Thermoreceptors are specialized sensory nerve endings or neurons that are sensitive to changes in temperature. They detect and respond to heat or cold stimuli by converting them into electrical signals that are transmitted to the brain for interpretation. These receptors are found throughout the body, particularly in the skin, mucous membranes, and internal organs. There are two main types of thermoreceptors: warm receptors, which respond to increasing temperatures, and cold receptors, which react to decreasing temperatures. The information provided by thermoreceptors helps maintain homeostasis and protect the body from harmful temperature changes.

Thermosensing refers to the ability of living organisms to detect and respond to changes in temperature. This is achieved through specialized proteins called thermosensors, which are capable of converting thermal energy into chemical or electrical signals that can be interpreted by the organism's nervous system. Thermosensing plays a critical role in regulating various physiological processes, such as body temperature, metabolism, and development. In medicine, understanding thermosensing mechanisms can provide insights into the treatment of conditions associated with impaired temperature regulation, such as fever or hypothermia.

"Cold temperature" is a relative term and its definition can vary depending on the context. In general, it refers to temperatures that are lower than those normally experienced or preferred by humans and other warm-blooded animals. In a medical context, cold temperature is often defined as an environmental temperature that is below 16°C (60.8°F).

Exposure to cold temperatures can have various physiological effects on the human body, such as vasoconstriction of blood vessels near the skin surface, increased heart rate and metabolic rate, and shivering, which helps to generate heat and maintain body temperature. Prolonged exposure to extreme cold temperatures can lead to hypothermia, a potentially life-threatening condition characterized by a drop in core body temperature below 35°C (95°F).

It's worth noting that some people may have different sensitivities to cold temperatures due to factors such as age, health status, and certain medical conditions. For example, older adults, young children, and individuals with circulatory or neurological disorders may be more susceptible to the effects of cold temperatures.

In a medical context, "hot temperature" is not a standard medical term with a specific definition. However, it is often used in relation to fever, which is a common symptom of illness. A fever is typically defined as a body temperature that is higher than normal, usually above 38°C (100.4°F) for adults and above 37.5-38°C (99.5-101.3°F) for children, depending on the source.

Therefore, when a medical professional talks about "hot temperature," they may be referring to a body temperature that is higher than normal due to fever or other causes. It's important to note that a high environmental temperature can also contribute to an elevated body temperature, so it's essential to consider both the body temperature and the environmental temperature when assessing a patient's condition.