Tongue diseases refer to various medical conditions that affect the structure, function, or appearance of the tongue. These conditions can be categorized into several types, including:

1. Infections: Bacterial, viral, or fungal infections can cause tongue inflammation (glossitis), pain, and ulcers. Common causes include streptococcus, herpes simplex, and candida albicans.
2. Traumatic injuries: These can result from accidental bites, burns, or irritation caused by sharp teeth, dental appliances, or habitual habits like tongue thrusting or chewing.
3. Neoplasms: Both benign and malignant growths can occur on the tongue, such as papillomas, fibromas, and squamous cell carcinoma.
4. Congenital disorders: Some individuals may be born with abnormalities of the tongue, like ankyloglossia (tongue-tie) or macroglossia (enlarged tongue).
5. Neurological conditions: Certain neurological disorders can affect tongue movement and sensation, such as Bell's palsy, stroke, or multiple sclerosis.
6. Systemic diseases: Various systemic conditions can have symptoms that manifest on the tongue, like diabetes mellitus (which can cause dryness and furring), iron deficiency anemia (which may lead to atrophic glossitis), or Sjögren's syndrome (which can result in xerostomia).
7. Idiopathic: In some cases, the cause of tongue symptoms remains unknown, leading to a diagnosis of idiopathic glossitis or burning mouth syndrome.

Proper diagnosis and treatment of tongue diseases require a thorough examination by a healthcare professional, often involving a dental or medical specialist such as an oral pathologist, otolaryngologist, or dermatologist.

In medical terms, the tongue is a muscular organ in the oral cavity that plays a crucial role in various functions such as taste, swallowing, and speech. It's covered with a mucous membrane and contains papillae, which are tiny projections that contain taste buds to help us perceive different tastes - sweet, salty, sour, and bitter. The tongue also assists in the initial process of digestion by moving food around in the mouth for chewing and mixing with saliva. Additionally, it helps in forming words and speaking clearly by shaping the sounds produced in the mouth.

Tongue neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the tongue tissue. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Benign tongue neoplasms may include entities such as papillomas, fibromas, or granular cell tumors. They are typically slow growing and less likely to spread to other parts of the body.

Malignant tongue neoplasms, on the other hand, are cancers that can invade surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body. The most common type of malignant tongue neoplasm is squamous cell carcinoma, which arises from the thin, flat cells (squamous cells) that line the surface of the tongue.

Tongue neoplasms can cause various symptoms such as a lump or thickening on the tongue, pain or burning sensation in the mouth, difficulty swallowing or speaking, and unexplained bleeding from the mouth. Early detection and treatment are crucial for improving outcomes and preventing complications.

A fissured tongue is a benign condition characterized by deep grooves or furrows on the surface of the tongue. These grooves can vary in number and depth, and they may cover the entire surface of the tongue or only appear in certain areas. A fissured tongue is also sometimes referred to as a "scrotal tongue" due to its appearance.

While a fissured tongue is usually asymptomatic and does not require treatment, it can occasionally be associated with other conditions such as down syndrome, oral cancer, or certain vitamin deficiencies. It may also increase the risk of tooth decay and gum disease due to the accumulation of food particles and bacteria in the grooves. In some cases, a fissured tongue may cause discomfort or pain, especially if it becomes infected or inflamed. If you have concerns about a fissured tongue or are experiencing symptoms related to this condition, it is recommended that you consult with a healthcare professional for further evaluation and treatment options.

Tongue habits refer to the specific and repetitive ways in which an individual's tongue moves or rests inside their mouth. These habits can include things like tongue thrusting, where the tongue presses against the front teeth during speech or swallowing; tongue sucking, where the tongue is placed against the roof of the mouth; or improper tongue positioning during rest, where the tongue may be positioned too far forward in the mouth or rest against the bottom teeth.

Tongue habits can have an impact on dental and oral health, as well as speech development and clarity. For example, persistent tongue thrusting can lead to an open bite, where the front teeth do not come together when the mouth is closed. Improper tongue positioning during rest can also contribute to the development of a deep overbite or an anterior open bite.

In some cases, tongue habits may be related to underlying conditions such as muscle weakness or sensory integration disorders. Speech-language pathologists and orthodontists may work together to assess and address tongue habits in order to improve oral function and overall health.