Bladder exstrophy is a congenital birth defect that affects the urinary and reproductive systems, as well as the abdominal wall. In this condition, the bladder is not fully formed and is turned inside out and exposed on the outside of the body at birth. This results in the inability to control urination and can also lead to other complications such as infection and kidney damage if left untreated.

Bladder exstrophy occurs due to a problem with the development of the fetus during pregnancy, specifically during the formation of the lower abdominal wall. It is more common in boys than girls, and can occur on its own or as part of a spectrum of defects known as the exstrophy-epispadias complex.

Treatment for bladder exstrophy typically involves surgical reconstruction to repair the bladder and lower abdominal wall. This may be done in stages, starting with the closure of the abdominal wall and then followed by bladder reconstruction at a later time. In some cases, additional surgeries may be necessary to address other associated defects or complications. With proper treatment, most children with bladder exstrophy can lead normal lives, although they may require ongoing medical management and monitoring throughout their lives.

Epispadias is a rare congenital abnormality of the urinary tract in which the urethra (the tube that carries urine from the bladder out of the body) does not develop properly. In epispadias, the urethral opening is located on the dorsal (top) surface of the penis instead of at the tip. This condition usually affects boys, but it can also occur in girls, although this is much less common.

Epispadias can vary in severity and may be associated with other genitourinary abnormalities, such as bladder exstrophy, in which the bladder is located outside the body. Treatment for epispadias typically involves surgical reconstruction to create a functional urethra and improve urinary continence. The timing of surgery depends on the severity of the condition and whether it is associated with other abnormalities.

The Musculoskeletal System is a complex system composed of the bones, joints, muscles, tendons, ligaments, and associated tissues that work together to provide form, support, stability, and movement to the body. It serves various functions including:

1. Protection: The musculoskeletal system protects vital organs by encasing them in bones, such as the ribcage protecting the lungs and heart, and the skull protecting the brain.
2. Support and Movement: Muscles and bones work together to enable movement and maintain posture. Muscles contract to pull on bones, causing joint motion and producing movements like walking, running, or jumping.
3. Storage: Bones act as a reservoir for essential minerals like calcium and phosphorus, which can be released into the bloodstream when needed.
4. Hematopoiesis: Within the bone marrow, hematopoietic cells produce blood cells, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
5. Endocrine Function: Bone tissue is also an endocrine organ, producing hormones like osteocalcin and FGF23 that regulate various physiological processes, such as energy metabolism and mineral homeostasis.

Dysfunctions or injuries in the musculoskeletal system can result in conditions like arthritis, fractures, muscle strains, tendonitis, and other painful or debilitating ailments that impact an individual's quality of life and mobility.

The pelvis is the lower part of the trunk, located between the abdomen and the lower limbs. It is formed by the fusion of several bones: the ilium, ischium, and pubis (which together form the hip bone on each side), and the sacrum and coccyx in the back. The pelvis has several functions including supporting the weight of the upper body when sitting, protecting the lower abdominal organs, and providing attachment for muscles that enable movement of the lower limbs. In addition, it serves as a bony canal through which the reproductive and digestive tracts pass. The pelvic cavity contains several vital organs such as the bladder, parts of the large intestine, and in females, the uterus, ovaries, and fallopian tubes.

Urologic surgical procedures refer to various types of surgeries that are performed on the urinary system and male reproductive system. These surgeries can be invasive (requiring an incision) or minimally invasive (using small incisions or scopes). They may be performed to treat a range of conditions, including but not limited to:

1. Kidney stones: Procedures such as shock wave lithotripsy, ureteroscopy, and percutaneous nephrolithotomy are used to remove or break up kidney stones.
2. Urinary tract obstructions: Surgeries like pyeloplasty and urethral dilation can be done to correct blockages in the urinary tract.
3. Prostate gland issues: Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), simple prostatectomy, and robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy are some procedures used for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) or prostate cancer.
4. Bladder problems: Procedures such as cystectomy (removal of the bladder), bladder augmentation, and implantation of an artificial urinary sphincter can be done for conditions like bladder cancer or incontinence.
5. Kidney diseases: Nephrectomy (removal of a kidney) may be necessary for severe kidney damage or cancer.
6. Testicular issues: Orchiectomy (removal of one or both testicles) can be performed for testicular cancer.
7. Pelvic organ prolapse: Surgeries like sacrocolpopexy and vaginal vault suspension can help correct this condition in women.

These are just a few examples; there are many other urologic surgical procedures available to treat various conditions affecting the urinary and reproductive systems.

Osteotomy is a surgical procedure in which a bone is cut to shorten, lengthen, or change its alignment. It is often performed to correct deformities or to realign bones that have been damaged by trauma or disease. The bone may be cut straight across (transverse osteotomy) or at an angle (oblique osteotomy). After the bone is cut, it can be realigned and held in place with pins, plates, or screws until it heals. This procedure is commonly performed on bones in the leg, such as the femur or tibia, but can also be done on other bones in the body.

A cloaca is a common cavity or channel in some animals, including many birds and reptiles, that serves as the combined endpoint for the digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems. Feces, urine, and in some cases, eggs are all expelled through this single opening. In humans and other mammals, these systems have separate openings. Anatomical anomalies can result in a human born with a cloaca, which is very rare and typically requires surgical correction.

The urinary bladder is a muscular, hollow organ in the pelvis that stores urine before it is released from the body. It expands as it fills with urine and contracts when emptying. The typical adult bladder can hold between 400 to 600 milliliters of urine for about 2-5 hours before the urge to urinate occurs. The wall of the bladder contains several layers, including a mucous membrane, a layer of smooth muscle (detrusor muscle), and an outer fibrous adventitia. The muscles of the bladder neck and urethra remain contracted to prevent leakage of urine during filling, and they relax during voiding to allow the urine to flow out through the urethra.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

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MedlinePlus offers information on various health topics, including conditions, diseases, tests, treatments, and wellness. It also provides access to drug information, medical dictionary, and encyclopedia, as well as links to clinical trials, medical news, and patient organizations. The website is available in both English and Spanish and can be accessed for free.

The pelvic bones, also known as the hip bones, are a set of three irregularly shaped bones that connect to form the pelvic girdle in the lower part of the human body. They play a crucial role in supporting the spine and protecting the abdominal and pelvic organs.

The pelvic bones consist of three bones:

1. The ilium: This is the largest and uppermost bone, forming the majority of the hip bone and the broad, flaring part of the pelvis known as the wing of the ilium or the iliac crest, which can be felt on the side of the body.
2. The ischium: This is the lower and back portion of the pelvic bone that forms part of the sitting surface or the "sit bones."
3. The pubis: This is the front part of the pelvic bone, which connects to the other side at the pubic symphysis in the midline of the body.

The pelvic bones are joined together at the acetabulum, a cup-shaped socket that forms the hip joint and articulates with the head of the femur (thigh bone). The pelvic bones also have several openings for the passage of blood vessels, nerves, and reproductive and excretory organs.

The shape and size of the pelvic bones differ between males and females due to their different roles in childbirth and locomotion. Females typically have a wider and shallower pelvis than males to accommodate childbirth, while males usually have a narrower and deeper pelvis that is better suited for weight-bearing and movement.