'Datura' is a genus of plants that belong to the family Solanaceae, also known as nightshades. These plants are native to North and South America but have been introduced and naturalized in many parts of the world. Some common names for plants in this genus include Jimson weed, thorn apple, and angel's trumpet.

Datura species contain a variety of toxic alkaloids, including scopolamine, atropine, and hyoscyamine, which can have hallucinogenic effects when ingested. However, these plants are also highly poisonous and can cause serious harm or death if consumed. Ingesting even small amounts can result in symptoms such as dilated pupils, dry mouth, rapid heartbeat, confusion, agitation, and delirium.

It is worth noting that Datura is sometimes used in traditional medicine practices, but it should only be administered under the close supervision of a qualified healthcare provider, as improper use can lead to severe adverse effects.

'Datura stramonium' is a plant species also known as Jimson weed or thorn apple. It belongs to the Solanaceae family, which includes other plants like nightshade and belladonna. All parts of this plant contain dangerous levels of toxic tropane alkaloids, such as scopolamine and atropine.

Here's a brief medical definition of 'Datura stramonium':

A plant species (Solanaceae family) containing toxic tropane alkaloids, including scopolamine and atropine, in all its parts. Common names include Jimson weed or thorn apple. Ingestion can lead to severe anticholinergic symptoms like delirium, tachycardia, dry mouth, blurred vision, and potentially life-threatening complications.

Datura metel is a plant species that belongs to the Solanaceae family, also known as the nightshade family. It is commonly known as Indian datura or metel datura. This plant is native to South Asia and East Africa and can now be found in many parts of the world. All parts of the plant are toxic and contain hallucinogenic compounds such as scopolamine, hyoscyamine, and atropine. It has been used in traditional medicine for various purposes, but its use is associated with a high risk of poisoning and death. Therefore, it should only be used under medical supervision.

Plant poisoning is a form of poisoning that occurs when someone ingests, inhales, or comes into contact with any part of a plant that contains toxic substances. These toxins can cause a range of symptoms, depending on the type and amount of plant consumed or exposed to, as well as the individual's age, health status, and sensitivity to the toxin.

Symptoms of plant poisoning may include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, difficulty breathing, skin rashes, seizures, or in severe cases, even death. Some common plants that can cause poisoning include poison ivy, poison oak, foxglove, oleander, and hemlock, among many others.

If you suspect plant poisoning, it is important to seek medical attention immediately and bring a sample of the plant or information about its identity if possible. This will help healthcare providers diagnose and treat the poisoning more effectively.

Medicinal plants are defined as those plants that contain naturally occurring chemical compounds which can be used for therapeutic purposes, either directly or indirectly. These plants have been used for centuries in various traditional systems of medicine, such as Ayurveda, Chinese medicine, and Native American medicine, to prevent or treat various health conditions.

Medicinal plants contain a wide variety of bioactive compounds, including alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, terpenes, and saponins, among others. These compounds have been found to possess various pharmacological properties, such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities.

Medicinal plants can be used in various forms, including whole plant material, extracts, essential oils, and isolated compounds. They can be administered through different routes, such as oral, topical, or respiratory, depending on the desired therapeutic effect.

It is important to note that while medicinal plants have been used safely and effectively for centuries, they should be used with caution and under the guidance of a healthcare professional. Some medicinal plants can interact with prescription medications or have adverse effects if used inappropriately.

Hyoscyamine is defined as an anticholinergic agent that is derived from plants such as henbane, scopolia, and duboisia. It is used in the treatment of conditions such as Parkinson's disease, intestinal cramps, spasms of the bladder, and symptoms of withdrawal from certain drugs.

Hyoscyamine works by blocking the action of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that stimulates muscarinic receptors in the nervous system. This results in decreased muscle contractions, reduced secretions (such as saliva and sweat), and slowed heart rate. It is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and liquid solutions, and may be used alone or in combination with other medications.

It's important to note that hyoscyamine can have side effects, such as dry mouth, blurred vision, dizziness, and constipation, and should be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

'Toxic plants' refer to those species of plants that contain toxic substances capable of causing harmful effects or adverse health reactions in humans and animals when ingested, touched, or inhaled. These toxins can cause a range of symptoms from mild irritation to serious conditions such as organ failure, paralysis, or even death depending on the plant, the amount consumed, and the individual's sensitivity to the toxin.

Toxic plants may contain various types of toxins, including alkaloids, glycosides, proteins, resinous substances, and essential oils. Some common examples of toxic plants include poison ivy, poison oak, nightshade, hemlock, oleander, castor bean, and foxglove. It is important to note that some parts of a plant may be toxic while others are not, and the toxicity can also vary depending on the stage of growth or environmental conditions.

If you suspect exposure to a toxic plant, it is essential to seek medical attention immediately and, if possible, bring a sample of the plant for identification.

I believe there might be a bit of confusion in your question. A "medical definition" refers to the explanation of a medical term or concept. On the other hand, "15th century" is a historical time period and does not have a medical definition per se. However, I can provide you with some context regarding the medical advancements and practices during the 15th century.

The 15th century was marked by significant developments in medicine, particularly in Europe, as it transitioned from medieval to early modern medicine. Some key aspects of 15th-century medicine include:

1. Universities and medical education: Universities became more prominent centers for medical education, with institutions like the University of Bologna, Padua, Montpellier, and Salamanca playing crucial roles in shaping medical thought. Medical faculties taught subjects such as anatomy, physiology, pathology, surgery, and pharmacology based on ancient Greek and Roman texts, mainly Galen and Hippocrates.

2. Anatomical studies: The 15th century saw the beginning of a more accurate understanding of human anatomy. Italian anatomist and physician Mondino de Luzzi (c. 1270–1326) is known for his influential anatomy textbook, "Anathomia," which was widely used during this period. Later in the century, Andreas Vesalius (1514–1564), often regarded as the founder of modern human anatomy, began his groundbreaking work on detailed dissections and accurate representations of the human body.

3. Renaissance of medical illustrations: The 15th century marked a revival in medical illustrations, with artists like Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) creating highly accurate anatomical drawings based on dissections. These detailed images helped physicians better understand the human body and its functions.

4. Development of hospitals: Hospitals during this time became more organized and specialized, focusing on specific medical conditions or patient populations. For example, mental health institutions, known as "madhouses" or "asylums," were established to treat individuals with mental illnesses.

5. Plague and public health: The ongoing threat of the bubonic plague (Black Death) led to increased efforts in public health, including improved sanitation practices and the establishment of quarantine measures for infected individuals.

6. Humoral theory: Although challenged by some during this period, the ancient Greek humoral theory—which posited that the balance of four bodily fluids or "humors" (blood, phlegm, black bile, and yellow bile) determined a person's health—remained influential in medical practice.

7. Surgery: Barber-surgeons continued to perform various surgical procedures, including bloodletting, tooth extraction, and amputations. However, anesthesia was still not widely used, and pain management relied on opium or alcohol-based preparations.

8. Pharmacology: The use of herbal remedies and other natural substances to treat illnesses remained popular during the 15th century. Physicians like Nicholas Culpeper (1616–1654) compiled extensive lists of medicinal plants and their uses, contributing to the development of modern pharmacology.

9. Astrology and medicine: Despite growing skepticism among some scholars, astrological beliefs continued to influence medical practice in the 15th century. Physicians often consulted astrological charts when diagnosing and treating patients.

10. Medical education: Universities across Europe offered formal medical education, with students studying anatomy, physiology, pathology, and pharmacology. However, many practitioners still learned their trade through apprenticeships or self-study.

Plant lectins are proteins or glycoproteins that are abundantly found in various plant parts such as seeds, leaves, stems, and roots. They have the ability to bind specifically to carbohydrate structures present on cell membranes, known as glycoconjugates. This binding property of lectins is reversible and non-catalytic, meaning it does not involve any enzymatic activity.

Lectins play several roles in plants, including defense against predators, pathogens, and herbivores. They can agglutinate red blood cells, stimulate the immune system, and have been implicated in various biological processes such as cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). Some lectins also exhibit mitogenic activity, which means they can stimulate the proliferation of certain types of cells.

In the medical field, plant lectins have gained attention due to their potential therapeutic applications. For instance, some lectins have been shown to possess anti-cancer properties and are being investigated as potential cancer treatments. However, it is important to note that some lectins can be toxic or allergenic to humans and animals, so they must be used with caution.

Hyoscyamus is the genus name for a group of plants commonly known as Henbane. These plants belong to the Solanaceae family, which also includes nightshade, tobacco, and potato. Hyoscyamus niger, or black henbane, is the species most commonly referred to in a medical context.

The plants contain various alkaloids, including scopolamine, hyoscine (also known as atropine), and hyoscyamine. These substances can have medicinal applications but are also highly toxic in large amounts. They can affect the nervous system, causing delirium, hallucinations, and other symptoms.

In a medical context, 'Hyoscyamus' may also refer to medications that contain alkaloids derived from these plants. These are used primarily to treat gastrointestinal disorders, as they can reduce gastric secretions and have antispasmodic effects. However, due to their potential for serious side effects, including hallucinations and cardiac problems, these medications are typically used only when other treatments have not been effective.

Mydriasis is a medical term that refers to the dilation or enlargement of the pupil, which is the black circular opening in the center of the iris (the colored part) of the eye. The pupil normally adjusts its size in response to changes in light levels and emotional state. In mydriasis, the pupil becomes widely dilated and less responsive to light. This can occur naturally due to factors such as strong emotions, fear, or physical exertion, but it can also be caused by certain medications, eye drops, or medical conditions like brain injuries or neurological disorders. It is important to note that mydriasis can affect one or both eyes and may have different clinical significance depending on the context.

Scopolia is not a medical condition or term itself, but it refers to a genus of plants in the nightshade family (Solanaceae) that includes several species such as Scopolia carniolica and Scopolia japonica. These plants contain powerful alkaloids including scopolamine and hyoscyamine, which have been used in medicine for their anticholinergic properties to treat conditions like motion sickness, gastrointestinal disorders, and Parkinson's disease. However, these substances can also cause significant side effects and toxicity if not properly managed. Improper use or misuse of Scopolia plants can lead to severe poisoning, resulting in symptoms such as dry mouth, dilated pupils, blurred vision, tachycardia, delirium, hallucinations, convulsions, coma, and even death.

I believe there might be a bit of confusion in your question. A "history" in medical terms usually refers to the detailed account of a patient's symptoms, illnesses, and treatments over time. It is a crucial part of the medical record and helps healthcare professionals understand the patient's health status and inform their care plans.

On the other hand, "16th century" refers to a specific period in history, spanning from 1501 to 1600 AD.

There isn't a direct medical definition for 'History, 16th Century.' However, if you are interested in learning about the medical advancements and practices during that time, I would be happy to provide some information. The 16th century was marked by significant developments in anatomy, surgery, and pharmacology, thanks to pioneers like Andreas Vesalius, Ambroise Paré, and William Shakespeare, who incorporated medical themes into his plays.

Agglutinins are antibodies that cause the particles (such as red blood cells, bacteria, or viruses) to clump together. They recognize and bind to specific antigens on the surface of these particles, forming a bridge between them and causing them to agglutinate or clump. Agglutinins are an important part of the immune system's response to infection and help to eliminate pathogens from the body.

There are two main types of agglutinins:

1. Naturally occurring agglutinins: These are present in the blood serum of most individuals, even before exposure to an antigen. They can agglutinate some bacteria and red blood cells without prior sensitization. For example, anti-A and anti-B agglutinins are naturally occurring antibodies found in people with different blood groups (A, B, AB, or O).
2. Immune agglutinins: These are produced by the immune system after exposure to an antigen. They develop as part of the adaptive immune response and target specific antigens that the body has encountered before. Immunization with vaccines often leads to the production of immune agglutinins, which can provide protection against future infections.

Agglutination reactions are widely used in laboratory tests for various diagnostic purposes, such as blood typing, detecting bacterial or viral infections, and monitoring immune responses.

Withanolides are a class of steroidal lactones found primarily in the nightshade family of plants, including Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera), a traditional Ayurvedic medicinal plant. These compounds have been reported to possess various pharmacological activities such as anti-inflammatory, antitumor, and immunomodulatory effects. They are currently being researched for their potential uses in various medical applications.

Lectins are a type of proteins that bind specifically to carbohydrates and have been found in various plant and animal sources. They play important roles in biological recognition events, such as cell-cell adhesion, and can also be involved in the immune response. Some lectins can agglutinate certain types of cells or precipitate glycoproteins, while others may have a more direct effect on cellular processes. In some cases, lectins from plants can cause adverse effects in humans if ingested, such as digestive discomfort or allergic reactions.