Forensic anthropology is a subfield of anthropology that applies scientific techniques and methods to analyze human remains for the purpose of establishing identity, determining the cause and manner of death, and investigating incidents of crime, mass disasters, or human rights violations. Forensic anthropologists use their knowledge of osteology, skeletal biology, and archaeological techniques to examine bones, teeth, and other tissues to help law enforcement agencies and legal professionals in criminal and civil investigations. They may also provide expert testimony in court based on their findings.

Anthropology is the scientific study of humans, human behavior, and societies in the past and present. It includes the study of language, culture, biology, and archaeology. In a medical context, anthropologists may study how cultural factors influence health and illness, health care practices and beliefs, and the impact of medical systems on individuals and communities. This field is known as medical anthropology.

Physical anthropology is a subfield of anthropology that focuses on the study of human biological variation and evolution, both in the past and in the present. It draws upon various scientific disciplines such as genetics, anatomy, physiology, and paleontology to understand the biological origins and development of our species, Homo sapiens.

Physical anthropologists study a wide range of topics, including human and primate evolution, population genetics, skeletal biology, forensic anthropology, and bioarchaeology. They often work with fossil remains, archaeological sites, and living populations to investigate questions related to human adaptation, health, migration, and diversity.

By examining the biological aspects of human existence, physical anthropologists aim to contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of what it means to be human, both in terms of our shared characteristics as a species and the unique variations that make each individual and population distinct.

Medical anthropology is a subfield of anthropology that focuses on the study of human health and disease in cultural and social contexts. It combines approaches and insights from sociocultural anthropology, biological anthropology, archaeology, and linguistics to understand the complex interplay between biology, culture, and society in shaping health outcomes and experiences.

Medical anthropologists study a wide range of topics related to health, illness, and healing, including:

1. The cultural construction of illness and disease categories: Medical anthropologists examine how different societies define and understand health and illness, and how these definitions shape help-seeking behaviors and treatment choices.
2. Health disparities and social determinants of health: Medical anthropologists investigate the social, economic, and political factors that contribute to health inequities and influence access to healthcare resources.
3. The cultural context of medical practices and institutions: Medical anthropologists study the ways in which medical systems and practices are shaped by cultural values, beliefs, and power relations, and how they impact patient experiences and outcomes.
4. Global health and transnational processes: Medical anthropologists explore the impacts of globalization, migration, and transcultural exchange on health and healthcare, including the spread of diseases, the diffusion of medical knowledge and technologies, and the emergence of new forms of health activism and advocacy.
5. The biological basis of health and disease: Medical anthropologists draw on insights from evolutionary biology, genetics, and neuroscience to understand the complex interplay between genetic factors, environmental influences, and social determinants in shaping health outcomes.

Medical anthropology has important implications for public health policy, clinical practice, and global health initiatives, as it highlights the need to consider cultural and social factors in designing effective interventions and promoting equitable access to healthcare.

Cultural anthropology is a subfield of anthropology that focuses on the study of human culture, society, and behavior. It seeks to understand the ways in which different cultural groups organize and structure their social lives, as well as the meanings and symbols that shape their beliefs, practices, and institutions. Cultural anthropologists conduct ethnographic research, which involves immersing themselves in a particular cultural setting and observing and participating in the daily lives of its members. They generate detailed descriptions and analyses of cultural phenomena, with the aim of providing insights into both the specificity of individual cultures and the broader patterns of human social and cultural life. Cultural anthropology has important applications in fields such as international development, public health, education, and business, where an understanding of cultural differences is essential for effective communication, collaboration, and problem-solving.

"Sex determination by skeleton," also known as "osteological sex estimation," is the process of determining the biological sex of an individual based on the analysis of their skeletal remains. This can be particularly useful in forensic anthropology and archaeology, where the identification of an individual's sex can provide important information about their identity and help to establish the demographic profile of a population.

The determination of sex from the skeleton is typically based on several characteristics that differ between males and females due to sexual dimorphism, or differences in size and shape that result from genetic and hormonal factors. These characteristics can include:

1. Pelvic bones: The female pelvis is generally wider and more shallow than the male pelvis, with a broader and more rounded pubic arch and a larger sciatic notch.
2. Skull: The male skull tends to be larger and heavier, with a prominent brow ridge, larger mastoid processes, and a squared-off jawline.
3. Long bones: Male long bones are generally longer and heavier than female long bones, with larger diameters and more robust shafts.
4. Other features: Differences in the size and shape of other skeletal elements, such as the clavicle, ribs, and vertebrae, can also provide clues to an individual's sex.

It is important to note that while osteological sex estimation can provide a reliable indication of an individual's biological sex in most cases, it is not always 100% accurate. Factors such as age, ancestry, and health status can affect the expression of sexual dimorphism in the skeleton, making it difficult to determine sex with certainty in some cases.

Forensic dentistry, also known as forensic odontology, is a specialty in forensic science that involves the examination, identification, and evaluation of dental evidence for legal purposes. It encompasses various aspects such as:

1. Identification of deceased individuals through dental records comparison (e.g., during mass disasters or unidentified human remains).
2. Analysis of bite marks found on victims or objects related to criminal investigations.
3. Assessment of age, sex, ancestry, and other personal characteristics based on dental features.
4. Examination of cases of abuse, neglect, or malpractice in dentistry.
5. Evaluation of occupational dental injuries and diseases.

Forensic dentists often work closely with law enforcement agencies, medical examiners, and other legal professionals to provide expert testimony in court proceedings.