Methods to identify and characterize cancer in the early stages of disease and predict tumor behavior.
Genes that show rapid and transient expression in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral genes where immediate-early referred to transcription immediately following virus integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular genes which are expressed immediately after resting cells are stimulated by extracellular signals such as growth factors and neurotransmitters.
Methods to determine in patients the nature of a disease or disorder at its early stage of progression. Generally, early diagnosis improves PROGNOSIS and TREATMENT OUTCOME.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
Proteins that are coded by immediate-early genes, in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral regulatory proteins that were synthesized just after viral integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular proteins which are synthesized immediately after the resting cell is stimulated by extracellular signals.
Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
An early growth response transcription factor that has been implicated in regulation of CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.
Concentration or quantity that is derived from the smallest measure that can be detected with reasonable certainty for a given analytical procedure.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Radiographic examination of the breast.
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (fos) originally isolated from the Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins (FBJ-MSV) and Finkel-Biskis-Reilly (FBR-MSV) murine sarcoma viruses. The proto-oncogene protein c-fos codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in growth-related transcriptional control. The insertion of c-fos into FBJ-MSV or FBR-MSV induces osteogenic sarcomas in mice. The human c-fos gene is located at 14q21-31 on the long arm of chromosome 14.
A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.
Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The inspection of one's breasts, usually for signs of disease, especially neoplastic disease.
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. Through basic and clinical biomedical research and training, it conducts and supports research with the objective of cancer prevention, early stage identification and elimination. This Institute was established in 1937.
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.
A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
The inspection of one's own body, usually for signs of disease (e.g., BREAST SELF-EXAMINATION, testicular self-examination).
Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (jun) originally isolated from the avian sarcoma virus 17 (ASV 17). The proto-oncogene jun (c-jun) codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in growth-related transcriptional control. Insertion of c-jun into ASV-17 or the constitutive expression of the c-jun protein produces tumorgenicity. The human c-jun gene is located at 1p31-32 on the short arm of chromosome 1.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
Persons who have experienced a prolonged survival after serious disease or who continue to live with a usually life-threatening condition as well as family members, significant others, or individuals surviving traumatic life events.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.
A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of neoplasms.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting the salivary glands, liver, spleen, lungs, eyes, and other organs, in which they produce characteristically enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions. Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques used in the diagnosis of disease.
Tumors or cancer of ENDOMETRIUM, the mucous lining of the UTERUS. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. Their classification and grading are based on the various cell types and the percent of undifferentiated cells.
Carbohydrate antigen most commonly seen in tumors of the ovary and occasionally seen in breast, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract tumors and normal tissue. CA 125 is clearly tumor-associated but not tumor-specific.
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.
In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.
A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.
A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
A voluntary organization concerned with the prevention and treatment of cancer through education and research.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Negative test results in subjects who possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of diseased persons as healthy when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Detection of a MUTATION; GENOTYPE; KARYOTYPE; or specific ALLELES associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.
Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.
Any visual display of structural or functional patterns of organs or tissues for diagnostic evaluation. It includes measuring physiologic and metabolic responses to physical and chemical stimuli, as well as ultramicroscopy.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
A discipline concerned with the prevention of mental illness and the promotion of mental health.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing a wide range of diseases in humans. Infections are mostly asymptomatic, but can be associated with diseases of the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal systems. Serotypes (named with Arabic numbers) have been grouped into species designated Human adenovirus A-F.
Products of viral oncogenes, most commonly retroviral oncogenes. They usually have transforming and often protein kinase activities.
Neoplasms of the skin and mucous membranes caused by papillomaviruses. They are usually benign but some have a high risk for malignant progression.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the luminal surface of the colon.
Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)
Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.
A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane.
A tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) located on human CHROMOSOME 17 at locus 17q21. Mutations of this gene are associated with the formation of HEREDITARY BREAST AND OVARIAN CANCER SYNDROME. It encodes a large nuclear protein that is a component of DNA repair pathways.
Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.
A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A cancer registry mandated under the National Cancer Act of 1971 to operate and maintain a population-based cancer reporting system, reporting periodically estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program is a continuing project of the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health. Among its goals, in addition to assembling and reporting cancer statistics, are the monitoring of annual cancer incident trends and the promoting of studies designed to identify factors amenable to cancer control interventions. (From National Cancer Institute, NIH Publication No. 91-3074, October 1990)
Proteins encoded by adenoviruses that are synthesized prior to, and in the absence of, viral DNA replication. The proteins are involved in both positive and negative regulation of expression in viral and cellular genes, and also affect the stability of viral mRNA. Some are also involved in oncogenic transformation.
Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Tumors or cancer of the PHARYNX.
Exfoliate neoplastic cells circulating in the blood and associated with metastasizing tumors.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A gland in males that surrounds the neck of the URINARY BLADDER and the URETHRA. It secretes a substance that liquefies coagulated semen. It is situated in the pelvic cavity behind the lower part of the PUBIC SYMPHYSIS, above the deep layer of the triangular ligament, and rests upon the RECTUM.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.
An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Transplantation between animals of different species.
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Ligand-binding assays that measure protein-protein, protein-small molecule, or protein-nucleic acid interactions using a very large set of capturing molecules, i.e., those attached separately on a solid support, to measure the presence or interaction of target molecules in the sample.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the level of CELL DIFFERENTIATION in neoplasms as increasing ANAPLASIA correlates with the aggressiveness of the neoplasm.
A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.
"A first-generation multiplex biomarker analysis of urine for the early detection of prostate cancer". Cancer Research. 68 (3): ... "Entrez Gene: GOLPH2 golgi phosphoprotein 2". Laxman B, Morris DS, Yu J, Siddiqui J, Cao J, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Tsodikov A, Wei ... The current blood test used to screen for early tumors in people at high risk for liver cancer involves the alpha-fetoprotein ( ... Wei S, Dunn TA, Isaacs WB, De Marzo AM, Luo J (September 2008). "GOLPH2 and MYO6: putative prostate cancer markers localized to ...
2) Screening, early clinical detection, and "diagnostic delay" in cancer. 3) Assessing the impact on human health of Persistent ... Clinical and molecular epidemiology of pancreatic cancer and cancer of the extrahepatic biliary system. Gene-environment ... He is currently the head of the Clinical and Molecular Epidemiology of Cancer Unit at the Hospital del Mar Institute of Medical ... From Bradford-Hill criteria to complex gene-environment interactions and directed acyclic graphs". Emerg Themes Epidemiol. 8 (1 ...
... patterns to detect multiple cancer types". ScienceDaily. Retrieved 2020-06-11. "Delfi Diagnostics - Early Detection of Cancer ... Even though CHIP tends to target specific genes, it also involves many generally non-recurrent mutations that can be shed from ... An application of this technique for early detection of lung cancer (Lung-CLiP) was originally described by Chabon et al (2020 ... it is related to a variety of other liquid biopsy methods being commercially developed for early cancer detection using ctDNA ...
The CEA blood test is not reliable for diagnosing cancer or as a screening test for early detection of cancer. Most types of ... CEA and related genes make up the CEA family belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily. In humans, the carcinoembryonic ... However, the serum levels are raised in some types of cancer, which means that it can be used as a tumor marker in clinical ... It can therefore be used to distinguish between these and other similar cancers. For example, it can help to distinguish ...
... although these groups often correlate with certain types of mutations present in the VHL gene. Early recognition and treatment ... Knudson, AG (Nov 2001). "Two genetic hits (more or less) to cancer". Nature Reviews Cancer. 1 (2): 157-62. doi:10.1038/35101031 ... The detection of tumours specific to VHL disease is important in the disease's diagnosis. In individuals with a family history ... of mutations in the VHL gene consist of 50-250kb deletion mutations that remove either part of the gene or the whole gene and ...
June - The gene BRAF is shown to be faulty (mutated) in some human cancers. November - Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS ... Ciampate del Diavolo (early hominid footprints in Italy) come to scientific attention. March 8 - Claims regarding bubble fusion ... in particular for the detection of cosmic neutrinos" Riccardo Giacconi (Associated Universities Inc., Washington DC, USA) "for ... "Mutations of the BRAF gene in human cancer" (PDF). Nature. 417 (6892): 949-54. Bibcode:2002Natur.417..949D. doi:10.1038/ ...
... a condition associated with cancer. Early human embryos, cancer cells, infected or intoxicated cells can also suffer from ... Gene transcription ceases during prophase and does not resume until late anaphase to early G1 phase. The nucleolus also ... Also, the detection of atypical forms of mitosis can be used both as a diagnostic and prognostic marker.[citation needed] For ... Certain types of cancer can arise from such mutations. Mitosis occurs only in eukaryotic cells. Prokaryotic cells, which lack a ...
"Breast Cancer: Screening". United States Preventive Services Task Force. "Breast Cancer Early Detection". cancer.org. 2013-09- ... Friedenson B (March 2000). "Is mammography indicated for women with defective BRCA genes? Implications of recent scientific ... The goal of mammography is the early detection of breast cancer, typically through detection of characteristic masses and/or ... Nass, Sharyl J.; Henderson, I. Craig; Cancer, Institute of Medicine (U.S.). Committee on Technologies for the Early Detection ...
Hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer is also associated with an early onset of colorectal cancer. MMR genes are involved in ... proven to add an average of 7 years onto the life expectancy of a person suffering from Lynch's syndrome as early detection ... These include; endometrial cancer, stomach cancer, ovarian cancer, cancers of the small bowel and pancreatic cancer. ... Other cancers that are inconsistently linked to this syndrome are pancreatic cancer, male breast cancer, colorectal cancer and ...
... unlike for bacterial bioluminescence genes used earlier, has a relatively high light output that is visible to the naked eye. ... Enhanced chemiluminescence allows detection of minute quantities of a biomolecule. Proteins can be detected down to femtomole ... This reaction is used in many applications, including the effectiveness of cancer drugs that choke off a tumor's blood supply[ ... Another gas phase reaction is the basis of nitric oxide detection in commercial analytic instruments applied to environmental ...
When these two chromosomes combine they create a cancer-causing gene known as BCR-ABL. In such patients, this gene acts as the ... About 40% of cancers can be cured if detected early through examinations. Organizations and publications vary in their ... Joosse, SA; Pantel, K (Jan 1, 2013). "Biologic challenges in the detection of circulating tumor cells". Cancer Research. 73 (1 ... Melanoma/Colorectal Cancer), CA-125 (Ovarian Cancer), CA19.9 (Pancreatic Cancer), CEA (Colorectal Cancer), EGFR (Non-small-cell ...
As early as 1996, it was demonstrated that the expression of the GAST gene is required for the cellular tumorigenicity of human ... The expression of progastrin in many cancers has been demonstrated. It has been noted that in colorectal cancers, progastrin is ... "Detection and partial sequence analysis of gastrin mRNA by using an oligodeoxynucleotide probe". Proceedings of the National ... The GAST gene has been shown to be a downstream target of the ß-catenin/TCF-4 signalling pathway. Transfection of a construct ...
Molecular biologists were able to produce DNA probes and primers for use in DNA sequencing and mapping, gene cloning, and gene ... Early, P; Rogers, J; Davis, M; Calame, K; Bond, M; Wall, R; Hood, L (June 1980). "Two mRNAs can be produced from a single ... He served as chairman of the Division of Biology from 1980-1989 and director of Caltech's Special Cancer Center in 1981. Hood ... "Fluorescence detection in automated DNA sequence analysis". Nature. 321 (6071): 674-679. Bibcode:1986Natur.321..674S. doi: ...
Early Detection: An Opportunity for Cancer Prevention Through Early Intervention. InTech. doi:10.5772/32415. ISBN 9789535105473 ... ENOX2 is a gene located on the long arm of the X chromosome in humans. The gene encodes the protein Ecto-NOX disulfide-thiol ... These properties of tNOX are being used to develop early detection and intervention mechanisms for human cancers. Ecto-nox ... Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. The human ENOX2 gene is located on the long ...
"Early detection of malignant melanoma: the role of physician examination and self-examination of the skin". CA Cancer J Clin. ... Cancer stem cells may also be involved.[52] Gene mutations[edit]. Large scale studies such as The Cancer Genome Atlas have ... Most of these genes are also expressed in other normal and cancer tissues, with some 200 genes showing a more specific ... Some rare genes have a relatively high risk of causing melanoma; some more common genes, such as a gene called MC1R that causes ...
"Epigenetic gene silencing in cancer - a mechanism for early oncogenic pathway addiction?". Nature Reviews. Cancer. 6 (2): 107- ... Halicka HD, Zhao H, Podhorecka M, Traganos F, Darzynkiewicz Z (July 2009). "Cytometric detection of chromatin relaxation, an ... The gene designations shown in red, gray or cyan indicate genes frequently epigenetically altered in various types of cancers. ... In particular, the gene-rich, early-replicating regions of the human genome exhibit lower mutation frequencies than the gene- ...
"HER2 Signaling Drives DNA Anabolism and Proliferation through SRC-3 Phosphorylation and E2F1-Regulated Genes". Cancer Res. 76 ( ... Missing or empty ,title= (help) Miura M (1999). "Detection of chromatin-bound PCNA in mammalian cells and its use to study DNA ... Imaging of the nuclear distribution of PCNA (via antibody labeling) can be used to distinguish between early, mid and late S ... Nakayama K, Hara T, Hibi M, Hirano T, Miyajima A (August 1999). "A novel oncostatin M-inducible gene OIG37 forms a gene family ...
The management of Cowden syndrome centers on the early detection and prevention of cancer types that are known to occur as part ... "Genes other than BRCA1 and BRCA2 involved in breast cancer susceptibility". Journal of Medical Genetics. 39 (4): 225-42. doi: ... Surveillance focuses on the early detection of breast, endometrial, thyroid, colorectal, renal, and skin cancer. See below for ... Two notable exceptions are breast and thyroid cancer. In Cowden syndrome patients with a first-time diagnosis of breast cancer ...
While early efforts to employ these viruses in the therapy of cancer failed, there have been reports in 2005 and 2006 of ... "Horizontal Gene Transfer". Retrieved 2016-03-25. Viruses: The new cancer hunters, IsraCast, 1 March 2006 Castro, Christina; ... Monoclonal antibodies, specific to the virus, are also used for detection, as in fluorescence microscopy. The second defense of ... The first attempts at gene therapy involving viral vectors began in the early 1980s, when retroviruses were developed that ...
The defective RB1 gene can be inherited from either parent; in some children, however, the mutation occurs in the early stages ... Eye cancer Eye examination Retinoblastoma protein American Cancer Society (2003). "Chapter 85. Neoplasms of the Eye". Cancer ... December 2009). "A comprehensive, sensitive and economical approach for the detection of mutations in the RB1 gene in ... December 2002). "Sensitive and efficient detection of RB1 gene mutations enhances care for families with retinoblastoma". ...
... early detection and imaging; surgery and radiotherapy; and cancers where survival rates are still low, such as oesophageal, ... Play to cure: Genes in Space - First mobile game which involved analysing cancer data. ... a prostate cancer drug discovered in the Cancer Research UK Centre for Cancer Therapeutics at the Institute of Cancer Research ... Cell Slider - Cancer Research UK's first project set up in 2012. Samples of breast cancer tumours, taken from earlier studies, ...
When the DNA sequence is altered in genes that regulate cell replication, cancer can result. Mutagenic PAHs, such as benzo[a] ... and by the early 1900s increased rates of cancer from exposure to soot and coal tar was widely accepted. In 1915, Yamigawa and ... Detection of PAHs in materials is often done using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry or liquid chromatography with ... can transform genes encoding for normal cell signaling proteins into cancer-causing oncogenes. Quinones can also repeatedly ...
... leading to a drop in the number of cases of OFC due to the early detection of hyperparathyroidism. Before this invention, the ... The American College of Surgeons Commission on Cancer and the American Cancer Society". Cancer. 86 (3): 538-44. doi:10.1002/( ... Guru, S. C. (1998). "Menin, the product of the MEN1 gene, is a nuclear protein". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... Quade, Gustav (2008-01-03). "Parathyroid Cancer Treatment". German National Cancer Institute. Archived from the original on ...
60 to 80% of colon cancers express the GAST gene. Through different experimental configurations, alteration of the GAST gene or ... In addition, earlier detection of small lesions and monitoring of recurrence can be improved by measuring hPG80 levels as a ... kidney cancer, liver cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, skin melanoma, ovarian cancer, pancreatic cancer, prostate cancer and ... Colorectal cancer is not the only type of cancer to express hPG80. Its expression has also been demonstrated in ovarian cancers ...
Rowayda, A. Sadek (February 2013). "Regional atrophy analysis of MRI for early detection of alzheimer's disease". International ... Kolata, Gina (August 25, 2012). "Genes Now Tell Doctors Secrets They Can't Utter". The New York Times. Retrieved August 31, ... Rahbar H, Partridge SC (February 2016). "Multiparametric MR Imaging of Breast Cancer". Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of ... Early on this was a fluorescing screen, which gave way to an Image Amplifier (IA) which was a large vacuum tube that had the ...
Most of these genes are also expressed in other normal and cancer tissues, with some 200 genes showing a more specific ... The technique has been reported to enable early detection and provides a cost-effective approach (with any digital camera), but ... Some rare genes have a relatively high risk of causing melanoma; some more common genes, such as a gene called MC1R that causes ... Because the cancer cells have not yet reached the blood vessels deeper in the skin, it is very unlikely that this early-stage ...
... as well as mutation or downregulation of the tumour suppressor genes p53 in alimentary tract cancers and fragile histidine ... The open reading frames (ORFs) are all located on one strand, and are divided into early and late regions. The early region ... Ogawa T, Tomita Y, Okada M, Shinozaki K, Kubonoya H, Kaiho I, Shirasawa H (2004). "Broad-spectrum detection of papillomaviruses ... Therapeutic vaccination (i.e., vaccination of animals with existing warts) with BPV-4 E7 or BPV-2 L2 induces early regression ...
... since the latter virus type expresses its early and late genes by bi-directional transcription of both DNA strands. This ... Papillomaviruses have been associated with the development of cervical cancer, penile cancer and oral cancers. An association ... Drury SE, Gough RE, McArthur S, Jessop M (December 1998). "Detection of herpesvirus-like and papillomavirus-like particles ... This small putative gene exists only in a few papillomavirus types. The gene is not known to be expressed as a protein and does ...
The good feeling from being financially secure for the first time in ages was lost when Igee was diagnosed with lung cancer. In ... When the United States declared war on Germany and Japan in early December, that story was canceled, and Caspary asked to be ... Emrys, A. B. (Spring 2005). "Laura, Vera, and Wilkie: Deep Sensation Roots of a Noir Novel". Clues: A Journal of Detection. ... Years later, Caspary remembered Cukor's Les Girls with Gene Kelly and Mitzi Gaynor as her most enjoyable studio experience. The ...
Gene therapy has been explored as a method to treat glioblastoma, and while animal models and early-phase clinical trials have ... CD44 can also be used as a cancer stem cell marker in a subset of glioblastoma tumour cells. Glioblastoma cancer stem cells ... "Value and limitations of immunohistochemistry and gene sequencing for detection of the IDH1-R132H mutation in diffuse glioma ... European Organisation for Research Treatment of Cancer Brain Tumor Radiotherapy Groups, National Cancer Institute of Canada ...
A study at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center may help point to a new method for women at risk. ... Successful ovarian cancer treatment often relies on catching it early. ... Research: Cancer gene inhibition shows step toward beating neuroblastomas. Apr 01, 2020 ... Provided by University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center Citation: Study seeks earlier ovarian cancer detection (2015, ...
"A first-generation multiplex biomarker analysis of urine for the early detection of prostate cancer". Cancer Research. 68 (3): ... "Entrez Gene: GOLPH2 golgi phosphoprotein 2". Laxman B, Morris DS, Yu J, Siddiqui J, Cao J, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Tsodikov A, Wei ... The current blood test used to screen for early tumors in people at high risk for liver cancer involves the alpha-fetoprotein ( ... Wei S, Dunn TA, Isaacs WB, De Marzo AM, Luo J (September 2008). "GOLPH2 and MYO6: putative prostate cancer markers localized to ...
... cancer, HIV/AIDS, psychology, psychiatry, dentistry, genetics, diseases and conditions, medications and more. ... Early clinical trial data show gene therapy reversing sickle cell anemia. After over a decade of preclinical research and ... Cancer. High-dose radiation therapy improves long-term survival in patients with stage-IV cancers, trial finds. The first ... Biomedical engineers have developed a smartphone app for the non-invasive detection of anemia. Instead of a blood test, the app ...
Thermo Fisher Scientific Explores Anti-cancer Therapeutic for Gene Therapy. 9. SCIEX Explores Allergen Detection and ... Date:11/28/2018)... ... , ... Earlier this month, Lajollacooks4us Founder and Chef Jodi Abel traveled to ... truffle season ... Agena Bioscience Explores a More Reliable Detection of Low Abundance Somatic Mutations in New Webinar. 11. Lajollacooks4u ... 0] MabPlex International, Ltd. Opens New Phase III and Commercial Manufacturing Facility[0] STRmix Used to Convict Wyoming Man ...
2) Screening, early clinical detection, and "diagnostic delay" in cancer. 3) Assessing the impact on human health of Persistent ... Clinical and molecular epidemiology of pancreatic cancer and cancer of the extrahepatic biliary system. Gene-environment ... He is currently the head of the Clinical and Molecular Epidemiology of Cancer Unit at the Hospital del Mar Institute of Medical ... From Bradford-Hill criteria to complex gene-environment interactions and directed acyclic graphs". Emerg Themes Epidemiol. 8 (1 ...
Physicists create tiny sensors to assist in cancer detection. December 10, 2018 A physicist in the College of Arts and Sciences ... Early on, zygotic genes are inert, so embryonic development is largely controlled ... ... Maternal factors regulate the development of the embryo and silence paternal genes during early stages of development. ... ... Does histone H3K9 de-acetylation stop gene expression?. 16 hours ago Why does photosynthesis produce O2 from CO2?. 17 hours ago ...
6 per cent of patients to survive five years from the time of their diagnosis and about 10 to 15 per cent of all lung cancers ... 6 per cent of patients to survive five years from the time of their diagnosis and about 10 to 15 per cent of all lung cancers ... Researchers devise test for early detection of colorectal cancer. Silicone implants can increase a womans risk of arthritis, ... The study, published in the journal Genes and Development, suggests that an analysis of gene activity in human SCLC tumours ...
"Understanding which mutations are causing the disease could lead to targeted treatments and earlier detection. This is ... Cancer Research UK is committed to funding more research on hard to treat cancers like oesophageal cancer, increasing spending ... oesophageal cancer is the 13th most common cancer and the seventh most common cause of cancer death in the UK. ... Cancer Research UK, the Francis Crick Institute and Bristol-Myers Squibb join forces to map out lung cancer immunology ...
... reveals what happens in the very earliest stages of infection, before virus is even detectable in the blood, which is a ... The researchers observed elevated expression of genes in the TGF-beta pathway in tissues that contained viral RNA as early as ... "The events during the first few days after exposure to the virus and prior to the initial detection of virus in the blood are ... of the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research. ... Cancer ResearchNew findings in cancer treatment and prevention ...
... of skin cancer deaths.4 Because early detection of the disease is implicit in its cure and only 14% of patients with metastatic ... Gene-covariate interaction between dysplastic nevi and the CDKN2A gene in American melanoma-prone families. Cancer Epidemiol ... Melanoma Early Detection. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2009;23:481-500, doi: 10.1016/j.hoc.2009.03.001. [ Links ]. ... Early melanoma detection:nonuniform dermoscopic features ad growth. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2003;48:663-71, doi: 10.1067/mjd. ...
The CEA blood test is not reliable for diagnosing cancer or as a screening test for early detection of cancer. Most types of ... CEA and related genes make up the CEA family belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily. In humans, the carcinoembryonic ... However, the serum levels are raised in some types of cancer, which means that it can be used as a tumor marker in clinical ... It can therefore be used to distinguish between these and other similar cancers. For example, it can help to distinguish ...
Cancer Metastasis Rev 24:301-313 Araya JE, Cano MI, Yoshida N, da Silveira JF (1994) Cloning and characterization of a gene in ... earlier detection of genetic predisposition to ailment; less underscoring on treating the symptoms of a virus and more emphasis ... Cancer Up on Network (NCRN) and Cancer Investigate UK (CR- UK) in the United Sovereignty, the Native Cancer Pioneer (NCI) in ... evaluated adjuvant chemotherapy in 448 patients with early-stage ovarian cancer 0]. A owner can belong to multiple groups, but ...
When Elizabeth Edwards told the world last week that the cancer that had attacked her body two years ago had returned and then ... Cancer is still a deadly menace, but more patients are surviving extra months and years, thanks to early detection and ... While only a small fraction of cancers are believed to be inherited, all cancers develop because something in a cells genes ... Deadly lung cancer. Lung cancer surpassed breast cancer as the leading cause of cancer death in women in 1987. Lung cancer is ...
Early detection and polyp removal has been shown to be the key to CRC survival. Yet 47% of Americans dont comply with AMA ... Its one of the biggest cancer killers and its one of the most difficult to diagnose, yet if its caught early it can be ... because you can change the microbiome more easily than we can change our own genes. ... And theres been a call for better, more sensitive screening tests in order to raise compliance and catch more cancers early ...
... liquid biopsy test for the early detection of lung cancer ... Blinded Prospective Validation Study of a Whole Blood Gene- ... diagnostic tests for the early detection of cancer. Early detection of cancer can improve health outcomes, reduce the cost of ... liquid biopsy test for the early detection of lung cancer. Email Print Friendly Share ... non-invasive tests for the early detection of cancer, today announced that a late breaking abstract has been accepted for a ...
3, 4 ). Cures are rare at advanced clinical stages, placing emphasis on early detection to reduce ovarian cancer mortality. ... Large-scale serial analysis of gene expression reveals genes differentially expressed in ovarian cancer. Cancer Res 2000; 60: ... Among the genes most commonly overexpressed in ovarian cancers relative to normal tissues is the gene for human epididymis ... Coordinately up-regulated genes in ovarian cancer. Cancer Res 2001; 61: 3869-76. ...
... according to research reported at the 2007 Annual Meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research. ... Molecular messages and signals circulating in blood or contained in cells lining the airway can identify early stage cancer, ... "Early detection of lung cancer is vital, yet there is no current non-invasive means of identifying cancer in a clinical setting ... Gene, Genes, Genetics, G-Protein, Head and Neck Cancer, Hydrogel, Laboratory, Lung Cancer, Lungs, Malignant, Medicine, Molecule ...
08/09/2017 Ovarian Cancer Protein discovery brings hope of early detection for ovarian cancer ... Editing Genes One by One Throughout Colorectal Cancer Cell Genome Uncovers New Drug Targets ... Home Cancers Ovarian Cancer Heart Medications that Target Stress May Help Prolong Survival in Women with Ovarian Cancer ... 10/19/2017 Breast Cancer An international consortium identifies the breast cancer patients who would benefit from a treatment ...
The work also was presented at a conference of the American Association of Cancer Research.. "If it leads to early detection of ... When this occurs, it is easier for cancer cells to form and multiply. As a result, a person whose DNA has this abnormal gene ... NEW DNA TEST USES NANOTECHNOLOGY TO FIND EARLY SIGNS OF CANCER 9/03/2009 04:41:00 PM Publicado por Jorge Franchín Etiquetas: ... "Doctors usually have the greatest success in fighting cancer if they can treat it in its early stage.". Wang and his students ...
Our main finding so far is the detection of high levels of cholesterol in prostate cancer bone metastases. This in combination ... In addition, there is great value in finding patterns of metabolites, proteins or genes altered in relation to specific disease ... There is an ever increasing need of new technologies for identification of molecular markers for early diagnosis of fatal ... 2. Reliable Profile Detection in Comparative Metabolomics. Open this publication in new window or tab ,,Reliable Profile ...
2 The Seychelles, which I mentioned earlier, are inhabited 99% by Blacks, and have an extremely low rate of male lung cancer. ... 26 Necropsy Evidence of Detection Bias in the Diagnosis of Lung Cancer. ... explains that a significant number of people with the disease lack a gene that controls the livers production of a protein ... 3 The American Cancer Society estimates that in 1993, there were 153,000 deaths from "lung cancer". See World Almanac and Book ...
... and potentially many other cancers because cyclin D1 displays most frequent somatic copy number aberrations of all cancer genes ... MCF7 and T47D cells were synchronized to early/mid G1 using centrifugal elutriation, which was carried out as before (Miettinen ... Cell senescence assays and proliferative markers detection. MCF7 cells were cultured with either 7.5 nM bortezomib, 1 μM ... Given that breast cancers constitute up to 15% of all cancer cases and more than 70% of breast cancers are ER+ and HER2−, ...
Prostate Cancer Informative Resources to know New Cancer Patients, Your Partners Treating Options, Recovery Guide, Special ... 37:24 - Early Metastatic Prostate Cancer or Hormone Sensitive Prostate Cancer. * 37:58 - The CHAARTED Hypotheses ... 1:08:29 - Software Detection Technologies, Restricted Spectrum Imaging. * 1:09:08 - PET/CT Imaging ... Non - Functional Genes. * 1:00:31 - Prostate Genetic Score. * 1:01:04 - Genomics for Treatment Decisions ...
table border=0 cellpadding=0 cellspacing=0 width=525, ,tr, ,td,A new study conducted by the National Breast Screening ... Guidelines for early breast cancer detection:. *All women between 20 and 39 years of age should practice monthly breast self- ... cancer gene 1) or BRCA2 (breast cancer gene 2) mutations may want to talk to their physicians about beginning annual screening ... To learn more about clinical breast exam, please visit http://www.imaginis.com/breasthealth/earlydetection.asp#cbe ...
However, the Cancer Early Detection and Treatment Project is the only national screening strategy in China. The project is not ... Early nutrition, epigenetic changes at transposons and imprinted genes, and enhanced susceptibility to adult chronic diseases. ... In 2012, China implemented the Cancer Early Detection and Treatment Project. The project, which was implemented in urban areas ... Ministry of Health of the Peoples Republic of China . Administrative measures for the cancer early detection and treatment ...
Plan for your future with DNA testing for inherited cancers and heart conditions. ... Discover your risk for hereditary cancers, heart conditions and metabolic conditions. ... Early detection can improve cancer survival rates5,8,10,11,13. GenePrism can identify risk factors that may prompt you and your ... certain cancer risk genes may be associated with several types of cancer. Some conditions are also linked to more than one gene ...
And mammograms-x-rays of the breasts-those have also really helped with early detection. While theres controversy about how ... And then at the doctor were told about genetic tests for cancer genes, like the breast cancer gene BRCA1. ... cancer cancer research David Tuveson genetics pancreatic/pancreas cancer podcast Signal transduction ... Pancreatic cancer is incredibly difficult to catch early, partly because of this. And because its so hard to detect, the ...
Our main finding so far is the detection of high levels of cholesterol in prostate cancer bone metastases. This in combination ... In addition, there is great value in finding patterns of metabolites, proteins or genes altered in relation to specific disease ... There is an ever increasing need of new technologies for identification of molecular markers for early diagnosis of fatal ... 1. Multivariate profiling of metabolites in human disease: Method evaluation and application to prostate cancer. Open this ...
... despite encouraging improvements in screening leading to earlier detection, cervical cancer still kills many women every year. ... The risk of cervical cancer is increased by infection with certain types of human papilloma virus (HPV). ... Cervical cancer is the second-most prevalent cancer in women and, ... Cervical Cancer, Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia, Cervix, Contraceptive, Diet, Education, Efficacy, Epidemiology, Genes, ...
... potentially leading to earlier cancer detection and more ... ... Tumor suppressor genes are then inactivated in cancer cells, ... Genetic abnormalities found in cancer typically affect two general classes of genes. Cancer-promoting oncogenes are typically ... Cancer causes about 13% of all human deaths. According to the American Cancer Society, 7.6 million people died from cancer in ... Many types of cancer could be more easily treated if they were detected at an earlier stage. MIT researchers have now developed ...
  • Cancer Research UK annual report (2017-2018). (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • Recent projects have included studies of selective pressures in intratumoral evolution across thousands of cancer samples (Noorbakhsh et al 2017) and investigations into immune and stromal introgression across cancer types (Chae et al 2018). (jax.org)
  • Cancer Research UK's International Symposium on Oesophageal Cancer will take place in London 29-30 April 2019, Professor Rebecca Fitzgerald is the scientific lead for this event. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • ALAMEDA, Calif., April 01, 2019 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- OncoCyte Corporation (NYSE American: OCX) , a developer of novel, non-invasive tests for the early detection of cancer, today announced that a late breaking abstract has been accepted for a poster presentation and discussion session at the American Thoracic Society 2019 International Conference, which is being held May 17 to May 22 in Dallas. (globenewswire.com)
  • The 2019 American Society of Clinical Oncology's meeting might be in the books, but the impact of some of the data released at the conference are certain to have implications for cancer patients for years to come. (mddionline.com)
  • Mutations that cause oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC) have been mapped in unprecedented detail - unveiling that more than half could be targeted by drugs currently in trials for other cancer types. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • Cancer Research UK researchers at the University of Cambridge used whole genome sequencing and whole exome sequencing* to map mutations in OAC, the main subtype of oesophageal cancer in England. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • In the study, driver mutations for OAC were found in 99% of patients and more than 50% were sensitive to drugs (CDK4/6 inhibitors) already in clinical trials for breast cancer. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • These mutations are often seen in other cancer types, but are rarely found in oesophageal cancer. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • Understanding which mutations are causing the disease could lead to targeted treatments and earlier detection. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • Furthermore, these methylation changes appear to be an early event that precedes the appearance of genetic mutations, another precursor to cancer. (scitech-news.com)
  • Women with a family history of breast cancer or those who test positive for the BRCA1 (breast cancer gene 1) or BRCA2 (breast cancer gene 2) mutations may want to talk to their physicians about beginning annual screening mammograms earlier than age 40, as early as age 25 in some cases. (imaginis.com)
  • However, there are some smokers that don't develop lung cancer, and only a small proportion (5-10%) of breast cancers can be attributed to hereditary mutations. (news-medical.net)
  • The key findings were that women with post-menopausal breast cancer had a high rate of inherited mutations in a range of cancer-causing genes, and that overall this mutation rate did not diminish with age. (mddionline.com)
  • PARP inhibitors are known to be effective in patients with ovarian cancer (OC) and germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes ( BRCA mutations). (jnccn.org)
  • These agents are known to be most effective in patients with germline mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes ( BRCA mutations). (jnccn.org)
  • Specifically, women with OC or breast cancer and germline BRCA mutations are more likely to benefit from platinum-based chemotherapy and PARP inhibitors. (jnccn.org)
  • Autosomal dominant hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) is caused by germ-line E-cadherin ( CDH1 ) gene mutations. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The information that we obtained from the analysis of genetic mutations in cancer cells has opened new paths for precision oncology. (dkfz.de)
  • It would certainly be extremely useful for those in daily clinical practice to have more information on which medication has already been successful and for which genetic mutations in which type of cancer. (dkfz.de)
  • One of these, the hereditary breast and ovary cancer syndrome (HBOCS), associated with germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, is believed to cause approximately 10-15% of all breast cancers (BCs) [ 3 ]. (ecancer.org)
  • Learn about gene changes called mutations, how inherited mutations can lead to cancer, what types of cancer may be hereditary and how parents can pass gene mutations to their children. (facingourrisk.org)
  • Read about different genes that are linked to hereditary cancer and the risks associated with inherited mutations in these genes. (facingourrisk.org)
  • BIRC3 mutations (2.5%) were associated with unmutated IGHV genes (U-CLL), del(11q) and trisomy 12, whereas MYD88 mutations (2.2%) were exclusively found among M-CLL. (diva-portal.org)
  • In conclusion, we support the clinical relevance of novel recurrent mutations in CLL, highlighting the adverse impact of SF3B1 and TP53 mutations, even independent of IGHV mutational status, thus underscoring the need for urgent standardization/harmonization of the detection methods. (diva-portal.org)
  • Mutations in this gene are responsible for approximately 40% of inherited breast cancers and more than 80% of inherited breast and ovarian cancers. (cancer.gov)
  • Many alternatively spliced transcript variants, some of which are disease-associated mutations, have been described for this gene, but the full-length natures of only some of these variants has been described. (cancer.gov)
  • When Barouch and his colleagues exposed 44 rhesus monkeys to SIV and conducted analyses of the animals on days 0, 1, 3, 7 and 10 following exposure, they found that SIV could disseminate rapidly through the body, with viral RNA (SIV's genetic material) present in at least one tissue outside the reproductive tract in most monkeys analyzed 24 hours after exposure. (eurekalert.org)
  • Still, researchers are optimistic because so much has been learned about the genetic roots of cancer. (baltimoresun.com)
  • Specifically, they believe they can safely detect whether or not a patient has colorectal cancer based on the genetic code at a set of specific biomarkers in the microbiome that they have found to be associated with colorectal cancer. (onemedplace.com)
  • The company thus believes they have identified the genetic signature of colorectal cancer in the microbiome. (onemedplace.com)
  • DetermaVu™ is being developed using proprietary sets of genetic and protein molecular markers to detect the presence of lung cancer. (globenewswire.com)
  • Identified by genetic experts, these risk factors are designed to help you take proactive steps for your health, including disease prevention, early detection, and genetic counseling. (helix.com)
  • Scientists have been able to learn so much about cancer through genetic information. (cshl.edu)
  • And then at the doctor we're told about genetic tests for cancer genes, like the breast cancer gene BRCA1. (cshl.edu)
  • AA: Breast cancer is a great example of how genetic information has revolutionized the field of cancer research. (cshl.edu)
  • BS: For breast cancer, genetic testing can give some families a heads-up. (cshl.edu)
  • Elucidating the links between HPV genetic factors and environmental factors, and cancer onset, progression, and outcome, may lead to better prognostic and diagnostic tests, and treatment and prevention options. (news-medical.net)
  • There are cancers that have clear genetic risk factors, for example some families carry a mutation in one of several particular genes, that causes breast cancer. (news-medical.net)
  • The complex, and still poorly understood relationship between an individual's genetic profile and the environment in which they live is the key to how a person develops cancer, how the cancer affects them, and how they respond to particular cancer therapies. (news-medical.net)
  • Nearly all cancers are caused by abnormalities in the genetic material of the transformed cells. (phys.org)
  • Other cancer-promoting genetic abnormalities may be randomly acquired through errors in DNA replication, or are inherited, and thus present in all cells from birth. (phys.org)
  • Genetic abnormalities found in cancer typically affect two general classes of genes. (phys.org)
  • Our lab is involved studies using these models to understand the genetic drivers of cancer and drug resistance, with a focus on tumor heterogeneity and evolution. (jax.org)
  • Because every patient in the study was tested and shown to be BRACAnalysis CDx positive, it reinforces that every patient with pancreatic cancer needs to undergo genetic testing to establish whether they are candidates for Lynparza, a PARP inhibitor and are likely to benefit from the drug," Johnathan Lancaster, MD, PhD, CMO, Myriad Genetics, told MD+DI. (mddionline.com)
  • Women with OC commonly undergo genetic testing because the presence of a germline BRCA mutation impacts therapeutic decisions and is important for cancer surveillance in patients and their family members. (jnccn.org)
  • 5 The indication for genetic testing early in the course of the disease became stronger after FDA-approval of olaparib for use as maintenance after first-line platinum-based chemotherapy in women with BRCA -mutated OC. (jnccn.org)
  • The Invitae Comprehensive Carrier Screen uses next-generation sequencing to analyze 287 genes linked to serious genetic disorders and identifies more than 99 percent of disease-causing changes in most of the genes analyzed. (genomeweb.com)
  • Early genetic changes associated with malignancy involve genes that regulate cell cycle progression, and often these changes result in a loss of G 1 checkpoint in tumor cells due to defects in retinoblastoma protein (pRb) and p53 cell cycle pathways ( 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Founded in 2008, the International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) has now cross-referenced the genetic data of around 18000 cancer patients with approx. (dkfz.de)
  • For an analysis of the genetic pattern of Acanthamoeba isolates, DNA sequencing of nuclear small-subunit rRNA gene (18S rRNA or Rns) was applied. (degruyter.com)
  • Hereditary breast and ovary cancer syndrome affects both genders but little is known about the uptake of genetic services by men. (ecancer.org)
  • The genetic profile of a woman with breast cancer can determine her treatment. (health24.com)
  • If your mother, aunt, sister or grandmother were diagnosed with breast or ovarian cancer, it may be wise to consider a genetic DNA test to determine if you carry an identified breast cancer gene or the p53, associated with an increased risk for cancer. (health24.com)
  • The genetic diagnostics community awaits the identity of the next of its members who announced plans to market BRCA gene testing that Myriad decides to sue. (patentdocs.org)
  • Find information on insurance coverage and financial assistance for genetic services, risk management and cancer treatment. (facingourrisk.org)
  • Certain genetic syndromes are associated with a high risk of pancreatic cancer and screening for pancreatic cancer has become a relatively new strategy for familial pancreatic cancer. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • We are committed to developing therapies for patients whose cancers are driven by specific genetic alterations," said Jacob Van Naarden, chief business officer of Loxo Oncology. (rna-seqblog.com)
  • According to the researchers, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery enable only 6 per cent of patients to survive five years from the time of their diagnosis and about 10 to 15 per cent of all lung cancers are SCLC. (indianexpress.com)
  • Researchers have identified a new kind of small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) that may pave the way for developing personalised medicine approaches to target this previously unnoticed form of the disease. (indianexpress.com)
  • The researchers observed elevated expression of genes in the TGF-beta pathway in tissues that contained viral RNA as early as day 1 after exposure to the virus. (eurekalert.org)
  • A series of quietly exhaled breaths might indicate whether or not a patient is at risk for lung cancer, according to researchers from the New York State Department of Health. (news-medical.net)
  • Using DNA recovered from exhaled breath, researchers can examine the state of cells that line the lungs, and potentially detect cancer at an early stage, when treatment may be most successful. (news-medical.net)
  • In particular, the researchers looked to see if the DNA they captured had been methylated, that is, tagged by a molecular "methyl" fragment, which blocks activation of the genes. (news-medical.net)
  • The researchers analyzed the detailed methylation patterns of six tumor suppressor gene promotors, regions of DNA that serve as regulators of gene transcription. (news-medical.net)
  • It is not necessary to methylate every promoter region to induce cancer, the researchers say, so they study detailed variations in the patterns of methylation among selected gene promoters in different patients. (news-medical.net)
  • A simple oral rinse could detect the early development of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, according to researchers at the University of Miami's Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center. (news-medical.net)
  • Using tiny crystals called quantum dots, Johns Hopkins researchers have developed a highly sensitive test to look for DNA attachments that often are early warning signs of cancer. (scitech-news.com)
  • These partner molecules are attached to help researchers detect and count the DNA strands that are associated with cancer. (scitech-news.com)
  • [1] The charity funds the work of over 4,000 researchers, doctors and nurses throughout the UK, supports over 200 clinical trials and studies cancer and cancer risk in over a million people in the UK. (wikipedia.org)
  • In one of these studies , the researchers found that Epi proColon was comparable to FIT in its ability to detect colorectal cancers. (aacr.org)
  • In recent years tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) were studied by researchers in order to find better early stage biomarker of HCC. (hindawi.com)
  • For the detection of large InDeLs, researchers usually resort to either PCR gel analysis or RFLP, but these are time consuming and dependent on human interpretation. (hindawi.com)
  • The surprise is that in the process, we discovered a new form of lung cancer," said lead author Christopher Vakoc from the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL) in the US. (indianexpress.com)
  • For example, it can help to distinguish between adenocarcinoma of the lung and mesothelioma, a different type of lung cancer which is not normally CEA positive. (wikipedia.org)
  • Earlier this year, two respected studies produced sharply differing conclusions about how some forms of lung cancer should be treated. (baltimoresun.com)
  • OncoCyte estimates that a $4.7 billion annual market could develop in the U.S. for its confirmatory lung cancer liquid biopsy test, depending on market penetration and reimbursable pricing. (globenewswire.com)
  • OncoCyte is focusing its efforts on developing DetermaVu™ as a non-invasive confirmatory diagnostic test for lung cancer. (globenewswire.com)
  • Early detection of lung cancer is vital, yet there is no current non-invasive means of identifying cancer in a clinical setting," said Simon Spivack, M.D., M.P.H, research physician in the Human Toxicology & Molecular Epidemiology Laboratory at the New York State Department of Health's Wadsworth Center. (news-medical.net)
  • Dr. Spivack and his colleagues believe that categorizing patients according to these methylation patterns can potentially evaluate a patient's predisposition to lung cancer. (news-medical.net)
  • The pilot study of 33 individuals showed statistically apparent differences between never-smokers, former and current smokers, and those with lung cancer. (news-medical.net)
  • According to Dr. Spivack, their findings could represent a considerable advance in the early detection of lung cancer. (news-medical.net)
  • He posits a scenario in which breath or other non-invasive tests such as CT scans can serve as cost-effective pre-screening tools for lung cancer, and could allow for treatment at early stage when the patient would theoretically have the best chance of success. (news-medical.net)
  • The recent study, which included the detection of DNA markers in the sputum from lung cancer patients, was designed to show that the technology was sound. (scitech-news.com)
  • 2 The Seychelles, which I mentioned earlier, are inhabited 99% by Blacks, and have an extremely low rate of male lung cancer. (forces.org)
  • This figure is comparable with the figure in the Statistical Abstract of the United States, for deaths from lung cancer, including deaths from cancer of other "intrathoracic organs", e.g., the esophagus and the throat. (forces.org)
  • There are cancers that have clear environmental risk factors, for example, lung cancer and smoking. (news-medical.net)
  • For men, it\'s the most common type of cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death after lung cancer. (proz.com)
  • Transient over-expression of each of the genes in human (NCI-H1299), and mouse (MDA-F471) derived lung cancer cells was found to significantly inhibit growth and proliferation as well as induce apoptosis. (frontiersin.org)
  • In conclusion, we showed that the TBX2 subfamily genes play a critical tumor suppressor role in lung cancer pathogenesis through regulating its methylating pattern, making them putative candidates for epigenetic therapy in LUAD. (frontiersin.org)
  • Lung cancer remains the most commonly diagnosed cancers and the leading cause of mortality among all cancers ( 1 - 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • An example of such mechanisms is the discovery that epigenomic alterations contribute significantly to the early onset of lung cancer and its etiology ( 7 - 9 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) procedure is an emerging alternative to the standard treatment for early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), typically lobectomy with lymphadenectomy. (stanford.edu)
  • 18F] FDG Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Tumor and Penumbra Imaging Features Predict Recurrence in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer. (stanford.edu)
  • We identified computational imaging features on 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) that predict recurrence/progression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). (stanford.edu)
  • FDG PET radiomic features may be useful biomarkers for lung cancer prognosis and add clinical utility for risk stratification. (stanford.edu)
  • A radiogenomic dataset of non-small cell lung cancer. (stanford.edu)
  • A recent report from our laboratory described the use of quantitative methylation-specific PCR assays for discriminating patients with lung cancer from those without lung cancer using lung biopsies as well as sputum samples. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Using DNA sequencing technique, we narrowed down a short CpG-rich segment (eight specific CpG sites in the CpG island within exon 1) of the TCF21 gene, which was unmethylated in normal lung epithelial cells but predominantly methylated in lung cancer cell lines. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We showed the usefulness of this assay in discriminating patients with lung cancer from those without lung cancer using biopsies and sputum samples. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The panel separated patients with lung cancer from those without lung cancer, showing the potential of the quantitative methylation-specific PCR analysis of sputum as an effective biomarker assay. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In our article, using DNA sequencing, we examined lung cancer and bronchial epithelial cell lines for methylation of the CpG island within exon 1 of the TCF21 gene (GenBank accession no. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We identified a short CpG-rich segment that was unmethylated in normal bronchial cells but predominantly methylated in lung cancer cell lines. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Increasing lung cancer death rates among young women in southern and midwestern States. (courtfield.ml)
  • APRIL 15, 2020, NEW YORK-- A Ludwig Cancer Research study has discovered a novel means by which bacterial colonies in the small intestine support the generation of regulatory T cells--immune cells that suppress autoimmune reactions and inflammation. (eurekalert.org)
  • The current blood test used to screen for early tumors in people at high risk for liver cancer involves the alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). (wikipedia.org)
  • Its expression in tumors was restricted to certain histologic subtype: 93% of serous and 100% of endometrioid EOCs expressed HE4, whereas only 50% and 0% of clear cell carcinomas and mucinous tumors, respectively, were positive. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Their strategy involves the detection of CD44, a protein biomarker for HNSCC tumors, combined with the detection of cancer-related altered DNA, and could reliably distinguish cancer from benign diseases. (news-medical.net)
  • When methylation occurs at critical gene locations, it can halt the release of proteins that suppress tumors. (scitech-news.com)
  • Ovarian cancer is usually diagnosed only after it has reached an advanced stage, with many tumors spread throughout the abdomen. (phys.org)
  • These three malignant properties of cancers differentiate them from benign tumors, which are self-limited, and do not invade or metastasize. (phys.org)
  • Our lab focuses on understanding cancer using patient-derived xenografts, a model system in which human tumors are engrafted and studied in NSG mice. (jax.org)
  • Kindly tumors are not cancer generic 60mg evista visa menopause the musical las vegas. (u-volga.ru)
  • They are developing new methods to diagnose tumors more precisely and treat cancer patients more successfully. (dkfz.de)
  • Rhabdoid tumors are rare cancers of early childhood arising in the kidney, central nervous system and other organs. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Rhabdoid tumors (RT) are a rare tumour of infancy and early childhood and mainly arise in the kidney and in the central nervous system where they are referred to as atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT). (beds.ac.uk)
  • The long-term goals of the Anczuków Lab are to understand how splicing misregulation plays a role in breast and ovarian cancer, what triggers splicing alterations in tumors, as well as to develop novel biomarkers for clinical progression and drug response and identify novel targets for precision medicine. (jax.org)
  • Although splicing factors are often overexpressed in breast and ovarian human tumors, the biological consequences of splicing-factor alterations in cancer, particularly in the context of metastasis or acquired drug resistance, are underexplored. (jax.org)
  • We combine our unique expertise in both RNA biology and cancer research to uncover the role of alternative-splicing misregulation in breast and ovarian tumors and to gain novel insights into the molecular mechanism of gene expression regulation in normal and cancer cells. (jax.org)
  • Most proliferative IELs without atypia were associated with benign tumors, whereas IELs with atypia (ADH and DCIS) were generally associated with mammary cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Importantly, dogs with mammary adenocarcinoma are appropriate subjects for the study of breast cancer because the mammary gland is the most common site of neoplasia in female dogs ( 8 , 9 ) and dysplasias develop before tumors in canine mammary tissue ( 10 - 13 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Subsequently, the generated zygote contains a mixture of genes and proteins derived from both parents' cells. (phys.org)
  • To characterise this minority of cells, the research team used a method they developed that employs the gene-editing tool CRISPR to screen for specific proteins that are critical to the growth of various human cancer cell lines, including SCLC lines. (indianexpress.com)
  • In addition, there is great value in finding patterns of metabolites, proteins or genes altered in relation to specific disease conditions to gain a deeper understanding of the underlying mechanisms of disease development. (diva-portal.org)
  • We also found overall suppressed expression of these genes and their corresponding proteins in a panel of human LUAD cell lines. (frontiersin.org)
  • Our results show that breast cancer cells are selectively susceptible to the cytotoxic effects of pentameric procyanidin, and suggest that inhibition of cellular proliferation by this compound is associated with the site-specific dephosphorylation or down-regulation of several cell cycle regulatory proteins. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The 26 genes that encode membrane or secretory proteins were identified from cDNA microarray data. (kribb.re.kr)
  • New research on detoxifying enzymes shows that people maintaining a healthy lifestyle - exercising three times per week, no smoking, no smoked proteins, lots of fruit and vegetables and limited intake of animals fats - can in fact delay the onset of cancer. (health24.com)
  • Previous findings from our lab and other labs suggest that splicing factors, and in particular SR proteins, play a role in the development of metastasis and in the acquisition of drug resistance in human cancers. (jax.org)
  • Such locally generated, or "peripheral", regulatory T cells (Tregs) help dampen chronic intestinal inflammation, a major driver of colorectal cancers. (eurekalert.org)
  • If you have a family history of ovarian cancer (a close female relative such as sister, mother, or daughter, or a second-degree female relative-such as an aunt or grandmother who has had ovarian cancer) it is possible that mutation in BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene is present in the family. (onlymyhealth.com)
  • Mutation in BRCA1 and BRCA2 increases the lifetime risk of developing ovarian cancer in these families. (onlymyhealth.com)
  • This report presents a case of a rare entire germline BRCA1 gene deletion and an exceptional response to a PARP inhibitor, olaparib, in a heavily pretreated patient with OC. (jnccn.org)
  • Interestingly, the deletion of the entire BRCA1 gene was found after previously negative BRCA test results and is associated with a deletion of 6 adjacent genes without known clinical significance. (jnccn.org)
  • Claim 6: A method for detecting a germline alteration in a BRCA1 gene. (patentdocs.org)
  • BRCA1 (breast cancer 1, early onset) is a protein-coding gene. (cancer.gov)
  • Diseases associated with BRCA1 include primary peritoneal carcinoma, and hereditary site-specific ovarian cancer syndrome. (cancer.gov)
  • As lifestyles have increasingly become westernized in China, public health strategies have increasingly focused on cancer prevention. (cdc.gov)
  • In 2003, the Ministry of Health of China issued a governmental outline of the China Cancer Prevention and Control Program (2004-2010). (cdc.gov)
  • Learn what genes were tested and get important guidance on prevention, screening, and health management. (helix.com)
  • The branch of medicine concerned with the study, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of cancer is oncology. (phys.org)
  • A mammogram, which is an x-ray of your breasts, is offered by conventional medicine as the best "prevention" strategy for breast cancer . (mercola.com)
  • As the world's largest independent cancer research charity [3] [4] it conducts research into the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though the study does not directly address cancer prevention, its findings have intriguing implications for the field--which is why the study was funded in part by the colon cancer prevention and early detection initiative launched in 2015 by Ludwig and the Conrad N. Hilton Foundation. (eurekalert.org)
  • Little is known about the coverage of skin cancer prevention messages in news print media. (storysteel.ml)
  • The most recent estimates from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) indicate that one out of every three U.S. adults for whom colorectal cancer screening is recommended-all adults ages 50-75 years-is not up to date with screening. (aacr.org)
  • In a search for novel compounds that could be beneficial for cancer prevention and treatment, procyanidin and prodelphinidins ( 9 , 10 ) have attracted a great deal of attention due to their wide range of biological activities. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The objective of this initiative is to make optimal use of the consolidated information for prevention, early detection, diagnostics, prognosis and tailor-made cancer therapies. (dkfz.de)
  • Understand the effects of cancer treatment and prevention on fertility and family planning, how pregnancy impacts hereditary cancer risk and options for assisted reproduction. (facingourrisk.org)
  • Our tools will help match you to hereditary cancer detection, prevention and treatment studies. (facingourrisk.org)
  • The frequency of IELs in the dog, their association with spontaneous mammary cancer, their pattern of ER-α and HER-2 expression, and their histologic resemblance to human IELs may make the dog an ideal model to study human ER-negative (both HER-2 positive and negative) breast cancer progression as well as prevention and treatment. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Golgi membrane protein 1 is overexpressed in prostate cancer and lung adenocarcinoma tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prostate cancer alone accounts for nearly a third (29 percent) of cases in men. (baltimoresun.com)
  • American men now face a one-in-two chance of contracting prostate cancer in their lives. (baltimoresun.com)
  • The developed strategies were specifically applied for identification of metabolite markers and metabolic pathways associated with prostate cancer disease progression. (diva-portal.org)
  • Our main finding so far is the detection of high levels of cholesterol in prostate cancer bone metastases. (diva-portal.org)
  • This in combination with previously presented results suggests cholesterol as a potentially interesting therapeutic target for advanced prostate cancer. (diva-portal.org)
  • Background: Metastasis to the bone is one clinically important features of prostate cancer (PCa). (diva-portal.org)
  • Prostate cancer is an important example. (proz.com)
  • For example, PSA levels are abnormally high in many prostate cancer patients, but nearly half of patients have normal PSA readings. (proz.com)
  • http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/2012/lgo-prostate-cancer-prognosis-tool.html Among the many types of cancer, prostate cancer is particularly fraught with uncertainty for patients and doctors: It's one. (healingwell.com)
  • Test for Gene Fusion Can Assist in the Early Detection of Prostate Cancer ScienceDaily (Aug. 3, 2011) - A new urine test can help aid early detection of and. (healingwell.com)
  • New targets for therapy in prostate cancer: differential display code 3 (DD3(PCA3)), a highly prostate cancer-specific gene. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Identification of new markers for diagnosis and new targets for therapy would represent a considerable advance in the treatment of prostate cancer. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The dramatic prostate-specific expression and pronounced upregulation of DD3(PCA3) in prostate cancer suggest a unique transcriptional regulation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A quantitative assay for DD3(PCA3) would be a potentially valuable tool for the detection of malignant cells in blood, urine, or other clinical specimens, and it could have important implications for the earlier diagnosis and molecular staging of prostate cancer. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A PCA3 gene-based transcriptional amplification system targeting primary prostate cancer. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Improved sensitivity and specificity for prostate cancer diagnosis based on the urine PCA3/PSA ratio acquired by sequence‑specific RNA capture. (semanticscholar.org)
  • article{Schalken2003NewTF, title={New targets for therapy in prostate cancer: differential display code 3 (DD3(PCA3)), a highly prostate cancer-specific gene. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The sons of mothers with breast cancer gene number one, are at increased risk for prostate cancer, and the sons of moms with breast cancer gene number two, are at increased risk for breast cancer (the type of cancer with which Tom Cruise was diagnosed). (health24.com)
  • Abiraterone, a potent CYP 17 inhibitor, is standard treatment in docetaxel refractory, metastatic castrate resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). (courtfield.ml)
  • Low-Dose Enzalutamide in Late-Elderly Patients (≥ 75 Years Old) Presenting With Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer. (selleckchem.com)
  • Through this and other projects (Bais et al 2017), our lab has been one of the leaders in cloud computing approaches for cancer genomics analysis. (jax.org)
  • Excerpt from https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/to-your-health/wp/2017/06/06/7-attention-grabbing-topics-at-the-nations-biggest-cancer-meeting/?utm_term=.8576f9221465 Hitting harder at advanced. (healingwell.com)
  • These projects include studies to identify drivers of drug susceptibility in triple negative breast cancers (Menghi et al 2016) and to determine intratumoral evolution in response to chemotherapy. (jax.org)
  • As CA125 is expressed by only 80 percent of ovarian cancers, multiple biomarkers will be required to detect those cancers that fail to express this antigen. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The study looked at antibodies produced by patients against the tumor gene TP53 which is mutated and overexpressed in the majority of ovarian cancers to see whether their presence would improve the ability of CA125 to detect ovarian cancer in an earlier stage. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Most attempts to use serum biomarkers for early detection of ovarian cancer have focused on the protein CA125," said Robert Bast Jr., M.D., vice president, Translational Research. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Golgi membrane protein 1 (GOLM1) also known as Golgi phosphoprotein 2 or Golgi membrane protein GP73 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GOLM1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been described for this gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a type II Golgi transmembrane protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whole exome sequencing is a technique to sequence all the protein-coding genes in an individual's genome. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • Among the genes most commonly identified in gene expression profiles of epithelial ovarian carcinomas (EOC) is the gene for human epididymis protein 4 ( HE4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In an article in Grolier's Encyclopedia , Howard Buechner, M.D., explains that a significant number of people with the disease lack a gene that controls the liver's production of a protein called alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT). (forces.org)
  • In conclusion, thermal proteome profiling identifies the proteasome and ECM 29 protein as mediators of palbociclib activity in breast cancer cells. (embopress.org)
  • Mass spectrometry‐based cellular thermal shift assay ( MS ‐Ce TSA ) analysis of CDK 4/6 inhibitor palbociclib targets in MCF 7 human breast cancer cells identifies protein complexes including the 20S proteasome. (embopress.org)
  • Diverse phenotypic datasets have also grown rapidly, not only for sequencing-based assays such as gene expression and protein-nucleic acid interactions, but also other types including clinical and drug-screening investigations. (jax.org)
  • Phosphorylated CREB binds p300 and CREB Binding Protein (CBP) to form a complex that serves as a transcription proxy representing CREB-responsive genes. (u-volga.ru)
  • A case of breast cancer with extensive osteonecrosis of maxilla induced by a bisphosphonate To accomplish this, we generated a construct encoding G protein with the normal transmembrane and anchor sequences replaced with the sequence encoding 53 C-terminal amino acids from the Thy-1.1 glycoprotein. (saladgaffe.ga)
  • The MDM2 oncogene, biochemically as E3 ubiquitin protein ligase, was originally identified by virtue of its amplification in a spontaneously transformed derivative of mouse BALB/c cells and the MDM2 protein subsequently was shown to bind to p53 in rat cells transfected with p53 genes. (hindawi.com)
  • In humans, MDM2 protein is encoded by the MDM2 gene and localized in chromosome 12q13-14 [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • We evaluated the following markers: Ki67, Minichromosome Maintenance Protein-2 (Mcm-2), activated caspase-3 (a-casp3) and Bcl-2 to determine if they showed differential expression across progressive degrees of intraepithelial neoplasia and cancer in the prostate. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Women with family history may be tested for BRCA gene mutation. (onlymyhealth.com)
  • 3 BRCA mutation status is important for the cancer surveillance of patients and their blood relatives, as well as for prognosis and treatment recommendations for carriers affected with cancer. (jnccn.org)
  • Mutational analysis of the CDH1 gene in this patient demonstrated a novel heterozygous splice-site mutation in exon 8 (1135delACGGTAATinsTTAGA). (aacrjournals.org)
  • We present an asymptomatic patient from a HDGC family carrying a novel CDH1 mutation in whom FDG-PET scanning facilitated early detection of HDGC. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Microdeletions and microinsertions (≤20 bp) account for 17% of all inherited diseases, as reported in the May 2007 release of the human gene mutation database ( www.hgmd.org ). (hindawi.com)
  • HRM is a rapid, sensitive and inexpensive screening technology that is likely to be widely adopted in diagnostic laboratories to facilitate whole gene mutation screening. (beds.ac.uk)
  • In order to detect it in early stage, we tried to analyze K ras mutation in pancreatic juice collected during ERCP after injection of secretin. (cnki.com.cn)
  • Mutation of coden 12 in exon 1 of K ras gene was reported as high as 90% in pancreatic cancer, but much less in benign pancreatic disease. (cnki.com.cn)
  • Results When the supernatant of the pancreatic juice was used, the PCR successful rate was 82% , K ras mutation rate of the pancreatic carcinomas was 71% (15/21) compared with 0% (0/7) in benign pancreatic disease (3 chronic pancreatitis, 3 insulinoma and 1 pancreatic cyst). (cnki.com.cn)
  • In total, 78% (21/27) of the cases with pancreatic carcinomas has mutant alleles compared with 8% (1/13) of the benign pancreatic diseases( P 0.001) when pancreatic juice was used to detect K ras gene point mutation. (cnki.com.cn)
  • Conclusion Detection of coden 12 of K ras mutation in pancreatic juice can be used in differentiating pancreatic carcinomas from benign pancreatic diseases. (cnki.com.cn)
  • Mutational analysis revealed that the patient was a carrier for an autosomal recessive mutation in the USH2A gene. (courtfield.ml)
  • this information is listed by gene mutation and by cancer type. (facingourrisk.org)
  • Read about cancer treatment options listed by gene mutation, type of cancer and type of treatment. (facingourrisk.org)
  • The 3 specific groups to be screened and followed are individuals from familial pancreatic cancer kindreds (who have 2 or more affected relatives and have an estimated risk 16-57 times that of controls), patients with familial Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, patients with a known BRCA-2, BRCA-1, PALB2, PRSS or p16 germline mutation. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Beta blockers, which are drugs commonly used to treat hypertension and other heart-related conditions, affect the body's stress response and may therefore impact cancer progression. (healthcanal.com)
  • The physiological function of HLTF has not yet been fully understood, but evidence for its association with genesis and progression of cancer exists [ 16 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The gene SEL1L is involved both in human breast and pancreatic cancer progression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Several lines of evidence indicate that the gene SEL1L is involved in cancer progression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • It is postulated that CDH1 acts as a tumor suppressor gene, and loss of function leads to development and progression of cancer by increasing proliferation, invasion, and/or metastasis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • MicroRNAs (miRNAs) may function either as oncogenes or tumor suppressors and are heavily involved in the initiation and progression of cancer, and in metastasis of tumor cells. (degruyter.com)
  • During the American Association for Cancer Research annual meeting, members of the International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) announced their entering of a new phase: The ICGCmed now combine data from cancer genome with information on disease progression. (dkfz.de)
  • Novel biomarkers are needed for early detection and progression evaluation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). (kribb.re.kr)
  • EFNA1 and EphA2 may be useful serum markers for the detection of HCC development and progression, respectively. (kribb.re.kr)
  • Therapeutic approaches to modulate splicing in other human diseases are becoming a reality but are entirely lacking in any cancer, while strong evidence points to a role for splicing alterations in cancer progression and drug resistance. (jax.org)
  • Investigates how RNA splicing contributes to breast and ovarian cancer progression, metastasis and drug-resistance. (jax.org)
  • As a result, a person whose DNA has this abnormal gene DNA methylation may have a higher risk of developing cancer. (scitech-news.com)
  • New aspects of the genetics of cancer pathogenesis, such as DNA methylation, and microRNAs are increasingly recognized as important. (phys.org)
  • Methylation of the genes helicase-like transcription factor ( HLTF ) and hyperplastic polyposis 1 ( HPP1 ) have been proposed as prognostic, and neurogenin 1 ( NEUROG1 ) as diagnostic biomarker. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Presence of hypermethylation of the genes HLTF , HPP1 , and NEUROG1 was examined using methylation-specific quantitative PCR (MethyLight). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Earlier this month, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved a new colorectal cancer screening test, the 'System, Colorectal Neoplasia, DNA Methylation and Hemoglobin Detection' test. (aacr.org)
  • Methylation of specific CpG residues within a CpG island of a tumor suppressor gene may reflect gene silencing and indicate, at least in part, the expression status of the gene. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Recently, we reported quantitative methylation-specific PCR analysis of sputum DNA based on a panel of methylated genes ( 9 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • We decided to develop a high-throughput quantitative bioassay to determine prevalence of methylation in clinical samples and evaluate its potential as cancer biomarker assay applicable for multiple cancer types. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Global DNA methylation has been investigated by multiple studies and suggested as a screening biomarker for cancer. (omicsonline.org)
  • DNA methylation for two repetitive elements, LINE1 and Alu, was investigated in whole blood DNA from 229 breast cancer patients and 151 controls by using MassARRAY EpiTyper assay. (omicsonline.org)
  • Results showed that the mean methylation level of investigated CpG sites of LINE1 in peripheral blood from breast cancer patients was lower than that in controls (P=8.78E-06), especially for one specific CpG site (LINE1_CpG_1 with P=3.64E-10). (omicsonline.org)
  • DNA methylation is a type of epigenetic alterations which plays an important role in cancer development [ 3 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Beta-catenin-Tcf transcriptional complexes drive transcription from Tcf site-containing promoters, including both reporter constructs and endogenous Wnt responsive genes containing Tcf/Lef sites [ 8 , 9 ] and refs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • T-box (TBX) transcription factors are evolutionary conserved genes and master transcriptional regulators. (frontiersin.org)
  • In many human cancers aberrant hypermethylation of CpG islands is a common epigenetic DNA modification leading to transcriptional silencing of genes that is already detectable in early stages of carcinogenesis [ 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Transcriptional inactivation of CpG island-containing promoters of tumor suppressor genes by DNA hypermethylation has been well documented in many human cancers ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • He is currently the head of the Clinical and Molecular Epidemiology of Cancer Unit at the Hospital del Mar Institute of Medical Research - IMIM [2]. (wikipedia.org)
  • The three main lines of research of his Unit at IMIM are: 1) Clinical and molecular epidemiology of pancreatic cancer and cancer of the extrahepatic biliary system. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2) Screening, early clinical detection, and "diagnostic delay" in cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • This means phase II/III clinical trials to treat oesophageal cancer could be feasible in one to two years. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • We are now designing clinical trials that provide real-time analysis of patients' genes to offer patients the best treatment based on their own genome. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • This research was conducted as part of a multicentre consortium including the International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC), and the Oesophageal Cancer Clinical and Molecular Stratification study (OCCAMS) group. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • However, the serum levels are raised in some types of cancer, which means that it can be used as a tumor marker in clinical tests. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cures are rare at advanced clinical stages, placing emphasis on early detection to reduce ovarian cancer mortality. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Article: "Clinical impact of selective and non-selective beta blockers on survival in ovarian cancer patients. (healthcanal.com)
  • If it leads to early detection of cancer, this test could have huge clinical implications," said Jeff Tza-Huei Wang, an associate professor of mechanical engineering whose lab team played a leading role in developing the technique. (scitech-news.com)
  • A new study conducted by the National Breast Screening Study of Canada (NBSS) finds the number of deaths from breast cancer is nearly equal among women in their fifties, regardless of whether women have annual screening mammograms or simply have annual physician-performed clinical breast exams . (imaginis.com)
  • Among the women who had screening mammograms in addition to clinical breast exams, 622 women were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer and 107 women died of breast cancer. (imaginis.com)
  • Among the women who only had clinical breast exams, 610 were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer and 105 women died of breast cancer. (imaginis.com)
  • While the results of the study show that clinical breast exams can play a significant role in breast cancer detection, the American Cancer Society, the American College of Radiology, the American College of Surgeons and the American Medical Association all recommend that women supplement physical exams with annual mammograms once they reach 40 years of age. (imaginis.com)
  • Recent publications have shown the presence of promoter hypermethylation of various genes in clinical specimens containing exfoliated tumor cells (such as malignant effusions, sputum, serum, etc. (aacrjournals.org)
  • It is one of the aims of ICGCmed to gather knowledge across the globe and make a significant contribution to translating this cancer genome information into clinical treatment options. (dkfz.de)
  • Family predisposition to cancer has been a clinical, individual and social concern for a long time [ 1 ]. (ecancer.org)
  • The clinical significance of these findings in early breast cancer remains to be elucidated when the clinical outcome for these patients is known. (beds.ac.uk)
  • This clinical study will assess the diagnostic yield of a clinical screening program for early pancreatic neoplasia in high risk individuals. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Our pancreatic cancer research group at Johns Hopkins and others have shown that screening with EUS and/or abdominal imaging tests such as CT/MRI can detect a relatively high number of significant pancreatic neoplasms (7-18%) in asymptomatic high risk individuals with an inherited predisposition for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma This is a clinical, early detection translational study that will directly influence patient care. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • GENERAL AIM: This is a study that aims to evaluate the diagnostic yield, quality of life, and clinical outcomes of a clinical screening and surveillance program for individuals at-risk for pancreatic cancer and to validate a candidate panel of biomarkers for early detection of pancreatic neoplasia. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • News digest - cancer survival comparisons, NHS nurse shortages, antibiotics and chicken? (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • And there's been a call for better, more sensitive screening tests in order to raise compliance and catch more cancers early where the survival rate drops drastically and costs rise dramatically. (onemedplace.com)
  • To investigate the potential for beta blockers to prolong cancer patients' survival, a team led by Anil Sood, MD, of The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, retrospectively analyzed the 2000 to 2010 medical records of 1425 women who were treated at several different medical centers for ovarian cancer. (healthcanal.com)
  • In an accompanying editorial, Kristen Bunch, DO, of the Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, and Christina Annunziata, MD, PhD, of the National Cancer Institute, noted that despite the small number of patients who were taking nonselective beta blockers in this study, the investigators uncovered a dramatic survival advantage that warrants further analysis. (healthcanal.com)
  • Finally, we find that ECM 29 mRNA levels are predictive of relapse‐free survival in breast cancer patients treated with endocrine therapy. (embopress.org)
  • Of all major cancers, pancreatic has the lowest survival rate, because patients are usually too sick to be helped by conventional therapies by the time they're diagnosed. (cshl.edu)
  • The survival rate for breast cancer has been increasing significantly over the past few decades. (cshl.edu)
  • and cancers where survival rates are still low, such as oesophageal, lung and pancreatic cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • We postulate that this unusually favorable response and prolonged overall survival is related to the cancer cells' inability to reverse the entire gene deletion to wild-type (a common mechanism of resistance to PARP inhibition). (jnccn.org)
  • Detection of cancer cells at early stages could potentially increase survival rates in cancer patients. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The survival rate depends on an early diagnosis and the skill and experience of the surgeon. (health24.com)
  • Pancreatic cancer is a deadly disease and the only hope for improvement of survival is early detection. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This research, published in Nature Genetics , could help stratify oesophageal cancer patients to give them more personalised therapies. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • Myriad Genetics presented data from several studies at ASCO that will no doubt have a long-lasting impact on cancer detection and treatment. (mddionline.com)
  • With increasing research in cancer genetics, multiple genes and mechanisms have been identified as being involved in inherited cancer syndromes [ 2 ]. (ecancer.org)
  • Missing from the complaint against Gene by Gene are allegations of infringement of claims 32 and 33 of U.S. Patent No. 6,051,379 asserted in the complaint Myriad filed yesterday against Ambry Genetics. (patentdocs.org)
  • Locate medical experts who are knowledgeable in cancer genetics. (facingourrisk.org)
  • 21 27 304 Alberto Peña, Marc A. The genetics of breast cancer metastasis is a very broad and complex field of study. (forex-trading-courses.com)
  • Genome-wide transcriptomic analyses on NCI-H1299 cells, overexpressing TBX2 gene subfamily, unraveled novel regulatory pathways. (frontiersin.org)
  • Defendant offers stand-alone tests comprising full gene sequencing and analyses for the BRCA 1 and BRCA 2 genes. (patentdocs.org)
  • Medicine is at a turning point, on the cusp of major change as disruptive technologies such as gene, RNA, and cell therapies enable scientists to approach diseases in new ways. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Gene-environment interactions with organochlorine compounds in the etiopathogenesis of pancreatic diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to Dr. Franzmann, their study began with an attempt to find if soluble CD44, alone, was sufficient to distinguish between cancer and other diseases. (news-medical.net)
  • There is an ever increasing need of new technologies for identification of molecular markers for early diagnosis of fatal diseases to allow efficient treatment. (diva-portal.org)
  • If successful, scientific achievements in this field could apart from early diagnosis lead to development of new drugs, treatments or preventions for many serious diseases. (diva-portal.org)
  • This established an important role in cancer development for other factors, such as diet, oral contraceptive use, tobacco smoking, co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or other sexually transmitted diseases. (news-medical.net)
  • Cancer (medical term: malignant neoplasm) is a class of diseases in which a group of cells display uncontrolled growth (division beyond the normal limits), invasion (intrusion on and destruction of adjacent tissues), and sometimes metastasis (spread to other locations in the body via lymph or blood). (phys.org)
  • In ***the diagnosis and treatment of life-threatening diseases, early detection*** often means a better prognosis for the patient. (proz.com)
  • This has been found in degenerative diseases, cancers, and various pathways involving the immune system 2 . (mblintl.com)
  • 100 pb) are important causes of both cancer and inherited diseases. (hindawi.com)
  • An example of such polymorphism is the insertion/deletion (I/D) in the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene that has been associated with many diseases, particularly of the cardiovascular system. (hindawi.com)
  • Using maize as our model plant, I wish to take several leaps forward in our understanding of this signal specificity and use this knowledge to develop sensors for the real-time detection of crop pests and diseases. (europa.eu)
  • DetermaVu™ is being developed as an intermediate step to confirm the absence of cancer between imaging modalities (LDCTs) detecting suspicious lung nodules and downstream invasive procedures that determine if the nodules are malignant. (globenewswire.com)
  • Melanoma , also known as malignant melanoma , is a type of cancer that develops from the pigment-containing cells known as melanocytes . (wikipedia.org)
  • This eliminates endoscopy as an effective screening tool in a population that would benefit most from early detection of a malignant disease. (aacrjournals.org)
  • She has more than 40 years experience in oncology, and in 1994 she founded her practice, Cape Breast Care, where she treats benign and malignant breast cancers. (health24.com)
  • While only a quarter of cases are associated with anti-TP53 autoantibodies, when present, these antibodies promise to detect ovarian cancer at an earlier interval than CA125. (medicalxpress.com)
  • However, the AFP test is not usually sensitive enough to detect liver cancer in time and it often generates false positives. (wikipedia.org)
  • A sensitive and specific screening test that could detect ovarian cancer at a curative stage has yet to be developed. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our study has shown that an oral rinse test, simple enough to be administered at any community health center, is likely to detect cancer about 90 percent of the time. (news-medical.net)
  • Stephen B. Baylin, deputy director of the center and a co-author of the Genome Research study, said the test represents "a very promising platform" to help doctors detect cancer at an early stage and to predict which patients are most likely to benefit from a particular therapy. (scitech-news.com)
  • It allows customers to design panels to detect single nucleotide variants, small indels, fusions, and copy number variants with a limit of detection as low as 0.1 percent in blood samples and has applications in both oncology research and inherited disease research. (genomeweb.com)
  • In this report, we describe a method that can detect large InDeLs by DHPLC (denaturating high-performance liquid chromatography) using the angiotensin-converting enzyme ( ACE ) gene I/D polymorphism as a model. (hindawi.com)
  • RT-qPCR is highly sensitive and specific and can detect the expression of each individual gene at the one cell level. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The Women's Health Initiative ancillary study used the myRisk Hereditary Cancer test to evaluate the prevalence and penetrance of pathogenic variants across 28 genes in 2,195 post-menopausal women with breast cancer compared to 2,322 post-menopausal women without breast cancer. (mddionline.com)
  • From 4,320 families registered, 362 male patients were identified: 236 (65.2%) from hereditary cancer families (HCF) and 126 (34.8%) from non-HCF. (ecancer.org)
  • About ten percent of all breast cancer cases are hereditary. (health24.com)
  • FORCE trains patients who are new to science to use their personal experiences to help guide hereditary cancer research. (facingourrisk.org)
  • See what legislative and regulatory policy issues FORCE is actively engaged in, representing the unique needs of people and families affected by hereditary cancer. (facingourrisk.org)
  • Read about the public policy initiatives that FORCE undertook in the past, ensuring that the voice of the hereditary cancer community was heard. (facingourrisk.org)
  • Our message boards are available 24/7 and are the easiest way to reach out to others who are facing hereditary cancer. (facingourrisk.org)
  • In this group, you can connect with others who are affected by hereditary cancer. (facingourrisk.org)
  • FORCE has opportunities for people of our community to get involved in significant ways to raise awareness, provide support or help promote research of hereditary cancer. (facingourrisk.org)
  • Joining FORCEs Against Hereditary Cancer is a virtual conference designed to empower individuals and families facing hereditary cancer. (facingourrisk.org)
  • Patients who are at risk for non-metastatic, or primary, liver cancer typically have chronic liver disease such as cirrhosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • 4 Because early detection of the disease is implicit in its cure and only 14% of patients with metastatic disease survive beyond 5 years, 4-6 knowledge of factors that increase an individual's risk for developing melanoma and diagnosis at an early stage of the disease have great prognostic relevance. (scielo.br)
  • Palbociclib is a CDK 4/6 inhibitor approved for metastatic estrogen receptor‐positive breast cancer. (embopress.org)
  • Results were verified in a separate test set including metastatic and normal bone tissue from patients with other cancers (n = 7). (diva-portal.org)
  • Some of the most talked-about results came from the Phase III POLO Study, which looked at how well the BRACAnalysis CDx identified patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer, who benefitted from treatment of Lynparza (olaparib). (mddionline.com)
  • Metastasis (spread) of early melanoma is possible, but relatively rare: less than a fifth of melanomas diagnosed early become metastatic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Current treatments in patients with early stage (localized), as well as late stage (metastatic) disease may involve surgery, followed by radiation and hormonal and/or cytotoxic chemotherapy. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Research on DTCs and CTCs present nowadays a challenge, as these cells are well defined targets for understanding tumour biology and tumour cell dissemination in cancer patients [ 5 ], and will open new avenues for the early detection of metastatic spread and its successful treatment. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Atypical Mole Syndrome is the most important phenotypic risk factor for developing cutaneous melanoma, a malignancy that accounts for about 80% of deaths from skin cancer. (scielo.br)
  • Because the diagnosis of melanoma at an early stage is of great prognostic relevance, the identification of Atypical Mole Syndrome carriers is essential, as well as the creation of recommended preventative measures that must be taken by these patients. (scielo.br)
  • Melanoma is the most dangerous type of skin cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Early signs of melanoma are changes to the shape or color of existing moles or, in the case of nodular melanoma , the appearance of a new lump anywhere on the skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although further studies are needed, gene therapies based on identification to delineate the range of transcription factors that interact with the DD3(PCA3) promoter represent a promising area for preclinical investigation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This high rate of mortality among LUAD patients is largely due to the lack of early detection strategies and the failure of advanced targeted therapies. (frontiersin.org)
  • Such differences between mitochondria of normal and cancer cells should enable the development of more selective and efficient cancer therapies capable of altering mitochondrial functions in cancer cells while sparing normal cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Through the new agreement, Veracyte will use its Afirma Xpression Atlas platform to provide Loxo Oncology with information regarding thyroid cancers with TRK fusions and RET alterations, for use in developing its targeted cancer therapies. (rna-seqblog.com)
  • We are pleased to be collaborating with Loxo Oncology, a leader in the development of therapies that target specific gene abnormalities to treat cancer," said Bonnie Anderson, Veracyte's chairman and chief executive officer. (rna-seqblog.com)
  • OncoCyte also plans to conduct research to identify additional molecular markers, acquire or license markers and related technology, and develop cancer tests based on those markers. (globenewswire.com)
  • In order to identify a molecular mechanism responsible for palbociclib‐induced senescence, we performed thermal proteome profiling of MCF 7 breast cancer cells. (embopress.org)
  • Much of the lab's research has grown out of early interests in molecular evolution and statistical physics. (jax.org)
  • Around 40% of the charity's research expenditure goes on basic laboratory research relevant to all types of cancer into the molecular basis of cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • A naturally occurring, cocoa-derived pentameric procyanidin (pentamer) was previously shown to cause G 0 /G 1 cell cycle arrest in human breast cancer cells by an unknown molecular mechanism. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Molecular characterization of CTCs has revealed a remarkable heterogeneity of gene expression between breast cancer patients. (beds.ac.uk)
  • We conducted a transcriptome profiling study of inflammatory and antiviral gene activity in a large, nationally representative and ethnically diverse sample of young adults and found that sociodemographic variations in the activity of these molecular pathways emerge by young adulthood-well before they manifest as late-life chronic illness. (pnas.org)
  • This study examined whether sociodemographic variations in the immune and inflammatory molecular underpinnings of chronic disease might emerge decades earlier in young adulthood. (pnas.org)
  • We are currently focused on two major areas: 1) Computational Approaches for Cancer Genomics, and 2) Gene Regulation. (jax.org)
  • 10x Genomics has launched the Single Cell Mouse Immune Profiling Solution for characterizing gene expression and paired receptor sequences of T cell and B cells in mouse models of disease. (genomeweb.com)
  • Cancer genomics: A nucleosome footprint reveals the source of cfDNA. (saladgaffe.ga)
  • However, 36% of primary pancreatic cancers do not express the gene, and a significant correlation was found with Dpc4. (aacrjournals.org)
  • While late-stage HNSCC has a poor prognosis, cure rates exceed 80 percent if caught early enough. (news-medical.net)
  • Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have been associated with prognosis especially in breast cancer and have been proposed as a liquid biopsy for repeated follow up examinations. (beds.ac.uk)
  • We previously validated the expression of several of the most frequently identified and most highly expressed genes ( Mucin1 , EpCAM , Mesothelin , and CD9 ) in human ovarian cancer by immunohistochemistry on tumor samples (20) . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Gene expression analysis: Microarray experiments may reveal a subset of genes that are differentially expressed in the context of the study. (proz.com)
  • When performed in multiplex mode, RT-PCR is an especially precise, accurate way to measure the expression of multiple gene targets. (proz.com)
  • To evaluate changes in Wnt-specific gene expression, Wnt activity was suppressed with inducible dominant negative Tcf4 (DN-Tcf4). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Six biological replicates of a full human genome microarray were performed, and the data deposited into the Gene Expression Omnibus database, according to Minimum Information About A Microarray Experiment standards. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have identified, for the first time, in CRC cells, the total array of direct and indirect Wnt-target genes whose expression is modulated by butyrate. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This hushes the dendritic cells' expression of genes that induce protective immune responses, pushing them into an anti-inflammatory state in which they drive the generation of peripheral Tregs. (eurekalert.org)
  • They are designed for high-throughput gene expression analysis directly from cultured cells without RNA purification. (genomeweb.com)
  • In this study, we investigated the potential diagnostic and prognostic significance of miR-28-5p expression in colorectal adenocarcinoma, the most frequent type of colorectal cancer (CRC). (degruyter.com)
  • To identify field effects, we also evaluated whether high-risk expression patterns in normal tissue were more common in prostates containing cancer compared to those without cancer (supernormal), and in histologically normal glands adjacent to a cancer focus as opposed to equivalent glands that were more distant. (biomedcentral.com)
  • First, we evaluated whether these markers showed differential expression across progressive degrees of intraepithelial neoplasia and cancer. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Large-scale sequencing of RNA from individual cells can reveal patterns of gene, isoform and allelic expression across cell types and states 1 . (nature.com)
  • Alternative splicing is a key control point in gene expression regulation, but its role in cancer remains underexplored. (jax.org)
  • Using data from 1,069 young adults from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health)-the largest nationally representative and ethnically diverse sample with peripheral blood transcriptome profiles-we analyzed variation in the expression of genes involved in inflammation and type I interferon (IFN) response as a function of individual demographic factors, sociodemographic conditions, and biobehavioral factors (smoking, drinking, and body mass index). (pnas.org)
  • Differential gene expression was most pronounced by sex, race/ethnicity, and body mass index (BMI), but transcriptome correlates were identified for every demographic dimension analyzed. (pnas.org)
  • Inflammation-related gene expression showed the most pronounced variation as a function of biobehavioral factors (BMI and smoking) whereas type I IFN-related transcripts varied most strongly as a function of individual demographic characteristics (sex and race/ethnicity). (pnas.org)
  • The Afirma Xpression Atlas utilizes RNA transcriptome sequencing to measure previously undetectable genomic information that may be predictive of thyroid cancer, including gene expression, 761 DNA variants and 130 RNA fusions, in over 500 genes. (rna-seqblog.com)
  • b) EER model of gene expression. (forextrading-madeeasy.com)
  • has enabled us to deliver the positive POLO study in pancreatic cancer patients, demonstrating our shared ambition to target precision medicines to the right patients across different cancers," Ruth March, PhD, senior VP and head of Precision Medicine, Oncology R&D, AstraZeneca, said in a release. (mddionline.com)
  • She has worked extensively in the field of oncology and has a special interest in the hormonal management of breast cancer. (health24.com)
  • Veracyte, Inc . today announced a research collaboration through which Loxo Oncology will access Veracyte's new Afirma ® Xpression Atlas platform to advance its development of highly selective medicines for patients with genetically defined cancers, including thyroid cancer. (rna-seqblog.com)
  • [1] In those with slightly larger cancers, nearby lymph nodes may be tested for spread ( metastasis ). (wikipedia.org)
  • We aimed to assess whether SEL1L could become a useful biomarker for this cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our preliminary data indicate that MDM2 and anti-MDM2 system may be a potential biomarker for early stage HCC screening and immunodiagnosis. (hindawi.com)
  • When those promoter regions become methylated, the cell can no longer activate its tumor suppressor genes. (news-medical.net)
  • Aberrant promoter hypermethylation is a major mechanism for silencing tumor suppressor genes in many kinds of human cancers. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Using restriction landmark genomic scanning, a recent study identified TCF21 as candidate tumor suppressor at 6q23-q24 that is epigenetically inactivated in lung and head and neck cancers. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 11 ) identified TCF21 as a candidate tumor suppressor at 6q23-q24 that is epigenetically inactivated in lung and head and neck cancers. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Promoter hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes and global hypomethylation leading to malignancy have been studied extensively in different cancer types [ 4 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • This disease is due to loss-of-function of the MEN1 gene, a tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) on CHROMOSOME 11 (Locus: 11q13). (curehunter.com)
  • This gene encodes a nuclear phosphoprotein that plays a role in maintaining genomic stability, and it also acts as a tumor suppressor. (cancer.gov)
  • This episode of Base Pairs is about how we might overcome this obstacle even in some of the most difficult cases: patients with pancreatic cancer. (cshl.edu)
  • Earlier this year, Myriad communicated that it intends to file a supplementary Premarket Approval (sPMA) application with FDA to authorize BRACAnalysis CDx as a companion diagnostic for Lynparza in patients with pancreatic cancer. (mddionline.com)
  • Hypermethylation of DNA is an epigenetic alteration commonly found in colorectal cancer (CRC) and can also be detected in blood samples of cancer patients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Gene promoter hypermethylation potentially provides a noninvasive screen for early cancer detection ( 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • A, illustration of the region on chromosome 20q13 that harbors the WAP gene cluster, including HE4 , SLPI , and Eppin-1 . (aacrjournals.org)
  • The realization that non-European variants of HPV-16 and HPV-18 may confer increased oncogenic risk may explain why there is a disproportionately high incidence of cervical cancer in different regions of the world that are populated by 'non-European' races. (news-medical.net)
  • Male carriers of pathogenic DNA variants are at risk for several cancers and should be included in prospective follow-up studies. (ecancer.org)
  • The study, published in the journal Genes and Development, suggests that an analysis of gene activity in human SCLC tumours reveals an unexpected activity pattern in around 20 per cent of samples. (indianexpress.com)
  • CEA was first identified in 1965 by Phil Gold and Samuel O. Freedman in human colon cancer tissue extracts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metabiomics is developing a noninvasive screening test for colon polyps in colorectal cancer based on human microbiome markers. (onemedplace.com)
  • The objective of CANCER is to provide an interdisciplinary forum for the exchange of information among oncologic disciplines concerned with the etiology and course of human cancer. (healthcanal.com)
  • The risk of cervical cancer is increased by infection with certain types of human papilloma virus (HPV). (news-medical.net)
  • Cancer causes about 13% of all human deaths. (phys.org)
  • Detection of urethane-induced genotoxicity in vitro using metabolically competent human 2D and 3D spheroid culture models. (swansea.ac.uk)
  • Here, we show that pentamer selectively inhibits the proliferation of human breast cancer cells (MDA MB-231, MDA MB-436, MDA MB-468, SKBR-3, and MCF-7) and benzo( a )pyrene-immortalized 184A1N4 and 184B5 cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • For this, we will initially adapt a prototype sensor that has been successfully developed for the detection of cancer-related volatiles in human breath. (europa.eu)
  • For instance, kinase inhibitors have been successful in cancer treatments. (mblintl.com)
  • PARP inhibitors such as olaparib, niraparib, rucaparib, and talazoparib comprise a new class of antineoplastic targeted agents that are FDA approved for the treatment of ovarian cancer (OC) and breast cancer. (jnccn.org)
  • MicroRNA-28-5p (miR-28-5p) targets several cancer-related genes and is hence involved in cell proliferation, migration, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. (degruyter.com)
  • The Anczuków Lab investigates the functional role of oncogenic splicing factors and their targets in breast and ovarian cancer by combining innovative and interdisciplinary approaches. (jax.org)
  • Professor Rebecca Fitzgerald, Cancer Research UK funded scientist and lead researcher at the MRC Cancer Unit , said: "This research could completely shift the paradigm from giving oesophageal cancer patients the same chemotherapy that we know doesn't always work, to more targeted treatments based on individual characteristics of a patient's cancer. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • Cancer is still a deadly menace, but more patients are surviving extra months and years, thanks to early detection and innovative treatments. (baltimoresun.com)
  • Fighting cancer is so difficult in part because the healthy cells we want to support often end up casualties in the crossfire of toxic treatments. (cshl.edu)
  • For Pancreatic Cancer Awareness Month this November, we explore the relationship between antioxidants and cancer cells, and how exploiting it could lead to better treatments for pancreatic cancer. (cshl.edu)
  • One of the major problems associated with drug treatments of cancer is their toxic side effect. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 1-5 Although it corresponds to only 4% of all skin cancers, it accounts for 80% of skin cancer deaths. (scielo.br)
  • While the death rate from cancer is high -- accounting for at least 20 percent of deaths in the United States -- about 40 percent of the million Americans who are diagnosed with cancer each year get early treatment and live for many years after the diagnosis. (baltimoresun.com)
  • In January of this year, the American Cancer Society reported that the number of cancer deaths in the United States has dropped for the second year in a row. (baltimoresun.com)
  • This second consecutive drop in the number of actual cancer deaths, much steeper than the first, shows last year's historic drop was no fluke," said John R. Seffrin, the American Cancer Society's chief executive officer. (baltimoresun.com)
  • Thirteen years of continuing drops in the overall cancer death rate have now overtaken trends in aging and growth of the U.S. population, resulting in decreased numbers of deaths. (baltimoresun.com)
  • In Maryland alone, the cancer society predicts, there will be 10,210 cancer deaths this year, with the largest number -- 2,900 -- coming from cancer of the lung and bronchus. (baltimoresun.com)
  • Colon and rectum cancers and breast cancer are a distant second and third among likely causes of cancer deaths in Maryland this year. (baltimoresun.com)
  • The study contradicts previous studies, which show that annual screening mammography is responsible for a decrease in breast cancer deaths. (imaginis.com)
  • The results of the study show that the number of deaths from breast cancer was approximately the same among the two groups of women. (imaginis.com)
  • Interestingly, a recent study released by the Institute of Cancer Research finds a significant decrease (21%) in breast cancer deaths in England and Wales during the 1990s. (imaginis.com)
  • [2] Its aim is to reduce the number of deaths from cancer . (wikipedia.org)
  • Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer and the fourth most frequent cause of death from cancer worldwide with about 1.2 million cases and about 633,000 deaths in 2008 [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, while testing stool samples for blood can reduce colorectal cancer deaths by about 30 percent, it misses about one-third of cancers and more than two-thirds of precancerous lesions. (aacr.org)
  • It represents the fifth most prevalent cancer worldwide and accounts for 500 000 deaths each year [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in women ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • This is partly due to late diagnosis, as symptoms often do not present until the cancer is advanced, and partly due to limited treatment options. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • In 1966, Burkitt returned to England, where he worked as a cancer epidemiologist for the Medical Research Council generic evista 60 mg mastercard pregnancy symptoms by week. (autoportal.ru)
  • However, till such a test is available it is important to consult your doctor preferably gynecologist if you have symptoms suggestive of ovarian cancer or a family history of ovarian cancer. (onlymyhealth.com)
  • Till recently it was considered that most women with ovarian cancer may have no symptoms or only mild symptoms, until the disease has progressed to an advanced stage.However, recent research indicates that many women have early symptoms and these symptoms are most often ignored by them. (onlymyhealth.com)
  • These symptoms do not mean that you have ovarian cancer but your doctor can diagnose the cause and then treat the problem appropriately. (onlymyhealth.com)
  • It is definitely to your advantage if you seek early consultation for your symptoms and be aware about the possibility of ovarian cancer. (onlymyhealth.com)
  • Uterine Cancer Treatment- To treat uterine cancer your doctor will examine you and do tests to confirm the cause of your symptoms. (onlymyhealth.com)
  • Are you trusted buy 70 mg alendronate breast cancer stage 0 symptoms. (u-volga.ru)
  • Learn about symptoms and options for managing early menopause caused by cancer treatment or preventive surgery. (facingourrisk.org)
  • While the mortality rates from heart disease, stroke and pneumonia have been cut by half since 1950, the advances in the war on cancer have been minimal, despite a largely successful anti-smoking campaign and billions spent on new drugs and aggressive treatment regimes. (baltimoresun.com)
  • Thus, the Anthony Miller and his colleagues conclude that 'the addition of annual mammography screening to physical examination has no impact on breast cancer mortality' among women aged 50 to 59. (imaginis.com)
  • The objective of this study was to describe trends in colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality and the age, period, and cohort effects of CRC mortality in urban and rural China from 2000 to 2015. (cdc.gov)
  • Trends in colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality vary by country. (cdc.gov)
  • A study by Wang et al showed the net period effect of total cancer mortality risk increased by 35.70% from period 1990 to period 2010, and cancer mortality risk consistently decreased with later-born cohorts in rural China (12). (cdc.gov)
  • As I've discussed previously on this blog , even though screening has significantly reduced the incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer in the United States, the disease remains the second-leading cause of cancer death in the country. (aacr.org)
  • Breast cancer is the most frequent malignancy with high mortality among woman around the world. (omicsonline.org)
  • Although screening mammography is critical for the declined mortality of breast cancer, the limitations of mammography are well recognized, especially for young women with a high mammographic density of breasts [ 1 , 2 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • These results identify pervasive sociodemographic differences in immune-cell gene regulation that emerge by young adulthood and may help explain social disparities in the development of chronic illness and premature mortality at older ages. (pnas.org)
  • The breast cancer drug palbociclib arrests cells in G1 phase by CDK 4/6 inhibition, but also causes cellular senescence. (embopress.org)
  • The data was presented on April 20 at the 2015 American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) Annual Meeting in Philadelphia. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Cancer Research. (wikipedia.org)
  • This research could also provide better options for older patients , who are more likely to develop oesophageal cancer, and who are often not fit enough for current treatment options. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • For media enquiries please contact the Cancer Research UK press office on +44 203 469 8300 or, out-of-hours, the duty press officer on +44 7050 264 059. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • The project was funded by Cancer Research UK. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • BOSTON - New research in monkeys exposed to SIV, the animal equivalent of HIV, reveals what happens in the very earliest stages of infection, before virus is even detectable in the blood, which is a critical but difficult period to study in humans. (eurekalert.org)
  • The study was initiated as part of the National Institutes of Health-funded Consortium for AIDS Vaccine Research and involved multiple collaborating laboratories, including those headed by Rafick-Pierre Sekaly, PhD, of Case Western Reserve University and Jeffrey Lifson, MD, of the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research. (eurekalert.org)
  • The next step in this line of research is to evaluate how various interventions may impact these early events. (eurekalert.org)
  • The data they amassed through their research has left them with a clear picture of how colon polyps in colorectal cancer influence the microbiome. (onemedplace.com)
  • The work also was presented at a conference of the American Association of Cancer Research. (scitech-news.com)
  • But recent research on antioxidant levels in the cells of pancreatic cancer patients is homing in on a new, safer avenue for treatment-and it's not what you'd think based on the reputation antioxidants have gained in popular culture. (cshl.edu)
  • In 1985, LICR scientists at the São Paulo Branch in Brazil, a country with one of highest incidences of cervical cancer in the world, launched a comprehensive research program to study the links between HPV infection, social factors, and cervical cancer. (news-medical.net)
  • Every year in the US, $4 billion is spent on false-positive mammograms and breast cancer overdiagnosis among women ages 40-59, according to new research published in Health Affairs . (mercola.com)
  • Cancer Research UK is a cancer research and awareness charity in the United Kingdom [1] and Isle of Man , formed on 4 February 2002 by the merger of The Cancer Research Campaign and the Imperial Cancer Research Fund . (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer Research UK's work is almost entirely funded by the public. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Imperial Cancer Research Fund (ICRF) was founded in 1902 as the Cancer Research Fund, changing its name to the Imperial Cancer Research Fund two years later. (wikipedia.org)
  • The charity grew over the next twenty years to become one of the world's leading cancer research charities. (wikipedia.org)
  • [8] Its flagship laboratories formerly at Lincoln's Inn Fields , London, and Clare Hall, Hertfordshire , and known as the Cancer Research UK London Research Institute , are now part of the Francis Crick Institute . (wikipedia.org)
  • The British Empire Cancer Campaign (BECC) was founded in 1923, and initially drew a hostile response from ICRF and the Medical Research Council , who considered it a rival. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1970, the charity was renamed The Cancer Research Campaign (CRC). (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2002 the two charities agreed to merge to form Cancer Research UK, the largest independent research organisation in the world dedicated to fighting cancer (the largest, the National Cancer Institute , is funded by the US Government). (wikipedia.org)
  • The Cancer Research UK Cambridge Research Institute. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the financial year 2014/15 the charity spent £422.67 million on cancer research projects (around 67% of its total income for that year). (wikipedia.org)
  • The research is intended to improve understanding of how cancer develops and spreads and thus provide a foundation for other research. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Cancer Research UK Beatson Institute, which sits within the University of Glasgow and has close ties to the Beatson West of Scotland Cancer Centre . (wikipedia.org)
  • The Cancer Research UK Cambridge Institute, which sits within the University of Cambridge close to Addenbrooke's Hospital on the Cambridge Biomedical Campus . (wikipedia.org)
  • Currently research is being done on finding a screening test or tests that could helpin early detection of ovarian cancer when it is treatable. (onlymyhealth.com)
  • This study was supported by Ludwig Cancer Research, the Conrad N. Hilton Foundation, the U.S. National Institutes of Health, Boehringer Ingelheim and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. (eurekalert.org)
  • The Epi proColon test was developed based on research showing that the presence of epigenetic marks called methyl groups on part of a gene called Septin 9 was associated with colorectal cancer. (aacr.org)
  • The CDC says research shows that people who are able to pick the colorectal cancer screening test they prefer are more likely to get the test done. (aacr.org)
  • How Can It Further Cancer Research? (aacr.org)
  • The worldwide cooperation of the institutions involved has been excellent and the sharing of data between scientists has been the basis for the ICGC's success , says Peter Lichter, one of the founding members of the ICGC and working at the German Cancer Research Centre (DKFZ) in Heidelberg. (dkfz.de)
  • The German part of the ICGC was generously supported by German Cancer Aid (Deutsche Krebshilfe) and the German Federal Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF). (dkfz.de)
  • The German Cancer Research Center (Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, DKFZ) with its more than 3,000 employees is the largest biomedical research institution in Germany. (dkfz.de)
  • In the German Consortium for Translational Cancer Research (DKTK), one of the six German Centers for Health Research, the DKFZ maintains translational centers at seven university partner locations. (dkfz.de)
  • They contribute to the endeavor of transferring promising approaches from cancer research to the clinic and thus improving the chances of cancer patients. (dkfz.de)
  • Isn't also ironic that, with all the hype about Myriad's patents potentially impeding BRCA gene research, a university and a university affiliated research foundation are one of the suing parties. (patentdocs.org)
  • Our XRAY program takes you behind the headlines to bring you reliable information about cancer research-related news and information. (facingourrisk.org)
  • Cancer cells often have profound abnormalities in their epigenomes-the sum of the chemical marks on DNA and histones that determine whether a gene is accessible for decoding-when compared with normal cells from the same tissues. (aacr.org)
  • Surgically resected non-small lung and bladder cancers and their adjacent nonmalignant tissues were obtained from the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Surgically resected breast cancers and their adjacent nonmalignant breast tissues were obtained from Parkland Memorial Hospital. (aacrjournals.org)
  • One of the biggest changes in the practice of how pancreatic cancer should be detected happened February when the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) updated its guidelines to recommend universal germline BRCA testing for all patients suffering from pancreatic cancer. (mddionline.com)
  • For women with positive test (that is BRCA gene changes are present) some experts recommend surgery for removal of ovaries and fallopian tubes between ages 35 to 40, or after the family is complete (you are done with having children). (onlymyhealth.com)
  • Well, so much for the ACLU, PubPat, and 'media frenzy' about the Supreme Court's decision in Myriad opening the gates for others to do BRCA gene testing. (patentdocs.org)
  • One approach is to develop a new class of drugs made from defined consortia of microbes that would limit inflammation and promote colonic health, reducing the risk of colon cancer in people. (eurekalert.org)
  • Successful ovarian cancer treatment often relies on catching it early. (medicalxpress.com)
  • citation needed] Serum from individuals with colorectal carcinoma often has higher levels of CEA than healthy individuals (above approximately 2.5 µg/L). CEA measurement is mainly used as a tumor marker to monitor colorectal carcinoma treatment, to identify recurrences after surgical resection, for staging or to localize cancer spread through measurement of biological fluids. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hard work toward preventing cancer, catching it early, and making treatment more effective is paying dramatic, lifesaving dividends. (baltimoresun.com)
  • Editorial: "Are beta blockers on the therapeutic horizon for ovarian cancer treatment? (healthcanal.com)
  • This test, which detects both the presence and the quantity of certain DNA changes, could alert people who are at risk of developing the disease and could tell doctors how well a particular cancer treatment is working. (scitech-news.com)
  • In 2012, China implemented the Cancer Early Detection and Treatment Project. (cdc.gov)
  • Some of them recently published a paper that describes a new potential avenue for treatment-one that only kills cancer, and leaves healthy cells unscathed. (cshl.edu)
  • Thus early screening and treatment of HPV infection, together with education campaigns concerning lifestyle factors, may well decrease the risk of intraepithelial lesions developing into cervical cancer. (news-medical.net)
  • Chemotherapy is often used as a follow-up treatment after surgical removal of a cancerous tumor in order to destroy any remaining cancer cells, but intravenous chemo drugs have notorious side effects and are not always effective. (phys.org)
  • Deleidi is searching for strategies for the early detection and individualized treatment of Parkinson's disease. (healthcanal.com)
  • My motivation is to find strategies for the early detection and individualized treatment of this complex chronic disorder. (healthcanal.com)
  • Perhaps even worse, its rate of false positives is high, which means women are being subjected to additional invasive testing, psychological distress, and even treatment for "cancers" that pose no real health threat. (mercola.com)
  • We consider the follow-up within the Norwegian Cervical Cancer Screening Programme as strength, as women regardless of mobility within Norway, are captures by the surveillance system for cytology, histology and treatment. (bmj.com)
  • Breast Cancer Treatment : Guide for when should one seek medical advice in breast cancer. (onlymyhealth.com)
  • 1.The success rate of new hormonal treatment for breast cancer is very promising. (health24.com)
  • Women diagnosed with breast cancer and who carry the HER-2/neu gene react very well to certain types of treatment, while women with other genes react better to other treatment regimes. (health24.com)
  • If people with these genes adapt their lifestyle to a healthy one, and undergo mammography on a yearly basis, they can delay the onset of cancer or prevent it entirely, or at least ensure early detection and treatment. (health24.com)
  • Only 1 patient had an early tumor (T 1 N 0 M 0 ), whereas 13 had positive lymph nodes (stages IIB and III). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Significant differences were found between PCa bone metastases, bone metastases of other cancers, and normal bone. (diva-portal.org)
  • This study lays the groundwork for insightful investigation into repurposing cardiovascular medications to cancer therapeutics," they wrote. (healthcanal.com)
  • Clonal investigation of the DD3(PCA3) transcription unit indicates that the gene has 4 distinct exons, which can give rise to a number of differently sized transcripts. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The specific impact of SEL1L in esophageal cancer needs further investigation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our investigation concerned the evaluation of 18 moderately (grade 2) and 16 poorly differentiated cancers (grade 3). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Scientists looking to apply basic science knowledge to medical practice are developing tests that diagnose, predict or monitor cancer risks, without invasive tissue sampling. (news-medical.net)
  • While CD44 appears on the surface of cells in healthy tissue, it is elevated at least seven- fold times in head and neck cancer. (news-medical.net)
  • This involves taking a small amount of tissue from the breast, which is then looked at by a pathologist under a microscope to determine if cancer is present. (mercola.com)
  • This study aimed at examining the possible correlation of the presence of methylated genes NEUROG1 , HLTF and HPP1 in serum with tissue breakdown as a possible mechanism using serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as a surrogate marker. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Tissue compartments representing normal, low grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (LGPIN), high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN), as well as different grades of cancer were mapped on H&E slides and adjacent sections were analyzed using immunohistochemistry. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Both Ki-67 and Mcm-2 showed an upward trend from normal tissue through HGPIN and cancer with a shift in proliferation from basal to luminal compartment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Disturbances of proliferation and apoptosis are fundamental events in early carcinogenesis, and may be useful in characterizing tissue that is histologically normal but at high-risk for neoplastic growth. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, biomarkers identifying high-risk non-cancer tissue could be very useful as intermediate endpoints in chemoprevention studies, and as tools for classifying patients with negative biopsies according to their need for close follow-up. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Anczuków Lab investigates how transcription factors and signaling pathways affect splicing regulation in normal and cancer cells, as well as during normal tissue development. (jax.org)
  • Biomedical engineers have developed a smartphone app for the non-invasive detection of anemia. (medicalxpress.com)
  • OncoCyte is focused on the development and commercialization of novel, non-invasive blood ("liquid biopsy") diagnostic tests for the early detection of cancer. (globenewswire.com)
  • Non-invasive testing methods such as prostate-specific antigen (PSA) play a key role in early detection, but the results are sometimes inconclusive. (proz.com)
  • It is located on 14q24.3-31, a region known to be lost in invasive cancer of the esophagus. (aacrjournals.org)
  • According to the firm, the new enzyme will allow ArcticZymes to enter the liquid biopsy and sample preparation markets, which it believes will resonate well with IVD companies developing non-invasive tests based on cancer biomarkers. (genomeweb.com)
  • These lesions are recognized as risk factors for invasive cancer and their presence affects patient management decisions ( 2 , 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Programming the body's immune system to attack cancer cells has had promising results for treating blood cancers such as lymphoma and leukemia. (phys.org)
  • Nearly 958,000 Americans are battling blood cancers - and I am one of them. (teamintraining.org)
  • A big "Thank you" to each of you and your support in my endeavor to complete this event in celebration of my life, as well as in honor of all individuals who are battling blood cancers. (teamintraining.org)