Sarcocystis is a genus of intracellular parasitic protozoa that belongs to the phylum Apicomplexa. These microscopic organisms are known to infect both animals and humans, causing a variety of symptoms depending on the specific species involved and the immune status of the host.

Sarcocystis spp. have a complex life cycle involving two hosts: an intermediate host, which is typically a herbivorous animal, and a definitive host, which is usually a carnivorous or omnivorous animal. The parasites form cysts, known as sarcocysts, in the muscles of the intermediate host, which are then ingested by the definitive host during feeding.

In humans, Sarcocystis spp. can cause two main types of infections: intestinal and muscular. Intestinal infection occurs when humans accidentally ingest undercooked or raw meat containing Sarcocystis cysts. The parasites then invade the human's intestinal wall, causing symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, and fever.

Muscular infection, on the other hand, is caused by the ingestion of water or food contaminated with sporocysts shed in the feces of infected definitive hosts. This type of infection is relatively rare in humans and typically causes mild symptoms such as muscle pain, weakness, and fever.

It's worth noting that while Sarcocystis spp. can cause illness in humans, they are not usually considered a significant public health concern. Proper cooking of meat and good hygiene practices can help prevent infection with these parasites.

Sarcocystosis is a parasitic infection caused by the consumption of raw or undercooked meat containing Sarcocystis cysts. It can also occur in humans through the accidental ingestion of spores that are shed in feces of infected animals. The two main species that infect humans are S. hominis and S. suihominis, with S. hominis being transmitted via cattle and S. suihominis from pigs.

The infection typically occurs without symptoms (asymptomatic) but can sometimes cause mild to severe illness, depending on the species of the parasite and the immune status of the infected person. Symptoms may include muscle pain, weakness, fever, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and headache.

In rare cases, sarcocystosis can affect the central nervous system (neurocysticercosis) and cause neurological symptoms such as seizures, balance problems, and difficulty speaking or swallowing. In severe cases, it can lead to respiratory failure, kidney failure, or even death.

Diagnosis of sarcocystosis is usually made by identifying the parasite in tissue samples (biopsy) or through serological tests that detect antibodies against the parasite. Treatment typically involves supportive care and anti-parasitic medications such as trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, pyrimethamine, or nitazoxanide. Prevention measures include cooking meat thoroughly before consumption and practicing good hygiene when handling raw meat.

Sarcocystidae is a family of parasitic protozoa that are primarily known for infecting various animals, including both domestic and wild species. These parasites have a complex life cycle involving at least two hosts: a definitive host (usually a carnivore) and an intermediate host (usually a herbivore).

The most well-known genus within Sarcocystidae is Sarcocystis, which includes several species that can infect humans. Infection with these parasites typically occurs through the consumption of undercooked or raw meat containing Sarcocystis cysts. The resulting disease in humans is called sarcocystosis and can cause a range of symptoms depending on the species involved and the location of the cysts within the body.

It's worth noting that while Sarcocystidae includes several important parasites, it is not typically considered a medical term per se. Instead, it falls more under the purview of veterinary medicine and parasitology.

I believe there might be a misunderstanding in your question. The term "otters" refers to a group of aquatic mammals, and it does not have a medical definition. If you are referring to a medical term that may sound similar, please provide more context or check the spelling.

I am not aware of a medical definition for the term "Eagles." It is possible that you may be referring to a condition called "aquilegia," which is a genus of flowering plants commonly known as columbines. There is also no widely recognized medical condition or pathology named after the bird species known as eagles. If you have more context or information about where you encountered this term, I'd be happy to help you further!

Spiruroidea is a taxonomic category of parasitic nematodes (roundworms) that belong to the phylum Nematoda. These parasites are primarily found in the gastrointestinal tract of various vertebrate hosts, including mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians. They have a complex life cycle involving one or more intermediate hosts, often arthropods such as beetles or crustaceans.

Spiruroids are characterized by their long, slender bodies with distinct anterior and posterior ends. The mouth is surrounded by three lips, and they possess a muscular esophagus that is typically divided into two parts: a narrow anterior portion called the stoma, and a wider posterior portion called the bulb.

Some well-known examples of Spiruroidea include the genus Spirura, which parasitizes carnivores and birds; the genus Habronema, which infects horses and other herbivores; and the genus Thelazia, which causes eye infections in humans and animals.

It is important to note that taxonomy is a dynamic field, and the classification of Spiruroidea may change as new research and discoveries emerge.

Encephalomyelitis is a medical term that refers to inflammation of both the brain (encephalitis) and spinal cord (myelitis). This condition can be caused by various infectious agents, such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites, or it can be due to an autoimmune response where the body's own immune system attacks the nervous tissue.

The symptoms of encephalomyelitis can vary widely depending on the extent and location of the inflammation, but they may include fever, headache, stiff neck, seizures, muscle weakness, sensory changes, and difficulty with coordination or walking. In severe cases, encephalomyelitis can lead to permanent neurological damage or even death.

Treatment for encephalomyelitis typically involves addressing the underlying cause, such as administering antiviral medications for viral infections or immunosuppressive drugs for autoimmune reactions. Supportive care, such as pain management, physical therapy, and rehabilitation, may also be necessary to help manage symptoms and promote recovery.

I understand you are asking for a medical definition of "Horse Diseases." However, it's important to note that there isn't a specific medical field dedicated to horse diseases as we typically categorize medical fields by human diseases and conditions. Veterinary medicine is the field responsible for studying, diagnosing, and treating diseases in animals, including horses.

Here's a general definition of 'Horse Diseases':

Horse diseases are health issues or medical conditions that affect equine species, particularly horses. These diseases can be caused by various factors such as bacterial, viral, fungal, or parasitic infections; genetic predispositions; environmental factors; and metabolic disorders. Examples of horse diseases include Strangles (Streptococcus equi), Equine Influenza, Equine Herpesvirus, West Nile Virus, Rabies, Potomac Horse Fever, Lyme Disease, and internal or external parasites like worms and ticks. Additionally, horses can suffer from musculoskeletal disorders such as arthritis, laminitis, and various injuries. Regular veterinary care, preventative measures, and proper management are crucial for maintaining horse health and preventing diseases.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Hawks" is not a commonly used medical term. It is most frequently associated with the bird of prey or a sports team name. If you have encountered this term in a medical context and are unsure of its meaning, I would recommend checking the source again or consulting with a healthcare professional for clarification.

Coccidiosis is a parasitic infection caused by protozoa of the Eimeria genus, which typically affects the intestinal tract of animals, including humans. The infection occurs when a person or animal ingests oocysts (the infective stage of the parasite) through contaminated food, water, or direct contact with infected feces.

In humans, coccidiosis is most commonly found in children living in poor sanitary conditions and in individuals with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or organ transplant recipients on immunosuppressive therapy. The infection can cause watery diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and fever. In severe cases, it may lead to dehydration, weight loss, and even death in individuals with compromised immune systems.

In animals, particularly in poultry, swine, and ruminants, coccidiosis can cause significant economic losses due to decreased growth rates, poor feed conversion, and increased mortality. Preventive measures include improving sanitation, reducing overcrowding, and administering anticoccidial drugs or vaccines.

'Bird diseases' is a broad term that refers to the various medical conditions and infections that can affect avian species. These diseases can be caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, or toxic substances and can affect pet birds, wild birds, and poultry. Some common bird diseases include:

1. Avian influenza (bird flu) - a viral infection that can cause respiratory symptoms, decreased appetite, and sudden death in birds.
2. Psittacosis (parrot fever) - a bacterial infection that can cause respiratory symptoms, fever, and lethargy in birds and humans who come into contact with them.
3. Aspergillosis - a fungal infection that can cause respiratory symptoms and weight loss in birds.
4. Candidiasis (thrush) - a fungal infection that can affect the mouth, crop, and other parts of the digestive system in birds.
5. Newcastle disease - a viral infection that can cause respiratory symptoms, neurological signs, and decreased egg production in birds.
6. Salmonellosis - a bacterial infection that can cause diarrhea, lethargy, and decreased appetite in birds and humans who come into contact with them.
7. Trichomoniasis - a parasitic infection that can affect the mouth, crop, and digestive system in birds.
8. Chlamydiosis (psittacosis) - a bacterial infection that can cause respiratory symptoms, lethargy, and decreased appetite in birds and humans who come into contact with them.
9. Coccidiosis - a parasitic infection that can affect the digestive system in birds.
10. Mycobacteriosis (avian tuberculosis) - a bacterial infection that can cause chronic weight loss, respiratory symptoms, and skin lesions in birds.

It is important to note that some bird diseases can be transmitted to humans and other animals, so it is essential to practice good hygiene when handling birds or their droppings. If you suspect your bird may be sick, it is best to consult with a veterinarian who specializes in avian medicine.

Neospora is a genus of intracellular parasites that belong to the phylum Apicomplexa. The most common species that affects animals is Neospora caninum, which is known to cause serious disease in cattle and dogs. It can also infect other warm-blooded animals, including sheep, goats, horses, and deer.

Neosporosis, the infection caused by Neospora, primarily affects the nervous system and muscles of the host animal. In cattle, it is a major cause of abortion, stillbirths, and neurological disorders. The parasite can be transmitted through the placenta from an infected mother to her offspring (congenital transmission), or through the ingestion of contaminated feed or water (horizontal transmission).

Neospora is a significant economic concern for the livestock industry, particularly in dairy and beef cattle operations. There is no effective vaccine or treatment available for neosporosis in animals, so prevention efforts focus on identifying and isolating infected animals to reduce the spread of the parasite.

18S rRNA (ribosomal RNA) is the smaller subunit of the eukaryotic ribosome, which is the cellular organelle responsible for protein synthesis. The "18S" refers to the sedimentation coefficient of this rRNA molecule, which is a measure of its rate of sedimentation in a centrifuge and is expressed in Svedberg units (S).

The 18S rRNA is a component of the 40S subunit of the ribosome, and it plays a crucial role in the decoding of messenger RNA (mRNA) during protein synthesis. Specifically, the 18S rRNA helps to form the structure of the ribosome and contains several conserved regions that are involved in binding to mRNA and guiding the movement of transfer RNAs (tRNAs) during translation.

The 18S rRNA is also a commonly used molecular marker for evolutionary studies, as its sequence is highly conserved across different species and can be used to infer phylogenetic relationships between organisms. Additionally, the analysis of 18S rRNA gene sequences has been widely used in various fields such as ecology, environmental science, and medicine to study biodiversity, biogeography, and infectious diseases.

Parasitic diseases, animal, refer to conditions in animals that are caused by parasites, which are organisms that live on or inside a host and derive benefits from the host at its expense. Parasites can be classified into different groups such as protozoa, helminths (worms), and arthropods (e.g., ticks, fleas).

Parasitic diseases in animals can cause a wide range of clinical signs depending on the type of parasite, the animal species affected, and the location and extent of infection. Some common examples of parasitic diseases in animals include:

* Heartworm disease in dogs and cats caused by Dirofilaria immitis
* Coccidiosis in various animals caused by different species of Eimeria
* Toxoplasmosis in cats and other animals caused by Toxoplasma gondii
* Giardiasis in many animal species caused by Giardia spp.
* Lungworm disease in dogs and cats caused by Angiostrongylus vasorum or Aelurostrongylus abstrusus
* Tapeworm infection in dogs, cats, and other animals caused by different species of Taenia or Dipylidium caninum

Prevention and control of parasitic diseases in animals typically involve a combination of strategies such as regular veterinary care, appropriate use of medications, environmental management, and good hygiene practices.