Extraoral traction appliances are orthodontic devices used to correct significant dental and skeletal discrepancies, typically in cases of severe malocclusion. These appliances are worn externally on the face or head, and they work by applying gentle force to the teeth and jaws to guide them into proper alignment.

Extraoral traction appliances can be used to treat a variety of orthodontic problems, including:

* Protruding front teeth (overjet)
* Severe crowding or spacing
* Class II or Class III malocclusions (where the upper and lower jaws do not align properly)
* Jaw growth abnormalities

There are several types of extraoral traction appliances, including:

1. **Headgear:** This is the most common type of extraoral appliance. It consists of a metal frame that attaches to braces on the back teeth and a strap that fits around the head or neck. The strap applies pressure to the teeth and jaws, helping to correct alignment issues.
2. **Facemask:** A facemask is used to treat Class III malocclusions, where the lower jaw protrudes forward. It consists of a metal frame that attaches to braces on the upper teeth and a strap that fits around the head. The strap pulls the upper jaw forward, helping to align it with the lower jaw.
3. **Reverse pull headgear:** This type of appliance is used to treat patients with a receding chin or small lower jaw. It works by applying pressure to the back of the head, which encourages the growth and development of the lower jaw.
4. **Jaw separators:** These are used in cases where the jaws need to be separated to allow for proper alignment. They consist of two metal bars that fit over the upper and lower teeth, with a screw mechanism that gradually increases the space between them.

Extraoral traction appliances can be uncomfortable to wear at first, but most patients adjust to them over time. It is important to follow the orthodontist's instructions carefully when wearing these appliances to ensure proper alignment and prevent damage to the teeth and jaws.

Traction, in medical terms, refers to the application of a pulling force to distract or align parts of the body, particularly bones, joints, or muscles, with the aim of immobilizing, reducing displacement, or realigning them. This is often achieved through the use of various devices such as tongs, pulleys, weights, or specialized traction tables. Traction may be applied manually or mechanically and can be continuous or intermittent, depending on the specific medical condition being treated. Common indications for traction include fractures, dislocations, spinal cord injuries, and certain neurological conditions.

Orthodontic appliances are devices used in orthodontics, a branch of dentistry focused on the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of dental and facial irregularities. These appliances can be fixed or removable and are used to align teeth, correct jaw relationships, or modify dental forces. They can include braces, aligners, palatal expanders, space maintainers, and headgear, among others. The specific type of appliance used depends on the individual patient's needs and the treatment plan developed by the orthodontist.

Orthodontic appliances, removable, are dental devices that can be removed and inserted by the patient as needed or directed. These appliances are designed to align and straighten teeth, correct bite issues, and improve the function and appearance of the teeth and jaws. They are typically made from materials such as plastic, metal, or acrylic and may include components like wires, springs, or screws. Examples of removable orthodontic appliances include aligners, retainers, and space maintainers. The specific type and design of the appliance will depend on the individual patient's orthodontic needs and treatment goals.

Mandibular injuries refer to damages or traumas that affect the mandible, which is the lower part of the jawbone. These injuries can result from various causes, such as road accidents, physical assaults, sports-related impacts, or falls. Mandibular injuries may include fractures, dislocations, soft tissue damage, or dental injuries.

Symptoms of mandibular injuries might include pain, swelling, bruising, difficulty speaking, chewing, or opening the mouth wide, and in some cases, visible deformity or misalignment of the jaw. Depending on the severity and type of injury, treatment options may range from conservative management with pain control and soft diet to surgical intervention for fracture reduction and fixation. Immediate medical attention is crucial to ensure proper diagnosis, appropriate treatment, and prevention of potential complications.

Orthodontic appliance design refers to the creation and development of medical devices used in orthodontics, which is a branch of dentistry focused on the diagnosis, prevention, and correction of dental and facial irregularities. The design process involves creating a customized treatment plan for each patient, based on their specific needs and goals.

Orthodontic appliances can be removable or fixed and are used to move teeth into proper alignment, improve jaw function, and enhance the overall appearance of the smile. Some common types of orthodontic appliances include braces, aligners, palatal expanders, and retainers.

The design of an orthodontic appliance typically involves several factors, including:

1. The specific dental or facial problem being addressed
2. The patient's age, overall health, and oral hygiene habits
3. The patient's lifestyle and personal preferences
4. The estimated treatment time and cost
5. The potential risks and benefits of the appliance

Orthodontic appliance design is a complex process that requires a thorough understanding of dental anatomy, biomechanics, and materials science. It is typically performed by an orthodontist or a dental technician with specialized training in this area. The goal of orthodontic appliance design is to create a device that is both effective and comfortable for the patient, while also ensuring that it is safe and easy to use.

An oral fistula is an abnormal connection or tunnel that links the oral cavity (the mouth) to another structure, usually the skin of the face or the neck. This condition can occur as a result of various factors such as infection, trauma, surgery, or congenital abnormalities. Oral fistulas may cause symptoms like pain, discomfort, difficulty in swallowing or speaking, and leakage of saliva or food from the opening of the fistula. Treatment typically involves surgical closure of the fistulous tract to restore normal anatomy and function.

Prosthesis retention, in the context of medical prosthetics, refers to the secure and stable attachment or fixation of a prosthetic device to the body or the remaining limb (stump) of an amputee. The primary goal of prosthesis retention is to ensure that the artificial limb remains in place during various activities, providing optimal functionality, comfort, and safety for the user.

There are several methods for achieving prosthesis retention, including:

1. Suction sockets: A custom-made socket that creates a seal around the residual limb using a special liner and air pressure to keep the prosthesis in place.
2. Mechanical locks: Devices such as pin locks, lanyard locks, or magnetic couplings that secure the prosthetic limb to the residual limb by engaging with specific components within the socket.
3. Vacuum-assisted suspension: A system that uses vacuum pressure to create a seal between the residual limb and the socket, providing retention and stability.
4. Belt or harness systems: Straps or bands that attach to the prosthesis and wrap around the user's body or sound limb to keep the device in place.
5. Osseointegration: A surgical procedure that involves implanting a metal rod directly into the bone, allowing for a direct connection between the residual limb and the prosthetic device.

Prosthesis retention is crucial for ensuring the successful use of an artificial limb, as it enables users to perform their daily activities with confidence and ease.

Functional Orthodontic Appliances are removable or fixed devices used in orthodontics to correct the alignment and/or positioning of jaw bones and/or teeth. They work by harnessing the power of muscle function and growth to achieve desired changes in the dental arches and jaws. These appliances are typically used in growing children and adolescents, but can also be used in adults in certain cases. Examples of functional orthodontic appliances include activators, bionators, twin blocks, and Herbst appliances. The specific type of appliance used will depend on the individual patient's needs and treatment goals.

Large B-cell lymphoma, immunoblastic variant, is a type of cancer that starts in the white blood cells called lymphocytes, which are part of the body's immune system. It is a subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), which is an aggressive (fast-growing) lymphoma.

Immunoblastic large B-cell lymphoma is characterized by the presence of large, immunoblastic cells that have a specific appearance under the microscope. These cells are typically found in the lymph nodes or other lymphoid tissues, such as the spleen or bone marrow.

This type of lymphoma can be aggressive and may require prompt treatment with chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or stem cell transplantation. The prognosis for immunoblastic large B-cell lymphoma varies depending on several factors, including the stage of the disease at diagnosis, the patient's age and overall health, and the specific features of the tumor.

It is important to note that a medical definition may vary based on different medical sources or guidelines, and it is always best to consult with a healthcare professional for accurate information.

A cutaneous fistula is a type of fistula that occurs when a tract or tunnel forms between the skin (cutaneous) and another organ or structure, such as the gastrointestinal tract, vagina, or urinary system. Cutaneous fistulas can result from various medical conditions, including infections, inflammatory diseases, surgical complications, trauma, or malignancies.

Cutaneous fistulas may present with symptoms such as drainage of fluid or pus from the skin, pain, redness, swelling, or irritation around the affected area. The treatment for cutaneous fistulas depends on their underlying cause and can range from conservative management with antibiotics and wound care to surgical intervention.

It is essential to seek medical attention if you suspect a cutaneous fistula, as untreated fistulas can lead to complications such as infection, sepsis, or tissue damage. A healthcare professional can provide an accurate diagnosis and develop an appropriate treatment plan based on the individual's needs.

Prevotella intermedia is a gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in the oral cavity, upper respiratory tract, and gastrointestinal tract. It is a normal resident of the human microbiota but can also be an opportunistic pathogen, causing various types of infections such as periodontitis, endocarditis, and brain abscesses. P. intermedia has been associated with several diseases, including respiratory tract infections, bacteremia, and joint infections. It is often found in mixed infections with other anaerobic bacteria. Proper identification of this organism is important for the selection of appropriate antimicrobial therapy.

Bitewing radiography is a type of dental x-ray examination that involves taking multiple images of the teeth while they are bite together. These x-rays primarily provide a detailed view of the crowns of the upper and lower teeth in a single view, allowing dentists to diagnose and monitor interdental decay (decay between teeth), dental caries, and any bone loss around fillings or near the gum line. Bitewing radiographs are essential for detecting dental problems at an early stage, which can help prevent further damage and costly treatments in the future. They are typically taken annually or biennially during routine dental checkups.

An incisor is a type of tooth that is primarily designed for biting off food pieces rather than chewing or grinding. They are typically chisel-shaped, flat, and have a sharp cutting edge. In humans, there are eight incisors - four on the upper jaw and four on the lower jaw, located at the front of the mouth. Other animals such as dogs, cats, and rodents also have incisors that they use for different purposes like tearing or gnawing.

The mandible, also known as the lower jaw, is the largest and strongest bone in the human face. It forms the lower portion of the oral cavity and plays a crucial role in various functions such as mastication (chewing), speaking, and swallowing. The mandible is a U-shaped bone that consists of a horizontal part called the body and two vertical parts called rami.

The mandible articulates with the skull at the temporomandibular joints (TMJs) located in front of each ear, allowing for movements like opening and closing the mouth, protrusion, retraction, and side-to-side movement. The mandible contains the lower teeth sockets called alveolar processes, which hold the lower teeth in place.

In medical terminology, the term "mandible" refers specifically to this bone and its associated structures.

Panoramic radiography is a specialized type of dental X-ray imaging that captures a panoramic view of the entire mouth, including the teeth, upper and lower jaws, and surrounding structures. It uses a special machine that rotates around the head, capturing images as it moves. This technique provides a two-dimensional image that is helpful in diagnosing and planning treatment for various dental conditions such as impacted teeth, bone abnormalities, and jaw disorders.

The panoramic radiograph can also be used to assess the development and positioning of wisdom teeth, detect cysts or tumors in the jaws, and evaluate the effects of trauma or injury to the mouth. It is a valuable tool for dental professionals as it allows them to see a comprehensive view of the oral structures, which may not be visible with traditional X-ray techniques.

It's important to note that while panoramic radiography provides valuable information, it should be used in conjunction with other diagnostic tools and clinical examinations to ensure accurate diagnosis and treatment planning.

Malocclusion, Angle Class II is a type of dental malocclusion where the relationship between the maxilla (upper jaw) and mandible (lower jaw) is such that the lower molar teeth are positioned posteriorly relative to the upper molar teeth. This results in an overbite, which means that the upper front teeth overlap the lower front teeth excessively. The classification was proposed by Edward Angle, an American orthodontist who is considered the father of modern orthodontics. In this classification system, Class II malocclusion is further divided into three subclasses (I, II, and III) based on the position of the lower incisors relative to the upper incisors.

Mandibular advancement is a treatment approach used in dentistry and sleep medicine, which involves the surgical or non-surgical forward movement of the mandible (lower jaw) to address certain medical conditions. The most common use of mandibular advancement is in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), where the tongue and soft tissues at the back of the throat can collapse into the airway during sleep, causing obstruction and breathing difficulties.

Mandibular advancement devices (MADs) are often used in non-surgical treatments. These custom-made oral appliances look similar to mouthguards or sports guards and are worn during sleep. They work by holding the lower jaw in a slightly forward position, which helps to keep the airway open and prevents the tongue and soft tissues from collapsing into it.

Surgical mandibular advancement is another option for patients with severe OSA who cannot tolerate or do not respond well to MADs or other treatments like continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). In this procedure, the jaw is surgically moved forward and stabilized in that position using plates, screws, or wires. This creates more space in the airway and reduces the risk of obstruction during sleep.

In summary, mandibular advancement refers to the movement of the lower jaw forward, either through non-surgical means like MADs or surgical interventions, with the primary goal of treating obstructive sleep apnea by maintaining a patent airway during sleep.

Tooth movement, in a dental and orthodontic context, refers to the physical change in position or alignment of one or more teeth within the jaw bone as a result of controlled forces applied through various orthodontic appliances such as braces, aligners, or other orthodontic devices. The purposeful manipulation of these forces encourages the periodontal ligament (the tissue that connects the tooth to the bone) to remodel, allowing the tooth to move gradually over time into the desired position. This process is crucial in achieving proper bite alignment, correcting malocclusions, and enhancing overall oral function and aesthetics.

Orthodontics is a specialized branch of dentistry that focuses on the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of dental and facial irregularities. The term "corrective" in this context refers to the use of appliances (such as braces, aligners, or other devices) to move teeth into their proper position and correct malocclusion (bad bite). This not only improves the appearance of the teeth but also helps to ensure better function, improved oral health, and overall dental well-being.

The goal of corrective orthodontics is to create a balanced and harmonious relationship between the teeth, jaws, and facial structures. Treatment may be recommended for children, adolescents, or adults and can help address various issues such as crowding, spacing, overbites, underbites, crossbites, open bites, and jaw growth discrepancies. A combination of techniques, including fixed or removable appliances, may be used to achieve the desired outcome. Regular follow-up appointments are necessary throughout treatment to monitor progress and make any necessary adjustments.

Occlusal splints, also known as bite guards or night guards, are removable dental appliances that are used to provide protection and stabilization for the teeth and jaw joint (temporomandibular joint or TMJ). They are typically made of hard acrylic or soft materials and are custom-fit to a patient's mouth.

Occlusal splints work by covering and separating the upper and lower teeth, preventing them from coming into contact with each other. This can help to reduce tooth grinding and clenching (bruxism), which can cause tooth wear, sensitivity, and TMJ disorders. They may also be used to help stabilize the jaw joint and muscles in patients with TMJ disorders or to provide protection for teeth that have undergone restorative dental work.

It is important to note that occlusal splints should only be worn under the guidance of a dentist, as improper use can lead to further dental problems.

Cephalometry is a medical term that refers to the measurement and analysis of the skull, particularly the head face relations. It is commonly used in orthodontics and maxillofacial surgery to assess and plan treatment for abnormalities related to the teeth, jaws, and facial structures. The process typically involves taking X-ray images called cephalograms, which provide a lateral view of the head, and then using various landmarks and reference lines to make measurements and evaluate skeletal and dental relationships. This information can help clinicians diagnose problems, plan treatment, and assess treatment outcomes.

The maxilla is a paired bone that forms the upper jaw in vertebrates. In humans, it is a major bone in the face and plays several important roles in the craniofacial complex. Each maxilla consists of a body and four processes: frontal process, zygomatic process, alveolar process, and palatine process.

The maxillae contribute to the formation of the eye sockets (orbits), nasal cavity, and the hard palate of the mouth. They also contain the upper teeth sockets (alveoli) and help form the lower part of the orbit and the cheekbones (zygomatic arches).

Here's a quick rundown of its key functions:

1. Supports the upper teeth and forms the upper jaw.
2. Contributes to the formation of the eye sockets, nasal cavity, and hard palate.
3. Helps shape the lower part of the orbit and cheekbones.
4. Partakes in the creation of important sinuses, such as the maxillary sinus, which is located within the body of the maxilla.

Palatal expansion technique is a dental or orthodontic treatment procedure that aims to widen the upper jaw (maxilla) by expanding the palate. This is typically done using a device called a palatal expander, which is attached to the upper molars and applies pressure to gradually separate the two bones that form the palate (the maxillary bones). As the appliance is activated (usually through turning a screw or key), it gently expands the palatal suture, allowing for an increase in the width of the upper dental arch. This procedure can help correct crossbites, crowding, and other jaw alignment issues. It's commonly used in children and adolescents but may also be employed in adults with certain conditions.

Orthodontic wires are typically made of stainless steel, nickel-titanium alloy, or other shape memory alloys, and are used in orthodontics to move teeth into the desired position. They are attached to brackets bonded to the teeth and exert a continuous force to align the teeth and correct malocclusions (bites that do not fit together correctly). The wires come in various sizes, shapes, and materials, each with specific properties that make them suitable for different stages of treatment. Some wires are flexible and used during the initial alignment phase, while others are more rigid and used during the finishing phase to achieve precise tooth movements.

Retrognathia is a dental and maxillofacial term that refers to a condition where the mandible (lower jaw) is positioned further back than normal, relative to the maxilla (upper jaw). This results in the chin appearing recessed or set back, and can lead to various functional and aesthetic problems. In severe cases, retrognathia can interfere with speaking, chewing, and breathing, and may require orthodontic or surgical intervention for correction.

An overbite, also known as "malocclusion of class II division 1" in dental terminology, is an orthodontic condition where the upper front teeth excessively overlap the lower front teeth when biting down. This means that the upper incisors are positioned too far forward or the lower incisors are too far back. A slight overbite is considered normal and healthy, as it allows the front teeth to perform their functions properly, such as biting and tearing food. However, a significant overbite can lead to various problems like difficulty in chewing, speaking, and maintaining good oral hygiene. It may also cause wear and tear on the teeth, jaw pain, or even contribute to temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD). Orthodontic treatment, such as braces or aligners, is often recommended to correct a severe overbite and restore proper bite alignment.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Household Articles" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It generally refers to items or goods used in a household for everyday activities, such as cleaning supplies, dishes, furniture, and personal care products. However, in a medical context, it may refer to items that are commonly found in a household and could potentially pose a risk for injury or illness, such as medications, sharp objects, or cleaning products. It's always important to keep these items out of reach of children and pets, and to follow proper safety guidelines when using them.