Methylococcaceae is a family of bacteria that have the ability to oxidize methane as their source of carbon and energy. These bacteria are also known as methanotrophs. They are gram-negative, aerobic, and typically occur in freshwater and marine environments. The family includes several genera such as Methylococcus, Methylomonas, and Methylothermus. These bacteria play an important role in the global carbon cycle by converting methane, a potent greenhouse gas, into carbon dioxide.

Methane is not a medical term, but it is a chemical compound that is often mentioned in the context of medicine and health. Medically, methane is significant because it is one of the gases produced by anaerobic microorganisms during the breakdown of organic matter in the gut, leading to conditions such as bloating, cramping, and diarrhea. Excessive production of methane can also be a symptom of certain digestive disorders like irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO).

In broader terms, methane is a colorless, odorless gas that is the primary component of natural gas. It is produced naturally by the decomposition of organic matter in anaerobic conditions, such as in landfills, wetlands, and the digestive tracts of animals like cows and humans. Methane is also a potent greenhouse gas with a global warming potential 25 times greater than carbon dioxide over a 100-year time frame.