"Macaca fascicularis" is the scientific name for the crab-eating macaque, also known as the long-tailed macaque. It's a species of monkey that is native to Southeast Asia. They are called "crab-eating" macaques because they are known to eat crabs and other crustaceans. These monkeys are omnivorous and their diet also includes fruits, seeds, insects, and occasionally smaller vertebrates.

Crab-eating macaques are highly adaptable and can be found in a wide range of habitats, including forests, grasslands, and wetlands. They are also known to live in close proximity to human settlements and are often considered pests due to their tendency to raid crops and steal food from humans.

These monkeys are social animals and live in large groups called troops. They have a complex social structure with a clear hierarchy and dominant males. Crab-eating macaques are also known for their intelligence and problem-solving abilities.

In medical research, crab-eating macaques are often used as animal models due to their close genetic relationship to humans. They are used in studies related to infectious diseases, neuroscience, and reproductive biology, among others.

There is no single medical definition for "Monkey Diseases." However, monkeys can carry and be infected with various diseases that are zoonotic, meaning they can be transmitted from animals to humans. Some examples include:

1. Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV): A virus similar to Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) that causes AIDS in monkeys. It is not typically harmful to monkeys but can cause AIDS in humans if transmitted, which is rare.
2. Herpes B Virus: Also known as Macacine herpesvirus 1 or Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1, it is a virus that commonly infects macaque monkeys. It can be transmitted to humans through direct contact with an infected monkey's saliva, eye fluid, or cerebrospinal fluid, causing a severe and potentially fatal illness called B encephalitis.
3. Tuberculosis (TB): Monkeys can contract and transmit tuberculosis to humans, although it is not common.
4. Simian Retrovirus (SRV): A virus that can infect both monkeys and great apes, causing immunodeficiency similar to HIV/AIDS in humans. It is not known to infect or cause disease in humans.
5. Various parasitic diseases: Monkeys can carry and transmit several parasites, including malaria-causing Plasmodium species, intestinal worms, and other parasites that can affect human health.

It's important to note that while monkeys can carry and transmit these diseases, the risk of transmission is generally low, and most cases occur in individuals who have close contact with monkeys, such as primatologists, zookeepers, or laboratory workers. Always follow safety guidelines when interacting with animals, including monkeys, to minimize the risk of disease transmission.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Macaca" is not a medical term. It is the name of a genus that includes several species of monkeys, commonly known as macaques. These primates are often used in biomedical research due to their similarities with humans in terms of genetics and physiology. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I would be happy to try to help answer them.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Mauritius" is not a medical term or condition. It is the name of a country, specifically an island nation in the Indian Ocean. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you!

"Macaca mulatta" is the scientific name for the Rhesus macaque, a species of monkey that is native to South, Central, and Southeast Asia. They are often used in biomedical research due to their genetic similarity to humans.

Simian retroviruses are a group of retroviruses that naturally infect primates, including monkeys and apes. These viruses are closely related to human retroviruses and can cause immunodeficiency and cancer in their simian hosts. One well-known example is the Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV), which is similar to Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and causes AIDS in some primate species.

Retroviruses are viruses that have an RNA genome and use a reverse transcriptase enzyme to create DNA copies of their genome, which can then be integrated into the host cell's DNA. This characteristic sets retroviruses apart from other RNA viruses. Simian retroviruses, like other retroviruses, have an envelope protein that allows them to attach to and enter host cells.

It is important to note that simian retroviruses can pose a risk to humans who come into contact with infected primates, either in captivity or in the wild. For example, SIV can be transmitted to humans through exposure to infected bodily fluids, such as blood or sexual secretions, and can cause a disease similar to AIDS known as Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Humans (SIV-infected humans). However, such transmissions are rare.

Zolazepam is a veterinary medication that belongs to a class of drugs called benzodiazepines. It is used in the induction and maintenance of anesthesia in animals, often in combination with other medications. Zolazepam works by depressing the central nervous system, producing sedation, muscle relaxation, and amnesia.

In veterinary medicine, zolazepam is commonly combined with tiletamine, another dissociative anesthetic, to form a drug called Telazol. This combination provides balanced anesthesia with minimal cardiovascular and respiratory depression.

It's important to note that zolazepam is not approved for use in humans and should only be administered by trained veterinary professionals under strict supervision.

"Macaca nemestrina," also known as the pig-tailed macaque, is not a medical term but a species name in biology. It refers to a specific species of monkey that is native to Southeast Asia. The pig-tailed macaque is a medium-sized monkey with a reddish-brown fur and a distinctive tail that resembles a pig's tail. They are omnivorous and live in social groups that can range from a few individuals to several hundred.

While "Macaca nemestrina" may not have a direct medical definition, these monkeys have been used as models in biomedical research due to their close genetic relationship with humans. Some studies involving pig-tailed macaques have contributed to our understanding of various human diseases and conditions, such as infectious diseases, neurological disorders, and reproductive health. However, it is important to note that the use of animals in research remains a controversial topic, and ethical considerations must be taken into account when conducting such studies.

Haplorhini is a term used in the field of primatology and physical anthropology to refer to a parvorder of simian primates, which includes humans, apes (both great and small), and Old World monkeys. The name "Haplorhini" comes from the Greek words "haploos," meaning single or simple, and "rhinos," meaning nose.

The defining characteristic of Haplorhini is the presence of a simple, dry nose, as opposed to the wet, fleshy noses found in other primates, such as New World monkeys and strepsirrhines (which include lemurs and lorises). The nostrils of haplorhines are located close together at the tip of the snout, and they lack the rhinarium or "wet nose" that is present in other primates.

Haplorhini is further divided into two infraorders: Simiiformes (which includes apes and Old World monkeys) and Tarsioidea (which includes tarsiers). These groups are distinguished by various anatomical and behavioral differences, such as the presence or absence of a tail, the structure of the hand and foot, and the degree of sociality.

Overall, Haplorhini is a group of primates that share a number of distinctive features related to their sensory systems, locomotion, and social behavior. Understanding the evolutionary history and diversity of this group is an important area of research in anthropology, biology, and psychology.

Tiletamine is a veterinary medication that belongs to the class of drugs known as dissociative anesthetics. It is often used in combination with zolazepam, and the combination is sold under the brand name Telazol. This drug combination is primarily used for the induction and maintenance of anesthesia in various animal species.

Tiletamine works by blocking the action of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, which are involved in pain perception, learning, and memory. By doing so, it produces a state of dissociation, where animals may appear to be conscious but are not aware of their surroundings or the procedures being performed on them.

It is important to note that tiletamine should only be used under the direction of a licensed veterinarian, as its use requires proper training and experience to ensure safe and effective administration.

'Laboratory animals' are defined as non-human creatures that are used in scientific research and experiments to study various biological phenomena, develop new medical treatments and therapies, test the safety and efficacy of drugs, medical devices, and other products. These animals are kept under controlled conditions in laboratory settings and are typically purpose-bred for research purposes.

The use of laboratory animals is subject to strict regulations and guidelines to ensure their humane treatment and welfare. The most commonly used species include mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, hamsters, dogs, cats, non-human primates, and fish. Other less common species may also be used depending on the specific research question being studied.

The primary goal of using laboratory animals in research is to advance our understanding of basic biological processes and develop new medical treatments that can improve human and animal health. However, it is important to note that the use of animals in research remains a controversial topic due to ethical concerns regarding their welfare and potential for suffering.

"Macaca radiata" is a species of monkey that is native to India. It is often referred to as the "bonnet macaque" due to the distinctive cap of hair on its head. This species is widely studied in the field of primatology and has been an important model organism in biomedical research, particularly in the areas of neuroscience and infectious disease. However, I couldn't find a specific medical definition for "Macaca radiata".

Polydipsia is a medical term that describes excessive thirst or an abnormally increased desire to drink fluids. It is often associated with conditions that cause increased fluid loss, such as diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus, as well as certain psychiatric disorders that can lead to excessive water intake. Polydipsia should not be confused with simple dehydration, where the body's overall water content is reduced due to inadequate fluid intake or excessive fluid loss. Instead, polydipsia refers to a persistent and strong drive to drink fluids, even when the body is adequately hydrated. Prolonged polydipsia can lead to complications such as hyponatremia (low sodium levels in the blood) and may indicate an underlying medical issue that requires further evaluation and treatment.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Indonesia" is not a medical term. It is a country located in Southeast Asia and Oceania, between the Indian and Pacific oceans. It is the world's largest island country, with more than thirteen thousand islands. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

"Saimiri" is the genus name for the group of primates known as squirrel monkeys. These small, agile New World monkeys are native to Central and South America and are characterized by their slim bodies, long limbs, and distinctive hairless faces with large eyes. They are omnivorous and known for their active, quick-moving behavior in the trees. There are several species of squirrel monkey, including the Central American squirrel monkey (Saimiri oerstedii) and the much more widespread common squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus).

Occlusal adjustment is a dental procedure that involves modifying the shape and alignment of the biting surfaces of teeth to improve their fit and relationship with the opposing teeth. The goal of occlusal adjustment is to create a balanced and harmonious bite, which can help alleviate symptoms such as tooth wear, sensitivity, pain, or temporomandibular joint disorders (TMJD).

During an occlusal adjustment procedure, the dentist uses specialized instruments like articulating paper or dental burs to identify and eliminate interferences in the bite. These interferences can be caused by high spots, rough edges, or misaligned teeth that prevent the upper and lower teeth from meeting evenly when the jaw is closed. By removing these interferences, the dentist aims to create a more stable and comfortable bite, reducing stress on the jaw joints and muscles.

It's important to note that occlusal adjustment should only be performed by a trained dental professional, as improper modifications can lead to further dental issues or discomfort.

Hepatitis A antigens refer to the proteins or molecules present on the surface of the Hepatitis A virus (HAV) that can stimulate an immune response in the body. There are two main types of HAV antigens:

1. Hepatitis A Virus Capsid Antigen (also known as HAV VP1): This is a structural protein that makes up the outer shell or capsid of the HAV particle. It contains several epitopes (regions that can be recognized by the immune system) that can induce the production of antibodies in infected individuals.
2. Hepatitis A Virus Non-structural Antigen (also known as HAV NS1): This is a non-structural protein produced during the replication of the HAV genome. It plays a crucial role in the replication and assembly of new HAV particles, but it is not present in the mature virion. However, its detection in serum or liver tissue can indicate an ongoing HAV infection.

The presence of antibodies against these antigens (anti-HAV antibodies) in a person's blood can be used to diagnose past or recent Hepatitis A infections and immunity acquired through vaccination.

"Papio anubis" is the scientific name for the Olive Baboon, which is a species of Old World monkey found in savannas, open woodlands, and hills in East Africa. The term "Papio" refers to the genus of baboons, while "anubis" is the specific name for this particular species.

The Olive Baboon is named for its distinctive olive-gray fur, which can vary in color depending on the subspecies. They have a distinct dog-like face with a pink or red area around their mouths and noses. Adult males typically have a large, rough cheek pad on either side of their faces, which they use to display dominance during social interactions.

Olive Baboons are highly social animals that live in large troops consisting of several adult males, females, and their offspring. They have a complex social hierarchy based on age, size, and rank, and engage in various behaviors such as grooming, playing, and communication to maintain social bonds.

While "Papio anubis" is a medical or scientific term, it is not typically used in clinical settings. However, understanding the behavior and ecology of primates like Olive Baboons can provide valuable insights into human evolution, behavior, and disease transmission.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Philippines" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in Southeast Asia, comprised of over 7,000 islands. If you have any questions about medical conditions or terms, I would be happy to help clarify those for you.

The spinothalamic tracts are a pair of white matter tracts in the spinal cord that carry sensory information from the body to the brain. They are responsible for transmitting pain, temperature, and crude touch sensation. The tracts consist of two components: the lateral spinothalamic tract, which carries information about pain and temperature, and the anterior spinothalamic tract, which carries information about touch and pressure. These tracts decussate (cross to the opposite side) at the level of the spinal cord where they enter, and then ascend to the thalamus, where the information is relayed to the sensory cortex for processing.

Osteosarcoma, juxtacortical (also known as parosteal osteosarcoma) is a rare subtype of osteosarcoma, which is a type of bone cancer. It arises from the cambium layer of the periosteum, which is the highly vascular connective tissue that covers the outer surface of bones. Juxtacortical osteosarcomas typically develop on the surface of long bones, particularly around the knee region. They tend to grow slowly and have a lower risk of metastasis (spreading to other parts of the body) compared to conventional osteosarcomas.

Juxtacortical osteosarcomas are usually low-grade malignancies, meaning they are less aggressive and have a better prognosis than high-grade osteosarcomas. However, local recurrence is relatively common if the tumor is not completely removed during surgery. The primary treatment for juxtacortical osteosarcoma is surgical resection with wide margins, followed by close monitoring to ensure there is no evidence of recurrence or metastasis. Radiation therapy and chemotherapy may also be used in some cases, depending on the specific circumstances and individual patient needs.

Species specificity is a term used in the field of biology, including medicine, to refer to the characteristic of a biological entity (such as a virus, bacterium, or other microorganism) that allows it to interact exclusively or preferentially with a particular species. This means that the biological entity has a strong affinity for, or is only able to infect, a specific host species.

For example, HIV is specifically adapted to infect human cells and does not typically infect other animal species. Similarly, some bacterial toxins are species-specific and can only affect certain types of animals or humans. This concept is important in understanding the transmission dynamics and host range of various pathogens, as well as in developing targeted therapies and vaccines.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Housing, Animal" is not a standard term in medical terminology. Medical terminology typically relates to the human body, diseases, treatments, and healthcare practices. "Housing, Animal" would be more related to veterinary medicine or animal care fields, which pertain to the accommodation and environment provided for animals. If you have any questions related to medical terminology, I'd be happy to help!

A social hierarchy in the context of medicine and public health often refers to the organization of individuals or groups based on their relative status, power, or influence within a society or community. This structure can have significant implications for health outcomes and access to care. For instance, those with higher socioeconomic status (SES) tend to have better health and longer lifespans than those with lower SES, due in part to factors such as better access to healthcare, nutritious food, safe housing, and educational opportunities.

Social hierarchies can also intersect with other forms of inequality, such as racism, sexism, and ableism, to create additional barriers to health and well-being for marginalized communities. Understanding the role of social hierarchy in health is crucial for developing effective public health interventions and policies that address these underlying determinants of health.

An animal model in medicine refers to the use of non-human animals in experiments to understand, predict, and test responses and effects of various biological and chemical interactions that may also occur in humans. These models are used when studying complex systems or processes that cannot be easily replicated or studied in human subjects, such as genetic manipulation or exposure to harmful substances. The choice of animal model depends on the specific research question being asked and the similarities between the animal's and human's biological and physiological responses. Examples of commonly used animal models include mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, and non-human primates.

Proline-rich protein domains are segments within proteins that contain an unusually high concentration of the amino acid proline. These domains are often involved in mediating protein-protein interactions and can play a role in various cellular processes, such as signal transduction, gene regulation, and protein folding. They are also commonly found in extracellular matrix proteins and may be involved in cell adhesion and migration. The unique chemical properties of proline, including its ability to form rigid structures and disrupt alpha-helices, contribute to the functional specificity of these domains.

Histochemistry is the branch of pathology that deals with the microscopic localization of cellular or tissue components using specific chemical reactions. It involves the application of chemical techniques to identify and locate specific biomolecules within tissues, cells, and subcellular structures. This is achieved through the use of various staining methods that react with specific antigens or enzymes in the sample, allowing for their visualization under a microscope. Histochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to identify different types of tissues, cells, and structures, as well as in research to study cellular and molecular processes in health and disease.

"Social dominance" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, it is a concept that is often used in the social sciences, including sociology, psychology, and anthropology. It refers to the degree of control, influence, or power that an individual or group has over others within a particular social context or hierarchy.

In some cases, social dominance may be associated with certain medical conditions or situations. For example, individuals with antisocial personality disorder or other psychiatric disorders may exhibit dominant behaviors as part of their symptoms. Similarly, social dominance can be a factor in the development and maintenance of certain types of relationships, such as those seen in abusive or coercive relationships.

However, it's important to note that social dominance is not a medical diagnosis or condition in and of itself. Rather, it is a social phenomenon that can intersect with various medical and psychological issues.

"Papio" is a term used in the field of primatology, specifically for a genus of Old World monkeys known as baboons. It's not typically used in human or medical contexts. Baboons are large monkeys with robust bodies and distinctive dog-like faces. They are native to various parts of Africa and are known for their complex social structures and behaviors.

The parotid gland is the largest of the major salivary glands. It is a bilobed, accessory digestive organ that secretes serous saliva into the mouth via the parotid duct (Stensen's duct), located near the upper second molar tooth. The parotid gland is primarily responsible for moistening and lubricating food to aid in swallowing and digestion.

Anatomically, the parotid gland is located in the preauricular region, extending from the zygomatic arch superiorly to the angle of the mandible inferiorly, and from the masseter muscle anteriorly to the sternocleidomastoid muscle posteriorly. It is enclosed within a fascial capsule and has a rich blood supply from the external carotid artery and a complex innervation pattern involving both parasympathetic and sympathetic fibers.

Parotid gland disorders can include salivary gland stones (sialolithiasis), infections, inflammatory conditions, benign or malignant tumors, and autoimmune diseases such as Sjögren's syndrome.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Callithrix is a genus of New World monkeys, also known as marmosets. They are small, active primates found in the forests of South and Central America. The term "Callithrix" itself is derived from the Greek words "kallis" meaning beautiful and "thrix" meaning hair, referring to their thick, vibrantly colored fur.

Marmosets in the genus Callithrix are characterized by their slender bodies, long, bushy tails, and specialized dental structures that allow them to gouge tree bark to extract sap and exudates, which form a significant part of their diet. They also consume fruits, insects, and small vertebrates.

Some well-known species in this genus include the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), the white-headed marmoset (Callithrix geoffroyi), and the buffy-tufted-ear marmoset (Callithrix aurita). Marmosets are popular subjects of research due to their small size, short gestation period, and ease of breeding in captivity.

Dental plaque is a biofilm or mass of bacteria that accumulates on the surface of the teeth, restorative materials, and prosthetic devices such as dentures. It is initiated when bacterial colonizers attach to the smooth surfaces of teeth through van der Waals forces and specific molecular adhesion mechanisms.

The microorganisms within the dental plaque produce extracellular polysaccharides that help to stabilize and strengthen the biofilm, making it resistant to removal by simple brushing or rinsing. Over time, if not regularly removed through oral hygiene practices such as brushing and flossing, dental plaque can mineralize and harden into tartar or calculus.

The bacteria in dental plaque can cause tooth decay (dental caries) by metabolizing sugars and producing acid that demineralizes the tooth enamel. Additionally, certain types of bacteria in dental plaque can cause periodontal disease, an inflammation of the gums that can lead to tissue damage and bone loss around the teeth. Regular professional dental cleanings and good oral hygiene practices are essential for preventing the buildup of dental plaque and maintaining good oral health.