Craniology is a branch of physical anthropology that focuses on the study of the skull, including its shape, size, and characteristics. Historically, craniologists have used these features to make inferences about human evolution, racial classification, and individual identity. However, many of the conclusions drawn from craniological studies have been criticized for being overly simplistic and culturally biased. Today, craniology is still a valuable tool for studying human variation and evolution, but it must be approached with caution and an awareness of its limitations.