM and have been shown to act on a diverse array of substrates that are involved in cellular regulation such as RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 and CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN.
A serine threonine kinase that controls a wide range of growth-related cellular processes. The protein is referred to as the target of RAPAMYCIN due to the discovery that SIROLIMUS (commonly known as rapamycin) forms an inhibitory complex with TACROLIMUS BINDING PROTEIN 1A that blocks the action of its enzymatic activity.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A protein kinase C subtype that was originally characterized as a CALCIUM-independent, serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHORBOL ESTERS and DIACYLGLYCEROLS. It is targeted to specific cellular compartments in response to extracellular signals that activate G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS; TYROSINE KINASE RECEPTORS; and intracellular protein tyrosine kinase.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
A 44 kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 1 and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 3.
Derivatives of the steroid androstane having two double bonds at any site in any of the rings.
A 195-kDa MAP kinase kinase kinase with broad specificity for MAP KINASE KINASES. It is found localized in the CYTOSKELETON and can activate a variety of MAP kinase-dependent pathways.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-1 genes, associated with various neoplasms when overexpressed. Overexpression results from the t(11;14) translocation, which is characteristic of mantle zone-derived B-cell lymphomas. The human c-bcl-1 gene is located at 11q13 on the long arm of chromosome 11.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
PKC beta encodes two proteins (PKCB1 and PKCBII) generated by alternative splicing of C-terminal exons. It is widely distributed with wide-ranging roles in processes such as B-cell receptor regulation, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, androgen receptor-dependent transcriptional regulation, insulin signaling, and endothelial cell proliferation.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A group of cyclic GMP-dependent enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues of proteins.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Tumor suppressor genes located on human chromosome 9 in the region 9p21. This gene is either deleted or mutated in a wide range of malignancies. (From Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995) Two alternatively spliced gene products are encoded by p16: CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P16 and TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P14ARF.
A c-jun amino-terminal kinase that is activated by environmental stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Several isoforms of the protein with molecular sizes of 43 and 48 KD exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
An enzyme catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from 3-phospho-D-glycerate in the presence of ATP to yield 3-phospho-D-glyceroyl phosphate and ADP. EC 2.7.2.3.
A casein kinase that was originally described as a monomeric enzyme with a molecular weight of 30-40 kDa. Several ISOENZYMES of casein kinase I have been found which are encoded by separate genes. Many of the casein kinase I isoenzymes have been shown to play distinctive roles in intracellular SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES.
A protein kinase encoded by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CDC28 gene and required for progression from the G1 PHASE to the S PHASE in the CELL CYCLE.
Schneider E, Montenarh M, Wagner P (November 1998). "Regulation of CAK kinase activity by p53". Oncogene. 17 (21): 2733-41. doi ... "Both p16 and p21 families of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors block the phosphorylation of cyclin-dependent kinases by ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 7, or cell division protein kinase 7, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDK7 gene. The ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 7 has been shown to interact with: Androgen receptor, Cyclin H, GTF2H1, MNAT1, P53, SUPT5H, and XPB. ...
"Enhanced Growth of Mice Lacking the Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor Function of p27Kip1". Cell. 85 (5): 721-732. doi:10.1016/ ... Hayday, Adrian Clive (1982). Structure and activity of integrated polyoma viral DNA in transformed rat cells (PhD thesis). ... doi:10.1016/0092-8674(85)90140-0. PMID 3917858. Kiyokawa, Hiroaki; Kineman, Rhonda D; Manova-Todorova, Katia O; Soares, Vera C ... Archived from the original on 5 April 2015. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Gibbons, Deena; Fleming, Paul; Virasami, ...
... allowing for Cdk1 activity; furthermore, cyclins impart specificity to Cdk1 activity. At least some cyclins contain a ... like other cyclin-dependent kinases, contains a T-loop, which, in the absence of an interacting cyclin, prevents substrate ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 also known as CDK1 or cell division cycle protein 2 homolog is a highly conserved protein that ... Ababneh M, Götz C, Montenarh M (May 2001). "Downregulation of the cdc2/cyclin B protein kinase activity by binding of p53 to ...
It is a catalytic subunit of the cyclin-dependent kinase complex, whose activity is restricted to the G1-S phase of the cell ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 has been shown to interact with: BRCA1, CDK2AP1, CDKN1B CDKN3, CEBPA, Cyclin A1, Cyclin E1, Flap ... CDK2 cyclin-dependent kinase 2". Echalier A, Endicott JA, Noble ME (March 2010). "Recent developments in cyclin-dependent ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 2, also known as cell division protein kinase 2, or Cdk2, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ...
1998). "Investigation of the cell cycle regulation of cdk3-associated kinase activity and the role of cdk3 in proliferation and ... "Entrez Gene: CDK3 cyclin-dependent kinase 3". Bullrich F, MacLachlan TK, Sang N, et al. (1995). "Chromosomal mapping of members ... 2002). "ik3-1/Cables is a substrate for cyclin-dependent kinase 3 (cdk 3)". Eur. J. Biochem. 268 (23): 6076-82. doi:10.1046/j. ... Meikrantz W, Schlegel R (1996). "Suppression of apoptosis by dominant negative mutants of cyclin-dependent protein kinases". J ...
Cyclins function as regulators of cyclin-dependent kinases. Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation ... Meyerson M, Harlow E (Mar 1994). "Identification of G1 kinase activity for cdk6, a novel cyclin D partner". Molecular and ... "Cyclin D- and E-dependent kinases and the p57(KIP2) inhibitor: cooperative interactions in vivo". Molecular and Cellular ... are specific inhibitors of the cyclin D-dependent kinases CDK4 and CDK6". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 15 (5): 2672-81. doi: ...
"Distinct roles for cyclin-dependent kinases in cell cycle control." Science 262.5142 (1993): 2050-2054. Harlow, E. D., et al. " ... "New functional activities for the p21 family of CDK inhibitors." Genes & development 11.7 (1997): 847-862. Buchkovich, Karen, ... "p35 is a neural-specific regulatory subunit of cyclin-dependent kinase 5." (1994): 419-423. Meyerson, Matthew, et al. "A family ... Tsai, L (1994). "p35 is a neural-specific regulatory subunit of cyclin-dependent kinase 5". Nature. 371: 419-23. doi:10.1038/ ...
"The spindle checkpoint requires cyclin-dependent kinase activity". Genes & Development. 17 (20): 2520-5. doi:10.1101/gad.267603 ... Zhou BB, Li H, Yuan J, Kirschner MW (Jun 1998). "Caspase-dependent activation of cyclin-dependent kinases during Fas-induced ... Chan GK, Jablonski SA, Sudakin V, Hittle JC, Yen TJ (Sep 1999). "Human BUBR1 is a mitotic checkpoint kinase that monitors CENP- ... APC catalyzes the formation of cyclin B-ubiquitin conjugate that is responsible for the ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis of B- ...
"The cell cycle-regulated B-Myb transcription factor overcomes cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitory activity of p57(KIP2) by ... Retinoblastoma-like protein 1 has been shown to interact with: BEGAIN, BRCA1, BRF1, Cyclin A2, Cyclin-dependent kinase 2, E2F1 ... "Reversal of growth suppression by p107 via direct phosphorylation by cyclin D1/cyclin-dependent kinase 4". Molecular and ... Verona R, Moberg K, Estes S, Starz M, Vernon JP, Lees JA (Dec 1997). "E2F activity is regulated by cell cycle-dependent changes ...
cyclin-dependent protein kinase activating kinase activity. • cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • ... CDKN1A, CAP20, CDKN1, CIP1, MDA-6, P21, SDI1, WAF1, p21CIP1, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A, cyclin dependent kinase ... also known as cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 or CDK-interacting protein 1, is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CKI) ... cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase inhibitor activity. • ubiquitin protein ligase binding. • cyclin binding. • ...
Like all cyclin family members, cyclin E forms a complex with cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK2). Cyclin E/CDK2 regulates multiple ... DNA copy-number amplification of cyclin E1 is involved in brain cancer. Besides that, dysregulated cyclin E activity causes ... Cyclin E is a member of the cyclin family. Cyclin E binds to G1 phase Cdk2, which is required for the transition from G1 to S ... Geisen C, Moroy T (October 2002). "The oncogenic activity of cyclin E is not confined to Cdk2 activation alone but relies on ...
"Activity and expression pattern of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 in the embryonic mouse nervous system". Development. 119 (4): 1029 ... In the Harlow laboratory, Tsai studied cyclin-dependent kinases in order to identify their role in cell division. Tsai became ... "p35 is a neural-specific regulatory subunit of cyclin-dependent kinase 5". Nature. 371 (6496): 419-423. doi:10.1038/371419a0. ... Nikolic, M.; Dudek, H.; Kwon, Y. T.; Ramos, Y. F.; Tsai, L. H. (1996-04-01). "The cdk5/p35 kinase is essential for neurite ...
de 2002). «Reversal of growth suppression by p107 via direct phosphorylation by cyclin D1/cyclin-dependent kinase 4». Mol. Cell ... a novel p21Cip1-binding protein that cooperatively enhances p21-dependent inhibitory activity toward CDK2 kinase». J. Biol. ... cyclins and cyclin dependent kinases». Oncogene (ENGLAND) 15 (2): 143-57. ISSN 0950-9232. PMID 9244350. doi:10.1038/sj.onc. ... a b «Entrez Gene: CDK2 cyclin-dependent kinase 2». *↑ Berthet C, Aleem E, Coppola V, Tessarollo L, Kaldis P (octubre de 2003). ...
"The cyclin-dependent kinase-activating kinase (CAK) assembly factor, MAT1, targets and enhances CAK activity on the POU domains ... "The cyclin-dependent kinase-activating kinase (CAK) assembly factor, MAT1, targets and enhances CAK activity on the POU domains ... "The binding of Ku antigen to homeodomain proteins promotes their phosphorylation by DNA-dependent protein kinase". J. Biol. ... La Boissière S, Hughes T, O'Hare P (January 1999). "HCF-dependent nuclear import of VP16". EMBO J. 18 (2): 480-9. doi:10.1093/ ...
Poon RY, Jiang W, Toyoshima H, Hunter T (1996). "Cyclin-dependent kinases are inactivated by a combination of p21 and Thr-14/ ... Nuclear-dominant expression of cyclin B1 leads to poorer prognosis due to its weak activity compared to cytoplasmic cyclin B1. ... Cyclin B1 is phosphorylated by Polo kinase and Cdk1, again setting up a positive feedback loop that commits cyclin B1-Cdk1 to ... Xiong Y, Zhang H, Beach D (1993). "Subunit rearrangement of the cyclin-dependent kinases is associated with cellular ...
Cyclin D, Cyclin E transcriptional regulators: Myc, E2f1, p130 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CKIs): p27Kip1, p21, Wee1 ... "Casein kinase II phosphorylation of cyclin F at serine 621 regulates the Lys48-ubiquitylation E3 ligase activity of the SCF ( ... Mutations that prevent phosphorylation of Cyclin F alter the activity of SCF-Cyclin F, which likely affects downstream ... βTRCP recognizes these substrates after they are phosphorylated by Polo-like kinase 1 or Cyclin B-CDK1. Fbw7, which is the ...
... a cyclin-dependent kinase-activating kinase (CAK) assembly factor". Cancer Res. 55 (24): 6058-62. PMID 8521393. Marinoni JC, ... transcription activity is dependent on the integrity of an Sp1-binding site". Nucleic Acids Res. 20 (2): 217-24. doi:10.1093/ ... XPB (xeroderma pigmentosum type B) is an ATP-dependent DNA helicase in humans that is a part of the TFIIH transcription factor ... Rossignol M, Kolb-Cheynel I, Egly JM (April 1997). "Substrate specificity of the cdk-activating kinase (CAK) is altered upon ...
It was identified as a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, and has been shown to interact with, and dephosphorylate CDK2 kinase ... Cdk2.cyclin A complex enhances the phosphatase activity of KAP, dissociates cyclin A, and facilitates KAP dephosphorylation of ... "Dephosphorylation of Cdk2 Thr160 by the cyclin-dependent kinase-interacting phosphatase KAP in the absence of cyclin". Science ... Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDKN3 gene. The protein encoded by this gene ...
Cyclin dependant kinases (CDK) Cyclins DNA helicase DnaA Pre-replication complex Origin+Recognition+Complex at the US National ... Cdc6's phosphorylative activity is dependent on both the ORC and origin DNA. This leads to Cdt1 having decreased stability on ... Weinreich M, Liang C, Chen HH, Stillman B (September 2001). "Binding of cyclin-dependent kinases to ORC and Cdc6p regulates the ... Nguyen VQ, Co C, Li JJ (June 2001). "Cyclin-dependent kinases prevent DNA re-replication through multiple mechanisms". Nature. ...
"Hsc70 regulates accumulation of cyclin D1 and cyclin D1-dependent protein kinase". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 23 (5): 1764 ... "BAG-1 modulates the chaperone activity of Hsp70/Hsc70". The EMBO Journal. 16 (16): 4887-96. doi:10.1093/emboj/16.16.4887. PMC ... For example, Hsc70 regulates the nuclear accumulation of cyclin D1, which is a key player in G1 to S phase cell cycle ... Hsp70 member proteins, including Hsp72, inhibit apoptosis by acting on the caspase-dependent pathway and against apoptosis- ...
Hennigan RF, Stambrook PJ (August 2001). "Dominant negative c-jun inhibits activation of the cyclin D1 and cyclin E kinase ... leading to the phosphorylation of Jun proteins and enhanced transcriptional activity of AP-1 dependent genes. Increases in the ... Navas TA, Baldwin DT, Stewart TA (November 1999). "RIP2 is a Raf1-activated mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase". The ... Transcriptional activity of NFATc1 is enhanced by the Pim-1 kinase". Journal of Immunology. 168 (4): 1524-7. doi:10.4049/ ...
... abemaciclib inhibits the enzymes cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) and cyclin-dependent kinase 6 (CDK6). These enzymes are ... LY2835219 Shows Strong Single-Agent Activity in Preliminary Study in Metastatic Breast Cancer Clinical Activity of Abemaciclib ... This result suggest that there may be a mechanism of action other than inhibition of a cyclin-dependent kinase. After oral ... doi:10.1016/0092-8674(91)90181-w. PMID 1655277. S2CID 12990398. Hino H, Iriyama N, Kokuba H, et al. (June 2020). "Abemaciclib ...
When Rb is phosphorylated by cyclin D and E-dependent kinases during the G1 phase of the cell cycle, Rb can not block E2F- ... inhibiting its transcriptional activity. Mdm2 also has E3 ubiquitin ligase activity toward p53, and promotes its exportation ... These INK4 proteins directly inhibit the cyclin D-dependent kinases CDK4 and CDK6. There are other INK4 genes on other ... An important cyclin-dependent substrate is the retinoblastoma protein Rb, which is phosphorylated in late gap 1 phase (G1 phase ...
The essential mechanism of MAPK cascade for phragmoplast expansion is suppressed by cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) activity ... "Phosphorylation of a mitotic kinesin-like protein and a MAPKKK by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) is involved in the transition ... "Phosphorylation of NtMAP65-1 by a MAP kinase down-regulates its activity of microtubule bundling and stimulates progression of ... Another midline-localized protein, "two-in-on" (TIO), is a putative kinase and is also required for cytokinesis as shown by ...
Subsequently, phosphorylation of chaperone protein HSP70 by a cyclin dependent kinase was shown to delay cell cycle progression ... For instance, the monomethylation of HSP90 lysine 616 by Smyd2, and its reversal by LSD1, regulate enzymatic activity of HSP90 ... Enzymes such as protein kinase A, casein kinase 1 and 2 (CK1 and CK2), and glycogen synthase kinase B serve as kinases for ... "CDK-Dependent Hsp70 Phosphorylation Controls G1 Cyclin Abundance and Cell-Cycle Progression". Cell. 151 (6): 1308-1318. doi: ...
"Calmodulin is essential for cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4) activity and nuclear accumulation of cyclin D1-Cdk4 during G1". ... Cyclins function as regulators of CDKs (Cyclin-dependent kinase). Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation ... "Identification of human cyclin-dependent kinase 8, a putative protein kinase partner for cyclin C". Proceedings of the National ... Cyclin D1 is a regulatory subunit of cyclin-dependent kinases CDK4 and CDK6. The protein dimerizes with CDK4/6 to regulate the ...
... activates cyclin dependent kinases by removing phosphate from residues in the Cdk active site. In turn, the ... Cdk activity can be reactivated after dephosphorylation by Cdc25. The Cdc25 enzymes Cdc25A-C are known to control the ... By removing inhibitory phosphate residues from target cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks), Cdc25 proteins control entry into and ... Cyclin "Human PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine. cdc25+ ...
... has been shown to interact with P53, Cyclin-dependent kinase 7 and MNAT1. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000134480 ... "Entrez Gene: CCNH cyclin H". Schneider E, Montenarh M, Wagner P (Nov 1998). "Regulation of CAK kinase activity by p53". ... Drapkin R, Le Roy G, Cho H, Akoulitchev S, Reinberg D (Jun 1996). "Human cyclin-dependent kinase-activating kinase exists in ... The kinase complex is able to phosphorylate CDK2 and CDC2 kinases, thus functions as a CDK-activating kinase (CAK). This cyclin ...
Li Y, Jenkins CW, Nichols MA, Xiong Y. Cell cycle expression and p53 regulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21. „ ... a novel p21Cip1-binding protein that cooperatively enhances p21-dependent inhibitory activity toward CDK2 kinase. „J. Biol. ... The p21 Cdk-interacting protein Cip1 is a potent inhibitor of G1 cyclin-dependent kinases. „Cell". 75 (4), s. 805-816, 1993. ... a b Entrez Gene: CDKN1A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21, Cip1). ...
... cyclin E and cyclin A), which push the cell through the cell cycle by activating cyclin-dependent kinases, and a molecule ... "Cyclin D1 suppresses retinoblastoma protein-mediated inhibition of TAFII250 kinase activity". Oncogene. 19 (50): 5703-11. doi: ... When it is time for a cell to enter S phase, complexes of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) and cyclins phosphorylate Rb to pRb, ... One such example of E2F-regulated genes repressed by Rb are cyclin E and cyclin A. Both of these cyclins are able to bind to ...
SLBP are marked for degradation by phosphorylation at two threonine residues by cyclin dependent kinases, possibly cyclin A/ ... regions of the human genome with high levels of H3K36me3 accumulate less somatic mutations due to mismatch repair activity.[97] ... "NPAT links cyclin E-Cdk2 to the regulation of replication-dependent histone gene transcription". Genes & Development. 14 (18): ... The mitotic kinase aurora B phosphorylates histone H3 at serine 10, triggering a cascade of changes that mediate mitotic ...
... phosphorylates hSPT5 and RNA polymerase II carboxyl-terminal domain independently of cyclin-dependent kinase-activating kinase" ... Regulatory activity, however, also requires the 47 N-terminal residues, which interact with components of the transcription ... "Recruitment of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase to CD28 inhibits HIV transcription by a Tat-dependent mechanism". J. Immunol. 169 ... A dose-dependent response was not observed, raising questions about the robustness of the findings.[21] ...
Cyclin. *Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor protein. *Cyclin-dependent kinase. *Cyclin. Lipid. *Phosphoinositide phospholipase C ... signal transducer activity. • protein binding. • GTPase activity. • GTPase binding. • G-protein coupled receptor binding. • ... alkylglycerophosphoethanolamine phosphodiesterase activity. • macromolecular complex binding. Cellular component. • ... 1omw: Crystal Structure of the complex between G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 2 and Heterotrimeric G Protein beta 1 and ...
These transitions are controlled by the cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk1.[6] Though the proteins that control Cdk1 are well ... TOR normally directly inhibits the function of the autophagy inducing kinase Atg1/ULK1. Thus, reducing TOR activity both ... a cyclin-dependent kinase, on a tyrosine residue. Cdc2 drives entry into mitosis by phosphorylating a wide range of targets. ... The protein kinase Cdr2 (which negatively regulates Wee1) and the Cdr2-related kinase Cdr1 (which directly phosphorylates and ...
... cyclin-dependent kinase and DREAM complex. When it is time for a cell to enter S phase, complexes of cyclin-dependent kinases ( ... negative regulation of protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • negative regulation of tau-protein kinase activity. • ... cyclin E and cyclin A), which push the cell through the cell cycle by activating cyclin-dependent kinases, and a molecule ... One such example of E2F-regulated genes repressed by Rb are cyclin E and cyclin A. Both of these cyclins are able to bind to ...
... is inhibited by cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs). CDKs are in turn inhibited by p21. Thus MyoD enhances its own activity in ... protein dimerization activity. • core promoter binding. • transcriptional activator activity, RNA polymerase II transcription ... protein heterodimerization activity. • enzyme binding. • transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II distal enhancer ... transcription coactivator activity. • RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • ...
Nurse won the 2001 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discovery of cyclin and cyclin-dependent kinase.[17] ... primarily by arresting systems that prevent S phase Cdk activity in G1. The cyclins also promote other activities to progress ... cyclin E, A (Cdk2,1) cyclin A, B, B3 (Cdk1) H. sapiens cyclin D 1,2,3 (Cdk4, Cdk6) cyclin E (Cdk2) cyclin A (Cdk2, Cdk1) cyclin ... Cyclin A / CDK2 - active in S phase.. *Cyclin D / CDK4, Cyclin D / CDK6, and Cyclin E / CDK2 - regulates transition from G1 to ...
Honda R, Yasuda H (March 2000). "Activity of MDM2, a ubiquitin ligase, toward p53 or itself is dependent on the RING finger ... "Cyclin G1 has growth inhibitory activity linked to the ARF-Mdm2-p53 and pRb tumor suppressor pathways". Molecular Cancer ... receptor serine/threonine kinase binding. • peroxisome proliferator activated receptor binding. • ubiquitin binding. ... SUMO transferase activity. • ubiquitin-protein transferase activity. • transferase activity. • ligase activity. • 5S rRNA ...
... regulate cell cycle by the activation of cyclin-dependent kinase (''Cdk'') inhibitors in some lineages at the ... Proneural activity results in the selection of progenitors that are committed to a neural fate but remain multipotent, with ... Proneural activity results in the generation and delamination of progenitors that are restricted to the neuronal fate and have ... Once Notch is activated, the activity of proneural genes decreases in these cells, probably due to the activation of genes in ...
Nguyen VQ, Co C, Li JJ (June 2001). "Cyclin-dependent kinases prevent DNA re-replication through multiple mechanisms". Nature ... Klemm RD, Austin RJ, Bell SP (February 1997). "Coordinate binding of ATP and origin DNA regulates the ATPase activity of the ... "Binding of cyclin-dependent kinases to ORC and Cdc6p regulates the chromosome replication cycle". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. ... Bell SP, Stillman B (May 1992). "ATP-dependent recognition of eukaryotic origins of DNA replication by a multiprotein complex ...
"Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7 is an activator of the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase". Proceedings of the National ... protein dimerization activity. • transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • protein complex binding. • ... Expression of Myc is highly dependent on BRD4 function in some cancers.[22][23] BET inhibitors have been used to successfully ... The first to be discovered was its capability to drive cell proliferation (upregulates cyclins, downregulates p21), but it also ...
Two key classes of regulatory molecules, cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), determine a cell's progress through the ... cyclins have no catalytic activity and CDKs are inactive in the absence of a partner cyclin. When activated by a bound cyclin, ... cyclin A, DNA polymerase, thymidine kinase, etc. Cyclin E thus produced binds to CDK2, forming the cyclin E-CDK2 complex, which ... Nigg EA (June 1995). "Cyclin-dependent protein kinases: key regulators of the eukaryotic cell cycle". BioEssays. 17 (6): 471-80 ...
... genetic information cannot be organized and separated into chromosomes due to inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase activity. ... 5 (1): 48-55. doi:10.1016/S0955-0674(05)80007-9. PMID 8448030. Storti RV, Rich A (July 1976). "Chick cytoplasmic actin and ... doi:10.1016/0092-8674(83)90340-9. PMID 6432334. S2CID 23746956. Herman IM (February 1993). "Actin isoforms". Current Opinion in ...
15-deoxy-Δ12,14-PGJ2 forms an adduct with the IKK-β subunit of IκB kinase thereby inhibiting the kinases activity thereby ... DP2 and DP1 are G protein-coupled receptors, with the DP2 receptor coupled to Gi alpha subunit-dependent depression of cellular ... Cyclin D1, Cdk4, and Insulin-like growth factor 1; and e) regulating agents such as HSP70, GPR78, Gadd153, Ubiquitin B, and ... It (they) regulates signaling by: a) inhibiting the STAT3-Janus kinase pathway to block cellular pro-inflammatory responses; b ...
... in which 3 paralogues of subunits of the cyclin-dependent kinase module have evolved by 3 independent gene duplication events ... These smaller mediators can still function normally in some activity, but lack other capability. This indicates somewhat ... Xu W, Ji JY (2011). "Dysregulation of CDK8 and Cyclin C in tumorigenesis". J Genet Genomics. 38 (10): 439-52. doi:10.1016/j.jgg ... Mediator can be divided onto 4 main parts: The head, middle, tail, and the transiently associated CDK8 kinase module. Mediator ...
SKP2 targets p27Kip-1, an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). CDKs2/4 partner with the cyclinsE/D, respectively, ... Moreover, ubiquitination can also act to turn on/off the kinase activity of a protein. The critical role of phosphorylation is ... This is achieved by continuous control of cyclins/CDKs levels through ubiquitination and degradation. When cyclin E is ... The level of cyclins, as the name suggests, are high only at certain time point during cell cycle. ...
Accumulation of cyclin B increases the activity of the cyclin dependent kinase Cdk1 human homolog Cdc2 as cells prepare to ... The cell cycle is driven by proteins called cyclin dependent kinases that associate with cyclin regulatory proteins at ... The combined activity and complex of Cdc2, Cdc25, and Plk1 with the accumulation of cyclin B activates the CyclinB-Cdc2 complex ... Chk1 is an effector protein kinase that maintains mitotic cyclin in an inactive state and is phosphorylated by rad3 between S ...
However, this model is unable to recreate the observed cyclin dependent MPF activity relationship seen in Solomon's 1990 paper ... Goldbeter, A. (1991-10-15). "A minimal cascade model for the mitotic oscillator involving cyclin and cdc2 kinase". Proceedings ... the threshold behavior of cyclin concentration dependent MPF activity is instead, a discontinuity of a bistable system. ... When graphing the MPF activity with respect to cyclin concentration, the model shows a sigmoidal shape, with a hypersensitive, ...
... such as Cyclin D1, Cyclin A, Mdm-2, and Gadd45α, as well as the transcription factor c-myc, which is directly controlled by ... This PER/CRY complex moves into the nucleus upon phosphorylation by CK1-epsilon (casein kinase 1 epsilon) and inhibits the CLK/ ... Ceriani MF, Darlington TK, Staknis D, Más P, Petti AA, Weitz CJ, Kay SA (July 1999). "Light-dependent sequestration of TIMELESS ... The discovery of mutants that altered the period of circadian rhythms in eclosion and locomotor activity (perS and perL) ...
... has been shown to interact with: AKT1, CKS1B, Cyclin D3, Cyclin E1, Cyclin-dependent kinase 2, Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 ... "Bcl-2 expression suppresses mismatch repair activity through inhibition of E2F transcriptional activity". Nat. Cell Biol. 7 (2 ... "Assembly of cyclin D-dependent kinase and titration of p27Kip1 regulated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK1)". ... "Increased proteasome-dependent degradation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27 in aggressive colorectal carcinomas". ...
... activates the cyclin dependent kinase CDC2 by removing two phosphate groups and it is required for entry into mitosis. ... Booher RN, Holman PS, Fattaey A (1997). "Human Myt1 is a cell cycle-regulated kinase that inhibits Cdc2 but not Cdk2 activity ... "Protein kinase CK2 regulates CDC25B phosphatase activity". Oncogene. 22 (2): 220-32. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1206107. ISSN 0950-9232 ... Jin P, Hardy S, Morgan DO (1998). "Nuclear Localization of Cyclin B1 Controls Mitotic Entry After DNA Damage". J. Cell Biol. ...
Schneider E, Montenarh M, Wagner P (November 1998). "Regulation of CAK kinase activity by p53". Oncogene. 17 (21): 2733-41. doi ... "Both p16 and p21 families of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors block the phosphorylation of cyclin-dependent kinases by ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 7, or cell division protein kinase 7, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDK7 gene. The ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 7 has been shown to interact with: Androgen receptor, Cyclin H, GTF2H1, MNAT1, P53, SUPT5H, and XPB. ...
"Enhanced Growth of Mice Lacking the Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor Function of p27Kip1". Cell. 85 (5): 721-732. doi:10.1016/ ... Hayday, Adrian Clive (1982). Structure and activity of integrated polyoma viral DNA in transformed rat cells (PhD thesis). ... doi:10.1016/0092-8674(85)90140-0. PMID 3917858. Kiyokawa, Hiroaki; Kineman, Rhonda D; Manova-Todorova, Katia O; Soares, Vera C ... Archived from the original on 5 April 2015. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Gibbons, Deena; Fleming, Paul; Virasami, ...
The cyclin/CDK inhibitor p57Kip2 belongs to the Cip/Kip family, with p21Cip1 and p27Kip1, and is the least studied member of ... p57Kip2 is a cyclin/CDK inhibitor of the Cip/Kip family, with p21Cip1 and p27Kip1. Unlike the other family members, p57Kip2 has ... The cell cycle-regulated B-Myb transcription factor overcomes cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitory activity of p57(KIP2) by ... Cell cycle progression is driven by specific combinations of heterodimeric cyclin/CDK (cyclin-dependent kinase) complexes that ...
... proliferation of dendritic spines in nucleus accumbens is dependent on the activity of cyclin-dependent kinase-5. Neuroscience ... 2000 Induction of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 in hippocampus by chronic electroconvulsive seizures: role of ΔFosB. J. Neurosci. ... Two genes that appear to be induced through ΔFosBs actions as a transcriptional activator are cyclin-dependent kinase-5 (Cdk5 ... Second, ΔFosB is phosphorylated by casein kinase 2 (CK2) and probably by other protein kinases (?) at its N-terminus, which ...
cyclin-dependent protein kinase activating kinase activity. • cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • ... CDKN1A, CAP20, CDKN1, CIP1, MDA-6, P21, SDI1, WAF1, p21CIP1, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A, cyclin dependent kinase ... also known as cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 or CDK-interacting protein 1, is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CKI) ... cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase inhibitor activity. • ubiquitin protein ligase binding. • cyclin binding. • ...
Here, we recorded CA1 pyramidal cell activity in freely behaving p35 cKO and control mice and found that place cells in the ... Here we recorded CA1 pyramidal cell activity in freely behaving p35 cKO and control mice and found that place cells in the ... Inducible deletion of the p35 gene in adult mice results in profound deficits in hippocampal-dependent spatial learning and ... Inducible deletion of the p35 gene in adult mice results in profound deficits in hippocampal-dependent spatial learning and ...
de 2002). «Reversal of growth suppression by p107 via direct phosphorylation by cyclin D1/cyclin-dependent kinase 4». Mol. Cell ... a novel p21Cip1-binding protein that cooperatively enhances p21-dependent inhibitory activity toward CDK2 kinase». J. Biol. ... cyclins and cyclin dependent kinases». Oncogene (ENGLAND) 15 (2): 143-57. ISSN 0950-9232. PMID 9244350. doi:10.1038/sj.onc. ... a b «Entrez Gene: CDK2 cyclin-dependent kinase 2». *↑ Berthet C, Aleem E, Coppola V, Tessarollo L, Kaldis P (octubre de 2003). ...
... cyclin-dependent kinase 4, which is required for cell cycle progression; fibroblast growth factor-2; and tissue remodeling and ... Simple RNA enzymes with new and highly specific endoribonuclease activities. Nature 334, 585-591 (1988). doi:10.1038/334585a0 ... A point mutation in the catalytic core that abolished cleavage activity but still allowed the DNAzyme to base pair with its ... and other hematological enzymatic activities. Thus, these investigators have provided a strong set of analyses that validate ...
For example, phosphorylation of WAVE1 by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) suppresses Arp2/3-complex activation by WAVE1 during ... or by c-Abl or casein kinase 2 (CK2), and its actin-polymerizing activity appears to be controlled by these kinases [70-72]. ... Mitsushima M, Sezaki T, Akahane R, Ueda K, Suetsugu S, Takenawa T, Kioka N: Protein kinase A-dependent increase in WAVE2 ... This interaction presumably recruits WAVEs to the membrane in a Rac activity-dependent manner. Second, the proline-rich domain ...
Butyrate stimulates cyclin D and p21 and inhibits cyclin-dependent kinase 2 expression in HT-29 colonic epithelial cells. ... These HDACi activities were not distributed according to the molecular class of compound. In order to mimic loss of binding, an ... The p21 Cdk-interacting protein Cip1 is a potent inhibitor of G1 cyclin-dependent kinases. Cell. 1993;19:805-16. doi: 10.1016/ ... The location of K703 in the Sp1 DNA-binding domain led us to ask whether acetyl-Sp1 retains its DNA-binding activity. To test ...
... the kinase activities of immunoprecipitated cyclin A and cyclin B1 were rapidly increased upon WEE1 depletion (Fig. S1 E; Chow ... Regulators of cyclin-dependent kinases are crucial for maintaining genome integrity in S phase. Halfdan Beck, Viola Nähse, ... Regulators of cyclin-dependent kinases are crucial for maintaining genome integrity in S phase ... Inhibition of CHK1 kinase activity was achieved by the addition of 100 nM Gö6976 (EMD). Cdk activity was inhibited by the ...
2000). Cyclin-dependent kinases as a therapeutic target for stroke. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 10254-10259. doi:10.1073/ ... Although Dnmt1 activity is known to be regulated by binding to Rb (Pradhan and Kim, 2002; Robertson et al., 2000), these ... 2001). Mild cerebral ischemia induces loss of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors and activation of cell cycle machinery before ... and cyclin A-dependent kinases. Mol. Cell. Biol. 19, 6183-6194. doi:10.1128/MCB.19.9.6183. ...
We found that c-Myc and Cyclin-D1 expression was not consistently altered across all cell lines but Ki-67 signalling expression ... Cyclin-D1, and Ki-67 was investigated by Real Time PCR. Here we report that phenoxodiol induces cell cycle arrest in the G1/S ... induces G1 arrest by specific loss in cyclin-dependent kinase 2 activity by p53-independent induction of p21WAF1/CIP1. Cancer ... MacLachlan TK, Sang N, Giordano A: Cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases and cdk inhibitors: implications in cell cycle control and ...
"In Vitro and in Vivo Antitumor Properties of the Cyclin Dependent Kinase Inhibitor CYC202 (R-Roscovitine)," International ... J. Yao, K. Yang, J. B. Yang, Z. C. Hua and J. Yang, "Expression, Purification and Activity Assay of Two New Recombinant ... W. Krek, G. Xu and D. M. Livingston, "Cyclin A-Kinase Regulation of E2F-1 DNA Binding Function Underlies Suppression of an S ... Y. Sun and Q. Xu, "Effects of Si-Ni-San, a Traditional Chinese Formula, and Its Drug-Pairs on Activities of Metalloproteinases ...
RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of WEE1 kinase and other mitotic kinases was sufficient to reduce medulloblastoma ... In addition a kinome-wide small interfering RNA (siRNA) screen was performed to identify kinases that, when inhibited, could ... Taken together, these findings highlight mitotic kinases and, in particular, WEE1 as a rational therapeutic target for ... Combining the two analyses revealed that mitosis-related kinases were critical determinants of medulloblastoma cell ...
When in complex with copper, both CQ and PDTC, but not TM, can inhibit the proteasome chymotrypsin-like activity, block ... Inhibition of the proteasome was determined by levels of the proteasomal chymotrypsin-like activity and ubiquitinated proteins ... We have recently reported that organic copper-containing compounds, including 8-hydroxyquinoline-copper(II) and 5,7-dichloro-8- ... dipeptidyl proteasome inhibitors overcome Bcl-2 protective function and selectively accumulate the cyclin-dependent kinase ...
... p53-dependent inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase activities in human fibroblasts during radiation-induced G1 arrest. Cell. ... which causes cell cycle arrest at G1/S by inducing p21cip1 that inhibits cyclin dependent kinases [29, 30]. ... The p21 Cdk-interacting protein Cip1 is a potent inhibitor of G1 cyclin dependent kinases. Cell. 1993, 75: 805-816. 10.1016/ ... Experiments with Rp-8-Cl-cAMPS, a selective inhibitor of cAMP-dependent type-I protein kinase A, indicated that effects of OvUS ...
Li Y, Jenkins CW, Nichols MA, Xiong Y. Cell cycle expression and p53 regulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21. „ ... a novel p21Cip1-binding protein that cooperatively enhances p21-dependent inhibitory activity toward CDK2 kinase. „J. Biol. ... The p21 Cdk-interacting protein Cip1 is a potent inhibitor of G1 cyclin-dependent kinases. „Cell". 75 (4), s. 805-816, 1993. ... a b Entrez Gene: CDKN1A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21, Cip1). ...
The transcription network regulates the temporal expression of many genes, including cyclins, and drives cell-cycle progression ... Network oscillations continue autonomously in mutant cells arrested by depletion of CDK activities, suggesting the oscillator ... in part, by generating successive waves of distinct CDK activities that trigger the ordered program of cell-cycle events. ... The coupling of cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs) to an intrinsically oscillating network of transcription factors has been ...
Schneider E, Montenarh M, Wagner P (Nov 1998). "Regulation of CAK kinase activity by p53". Oncogene. 17 (21): 2733-41. doi: ... "Both p16 and p21 families of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors block the phosphorylation of cyclin-dependent kinases by ... "Entrez Gene: CDK7 cyclin-dependent kinase 7 (MO15 homolog, Xenopus laevis, cdk-activating kinase)".. ... "Human cyclin-dependent kinase-activating kinase exists in three distinct complexes". Proceedings of the National Academy of ...
1995). Neuronal cyclin-dependent kinase-5 phosphorylation sites in neurofilament protein (NF-H) are dephosphorylated by protein ... Although the activity of NF kinases decreases during maturation and aging (Veeranna et al., 2011), neurofilament tail domains ... KSPxK motifs are phosphorylated by proline-directed cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) (Shetty et al., 1993; Sun et al., 1996; ... Phosphorylation of the NF head domain is mediated by the second messenger dependent kinases protein kinase A (PKA) and C (PKC ...
2000). Cell cycle function of a Medicago sativa A2-type cyclin interacting with a PSTAIRE-type cyclin-dependent kinase and a ... PMid:1834684 Obaya AJ and Sedivy JM (2002). Regulation of cyclin-Cdk activity in mammalian cells. Cell Mol. Life Sci. 59: 126- ... 2003). Novel complexes of cyclin-dependent kinases and a cyclin-like protein from Arabidopsis thaliana with a function ... 2000). Activation of CDK-activating kinase is dependent on interaction with H-type cyclins in plants. Plant J. 24: 11-20. http ...
APC/C activity was determined using an in vitro APC activity assay. We identified Cdc27/APC3, a component of the APC/C, as a ... One of the key regulators of the SAC is the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) which ubiquitinates cyclin B and ... Curcumin exerts various effects on cell cycle proteins and checkpoints, including p53, cyclin D1, cyclin dependent kinases (CDK ... Consistent with this, we found that curcumin inhibits APC/C activity thereby preventing the degradation of cyclin B1 and ...
Specifically, phosphorylation of serine 203 is mediated by cyclin-dependent kinase 7. Mutations to CDK7 prevent interaction ... The steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) protein is a transcription factor involved in sex determination by controlling activity of ... "Phosphorylation of steroidogenic factor 1 is mediated by cyclin-dependent kinase 7". Molecular Endocrinology. 22 (1): 91-104. ... hinge region can undergo post-transcriptional and translational modifications such as phosphorylation by cAMP-dependent kinase ...
Cloning of p57KIP2, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor with unique domain structure and tissue distribution. Genes Dev, 9(6): ... p27, a novel inhibitor of G1 cyclin-Cdk protein kinase activity, is related to p21. Cell, 78(1):67-74. https://doi.org/10.1016/ ... Cloning of p27kip1, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor and a potential mediator of extracellular antimitogenic signals. Cell, ... The p21 Cdkinteracting protein Cip1 is a potent inhibitor of G1 cyclin-dependent kinases. Cell, 75(4):805-816. https://doi.org/ ...
This approach to understanding the relationship between HIV infection and kinase activity may introduce new drug targets to ... We present a list of cellular host kinases and other proteins that interact with these kinases. ... These host cellular kinases such as ADK, PKR, MAP3K11 are involved during HIV infection at various stages of the life cycle. ... We used Qiagen Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) software to review the function of several cellular kinases and the resulting ...
Furthermore, we observed p21WAF1 in complex with cyclin T1 and cdk9 in vitro, suggesting a direct role of p21WAF1 in HIV ... Importantly, virus replication was found to be inhibited in HIV-1 infected cell lines by 9AA in a dose-dependent manner without ... 9AA treatment resulted in inhibition of HIV LTR transcription in a specific manner that was highly dependent on the presence ... We have also previously shown that 9AA treatment inhibits cyclin E/cdk2 kinase activity [46]. Therefore, a combination of ...
The T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase is phosphorylated on Ser-304 by cyclin-dependent protein kinases in mitosis. ... Van Aelst, L., Cline, H. T. (June 2004) Rho GTPases and activity-dependent dendrite development. Curr Opin Neurobiol, 14 (3). ... Ruthazer, E. S., Cline, H. T. (April 2004) Insights into activity-dependent map formation from the retinotectal system: a ... Zhong, Y., Wu, C. F. (February 2004) Neuronal activity and adenylyl cyclase in environment-dependent plasticity of axonal ...
At the onset of M phase, the activity of somatic Wee1 (Wee1A), the inhibitory kinase for cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK), is down ... Cyclin-Dependent Kinases - genetics , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2 - metabolism , Cyclin-Dependent Kinases - chemistry , Cyclin A ... Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 6 - genetics , Clinical Trials as Topic , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 6 - metabolism , Cyclin-Dependent ... metabolism , Cyclins - chemistry , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2 - genetics , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2 - chemistry , Saccharomyces ...
... it could subsequently complex with cdk2/cyclin E decreasing its kinase activity. Cyclin E IPs were used for in vitro kinase ... S checkpoint in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected cells is associated with a lack of cyclin-dependent kinase ... Kinase Assays. ACH2 cells treated with 9AA or DMSO were harvested in vitro kinase assay. Kinase assay was performed after ... To determine the in vivo binding and the kinase activity of cdk2/cyclin E to p21/waf1, we treated both CEM and ACH2 cells with ...
  • Furthermore treatment with a panel of HDAC inhibitors showed clustering of activities for a subset of inhibitors, causing G2 cell cycle arrest, Sp1 acetylation, p21 and Bak over-expression, all with very similar EC 50 concentrations. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Taken together our data suggest a mechanistic model for the chemopreventive actions of butyrate in colon epithelial cells, and provide new insight into the differential activities some classes of HDAC inhibitors. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Expression of a recombinant Sp1 mutant (K703A), which could not be acetylated, resulted in increased expression of the lipoxygenase (12-LOX) gene [ 3 ] whilst treatment with HDAC inhibitors attenuated the expression of COX-2 in HT29 cells and IGFBP3 in CaCo2 cells [ 5 , 6 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We have recently reported that organic copper-containing compounds, including 8-hydroxyquinoline-copper(II) and 5,7-dichloro-8-hydroxyquinoline-copper(II), comprise a novel class of proteasome inhibitors and tumor cell apoptosis inducers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Most hydroxamate inhibitors are nonselective, with the exception of tubacin and tabastatin A, which are selective for HDAC6 ( 4 , 5 ). (asm.org)
  • Loss of HDAC1 and -2 induces expression of these cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors, leading to a cell cycle block in G 1 . (asm.org)
  • Therefore, both p27 and p21 may serve as universal CDK inhibitors and play active roles in the development of SPM, because these two proteins have similar biological activities in the regulation of cell cycle control, DNA repair, and apoptosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • STAT1 is known to induce apoptosis or cell cycle arrest and we detected an upregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKI) p21 Cip1 and p27 Kip1 in RhoH overexpressing BaF3 cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • SMIPs (small molecule inhibitors of p27 depletion) also upregulate p21 Cip1 , inhibit cellular CDK2 activity, induce G1 delay, inhibit colony formation in soft agar and exhibit preferential cytotoxicity in LNCaP cells relative to normal human fibroblasts. (beds.ac.uk)
  • HTLV-1 Tax can induce senescence by up-regulating the levels of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 CIP1/WAF1 and p27 KIP1 . (biomedcentral.com)
  • The functional response of rat-1 cells to PE was accompanied by increased expression of cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitors p27 kip1 and p21 cip1/waf1 , which function as negative regulators of the cell cycle. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This includes members of the pRb family of pocket proteins, as well as cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, among many others ( 8 ). (asm.org)
  • Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is a proline-directed serine/threonine kinase structurally homologous to the Cdk family members which modulate the cell cycle. (frontiersin.org)
  • Specifically, phosphorylation of serine 203 is mediated by cyclin-dependent kinase 7 . (wikidoc.org)
  • Additionally IPA analysis indicated that these modified host cellular kinases are known to have interactions with each other especially AKT1, a serine/threonine kinase involved in multiple pathways. (scirp.org)
  • The CTD consists of heptapeptide repeats, Tyr 1 -Ser 2 -Pro 3 -Tyr 4 -Ser 5 -Pro 6 -Ser 7 , which are phosphorylated on serine 2 (Ser-2) and serine 5 (Ser-5) during transcription [ 11 , 12 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Eukaryotic cell cycle progression is driven by a coordinated series of phosphorylation events, chiefly mediated by the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) family of serine/threonine kinases. (jmolecularsignaling.com)
  • Here we report that the serine/threonine kinase Stk33 is essential for the differentiation of round spermatids into functional sperm cells and male fertility. (diva-portal.org)
  • This DNA damage is dependent on CDK1 and -2 as well as the replication proteins MCM2 and CDT1 but not CDC25A. (rupress.org)
  • The initial response to replicative stress is activated mainly by the ATR (ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein) kinase, which targets proteins such as p53, H2AX, and the CHK1 kinase. (rupress.org)
  • Inhibition of the proteasome was determined by levels of the proteasomal chymotrypsin-like activity and ubiquitinated proteins in protein extracts of the treated cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We present a list of cellular host kinases and other proteins that interact with these kinases. (scirp.org)
  • Together, our analyses reveal KDM5 as a key regulator of larval growth and offer an invaluable tool for defining the biological activities of KDM5 family proteins. (genetics.org)
  • Histones are extensively decorated by covalent modifications that can affect chromatin compaction to influence transcription factor binding, or affect the recruitment of proteins that recognize specific histone modifications to activate or repress promoter activity ( Rothbart and Strahl 2014 ). (genetics.org)
  • Although the molecular mechanisms by which dysregulation of KDM5 proteins cause disease remain unknown, it is likely to involve their activities as transcriptional regulators. (genetics.org)
  • The Rho subfamily of GTPases consists of 20 proteins, but only two members, Rac2 and RhoH, are specifically expressed in haematopoietic cells [ 5 , 6 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • There is now a growing body of evidence examining the mechanisms by which G protein-coupled receptors are able to regulate the expression, activity, localization and stability of cell cycle regulatory proteins that either promote or inhibit the initiation of DNA synthesis. (jmolecularsignaling.com)
  • The activity of the CDKs is, in turn, regulated by their phosphorylation status as well as by their interaction with numerous activating and inhibitory binding proteins. (jmolecularsignaling.com)
  • It inhibits G 1 cyclin-CDK complexes that prevent phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein (Rb), leading to subsequent inhibition of E2F dependent transcription of S-phase regulatory proteins ( Toyoshima and Hunter, 1994 ). (biologists.org)
  • However, both CSF and mitotic kinases are inactive in interphase egg extracts, and we wondered whether BIR family proteins might be functionally regulated by phosphorylation in CSF-arrested egg extracts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here we examine the role played by one prominent group of intracellular signalling proteins, the Src family kinases, in regulating the chondrocyte phenotype. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These Tat proteins bind to the TAR present at the 5 ′ end of viral RNA transcripts and recruit the cellular positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb), which consists of the cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9) and cyclin T1, to the viral promoter. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Stimulation of α 1A -AR also upregulated the cell cycle regulatory proteins pRb, cyclin D1, Cdk 2, Cdk 4, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Phosphorylation deficient mutants of FOXO proteins enhanced FOXO transcriptional activity, and further enhanced SFN-induced FOXO activity and apoptosis. (jmolecularsignaling.com)
  • Cell cycle phase was determined by flow cytometry and the expression of the cell cycle-associated proteins Chk1, pChk1 ser345 , and Cyclin B was analyzed by western blot. (springer.com)
  • Furthermore, E6-mediated regulation of the subcellular distribution of phospho-E6AP appears to be dependent, in part, upon the 14-3-3 family of proteins. (asm.org)
  • While the problem of highly multiplexed monitoring is tractable at the level of DNA [ 4 , 5 ], the problem becomes significantly more complex when seeking to interrogate proteins, for which several alternatively spliced variants may be expressed from a single gene, with each variant then being subject to posttranslational modifications that regulate its activity and conformation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Studies have also shown that apoptosis induced by taxanes involves several apoptotic signal molecules, such as JNK, protein kinase A, c-Raf-1/Ras/Bcl-2, p53/p21 WAF1 , and mitogen-activated protein kinases (ERK and p38). (biomedcentral.com)
  • LMTK3 belongs to the LMTK family of protein kinases that are predominantly expressed in the brain. (jneurosci.org)
  • This gene encodes a nuclear protein, which is a tyrosine kinase belonging to the Ser/Thr family of protein kinases. (omicsgroup.org)
  • As a proving proof of principle experiment, we demonstrate the specific recognition of cyclin-dependent protein kinases in whole-cell lysates using arrays of ten electrodes functionalized with individual peptide aptamers, with no measurable cross-talk between electrodes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The expression of cell cycle genes p21 WAF1 , c-Myc, Cyclin-D1, and Ki-67 was investigated by Real Time PCR. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The transcription network regulates the temporal expression of many genes, including cyclins, and drives cell-cycle progression, in part, by generating successive waves of distinct CDK activities that trigger the ordered program of cell-cycle events. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The steroidogenic factor 1 ( SF-1 ) protein is a transcription factor involved in sex determination by controlling activity of genes related to the reproductive glands or gonads and adrenal glands . (wikidoc.org)
  • These genes include p38 MAP kinase, discoidin, inhibitor of growth family member 5, and growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible beta. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This spectrum of activities allows Myc to regulate subsets of genes that are more tightly controlled and susceptible to chromatin modulation, whereas other genes, such as the so-called "housekeeping" genes, may already exist in open chromatin configuration and hence may be regulated through recruitment of the basal transcriptional machinery. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although both the BCR-induced death of immature B cells and the BCR-induced expansion of conventional mature B cells are critically dependent upon the de novo transcription and translation of genes [ 11 - 14 ], no study to date has investigated the mechanisms for the opposing phenotypes at the transcriptome level. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Gene expression profiling of B cells from M-protein-positive p80HT mice revealed aberrant expression of genes known to be important in the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma, including cyclin D1, cyclin D2, Blimp1, survivin, IL-10 and IL-15. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) pathway activation during the S phase prevented the cell death, and allowed the division of cortical neurons that had undergone acute Rb family inactivation, oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) or in vivo hypoxia-ischemia. (biologists.org)
  • We used Qiagen Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) software to review the function of several cellular kinases and the resulting perturbed signaling pathways during HIV infection such as NF-κB signaling. (scirp.org)
  • The oxidative DNA lesion 8,5′-( S )-cyclo-2′-deoxyadenosine is repaired by the nucleotide excision repair pathway and blocks gene expression in mammalian cells. (springer.com)
  • Kuraoka I, Bender C, Romieu A, Cadet J, Wood RD, Lindahl T. Removal of oxygen free-radical-induced 5′,8-purine cyclodeoxynucleosides from DNA by the nucleotide excision-repair pathway in human cells. (springer.com)
  • Moreover, because both p21 and p27 are involved in the same cell cycle regulation pathway and bind to cyclin D1-CDK complexes to inhibit their catalytic activity and induce cell-cycle arrest, they may have redundant or synergistic effect on cell cycle inhibition. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This consequently results in cell death by phosphorylation of bcl-2 [ 5 ], which is integral to the apoptotic pathway. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p27 Kip1 is downregulated in a majority of human cancers due to ectopic proteolysis by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. (beds.ac.uk)
  • However, unfertilized eggs are naturally arrested at the metaphase of meiosis II by the concerted activities of Mos-MEK-p42MAPK-p90Rsk kinase cascade (cytostatic factor pathway) and many mitotic kinases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Scalloped and Yorkie, transcriptional effectors of the Hippo pathway, drive Cyclin E expression to induce cell cycle re-entry in cells that normally remain quiescent in the absence of damage. (biologists.org)
  • Not all proteolytic substrates are degraded by the Rad23/Dsk2-dependent pathway. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, AID-induced BER deviates from this classical pathway, because it generates UNG-dependent Ig G:C transversion mutations, probably via translesion DNA polymerases. (rupress.org)
  • Among them, the pathway of TGF-beta-dependent induction of EMT via SMAD is of particular importance. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study investigated changes in mTOR pathway and telomerase activity in hepatocarcinoma cell line SMMC-7721 treated with chemotherapeutic agent 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu). (beds.ac.uk)
  • These results suggest that chemotherapeutic agent 5-Fu may down-regulate telomerase activity at both transcriptional level and PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway-dependent post-transcriptional level to facilitate hepatocellular carcinoma cell apoptosis. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Cell cycle progression is driven by specific combinations of heterodimeric cyclin/CDK (cyclin-dependent kinase) complexes that license progression from one cell cycle phase to the next. (frontiersin.org)
  • p21 Cip1 (alternatively p21 Waf1 ), also known as cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 or CDK-interacting protein 1 , is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CKI) that is capable of inhibiting all cyclin/CDK complexes, [5] though is primarily associated with inhibition of CDK2 . (wikipedia.org)
  • The p21 (CIP1/WAF1) protein binds to and inhibits the activity of cyclin - CDK2 , - CDK1 , and - CDK4 /6 complexes, and thus functions as a regulator of cell cycle progression at G 1 and S phase . (wikipedia.org)
  • also found that γ-irradiation of fibroblasts induced a p53 and p21 dependent cell cycle arrest, here p21 was found bound to inactive cyclin E / CDK2 complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2003). Novel complexes of cyclin-dependent kinases and a cyclin-like protein from Arabidopsis thaliana with a function unrelated to cell division. (geneticsmr.com)
  • Cyclin/CDK complexes: Their involvement in cell cycle progression and mitotic division. (geneticsmr.com)
  • Paradoxically, p21 also serves as a platform for the interaction between cyclin D and Cdk4/6, and promotes the assembly of active G1 Cdk complexes [ 33 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Esquema de las rutas de transducción de señales implicadas en el proceso de apoptosis . (wikipedia.org)
  • Whereas the screening endpoint - nuclear p27 - was robustly modulated by the compounds, SMIP-mediated cell cycle arrest and apoptosis were not strictly dependent on p27 and p21 - a finding that is explained by parallel inhibitory effects of SMIPs on positive cell cycle regulators, including cyclins E and A, and CDK4. (beds.ac.uk)
  • In measurement, T cell activity was indicated in 14 articles, NK activity in 4 articles, IL-2 in 6 articles, apoptosis in 1 article, lung metastasis in 14 articles.Conclusion : Considering overall results, it is necessary to diversify cancer-induced methods and measurement methods in experimental melanoma research. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Previous studies suggest that cytostatic factor-arrested egg extracts are more resistant to spontaneous apoptosis than interphase egg extracts in a p42MAPK-dependent manner. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 14 ]) only weakly inhibited apoptosis, and neither xSurvivin1/xBIR1 nor xSurvivin2/SIX showed anti-apoptotic activities. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These data suggest that inhibition of PI3K/AKT and ERK pathways acts together to activate FOXO transcription factor and enhances SFN-induced FOXO transcriptional activity, leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. (jmolecularsignaling.com)
  • Treating SMMC-7721 cells with 5-Fu leads to apoptosis of the cells, and reduction in telomerase activity, as well as a dramatic reduction in the activated form of p70 S6 kinase, a mTOR substrate. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Caspase-dependent activation of cyclin-dependent kinases during Fas-induced apoptosis in Jurkat cells. (omicsgroup.org)
  • Cyclin-dependent kinase 7, or cell division protein kinase 7, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDK7 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the cyclin-dependent protein kinase (CDK) family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inducible deletion of the p35 gene in adult mice results in profound deficits in hippocampal-dependent spatial learning and synaptic physiology, however the impact of the loss of p35 function on hippocampal in vivo physiology and spatial coding remains unknown. (frontiersin.org)
  • Gene expression profiling in 16 medulloblastoma patient samples and subsequent gene set enrichment analysis indicated that cell cycle-related kinases were associated with disease development. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cell division protein kinase 7 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDK7 gene . (wikidoc.org)
  • G1/S-specific cyclin-D2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCND2 gene . (wikidoc.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly conserved cyclin family, whose members are characterized by a dramatic periodicity in protein abundance through the cell cycle . (wikidoc.org)
  • Because heterodimerization is a prerequisite for DNA binding, factors that interfere with dimerization effectively act as passive repressors of proneural gene activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only up to 40% of sporadic human GH-secreting adenomas have missense mutations of the Gsα gene [ 4 ], and many functional adenomas present the overexpression of a recently discovered powerful transforming gene, PTTG , which is able to exert strong transforming effects both in vitro and in vivo [ 5 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • SiRNA-mediated repression of RhoH gene expression led to an increase in proliferation and STAT5 activity which correlated with an increased number of IL3 receptor α chain molecules, also known as CD123, expressed at the cell surface. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • To directly investigate the relationship between tiRNAs and CTCF we examined tiRNAs originating near the intronic CTCF binding site in the human tumor suppressor gene, p21 (cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A gene, also known as CDKN1A ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • This is further supported by the work in our laboratory which showed that p53 protein was found to be accumulated in 58 NPC biopsy samples formalin-fixed, paraffin-waxed embedded tissues of Malaysian patients but the p53 gene was not mutated at the p53 mutation hot-spots Exons 5-8 [ 22 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This transition involves downregulation of gene products that promote mitotic cell cycling and activities and, correspondingly, upregulation of gene products and processes that promote the early steps of meiotic prophase (meiotic entry) and gametogenesis. (genetics.org)
  • We conclude that the Src kinase inhibitor PP2 promotes chondrogenic gene expression and morphology in monolayer culture. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The stochastic model proposes that there is no variation in tumor initiating potential among different tumor subpopulations and that tumor cell growth is dependent on immune response, microenvironment and intrinsic gene regulatory signals. (springeropen.com)
  • The data suggest Ste11p regulates the FKS2 gene through all its known and putative downstream kinase substrates (Pbs2p, Ste7p, Cmk2p, and Ptk2p) and separately through Mpk1p MAPK. (biomedcentral.com)
  • There are massive CpG dinucleotide repeats in the 5′-flanking region of EDNRB gene. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The human PTTG gene was found to be localized on chromosome 5 [5q35.1] [ 21 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These two pathways converge to control Cdk activity during normal S-phase progression to avoid the generation of harmful DNA lesions. (rupress.org)
  • The coupling of cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs) to an intrinsically oscillating network of transcription factors has been proposed to control progression through the cell cycle in budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Network oscillations continue autonomously in mutant cells arrested by depletion of CDK activities, suggesting the oscillator can be uncoupled from cell-cycle progression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In budding yeast, physiological perturbations that inhibit cell-cycle progression do so through checkpoints whose primary effect is thought to be maintenance of high mitotic CDK activity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, the importance of this enzymatic activity to disease initiation and progression remains enigmatic. (genetics.org)
  • A common feature of human cancer is cell cycle deregulation, and cell cycle progression is governed by the activation cyclin and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), which function together in the G1 phase to initiate S phase and in G2 to initiate mitosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Skp2 is the receptor subunit of an SCF-type ubiquitin ligase and is a major regulator of the progression of cells into S phase of the cell cycle, which it promotes by mediating the ubiquitin-dependent degradation of p27, an inhibitor of cell proliferation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It regulates the progression of cells from G1 to S phase by binding and inhibiting the cyclin E-CDK2 complex. (beds.ac.uk)
  • [5] One function of Rb is to prevent excessive cell growth by inhibiting cell cycle progression until a cell is ready to divide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both loss of the differentiated phenotype and ectopic hypertrophic differentiation are thought to contribute to OA progression [ 5 - 7 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This protein binds to a variety of cyclin-dependent kinases and inhibits their activity, regulates DNA repair, and directly blocks DNA replication by inhibiting the proliferating cell nuclear antigen [ 5 ], thus inhibiting cell-cycle progression and decreasing cell growth. (biomedcentral.com)
  • [15] Follow up work, found evidence that this bistability is underpinned by double negative feedback between p21 and CDK2, where CDK2 inhibits p21 activity via ubiquitin ligase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • We found that alsterpaullone effectively inhibits cdk2 activity in HIV-1 infected cells with a low IC 50 compared to control uninfected cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Rapamycin, an immunosuppressive macrocyclic lactone, specifically inhibits the activity of mTOR. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Human Wee1 kinase inhibits cell division by phosphorylating p34cdc2 exclusively on Tyr15. (omicsgroup.org)
  • Human Myt1 is a cell cycle-regulated kinase that inhibits Cdc2 but not Cdk2 activity. (omicsgroup.org)
  • Conversely, DNA damage after CHK1 inhibition is highly dependent on CDC25A. (rupress.org)
  • 9AA treatment resulted in inhibition of HIV LTR transcription in a specific manner that was highly dependent on the presence and location of the amino moiety. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore, we observed p21WAF1 in complex with cyclin T1 and cdk9 in vitro , suggesting a direct role of p21WAF1 in HIV transcription inhibition. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Inhibition of Src kinase activity using the pharmacological compound PP2 (4-Amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo [3,4-d]pyrimidine) strongly reduced the number of primary mouse chondrocytes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Disulfiram's anti-cancer activity reflects targeting NPL4, not inhibition of aldehyde dehydrogenase. (imtm.cz)
  • The cyclin/CDK inhibitor p57 Kip2 belongs to the Cip/Kip family, with p21 Cip1 and p27 Kip1 , and is the least studied member of the family. (frontiersin.org)
  • High levels of RhoH allow the IL3-dependent activation of STAT1 causing decreased proliferation through upregulation of p21 Cip1 and p27 Kip1 . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Tax binds Sp1 directly, and the CBP/p300-binding activity of Tax is required for p21 CIP1/WAF1 trans-activation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • SFN induced the expression of p21/ CIP1 and p27/ KIP1 , and inhibited the expression of cyclin D1. (jmolecularsignaling.com)
  • In this study, we explored the ability of phenoxodiol to impact the cell cycle of prostate cancer cells and investigate the underlying signalling pathways c-Myc, Cyclin-D1, Ki-67 and p21 WAF1 . (biomedcentral.com)
  • When stimulated these receptors modulate the activity of a wide range of intracellular signalling pathways that facilitate the ordered development, growth and reproduction of the organism. (jmolecularsignaling.com)
  • In this review we will examine the ability of GPCRs to modulate the activity of intracellular pathways that connect activation at the cell membrane to cellular proliferation. (jmolecularsignaling.com)
  • The expression of p27 is subject to multiple mechanisms of control involving several transcription factors, kinase pathways and at least three different ubiquitin ligases (SCF SKP2 , KPC, Pirh2), which regulate p27 transcription, translation, protein stability and subcellular localization. (beds.ac.uk)
  • In this review, we describe a number of these mechanisms of chemoresistance including ABC transporter expression, aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity, B-cell lymphoma-2 (BCL2) related chemoresistance, enhanced DNA damage response and activation of key signaling pathways. (springeropen.com)
  • The relative importance of these aerobic and anaerobic pathways is highly dependent on the cell systems examined. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The calcineurin and protein kinase C and mating pathways are the major signaling pathways that regulate FKS2 expression and cell wall integrity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As a result, we suggest 5 of these pathways could be served as putative pathways in glioma. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This cyclin forms a complex with and functions as a regulatory subunit of CDK4 or CDK6 , whose activity is required for cell cycle G1 / S transition. (wikidoc.org)
  • The fission yeast cdc2/cdc13/suc1 protein kinase: regulation of catalytic activity and nuclear localization. (geneticsmr.com)
  • In vertebrates, CSF arrests mature eggs at the metaphase of meiosis II, and many mitotic kinases including Cdc2/cyclin B are also kept active. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This protein catalyzes the inhibitory tyrosine phosphorylation of CDC2 /cyclin B kinase, and appears to coordinate the transition between DNA replication and mitosis by protecting the nucleus from cytoplasmically activated CDC2 kinase. (omicsgroup.org)
  • Human wee1 maintains mitotic timing by protecting the nucleus from cytoplasmically activated Cdc2 kinase. (omicsgroup.org)
  • Persistent Clb2/Cdk1 activity regulates transcript dynamics of network oscillator targets. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we report that HDAC10 regulates the cell cycle via modulation of cyclin A2 expression, and cyclin A2 overexpression rescues HDAC10 knockdown-induced G 2 /M transition arrest. (asm.org)
  • HDAC10 regulates cyclin A2 expression by deacetylating histones near the let-7 promoter, thereby repressing transcription. (asm.org)
  • p27 Kip1 , a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor, is a multi-functional protein that regulates various cellular activities. (biologists.org)
  • In the present study, we investigated the mechanism by which Nodal regulates trophoblast activities. (biologists.org)
  • In fruit flies, an enzyme called PNG kinase regulates the translation of hundreds of mRNA molecules during the period after the pause, when the maturing egg cell is activated and the embryo begins to develop. (elifesciences.org)
  • By inhibiting CDK activity, CKIs block proliferation and they are considered as tumor suppressor. (frontiersin.org)
  • In addition a kinome-wide small interfering RNA (siRNA) screen was performed to identify kinases that, when inhibited, could prevent cell proliferation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Combining the two analyses revealed that mitosis-related kinases were critical determinants of medulloblastoma cell proliferation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of WEE1 kinase and other mitotic kinases was sufficient to reduce medulloblastoma cell proliferation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • When in complex with copper, both CQ and PDTC, but not TM, can inhibit the proteasome chymotrypsin-like activity, block proliferation, and induce apoptotic cell death preferentially in breast cancer cells, less in premalignant breast cells, but are non-toxic to normal/non-transformed breast cells at the concentrations tested. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Importantly, virus replication was found to be inhibited in HIV-1 infected cell lines by 9AA in a dose-dependent manner without inhibiting cellular proliferation or inducing cell death. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cdkn1c encodes an embryonic cyclin-dependant kinase inhibitor that acts to negatively regulate cell proliferation and, in some tissues, to actively direct differentiation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We further investigated the Myc- dependent molecular mechanisms and found that Myc promotes a BCR-dependent clonal expansion of mature B cells by inducing proliferation and inhibiting differentiation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Previous studies of our group revealed that C3 inhibited cell proliferation in HT22 cells accompanied by increased transcriptional activities of Sp1 and c-Jun and reduced levels of cyclin D1, p21 and phosphorylated p38. (jmolecularsignaling.com)
  • Białko p21 (WAF1) jest w stanie oddziaływać z jądrowym antygenem komórek proliferujących ( proliferating cell nuclear antigen − PCNA), czynnikiem dodatkowym polimerazy DNA , i tym samym odgrywać rolę regulatora zarówno przy replikacji materiału genetycznego w fazie S jak i przy naprawie łańcucha [5] . (wikipedia.org)
  • MyoD is inhibited by cyclin dependent kinases ( CDKs ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Tumor Protein p53 (p53), cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21/WAF1), and murine double minute 2 (MDM2) participate in the regulation of cell growth. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Previous studies have explored the molecular alterations in HCC, including changes in the expression of p53, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21/WAF1), and murine double minute 2 (MDM2). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mutant p53 was unable to downregulate CDK7 activity and mutant p21 had no effect on downregulation, indicating that p53 is responsible for negative regulation of CDK7. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another level of regulation is their association with inhibitory partners called CKIs (Cyclin-dependent Kinase Inhibitor). (frontiersin.org)
  • Li Y, Jenkins CW, Nichols MA, Xiong Y. Cell cycle expression and p53 regulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 . (wikipedia.org)
  • RhoH is a GTPase deficient protein [ 7 , 8 ] and its activity is presumably modulated through transcriptional regulation [ 7 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • A wide variety of mechanisms including transcriptional regulation, mRNA degradation, ubiquitin-dependent or ubiquitin-independent proteolysis, and subcellular localization are known to regulate the level and activity of p21 [ 38 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Up-regulation of telomerase activity is thought to be a critical step leading to cell transformation. (beds.ac.uk)
  • 5-Fu and rapamycin were synergistic in regards to down-regulation of telomerase activity in hepatocarcinoma cells. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Regulation of the human WEE1Hu CDK tyrosine 15-kinase during the cell cycle. (omicsgroup.org)
  • 10.1186/1743-422X-5-41 ) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. (springer.com)
  • 1994). "p56/p53lyn tyrosine kinase activation in mammalian cells treated with mitomycin C.". Oncogene 9 (10): 3005-11. (omicsgroup.org)
  • Evidence that the mutation impairs the ability of p21 to inhibit cyclin-dependent kinases. (cshl.edu)
  • The growth suppressor p53 has been shown to interact with cyclin H both in vitro and in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • While these animals were found to have deficiencies in hippocampal-dependent spatial learning and alterations in in vitro synaptic plasticity, interpretation of these phenotypes is complicated as a result of the changes in the gross anatomy. (frontiersin.org)
  • Then, in the mid-1990s, Gerald Joyce and colleagues used an in vitro selection methodology that employed short single-stranded DNAs to identify DNA motifs that could effect site-specific RNA strand scission ( 5 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • APC/C activity was determined using an in vitro APC activity assay. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Nonpyrogenic Molecular Adjuvants Based on norAbu-Muramyldipeptide and norAbu-Glucosaminyl Muramyldipeptide: Synthesis, Molecular Mechanisms of Action, and Biological Activities in Vitro and in Vivo. (imtm.cz)
  • It was found to efficiently cause transformation of human primary B lymphocytes, both in vitro and in vivo , into immortalized lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL) that proliferate indefinitely by harbouring the virus in its latent state [ 5 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The results of in vivo and in vitro assays show direct binding of BHEXIM1 to the B-cyclin T1. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We found that c-Myc and Cyclin-D1 expression was not consistently altered across all cell lines but Ki-67 signalling expression was decreased in line with the cell cycle arrest. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 1996). Cyclin G1 and cyclin G2 comprise a new family of cyclins with contrasting tissue-specific and cell cycle-regulated expression. (geneticsmr.com)
  • Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation patterns which contribute to the temporal coordination of each mitotic event. (wikidoc.org)
  • Decrease in Necdin expression seemed to be a consequence of the establishment of senescence since the depletion of Necdin in human cells did not induce a senescence-like growth arrest nor a flat morphology or SA-β-galactosidase activity normally associated with senescence. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The effects of alsterpaullone were associated with suppression of cdk2 and cyclin expression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Using the murine IL3-dependent cell line BaF3 we investigated the influence of RhoH protein expression levels on IL3-mediated cellular responses. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Low RhoH levels on the other hand led to an upregulation of IL3-dependent cell growth, STAT5 activity and an increase of CD123 surface expression, linking RhoH to a CD123/STAT5 phenotype that has been described in AML patients. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We compared the expression profiles of NCCIT cells with that of the cancer cell lines in order to identify common genistein-dependent transcriptional changes and accompanying signaling cascades. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We show that the Src family kinase Lyn exhibits a dynamic expression pattern in the chondrogenic cell line ATDC5 and in a mixed population of embryonic mouse chondrocytes in high-density monolayer culture. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ste11p increased the expression level of Cmk2p through transcription-dependent and -independent mechanisms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Like irradiation, loratadine initially induced G2/M arrest and activation of the cell-cycle associated protein Chk1 to pChk1 ser345 , however a subsequent decrease in expression of total Chk1 and Cyclin B correlated with abrogation of the G2/M checkpoint. (springer.com)
  • The hinge region can undergo post-transcriptional and translational modifications such as phosphorylation by cAMP-dependent kinase , that further enhance stability and transcriptional activity. (wikidoc.org)
  • We determined that p38-γ directly phosphorylated MyoD on Ser199 and Ser200, which results in enhanced occupancy of MyoD on the promoter of myogenin together with markedly decreased transcriptional activity. (rupress.org)
  • Accordingly, we ectopically restricted UNG2 activity in vivo to predefined cell cycle phases by fusing a UNG2 inhibitor peptide to cell cycle-regulated degradation motifs. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 oncoproteins recruit the cellular ubiquitin ligase E6AP/UBE3A to target cellular substrates for proteasome-mediated degradation, and one consequence of this activity is the E6 stimulation of E6AP autoubiquitination and degradation. (asm.org)
  • Molecular and cellular biology, 12 (5). (fhcrc.org)
  • CDK3 can phosphorylate histone H1 and interacts with an unknown type of cyclin . (wikidoc.org)
  • Full functional activity of Tat requires host cell cofactors, which interacts with the loop of TAR RNA hairpin (reviewed in [ 1 , 2 ]) as well as other site on the LTR. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Both kinases are important negative regulators of CDK1 and -2. (rupress.org)
  • One of the key regulators of the SAC is the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) which ubiquitinates cyclin B and securin and targets them for proteolysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cyclins function as regulators of cyclin-dependent kinases. (wikidoc.org)
  • The KDM5 family of transcriptional regulators are histone H3 lysine 4 demethylases that can function through both demethylase-dependent and -independent mechanisms. (genetics.org)
  • One family of transcriptional regulators that both recognizes and enzymatically modifies chromatin is the lysine demethylase 5 (KDM5) family of evolutionarily conserved histone demethylases. (genetics.org)
  • Not all serpins, however, exert proteinase inhibitory activity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This result suggests that Necdin potentially attenuate p53 signaling in response to genotoxic stress in human cells and supports similar results describing an inhibitory function of Necdin over p53-dependent growth arrest in mice. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Combining both alsterpaullone and r -roscovitine (cyc202) in treatment exhibited even stronger inhibitory activities in HIV-1 infected PBMCs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • During mating, high osmolarity growth and invasive growth, Ste11p is phosphorylated and activated by Ste20p, a p21 activated kinase that binds to Cdc42p. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Phosphorylation by mTOR of 4E-BP1 disrupts its binding to eIF4E, a protein that binds the 5'-cap structure of mRNA. (beds.ac.uk)
  • When the cell is ready to divide, Rb is phosphorylated to pRb, leading to the inactivation of the activity of Retinoblastoma protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite presence of the catalytic PNG subunit and the PLU and GNU activating subunits in the mature oocyte, GNU is phosphorylated at Cyclin B/CDK1sites and unable to bind PNG and PLU. (elifesciences.org)
  • The activity of the MKK3/6-p38 MAPK signaling cascade as well as the phosphorylation of c-Jun and JNK was reduced by C3 exclusively in the presence of p38α. (jmolecularsignaling.com)
  • This anti-proliferative effect was highly associated with the decreased activity of c-Jun and upstream p38 and JNK MAPK signaling as a consequence of the absence of p38α in these cells. (jmolecularsignaling.com)
  • Normal adjacent tissues were collected at least 5 cm away from the tumor. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Most importantly, both viral oncoproteins continue to be retained and expressed in the cervical tumor-derived cell lines and tissues many years after immortalization and full transformation ( 4 , 5 ). (asm.org)
  • Upon binding to 7SK snRNA, HEXIM1 oligomers undergo a conformational change and then bind to cyclin T1. (biomedcentral.com)
  • HMGA2 loss resulted in enrichment of the transcriptional repressor E4F at the cyclin A2 promoter. (asm.org)
  • J. Yang and W. Y. Hua, "Basic Pharmacophore for Some Antithrombotic Agents with Combined Thromboxane Receptor Antagonists (TXRA)/Thromboxine Synthase Inhibitor (TXSI) Activities," Drug Development Research, Vol. 39, No. 2, 1996, pp. 197-200. (scirp.org)
  • The capacity of the mammalian immune system to discriminate between foreign chemical entities and the body's own components is critically dependent upon the correct choice between life and death of immune cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This protein forms a trimeric complex with cyclin H and MAT1, which functions as a Cdk-activating kinase (CAK). (wikipedia.org)
  • [6] Specifically it contains a Cy1 motif in the N-terminal half, and weaker Cy2 motif in the C-terminal domain that allow it to bind CDK in a region that blocks its ability to complex with cyclins and thus prevent CDK activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations to CDK7 prevent interaction with the basal transcription factor, TFIIH , and formation of CDK-activating kinase complex. (wikidoc.org)
  • Recently, a growing body of evidence has indicated the role of yet another cyclin/cdk complex, namely cyclin E/cdk2, in Tat activated transcription. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cyclin E/cdk2 is the major cyclin/cdk complex whose maximal activity is observed at the late G1/S boundary. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The oocyte-to-embryo transition involves extensive changes in mRNA translation, regulated in Drosophila by the PNG kinase complex whose activity we show here to be under precise developmental control. (elifesciences.org)
  • The critical regulatory effect of phosphorylation is shown by replacement in the oocyte with a phosphorylation-resistant form of GNU, which promotes PNG-GNU complex formation, elevation of Cyclin B, and meiotic defects consistent with premature PNG activation. (elifesciences.org)
  • We identify the Caenorhabditis elegans SCF PROM-1 E3 ubiquitin-ligase complex as functioning to downregulate mitotic cell cycle protein levels including cyclin E, WAPL-1 , and KNL-2 at meiotic entry and, independently, promoting homologous chromosome pairing as a positive regulator of the CHK-2 kinase. (genetics.org)
  • We conclude that the mitotic kinase WEE1 and CHK1 jointly maintain balanced cellular control of Cdk activity during normal DNA replication, which is crucial to prevent the generation of harmful DNA lesions during replication. (rupress.org)
  • We previously reported on the pharmacological cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (PCI) r -roscovitine as a potential inhibitor of HIV-1 replication. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Through these activities Tax sets the infected T-cells into continuous uncontrolled replication and destabilizes their genome by interfering with the function of telomerase and topoisomerase-I and by inhibiting DNA repair. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Taken together, these findings highlight mitotic kinases and, in particular, WEE1 as a rational therapeutic target for medulloblastoma. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Novel non-sulfonamide 5-HT6 receptor partial inverse agonist in a group of imidazo[4,5-b]pyridines with cognition enhancing properties. (imtm.cz)
  • Recently it was found that RhoH activity can also be regulated by tyrosine phosphorylation of its non-canonical immune receptor tyrosine activation motif (ITAM) [ 9 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This short-lived burst in kinase activity links development with maternal mRNA translation and ensures irreversibility of the oocyte-to-embryo transition. (elifesciences.org)
  • This leaves GNU free to activate the PNG kinase, allowing this kinase to control the translation of mRNA molecules. (elifesciences.org)
  • The 5-Fu treatment nearly abolishes transcription of hTERT (the major component of telomerase) mRNA. (beds.ac.uk)
  • When the egg cell is activated for embryonic development, the levels of this second kinase drop sharply and meiosis is completed. (elifesciences.org)
  • This transition requires downregulation of mitotic cell cycle activity and upregulation of processes associated with meiosis. (genetics.org)
  • [6] [7] p21 represents a major target of p53 activity and thus is associated with linking DNA damage to cell cycle arrest. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies of p53 dependent cell cycle arrest in response to DNA damage identified p21 as the primary mediator of downstream cell cycle arrest. (wikipedia.org)
  • This approach to understanding the relationship between HIV infection and kinase activity may introduce new drug targets to arrest HIV infectivity. (scirp.org)
  • Taken together, these data suggest that the observed effects of loratadine are multifactorial in that loratadine 1) directly damages DNA, 2) activates Chk1 thereby promoting G2/M arrest making cells more susceptible to radiation-induced DNA damage and, 3) downregulates total Chk1 and Cyclin B abrogating the radiation-induced G2/M checkpoint and allowing cells to re-enter the cell cycle despite the persistence of damaged DNA. (springer.com)
  • Meiotic completion promotes GNU dephosphorylation and PNG kinase activation to regulate translation. (elifesciences.org)
  • In kinase assays, Tat induces phosphorylation of CTD by cdk9, which requires the N-terminal domain (amino acids 1 to 48) and the arginine-rich motif (amino acids 49-57) of Tat [ 21 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cells from breast cancer tumors were found to have elevated levels of CDK7 and Cyclin H when compared to normal breast cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Addition of wild type p53 was found to heavily downregulated CAK activity, resulting in decreased phosphorylation of both CDK2 and CTD by CDK7. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent studies identified an autism-linked mutation within E6AP at T485, which was identified as a protein kinase A phosphoacceptor site and which could directly regulate E6AP ubiquitin ligase activity. (asm.org)
  • These host cellular kinases such as ADK, PKR, MAP3K11 are involved during HIV infection at various stages of the life cycle. (scirp.org)