Ebstein anomaly is a congenital heart defect that affects the tricuspid valve, which is the valve between the right atrium and right ventricle of the heart. In Ebstein anomaly, the tricuspid valve is abnormally formed and positioned, causing it to leak blood back into the right atrium. This can lead to various symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, and cyanosis (bluish discoloration of the skin). Treatment for Ebstein anomaly may include medication, surgery, or a combination of both. It is important to note that the severity of the condition can vary widely among individuals, and some people with Ebstein anomaly may require more intensive treatment than others.
The tricuspid valve is the heart valve that separates the right atrium and the right ventricle in the human heart. It is called "tricuspid" because it has three leaflets or cusps, which are also referred to as flaps or segments. These cusps are named anterior, posterior, and septal. The tricuspid valve's function is to prevent the backflow of blood from the ventricle into the atrium during systole, ensuring unidirectional flow of blood through the heart.
Cardiac myosins are a type of myosin protein that are specifically expressed in the cardiac muscle cells (or cardiomyocytes) of the heart. These proteins play a crucial role in the contraction and relaxation of heart muscles, which is essential for proper heart function and blood circulation.
Myosins are molecular motors that use chemical energy from ATP to generate force and movement. In the context of cardiac muscle cells, cardiac myosins interact with another protein called actin to form sarcomeres, which are the basic contractile units of muscle fibers. During contraction, the heads of cardiac myosin molecules bind to actin filaments and pull them together, causing the muscle fiber to shorten and generate force.
There are different isoforms of cardiac myosins that can vary in their structure and function. Mutations in the genes encoding these proteins have been linked to various forms of cardiomyopathy, which are diseases of the heart muscle that can lead to heart failure and other complications. Therefore, understanding the structure and function of cardiac myosins is an important area of research for developing therapies and treatments for heart disease.