Forensic sciences is the application of scientific methods and techniques to investigations by law enforcement agencies or courts of law. It involves the use of various scientific disciplines, such as chemistry, biology, physics, and psychology, to assist in the examination of physical evidence, interpretation of crime scene data, and evaluation of behavioral patterns. The goal is to provide objective information that can help establish the facts of a case and contribute to the administration of justice.

Forensic science encompasses several sub-disciplines, including forensic biology (DNA analysis, serology, and forensic anthropology), forensic chemistry (drug analysis, toxicology, and digital forensics), forensic physics (firearms and toolmark identification, ballistics, and digital forensics), and forensic psychology (criminal profiling, eyewitness testimony, and legal psychology).

The ultimate objective of forensic sciences is to provide unbiased, scientifically validated information that can aid in the investigation and prosecution of criminal cases, as well as protect the rights of defendants and promote the integrity of the legal system.

Forensic dentistry, also known as forensic odontology, is a specialty in forensic science that involves the examination, identification, and evaluation of dental evidence for legal purposes. It encompasses various aspects such as:

1. Identification of deceased individuals through dental records comparison (e.g., during mass disasters or unidentified human remains).
2. Analysis of bite marks found on victims or objects related to criminal investigations.
3. Assessment of age, sex, ancestry, and other personal characteristics based on dental features.
4. Examination of cases of abuse, neglect, or malpractice in dentistry.
5. Evaluation of occupational dental injuries and diseases.

Forensic dentists often work closely with law enforcement agencies, medical examiners, and other legal professionals to provide expert testimony in court proceedings.

Forensic genetics is a branch of forensic science that involves the use of genetic methods and technologies to establish identity or determine relationships between individuals in legal investigations. It primarily deals with the analysis of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) samples collected from crime scenes, victims, or suspects to generate profiles that can be compared in order to identify individuals or link them to evidence.

Forensic genetics also includes other applications such as:

1. Parentage testing: Determining biological relationships between family members, often used in cases of disputed paternity or immigration cases.
2. Disaster victim identification: Identifying victims in mass disasters by comparing DNA samples from recovered remains with those from relatives.
3. Ancestry analysis: Inferring an individual's geographical origin or population affiliations based on their genetic markers.
4. Forensic phenotyping: Predicting physical traits like appearance, hair color, and eye color from DNA samples to assist in identifying unknown individuals.

The main goal of forensic genetics is to provide unbiased, scientific evidence that can aid in criminal investigations and legal proceedings while adhering to strict ethical guidelines and quality standards.

Forensic medicine, also known as legal medicine or medical jurisprudence, is a branch of medicine that deals with the application of medical knowledge to legal issues and questions. It involves the examination, interpretation, and analysis of medical evidence for use in courts of law. This may include determining the cause and manner of death, identifying injuries or diseases, assessing the effects of substances or treatments, and evaluating the competency or capacity of individuals. Forensic medicine is often used in criminal investigations and court cases, but it can also be applied to civil matters such as personal injury claims or medical malpractice suits.

Hemoglobin is a complex protein in red blood cells that consists of four polypeptide chains, two alpha (α) and two beta (β) subunits. Each subunit can bind to a heme group, which contains an iron atom that facilitates the binding and transportation of oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues.

The terms 'hemoglobin subunits' or 'hemoglobin components' typically refer to these individual polypeptide chains: alpha, beta, gamma (γ), delta (δ), epsilon (ε), and zeta (ζ) subunits. The different types of hemoglobin found in humans are primarily distinguished by the specific combination of these subunits.

- Hemoglobin A (HbA): This is the most common adult hemoglobin, consisting of two alpha and two beta subunits (α2β2).
- Hemoglobin A2 (HbA2): This is a minor adult hemoglobin, comprising about 1.5% to 3.5% of total hemoglobin in adults. It contains two alpha and two delta subunits (α2δ2).
- Hemoglobin F (HbF): This fetal hemoglobin consists of two alpha and two gamma subunits (α2γ2) and is the primary form of hemoglobin in a developing fetus. After birth, HbF levels decrease as HbA becomes the dominant type.
- Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c): This is not a distinct hemoglobin subunit but rather a glycated form of hemoglobin A, where glucose binds to the beta subunits. HbA1c levels are used as a diagnostic marker for average blood sugar levels over the previous 2-3 months in people with diabetes mellitus.

In summary, 'hemoglobin subunits' refer to the individual polypeptide chains that make up hemoglobin molecules, including alpha, beta, gamma, delta, epsilon, and zeta subunits. Different combinations of these subunits form distinct types of hemoglobins, such as HbA, HbF, and HbA1c.

Forensic pathology is a subspecialty of pathology that focuses on determining the cause and manner of death by examining a corpse. It involves applying scientific knowledge and techniques to investigate criminal or suspicious deaths, often in conjunction with law enforcement agencies. A forensic pathologist performs autopsies (postmortem examinations) to evaluate internal and external injuries, diseases, and other conditions that may have contributed to the individual's death. They also collect evidence such as tissue samples, which can be used for toxicological, microbiological, or histological analysis. The information gathered by forensic pathologists is crucial in helping to establish the facts surrounding a person's death and assisting legal proceedings.

Forensic anthropology is a subfield of anthropology that applies scientific techniques and methods to analyze human remains for the purpose of establishing identity, determining the cause and manner of death, and investigating incidents of crime, mass disasters, or human rights violations. Forensic anthropologists use their knowledge of osteology, skeletal biology, and archaeological techniques to examine bones, teeth, and other tissues to help law enforcement agencies and legal professionals in criminal and civil investigations. They may also provide expert testimony in court based on their findings.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Science" is a broad field that refers to a systematic and logical process used to discover how things in the universe work. It's not typically used as a medical term. However, within the context of medicine, "science" often refers to evidence-based practices, which are treatments and preventions that have been scientifically researched and proven to be effective. This could include areas like pharmacology (the study of drugs), pathophysiology (the study of changes in the body due to disease), or clinical trials (studies used to test new treatments). If you're looking for a specific medical term, could you please provide more context?

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Social Sciences" is a broad term that refers to academic disciplines that study human society and social relationships. It includes fields such as anthropology, sociology, psychology, political science, and economics. These subjects are considered part of the liberal arts and humanities, not medical sciences.

However, aspects of social sciences can intersect with medical studies in areas like medical anthropology, health psychology, sociology of health and illness, and psychiatry. For instance, medical anthropologists might study how cultural factors influence healthcare practices, while health psychologists examine the role of behavior and mental processes in health and illness.

If you're looking for a definition related to medical sciences, perhaps there was some confusion with the term. Could you please clarify or provide more context?