A splint is a device used to support, protect, and immobilize injured body parts, such as bones, joints, or muscles. It can be made from various materials like plastic, metal, or fiberglass. Splints are often used to keep the injured area in a stable position, reducing pain, swelling, and further damage while the injury heals. They come in different shapes and sizes, tailored to fit specific body parts and injuries. A splint can be adjustable or custom-made, depending on the patient's needs. It is essential to follow healthcare professionals' instructions for using and caring for a splint to ensure proper healing and prevent complications.

Occlusal splints, also known as bite guards or night guards, are removable dental appliances that are used to provide protection and stabilization for the teeth and jaw joint (temporomandibular joint or TMJ). They are typically made of hard acrylic or soft materials and are custom-fit to a patient's mouth.

Occlusal splints work by covering and separating the upper and lower teeth, preventing them from coming into contact with each other. This can help to reduce tooth grinding and clenching (bruxism), which can cause tooth wear, sensitivity, and TMJ disorders. They may also be used to help stabilize the jaw joint and muscles in patients with TMJ disorders or to provide protection for teeth that have undergone restorative dental work.

It is important to note that occlusal splints should only be worn under the guidance of a dentist, as improper use can lead to further dental problems.

Periodontal splints are dental devices used to stabilize and support loose teeth that have been weakened by periodontal disease (gum disease). These splints can be made from various materials such as acrylic, metal wire, or fiber-reinforced composites. They function by connecting the affected tooth or teeth to adjacent stable teeth, creating a fixed unit that helps distribute forces evenly during biting and chewing, reducing mobility and promoting healing of the periodontal tissues.

There are different types of periodontal splints, including:

1. Intra-coronal splints: These are fixed to the inside (lingual) surface of the affected teeth using dental cement or adhesive. They typically involve the use of a metal wire that is bonded to the inner surfaces of the loose teeth and connected to stable neighboring teeth.
2. Extra-coronal splints: These are fixed to the outside (labial or buccal) surface of the affected teeth using dental cement or adhesive. They usually consist of a metal wire or fiber-reinforced composite material that encircles the loose teeth and is connected to stable neighboring teeth.
3. Removable splints: These are similar to dental appliances such as dentures or orthodontic retainers, and they can be removed for cleaning and maintenance. They typically consist of an acrylic base with metal clasps or wires that hook onto the affected teeth and stable neighboring teeth.

The choice of periodontal splint depends on various factors, including the number of loose teeth, their location in the mouth, the severity of mobility, patient preferences, and oral hygiene practices. Periodontal splints are often used in conjunction with other periodontal treatments, such as scaling and root planing, to improve treatment outcomes and promote long-term dental health.

Centric relation is a term used in dentistry to describe the relationship between the maxilla (upper jaw) and mandible (lower jaw) when the condyles (the rounded ends of the lower jaw bone) are in the most superior, anterior, and posterior position in the glenoid fossae (the sockets in the skull where the condyles sit). This is considered to be a neutral and reproducible position that can be used as a reference point for establishing proper occlusion (bite) and jaw alignment during dental treatment, such as constructing dentures or performing orthodontic treatment.

It's important to note that there are different philosophies and schools of thought regarding the definition and clinical significance of centric relation, and not all dentists agree on its importance or relevance in practice.

Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction Syndrome, often abbreviated as TMJD or TMD, is a group of conditions that cause pain and dysfunction in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) - the joint that connects the jawbone to the skull. Here's a more detailed medical definition:

Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction Syndrome is a complex disorder characterized by pain, clicking, popping, or grating sounds in the TMJ; limited movement or locking of the jaw; and/or painful chewing movements. The condition may be caused by a variety of factors, including muscle tension, joint inflammation, structural problems with the joint itself, or injury to the head, neck, or jaw.

Symptoms of TMJD can include:
- Pain or tenderness in the face, jaw joint area, neck, and/or shoulders
- Limited ability to open the mouth wide
- Jaw locking, making it difficult to close or open the mouth
- Clicking, popping, or grating sounds in the TMJ when opening or closing the mouth
- A significant change in the way the upper and lower teeth fit together
- Headaches, earaches, dizziness, and hearing problems

Treatment for TMJD can vary depending on the severity of the condition and its underlying cause. It may include self-care practices such as eating soft foods, avoiding extreme jaw movements, and practicing relaxation techniques; physical therapy; medication to reduce pain and inflammation; dental treatments such as mouthguards or bite adjustments; and, in rare cases, surgery.

Mandibular advancement is a treatment approach used in dentistry and sleep medicine, which involves the surgical or non-surgical forward movement of the mandible (lower jaw) to address certain medical conditions. The most common use of mandibular advancement is in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), where the tongue and soft tissues at the back of the throat can collapse into the airway during sleep, causing obstruction and breathing difficulties.

Mandibular advancement devices (MADs) are often used in non-surgical treatments. These custom-made oral appliances look similar to mouthguards or sports guards and are worn during sleep. They work by holding the lower jaw in a slightly forward position, which helps to keep the airway open and prevents the tongue and soft tissues from collapsing into it.

Surgical mandibular advancement is another option for patients with severe OSA who cannot tolerate or do not respond well to MADs or other treatments like continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). In this procedure, the jaw is surgically moved forward and stabilized in that position using plates, screws, or wires. This creates more space in the airway and reduces the risk of obstruction during sleep.

In summary, mandibular advancement refers to the movement of the lower jaw forward, either through non-surgical means like MADs or surgical interventions, with the primary goal of treating obstructive sleep apnea by maintaining a patent airway during sleep.

Acquired hand deformities refer to structural changes in the hand or fingers that occur after birth, as a result of injury, illness, or other external factors. These deformities can affect any part of the hand, including the bones, joints, muscles, tendons, ligaments, and nerves. Common causes of acquired hand deformities include trauma, infection, degenerative diseases such as arthritis, tumors, and neurological conditions.

The symptoms of acquired hand deformities can vary depending on the severity and location of the deformity. They may include pain, stiffness, swelling, decreased range of motion, loss of function, and changes in appearance. Treatment for acquired hand deformities may involve a combination of medical interventions, such as medication, physical therapy, or splinting, as well as surgical procedures to correct the underlying structural problem. The goal of treatment is to relieve symptoms, improve function, and restore normal appearance and movement to the hand.

Surgical casts are medical devices used to immobilize and protect injured body parts, typically fractured or broken bones, during the healing process. They are usually made of plaster or fiberglass materials that harden when wet and conform to the shape of the affected area once applied. The purpose of a surgical cast is to restrict movement and provide stability to the injured site, allowing for proper alignment and healing of the bones.

The casting process involves first aligning the broken bone fragments into their correct positions, often through manual manipulation or surgical intervention. Once aligned, the cast material is applied in layers, with each layer being allowed to dry before adding the next. This creates a rigid structure that encases and supports the injured area. The cast must be kept dry during the healing process to prevent it from becoming weakened or damaged.

Surgical casts come in various shapes and sizes depending on the location and severity of the injury. They may also include additional components such as padding, Velcro straps, or window openings to allow for regular monitoring of the skin and underlying tissue. In some cases, removable splints or functional braces may be used instead of traditional casts, providing similar support while allowing for limited movement and easier adjustments.

It is essential to follow proper care instructions when wearing a surgical cast, including elevating the injured limb, avoiding excessive weight-bearing, and monitoring for signs of complications such as swelling, numbness, or infection. Regular check-ups with a healthcare provider are necessary to ensure proper healing and adjust the cast if needed.

Dental occlusion, centric refers to the alignment and contact of the opposing teeth when the jaw is closed in a neutral position, specifically with the mandible (lower jaw) positioned in maximum intercuspation. This means that all teeth are in full contact with their corresponding teeth in the opposite jaw, and the condyles of the mandible are seated in the most posterior portion of the glenoid fossae (the sockets in the skull where the mandible articulates). Centric occlusion is an important concept in dentistry as it serves as a reference point for establishing proper bite relationships during restorative dental treatment.

Neoprene is not a medical term, but it is a material that is used in some medical applications. Neoprene is a type of synthetic rubber that is known for its flexibility, durability, and resistance to heat, water, and chemicals. It is often used in the manufacture of medical devices such as braces, supports, and protective gear.

In medical terms, neoprene may be referred to as a component of a device or material used in medical applications. For example, a neoprene sleeve may be used as a compression garment for venous insufficiency or lymphedema management. Neoprene is also sometimes used in the manufacture of medical gloves and other protective equipment due to its resistance to chemicals and other substances.

However, it's important to note that some people may have allergic reactions to neoprene, causing skin irritation or other symptoms. Therefore, healthcare providers should consider patients' individual needs and potential allergies when selecting medical devices made of neoprene or other materials.

Temporomandibular Joint Disorders (TMD) refer to a group of conditions that cause pain and dysfunction in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and the muscles that control jaw movement. The TMJ is the hinge joint that connects the lower jaw (mandible) to the skull (temporal bone) in front of the ear. It allows for movements required for activities such as eating, speaking, and yawning.

TMD can result from various causes, including:

1. Muscle tension or spasm due to clenching or grinding teeth (bruxism), stress, or jaw misalignment
2. Dislocation or injury of the TMJ disc, which is a small piece of cartilage that acts as a cushion between the bones in the joint
3. Arthritis or other degenerative conditions affecting the TMJ
4. Bite problems (malocclusion) leading to abnormal stress on the TMJ and its surrounding muscles
5. Stress, which can exacerbate existing TMD symptoms by causing muscle tension

Symptoms of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders may include:
- Pain or tenderness in the jaw, face, neck, or shoulders
- Limited jaw movement or locking of the jaw
- Clicking, popping, or grating sounds when moving the jaw
- Headaches, earaches, or dizziness
- Difficulty chewing or biting
- Swelling on the side of the face

Treatment for TMD varies depending on the severity and cause of the condition. It may include self-care measures (like eating soft foods, avoiding extreme jaw movements, and applying heat or cold packs), physical therapy, medications (such as muscle relaxants, pain relievers, or anti-inflammatory drugs), dental work (including bite adjustments or orthodontic treatment), or even surgery in severe cases.

Tooth attrition is a type of wear on the teeth that results from normal dental occlusal forces during biting, chewing, and grinding of food. It involves the loss of tooth structure by mechanical forces and is typically seen as a flattening or reduction in the vertical height of the crowns of teeth.

Attrition differs from other types of tooth wear such as abrasion (which is caused by external factors like toothbrush bristles, toothpaste, or habitual pen/pencil biting), erosion (which is caused by chemical dissolution of tooth structure due to acid exposure), and abfraction (which is caused by flexural forces leading to cervical lesions).

While some degree of attrition is considered a normal part of the aging process, excessive attrition can lead to dental sensitivity, aesthetic concerns, and even affect the functionality of the teeth and overall oral health. Dental professionals may recommend various treatments such as fillings, crowns, or even orthodontic interventions to manage the consequences of severe tooth attrition.

Facial pain is a condition characterized by discomfort or pain felt in any part of the face. It can result from various causes, including nerve damage or irritation, injuries, infections, dental problems, migraines, or sinus congestion. The pain can range from mild to severe and may be sharp, dull, constant, or intermittent. In some cases, facial pain can also be associated with other symptoms such as headaches, redness, swelling, or changes in sensation. Accurate diagnosis and treatment of the underlying cause are essential for effective management of facial pain.

Dental occlusion refers to the alignment and contact between the upper and lower teeth when the jaws are closed. It is the relationship between the maxillary (upper) and mandibular (lower) teeth when they approach each other, as occurs during chewing or biting.

A proper dental occlusion, also known as a balanced occlusion, ensures that the teeth and jaw joints function harmoniously, reducing the risk of tooth wear, damage, and temporomandibular disorders (TMD). Malocclusion, on the other hand, refers to improper alignment or contact between the upper and lower teeth, which may require orthodontic treatment or dental restorations to correct.

The wrist joint, also known as the radiocarpal joint, is a condyloid joint that connects the distal end of the radius bone in the forearm to the proximal row of carpal bones in the hand (scaphoid, lunate, and triquetral bones). It allows for flexion, extension, radial deviation, and ulnar deviation movements of the hand. The wrist joint is surrounded by a capsule and reinforced by several ligaments that provide stability and strength to the joint.

The carpometacarpal (CMC) joints are the articulations between the carpal bones of the wrist and the metacarpal bones of the hand. There are five CMC joints in total, with one located at the base of each finger and thumb. The CMC joint of the thumb, also known as the first CMC joint or trapeziometacarpal joint, is the most commonly affected by osteoarthritis. These joints play a crucial role in hand function and movement, allowing for various grips and grasping motions.

A contracture, in a medical context, refers to the abnormal shortening and hardening of muscles, tendons, or other tissue, which can result in limited mobility and deformity of joints. This condition can occur due to various reasons such as injury, prolonged immobilization, scarring, neurological disorders, or genetic conditions.

Contractures can cause significant impairment in daily activities and quality of life, making it difficult for individuals to perform routine tasks like dressing, bathing, or walking. Treatment options may include physical therapy, splinting, casting, medications, surgery, or a combination of these approaches, depending on the severity and underlying cause of the contracture.

Masticatory muscles are a group of skeletal muscles responsible for the mastication (chewing) process in humans and other animals. They include:

1. Masseter muscle: This is the primary muscle for chewing and is located on the sides of the face, running from the lower jawbone (mandible) to the cheekbone (zygomatic arch). It helps close the mouth and elevate the mandible during chewing.

2. Temporalis muscle: This muscle is situated in the temporal region of the skull, covering the temple area. It assists in closing the jaw, retracting the mandible, and moving it sideways during chewing.

3. Medial pterygoid muscle: Located deep within the cheek, near the angle of the lower jaw, this muscle helps move the mandible forward and grind food during chewing. It also contributes to closing the mouth.

4. Lateral pterygoid muscle: Found inside the ramus (the vertical part) of the mandible, this muscle has two heads - superior and inferior. The superior head helps open the mouth by pulling the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) downwards, while the inferior head assists in moving the mandible sideways during chewing.

These muscles work together to enable efficient chewing and food breakdown, preparing it for swallowing and digestion.

In medical terms, the thumb is referred to as "pollex" and it's the first digit of the hand, located laterally to the index finger. It's opposable, meaning it can move opposite to the other fingers, allowing for powerful gripping and precise manipulation. The thumb contains two phalanges bones - the distal and proximal - and is connected to the hand by the carpometacarpal joint, which provides a wide range of motion.

Functional Orthodontic Appliances are removable or fixed devices used in orthodontics to correct the alignment and/or positioning of jaw bones and/or teeth. They work by harnessing the power of muscle function and growth to achieve desired changes in the dental arches and jaws. These appliances are typically used in growing children and adolescents, but can also be used in adults in certain cases. Examples of functional orthodontic appliances include activators, bionators, twin blocks, and Herbst appliances. The specific type of appliance used will depend on the individual patient's needs and treatment goals.

Orthotic devices are custom-made or prefabricated appliances designed to align, support, prevent deformity, or improve the function of movable body parts. They are frequently used in the treatment of various musculoskeletal disorders, such as foot and ankle conditions, knee problems, spinal alignment issues, and hand or wrist ailments. These devices can be adjustable or non-adjustable and are typically made from materials like plastic, metal, leather, or fabric. They work by redistributing forces across joints, correcting alignment, preventing unwanted movements, or accommodating existing deformities. Examples of orthotic devices include ankle-foot orthoses, knee braces, back braces, wrist splints, and custom-made foot insoles.

The temporalis muscle is a fan-shaped muscle located in the lateral aspect of the head, in the temporal fossa region. It belongs to the group of muscles known as muscles of mastication, responsible for chewing movements. The temporalis muscle has its origin at the temporal fossa and inserts into the coronoid process and ramus of the mandible. Its main function is to retract the mandible and assist in closing the jaw.

The term "vertical dimension" is used in dentistry, specifically in the field of prosthodontics, to refer to the measurement of the distance between two specific points in the vertical direction when the jaw is closed. The most common measurement is the "vertical dimension of occlusion," which is the distance between the upper and lower teeth when the jaw is in a balanced and comfortable position during resting closure.

The vertical dimension is an important consideration in the design and fabrication of dental restorations, such as dentures or dental crowns, to ensure proper function, comfort, and aesthetics. Changes in the vertical dimension can occur due to various factors, including tooth loss, jaw joint disorders, or muscle imbalances, which may require correction through dental treatment.

The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is the articulation between the mandible (lower jaw) and the temporal bone of the skull. It's a complex joint that involves the movement of two bones, several muscles, and various ligaments. The TMJ allows for movements like rotation and translation, enabling us to open and close our mouth, chew, speak, and yawn. Dysfunction in this joint can lead to temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD), which can cause pain, discomfort, and limited jaw movement.

Pinch strength is a measure of the force or grip strength that a person can apply using their thumb and one or more fingers to pinch or squeeze an object. It is often used as a clinical assessment tool to evaluate hand function, neuromuscular health, and rehabilitation progress. There are several types of pinch strengths that can be measured, including:

1. Lateral pinch strength: The force applied when the thumb tip and the side of the index finger tip come together (key pinch).
2. Palmar pinch strength: The force applied when the thumb pad and the tips of the index and middle fingers come together (three-jaw chuck pinch).
3. Tip-to-tip pinch strength: The force applied when the pads of the thumb and index finger tips come together (precision pinch).

These measurements help healthcare professionals assess any potential impairments, injuries, or conditions affecting hand function and grip strength, such as carpal tunnel syndrome, arthritis, nerve damage, or muscular disorders. Regular assessment of pinch strength can also aid in monitoring the effectiveness of treatment interventions and rehabilitation programs.

Finger injuries refer to any damage or trauma caused to the fingers, which can include cuts, bruises, dislocations, fractures, and sprains. These injuries can occur due to various reasons such as accidents, sports activities, falls, or direct blows to the finger. Symptoms of finger injuries may include pain, swelling, stiffness, deformity, numbness, or inability to move the finger. The treatment for finger injuries varies depending on the type and severity of the injury, but may include rest, immobilization, ice, compression, elevation, physical therapy, medication, or surgery. It is essential to seek medical attention promptly for proper diagnosis and treatment of finger injuries to prevent further complications and ensure optimal recovery.

The mandibular condyle is a part of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in the human body. It is a rounded eminence at the end of the mandible (lower jawbone) that articulates with the glenoid fossa of the temporal bone in the skull, allowing for movements such as opening and closing the mouth, chewing, speaking, and swallowing. The mandibular condyle has both a fibrocartilaginous articular surface and a synovial joint capsule surrounding it, which provides protection and lubrication during these movements.

Craniomandibular disorders (CMD) refer to a group of painful conditions that affect the masticatory muscles, the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), and the associated structures. The TMJ is the joint that connects the jawbone (mandible) to the skull (cranium).

Craniomandibular disorders can be classified into three main categories:

1. Myofascial pain: This is the most common form of CMD and is characterized by pain and tenderness in the masticatory muscles, which can radiate to the temples, ears, and neck.
2. TMJ disc displacement: This occurs when the articular disc that separates the condyle (the rounded end of the mandible) from the fossa (socket) in the skull slips out of place, causing pain, clicking, or popping sounds in the joint.
3. TMJ osteoarthritis or inflammatory arthritis: This involves degeneration or inflammation of the TMJ, which can cause pain, stiffness, and limited jaw movement.

The exact causes of CMD are not fully understood, but they may be associated with factors such as teeth clenching or grinding (bruxism), stress, poor posture, joint laxity, trauma, or structural abnormalities in the jaw or skull. Treatment for CMD may include pain management, physical therapy, behavioral modifications, oral appliances, and, in some cases, surgery.

Leg injuries refer to damages or harm caused to any part of the lower extremity, including the bones, muscles, tendons, ligaments, blood vessels, and other soft tissues. These injuries can result from various causes such as trauma, overuse, or degenerative conditions. Common leg injuries include fractures, dislocations, sprains, strains, contusions, and cuts. Symptoms may include pain, swelling, bruising, stiffness, weakness, or difficulty walking. The specific treatment for a leg injury depends on the type and severity of the injury.

Hand strength refers to the measure of force or power that an individual can generate using the muscles of the hand and forearm. It is often assessed through various tests, such as grip strength dynamometry, which measures the maximum force exerted by the hand when squeezing a device called a handgrip dynanometer. Hand strength is important for performing daily activities, maintaining independence, and can be indicative of overall health and well-being. Reduced hand strength may be associated with conditions such as neuromuscular disorders, arthritis, or injuries.

The mandible, also known as the lower jaw, is the largest and strongest bone in the human face. It forms the lower portion of the oral cavity and plays a crucial role in various functions such as mastication (chewing), speaking, and swallowing. The mandible is a U-shaped bone that consists of a horizontal part called the body and two vertical parts called rami.

The mandible articulates with the skull at the temporomandibular joints (TMJs) located in front of each ear, allowing for movements like opening and closing the mouth, protrusion, retraction, and side-to-side movement. The mandible contains the lower teeth sockets called alveolar processes, which hold the lower teeth in place.

In medical terminology, the term "mandible" refers specifically to this bone and its associated structures.