The "chin" is the lower, prominent part of the front portion of the jaw in humans and other animals. In medical terms, it is often referred to as the mentum or the symphysis of the mandible. The chin helps in protecting the soft tissues of the mouth and throat during activities such as eating, speaking, and swallowing. It also plays a role in shaping the overall appearance of the face. Anatomically, the chin is formed by the fusion of the two halves of the mandible (lower jawbone) at the symphysis menti.
The mandible, also known as the lower jaw, is the largest and strongest bone in the human face. It forms the lower portion of the oral cavity and plays a crucial role in various functions such as mastication (chewing), speaking, and swallowing. The mandible is a U-shaped bone that consists of a horizontal part called the body and two vertical parts called rami.
The mandible articulates with the skull at the temporomandibular joints (TMJs) located in front of each ear, allowing for movements like opening and closing the mouth, protrusion, retraction, and side-to-side movement. The mandible contains the lower teeth sockets called alveolar processes, which hold the lower teeth in place.
In medical terminology, the term "mandible" refers specifically to this bone and its associated structures.
A skin cream is not a medical term per se, but it generally refers to a topical emollient preparation intended for application to the skin. It contains a mixture of water, oil, and active ingredients, which are formulated to provide various benefits such as moisturizing, protecting, soothing, or treating specific skin conditions. The exact definition and composition may vary depending on the product's intended use and formulation.
Examples of active ingredients in skin creams include:
1. Moisturizers (e.g., glycerin, hyaluronic acid) - help to retain water in the skin, making it feel softer and smoother.
2. Emollients (e.g., shea butter, coconut oil, petrolatum) - provide a protective barrier that helps prevent moisture loss and soften the skin.
3. Humectants (e.g., urea, lactic acid, alpha-hydroxy acids) - attract water from the environment or deeper layers of the skin to hydrate the surface.
4. Anti-inflammatory agents (e.g., hydrocortisone, aloe vera) - help reduce redness, swelling, and itching associated with various skin conditions.
5. Antioxidants (e.g., vitamin C, vitamin E, green tea extract) - protect the skin from free radical damage and environmental stressors that can lead to premature aging.
6. Sunscreen agents (e.g., zinc oxide, titanium dioxide, chemical filters) - provide broad-spectrum protection against UVA and UVB rays.
7. Skin lighteners (e.g., hydroquinone, kojic acid, arbutin) - help reduce the appearance of hyperpigmentation and even out skin tone.
8. Acne treatments (e.g., benzoyl peroxide, salicylic acid, retinoids) - target acne-causing bacteria, unclog pores, and regulate cell turnover to prevent breakouts.
It is essential to choose a skin cream based on your specific skin type and concerns, as well as any medical conditions or allergies you may have. Always consult with a dermatologist or healthcare provider before starting a new skincare regimen.
Facial asymmetry refers to a condition in which the facial features are not identical or proportionate on both sides of a vertical line drawn down the middle of the face. This can include differences in the size, shape, or positioning of facial features such as the eyes, ears, nose, cheeks, and jaw. Facial asymmetry can be mild and barely noticeable, or it can be more severe and affect a person's appearance and/or functionality of the mouth and jaw.
Facial asymmetry can be present at birth (congenital) or can develop later in life due to various factors such as injury, surgery, growth disorders, nerve damage, or tumors. In some cases, facial asymmetry may not cause any medical problems and may only be of cosmetic concern. However, in other cases, it may indicate an underlying medical condition that requires treatment.
Depending on the severity and cause of the facial asymmetry, treatment options may include cosmetic procedures such as fillers or surgery, orthodontic treatment, physical therapy, or medication to address any underlying conditions.
Orthognathic surgical procedures are a type of surgery used to correct jaw misalignments and improve the bite and function of the jaws. The term "orthognathic" comes from the Greek words "orthos," meaning straight or correct, and "gnathos," meaning jaw. These surgeries are typically performed by oral and maxillofacial surgeons in conjunction with orthodontic treatment to achieve proper alignment of the teeth and jaws.
Orthognathic surgical procedures may be recommended for patients who have significant discrepancies between the size and position of their upper and lower jaws, which can result in problems with chewing, speaking, breathing, and sleeping. These procedures can also improve facial aesthetics by correcting jaw deformities and imbalances.
The specific surgical procedure used will depend on the nature and extent of the jaw misalignment. Common orthognathic surgical procedures include:
1. Maxillary osteotomy: This procedure involves making cuts in the upper jawbone (maxilla) and moving it forward or backward to correct a misalignment.
2. Mandibular osteotomy: This procedure involves making cuts in the lower jawbone (mandible) and moving it forward or backward to correct a misalignment.
3. Genioplasty: This procedure involves reshaping or repositioning the chin bone (mentum) to improve facial aesthetics and jaw function.
4. Orthognathic surgery for sleep apnea: This procedure involves repositioning the upper and/or lower jaws to open up the airway and improve breathing during sleep.
Orthognathic surgical procedures require careful planning and coordination between the surgeon, orthodontist, and patient. The process typically involves taking detailed measurements and images of the jaw and teeth, creating a surgical plan, and undergoing orthodontic treatment to align the teeth prior to surgery. After surgery, patients may need to wear braces or other appliances to maintain the alignment of their teeth and jaws during healing.
Cephalometry is a medical term that refers to the measurement and analysis of the skull, particularly the head face relations. It is commonly used in orthodontics and maxillofacial surgery to assess and plan treatment for abnormalities related to the teeth, jaws, and facial structures. The process typically involves taking X-ray images called cephalograms, which provide a lateral view of the head, and then using various landmarks and reference lines to make measurements and evaluate skeletal and dental relationships. This information can help clinicians diagnose problems, plan treatment, and assess treatment outcomes.
Prognathism is a dental and maxillofacial term that refers to a condition where the jaw, particularly the lower jaw (mandible), protrudes or sticks out beyond the normal range, resulting in the forward positioning of the chin and teeth. It can be classified as horizontal or vertical, depending on whether the protrusion is side-to-side or up-and-down.
This condition can be mild or severe and may affect one's appearance and dental health. In some cases, it can also cause issues with speaking, chewing, and breathing. Prognathism can be a result of genetic factors or certain medical conditions, such as acromegaly or gigantism. Treatment options for prognathism include orthodontic treatment, surgery, or a combination of both.
Irritant contact dermatitis is a type of inflammation of the skin (dermatitis) that results from exposure to an external substance that directly damages the skin. It can be caused by both chemical and physical agents, such as solvents, detergents, acids, alkalis, friction, and extreme temperatures. The reaction typically occurs within hours or days of exposure and can cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, itching, burning, and pain. Unlike allergic contact dermatitis, which requires sensitization to a specific allergen, irritant contact dermatitis can occur after a single exposure to an irritant in sufficient concentration or after repeated exposures to lower concentrations of the substance.
Hyperesthesia is a medical term that refers to an increased sensitivity to sensory stimuli, including touch, pain, or temperature. It can affect various parts of the body and can be caused by different conditions, such as nerve damage, multiple sclerosis, or complex regional pain syndrome. Hyperesthesia can manifest as a heightened awareness of sensations, which can be painful or uncomfortable, and may interfere with daily activities. It is essential to consult a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment if experiencing symptoms of hyperesthesia.
Desonide is a medium-strength topical corticosteroid used in the treatment of skin conditions such as eczema, dermatitis, and psoriasis. It works by reducing inflammation, itching, and redness in the affected area. Desonide is available in various forms, including creams, ointments, lotions, and gels.
Here's a brief medical definition of Desonide:
"Desonide is a synthetic corticosteroid with anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressant properties. It is used topically to treat various skin conditions characterized by inflammation and itching. Its mechanism of action involves binding to glucocorticoid receptors, which leads to the downregulation of pro-inflammatory genes and upregulation of anti-inflammatory genes. This results in a reduction of inflammation, redness, and itching in the affected area."
It's important to note that while Desonide can be effective in treating certain skin conditions, long-term use or overuse can lead to side effects such as thinning of the skin, increased vulnerability to infection, and other systemic effects. Therefore, it should only be used under the guidance and supervision of a healthcare professional.
Malocclusion, Angle Class III is a type of orthodontic problem characterized by a misalignment of the teeth and jaws. This classification was first described by Edward Angle, an American dentist who is considered the father of modern orthodontics. In Class III malocclusion, the lower jaw (mandible) protrudes forward beyond the upper jaw (maxilla), resulting in a misaligned bite.
In this condition, the lower front teeth are positioned in front of the upper front teeth when the jaws are closed. This can lead to various dental and skeletal problems, such as abnormal tooth wear, difficulty in chewing and speaking, and aesthetic concerns. Class III malocclusion can be mild, moderate, or severe and may require orthodontic treatment, including braces, appliances, or even surgery, to correct the problem.
The term "vertical dimension" is used in dentistry, specifically in the field of prosthodontics, to refer to the measurement of the distance between two specific points in the vertical direction when the jaw is closed. The most common measurement is the "vertical dimension of occlusion," which is the distance between the upper and lower teeth when the jaw is in a balanced and comfortable position during resting closure.
The vertical dimension is an important consideration in the design and fabrication of dental restorations, such as dentures or dental crowns, to ensure proper function, comfort, and aesthetics. Changes in the vertical dimension can occur due to various factors, including tooth loss, jaw joint disorders, or muscle imbalances, which may require correction through dental treatment.
In medical terms, the face refers to the front part of the head that is distinguished by the presence of the eyes, nose, and mouth. It includes the bones of the skull (frontal bone, maxilla, zygoma, nasal bones, lacrimal bones, palatine bones, inferior nasal conchae, and mandible), muscles, nerves, blood vessels, skin, and other soft tissues. The face plays a crucial role in various functions such as breathing, eating, drinking, speaking, seeing, smelling, and expressing emotions. It also serves as an important identifier for individuals, allowing them to be recognized by others.
East Asian traditional medicine (ETAM) refers to the traditional medical systems that have been practiced in China, Japan, Korea, and other countries in this region for centuries. The most well-known forms of ETAM are Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), Kampo (Japanese traditional medicine), and Korean traditional medicine (KTM).
TCM is a comprehensive medical system that includes acupuncture, moxibustion, herbal medicine, dietary therapy, tuina (Chinese massage), and qigong (breathing exercises) among its modalities. TCM is based on the concept of balancing the flow of qi (vital energy) through a system of channels or meridians in the body.
Kampo is a Japanese adaptation of Chinese medicine that emphasizes the use of herbal formulas to treat illness and maintain health. Kampo practitioners often prescribe individualized herbal formulas based on the patient's unique pattern of symptoms, which are determined through careful diagnosis and examination.
KTM is a traditional Korean medical system that combines elements of Chinese and Japanese medicine with indigenous Korean practices. KTM includes acupuncture, moxibustion, herbal medicine, cupping, and various forms of manual therapy.
While ETAM has been practiced for centuries and has a rich cultural heritage, it is important to note that its safety and efficacy have not always been rigorously studied using modern scientific methods. As such, it is essential to consult with a qualified healthcare provider before pursuing any form of traditional medicine.
The mandibular condyle is a part of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in the human body. It is a rounded eminence at the end of the mandible (lower jawbone) that articulates with the glenoid fossa of the temporal bone in the skull, allowing for movements such as opening and closing the mouth, chewing, speaking, and swallowing. The mandibular condyle has both a fibrocartilaginous articular surface and a synovial joint capsule surrounding it, which provides protection and lubrication during these movements.
Micrognathism is a medical term that refers to a condition where the lower jaw (mandible) is abnormally small or underdeveloped. This can result in various dental and skeletal problems, including an improper bite (malocclusion), difficulty speaking, chewing, or swallowing, and sleep apnea. Micrognathism may be congenital or acquired later in life due to trauma, disease, or surgical removal of part of the jaw. Treatment options depend on the severity of the condition and can include orthodontic treatment, surgery, or a combination of both.
"Feeding and Eating Disorders of Childhood" is a diagnostic category in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), which is used by mental health professionals to diagnose mental disorders. This category includes several specific feeding and eating disorders that typically first occur during childhood or infancy. They are:
1. Pica: The persistent eating of non-nutritive, non-food substances for a period of at least one month.
2. Rumination Disorder: The repeated regurgitation of food for a period of at least one month.
3. Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID): The avoidance or restriction of food intake that leads to significant nutritional deficiency or failure to gain weight, but it's not due to lack of available food or a cultural practice.
4. Other Specified Feeding and Eating Disorders: This includes disorders that don't meet the criteria for any specific feeding or eating disorder, such as a child who eats only a very limited range of foods and has significant distress about it.
5. Unspecified Feeding and Eating Disorders: This is used when the clinician chooses not to specify the reason for not meeting the criteria for any specific feeding or eating disorder.
These disorders can lead to significant impairment in social, academic, or occupational functioning. It's important to note that children with these disorders should receive comprehensive evaluation and treatment from a mental health professional who specializes in eating disorders.
Maxillofacial development refers to the growth and formation of the bones, muscles, and soft tissues that make up the face and jaw (maxillofacial region). This process begins in utero and continues throughout childhood and adolescence. It involves the coordinated growth and development of multiple structures, including the upper and lower jaws (maxilla and mandible), facial bones, teeth, muscles, and nerves.
Abnormalities in maxillofacial development can result in a range of conditions, such as cleft lip and palate, jaw deformities, and craniofacial syndromes. These conditions may affect a person's appearance, speech, chewing, and breathing, and may require medical or surgical intervention to correct.
Healthcare professionals involved in the diagnosis and treatment of maxillofacial developmental disorders include oral and maxillofacial surgeons, orthodontists, pediatricians, geneticists, and other specialists.
Functional Orthodontic Appliances are removable or fixed devices used in orthodontics to correct the alignment and/or positioning of jaw bones and/or teeth. They work by harnessing the power of muscle function and growth to achieve desired changes in the dental arches and jaws. These appliances are typically used in growing children and adolescents, but can also be used in adults in certain cases. Examples of functional orthodontic appliances include activators, bionators, twin blocks, and Herbst appliances. The specific type of appliance used will depend on the individual patient's needs and treatment goals.
In medical terms, a "lip" refers to the thin edge or border of an organ or other biological structure. However, when people commonly refer to "the lip," they are usually talking about the lips on the face, which are part of the oral cavity. The lips are a pair of soft, fleshy tissues that surround the mouth and play a crucial role in various functions such as speaking, eating, drinking, and expressing emotions.
The lips are made up of several layers, including skin, muscle, blood vessels, nerves, and mucous membrane. The outer surface of the lips is covered by skin, while the inner surface is lined with a moist mucous membrane. The muscles that make up the lips allow for movements such as pursing, puckering, and smiling.
The lips also contain numerous sensory receptors that help detect touch, temperature, pain, and other stimuli. Additionally, they play a vital role in protecting the oral cavity from external irritants and pathogens, helping to keep the mouth clean and healthy.
Extraoral traction appliances are orthodontic devices used to correct significant dental and skeletal discrepancies, typically in cases of severe malocclusion. These appliances are worn externally on the face or head, and they work by applying gentle force to the teeth and jaws to guide them into proper alignment.
Extraoral traction appliances can be used to treat a variety of orthodontic problems, including:
* Protruding front teeth (overjet)
* Severe crowding or spacing
* Class II or Class III malocclusions (where the upper and lower jaws do not align properly)
* Jaw growth abnormalities
There are several types of extraoral traction appliances, including:
1. **Headgear:** This is the most common type of extraoral appliance. It consists of a metal frame that attaches to braces on the back teeth and a strap that fits around the head or neck. The strap applies pressure to the teeth and jaws, helping to correct alignment issues.
2. **Facemask:** A facemask is used to treat Class III malocclusions, where the lower jaw protrudes forward. It consists of a metal frame that attaches to braces on the upper teeth and a strap that fits around the head. The strap pulls the upper jaw forward, helping to align it with the lower jaw.
3. **Reverse pull headgear:** This type of appliance is used to treat patients with a receding chin or small lower jaw. It works by applying pressure to the back of the head, which encourages the growth and development of the lower jaw.
4. **Jaw separators:** These are used in cases where the jaws need to be separated to allow for proper alignment. They consist of two metal bars that fit over the upper and lower teeth, with a screw mechanism that gradually increases the space between them.
Extraoral traction appliances can be uncomfortable to wear at first, but most patients adjust to them over time. It is important to follow the orthodontist's instructions carefully when wearing these appliances to ensure proper alignment and prevent damage to the teeth and jaws.
Orthodontic appliances, removable, are dental devices that can be removed and inserted by the patient as needed or directed. These appliances are designed to align and straighten teeth, correct bite issues, and improve the function and appearance of the teeth and jaws. They are typically made from materials such as plastic, metal, or acrylic and may include components like wires, springs, or screws. Examples of removable orthodontic appliances include aligners, retainers, and space maintainers. The specific type and design of the appliance will depend on the individual patient's orthodontic needs and treatment goals.
There is no single, universally accepted medical definition of "beauty" as it is a subjective concept that varies from person to person and culture to culture. In general, beauty can be defined as the qualities or features of something or someone that are pleasing to the senses or mind. It can refer to physical attributes such as symmetry, proportion, and color, as well as personal qualities such as kindness, intelligence, and humor.
In medical aesthetics, beauty is often discussed in terms of facial symmetry, proportions, and features that are considered attractive or appealing. However, it's important to note that what is considered "beautiful" can be influenced by many factors, including cultural norms, personal preferences, and societal expectations.
It's also worth noting that the concept of beauty has evolved over time, with different eras and cultures emphasizing different physical attributes as desirable. Ultimately, the definition of beauty is complex and multifaceted, and can encompass a wide range of qualities and characteristics.
Orthodontic extrusion is a dental treatment procedure that involves the deliberate and controlled vertical movement of a tooth out of its socket with the use of orthodontic appliances. This technique is often used in orthodontics to align teeth, correct their position, or prepare them for other procedures such as crowns or bridges.
During the extrusion process, gentle force is applied to the tooth using specific orthodontic appliances, like a spring or an elastic band, which causes the tooth to move slowly in an upward direction. The movement is usually slow and gradual, taking several weeks or even months to achieve the desired result.
Orthodontic extrusion has various clinical applications, such as intruding deep overerupted teeth, uprighting tilted teeth, creating space for restorative work, or aiding in the eruption of impacted teeth. It is essential to maintain good oral hygiene and have regular check-ups with an orthodontist during the treatment to ensure proper healing and avoid any potential complications.
The hyoid bone is a U-shaped bone located in the anterior neck, superior to the thyroid cartilage. It does not articulate with any other bones and serves as an attachment point for various muscles, including those involved in swallowing, breathing, and speaking. The unique structure of the hyoid bone allows it to support the tongue and contribute to the stability of the airway.
The alveolar process is the curved part of the jawbone (mandible or maxilla) that contains sockets or hollow spaces (alveoli) for the teeth to be embedded. These processes are covered with a specialized mucous membrane called the gingiva, which forms a tight seal around the teeth to help protect the periodontal tissues and maintain oral health.
The alveolar process is composed of both compact and spongy bone tissue. The compact bone forms the outer layer, while the spongy bone is found inside the alveoli and provides support for the teeth. When a tooth is lost or extracted, the alveolar process begins to resorb over time due to the lack of mechanical stimulation from the tooth's chewing forces. This can lead to changes in the shape and size of the jawbone, which may require bone grafting procedures before dental implant placement.
An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.
The pubic symphysis is the joint in the front of the pelvis that connects the two halves of the pelvic girdle, specifically the pubic bones. It's located at the lower part of the anterior (front) pelvic region. Unlike most joints, which are movable and contain synovial fluid, the pubic symphysis is a cartilaginous joint, also known as an amphiarthrosis.
The joint consists of fibrocartilaginous discs, ligaments, and the articular surfaces of the adjacent pubic bones. The fibrocartilaginous disc helps to absorb shock and reduce friction between the two bones. The main function of the pubic symphysis is to provide stability for the pelvis and transfer weight and forces from the upper body to the lower limbs during activities like walking, running, or jumping.
The pubic symphysis has a limited range of motion, allowing only slight movement in response to pressure or tension. During pregnancy and childbirth, the hormone relaxin is released, which increases the laxity of the pelvic joints, including the pubic symphysis, to accommodate the growing fetus and facilitate delivery. This increased mobility can sometimes lead to discomfort or pain in the area, known as symphysis pubis dysfunction (SPD) or pelvic girdle pain.
"Bone" is the hard, dense connective tissue that makes up the skeleton of vertebrate animals. It provides support and protection for the body's internal organs, and serves as a attachment site for muscles, tendons, and ligaments. Bone is composed of cells called osteoblasts and osteoclasts, which are responsible for bone formation and resorption, respectively, and an extracellular matrix made up of collagen fibers and mineral crystals.
Bones can be classified into two main types: compact bone and spongy bone. Compact bone is dense and hard, and makes up the outer layer of all bones and the shafts of long bones. Spongy bone is less dense and contains large spaces, and makes up the ends of long bones and the interior of flat and irregular bones.
The human body has 206 bones in total. They can be further classified into five categories based on their shape: long bones, short bones, flat bones, irregular bones, and sesamoid bones.