Biogenic polyamines are organic compounds that contain multiple amino groups and are produced by living organisms. The most common biogenic polyamines found in mammalian cells include putrescine, spermidine, and spermine. These molecules play important roles in various cellular processes such as gene expression, cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). They are derived from the decarboxylation of amino acids, particularly ornithine and arginine, through enzymatic reactions involving polyamine biosynthetic pathways. Abnormal levels of biogenic polyamines have been associated with several diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative disorders.
Polyamines are organic compounds with more than one amino group (-NH2) and at least one carbon atom bonded to two or more amino groups. They are found in various tissues and fluids of living organisms and play important roles in many biological processes, such as cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). Polyamines are also involved in the regulation of ion channels and transporters, DNA replication and gene expression. The most common polyamines found in mammalian cells are putrescine, spermidine, and spermine. They are derived from the decarboxylation of amino acids such as ornithine and methionine. Abnormal levels of polyamines have been associated with various pathological conditions, including cancer and neurodegenerative diseases.
Spermine is a polyamine compound that is involved in various biological processes, including cell growth and differentiation, DNA packaging, and gene expression. It is synthesized from the amino acid ornithine through a series of enzymatic reactions and is found in high concentrations in tissues such as the prostate gland, liver, and brain. Spermine has been shown to have antioxidant properties and may play a role in protecting cells against oxidative stress. In addition, spermine has been implicated in the regulation of ion channels and receptors, and may be involved in the modulation of neuronal excitability.
Putrescine is an organic compound with the chemical formula NH2(CH2)4NH2. It is a colorless, viscous liquid that is produced by the breakdown of amino acids in living organisms and is often associated with putrefaction, hence its name. Putrescine is a type of polyamine, which is a class of organic compounds that contain multiple amino groups.
Putrescine is produced in the body through the decarboxylation of the amino acid ornithine by the enzyme ornithine decarboxylase. It is involved in various cellular processes, including the regulation of gene expression and cell growth. However, at high concentrations, putrescine can be toxic to cells and has been implicated in the development of certain diseases, such as cancer.
Putrescine is also found in various foods, including meats, fish, and some fruits and vegetables. It contributes to the unpleasant odor that develops during spoilage, which is why putrescine is often used as an indicator of food quality and safety.
Spermidine is a polycationic polyamine that is found in various tissues and fluids, including semen, from which it derives its name. It is synthesized in the body from putrescine, another polyamine, through the action of the enzyme spermidine synthase.
In addition to its role as a metabolic intermediate, spermidine has been shown to have various cellular functions, including regulation of gene expression, DNA packaging and protection, and modulation of enzymatic activities. It also plays a role in the process of cell division and differentiation.
Spermidine has been studied for its potential anti-aging effects, as it has been shown to extend the lifespan of various organisms, including yeast, flies, and worms, by activating autophagy, a process by which cells break down and recycle their own damaged or unnecessary components. However, more research is needed to determine whether spermidine has similar effects in humans.
Biogenic amines are organic compounds that are derived from the metabolic pathways of various biological organisms, including humans. They are formed by the decarboxylation of amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins. Some examples of biogenic amines include histamine, serotonin, dopamine, and tyramine.
Histamine is a biogenic amine that plays an important role in the immune system's response to foreign invaders, such as allergens. It is also involved in regulating stomach acid production and sleep-wake cycles. Serotonin is another biogenic amine that acts as a neurotransmitter, transmitting signals between nerve cells in the brain. It is involved in regulating mood, appetite, and sleep.
Dopamine is a biogenic amine that functions as a neurotransmitter and is involved in reward and pleasure pathways in the brain. Tyramine is a biogenic amine that is found in certain foods, such as aged cheeses and fermented soy products. It can cause an increase in blood pressure when consumed in large quantities.
Biogenic amines can have various effects on the body, depending on their type and concentration. In general, they play important roles in many physiological processes, but high levels of certain biogenic amines can be harmful and may cause symptoms such as headache, nausea, and hypertension.
Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a laboratory technique used to separate and analyze charged particles such as proteins, nucleic acids, and other molecules based on their size and charge. In CE, the sample is introduced into a narrow capillary tube filled with a buffer solution, and an electric field is applied. The charged particles in the sample migrate through the capillary towards the electrode with the opposite charge, and the different particles become separated as they migrate based on their size and charge.
The separation process in CE is monitored by detecting the changes in the optical properties of the particles as they pass through a detector, typically located at the end of the capillary. The resulting data can be used to identify and quantify the individual components in the sample. Capillary electrophoresis has many applications in research and clinical settings, including the analysis of DNA fragments, protein identification and characterization, and the detection of genetic variations.
Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is a type of infrared spectroscopy that uses the Fourier transform mathematical technique to convert the raw data obtained from an interferometer into a more interpretable spectrum. This technique allows for the simultaneous collection of a wide range of wavelengths, resulting in increased sensitivity and speed compared to traditional dispersive infrared spectroscopy.
FTIR spectroscopy measures the absorption or transmission of infrared radiation by a sample as a function of frequency, providing information about the vibrational modes of the molecules present in the sample. This can be used for identification and quantification of chemical compounds, analysis of molecular structure, and investigation of chemical interactions and reactions.
In summary, FTIR spectroscopy is a powerful analytical technique that uses infrared radiation to study the vibrational properties of molecules, with increased sensitivity and speed due to the use of Fourier transform mathematical techniques and an interferometer.
Biogenic amine receptors are a type of cell surface receptor that bind and respond to biogenic amines, which are naturally occurring compounds that function as neurotransmitters or hormones in the human body. These receptors play crucial roles in various physiological processes, including regulation of mood, appetite, sleep, and cognition.
Examples of biogenic amines include:
1. Dopamine (DA): Dopamine receptors are involved in motor control, reward processing, and motivation. They are divided into two main classes: D1-like (D1 and D5) and D2-like (D2, D3, and D4).
2. Serotonin (5-HT): Serotonin receptors regulate mood, appetite, sleep, and pain perception. There are seven distinct families of serotonin receptors (5-HT1 to 5-HT7), with multiple subtypes within each family.
3. Norepinephrine (NE): Also known as noradrenaline, norepinephrine receptors play a role in the "fight or flight" response, attention, and arousal. They are divided into two main classes: α-adrenergic (α1 and α2) and β-adrenergic (β1, β2, and β3).
4. Histamine (HA): Histamine receptors regulate allergic responses, wakefulness, and appetite. There are four types of histamine receptors (H1 to H4), with distinct functions and signaling pathways.
5. Acetylcholine (ACh): While not a biogenic amine, acetylcholine is often included in this category due to its similar role as a neurotransmitter. Acetylcholine receptors are involved in learning, memory, and muscle contraction. They can be further divided into muscarinic (M1-M5) and nicotinic (α and β subunits) receptor classes.
Biogenic amine receptors typically function through G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling pathways, although some can also activate ion channels directly. Dysregulation of biogenic amine systems has been implicated in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, depression, and schizophrenia.
Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is a medical/biochemical term that refers to an enzyme (EC 126.96.36.199) involved in the metabolism of amino acids, particularly ornithine. This enzyme catalyzes the decarboxylation of ornithine to form putrescine, which is a precursor for the synthesis of polyamines, such as spermidine and spermine. Polyamines play crucial roles in various cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and gene expression.
Ornithine decarboxylase is a rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis, meaning that its activity regulates the overall production of these molecules. The regulation of ODC activity is tightly controlled at multiple levels, including transcription, translation, and post-translational modifications. Dysregulation of ODC activity has been implicated in several pathological conditions, such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and inflammatory diseases.
Inhibitors of ornithine decarboxylase have been explored as potential therapeutic agents for various diseases, including cancer, due to their ability to suppress polyamine synthesis and cell proliferation. However, the use of ODC inhibitors in clinical settings has faced challenges related to toxicity and limited efficacy.
Eflornithine is a antiprotozoal medication, which is used to treat sleeping sickness (human African trypanosomiasis) caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense in adults and children. It works by inhibiting the enzyme ornithine decarboxylase, which is needed for the growth of the parasite. By doing so, it helps to control the infection and prevent further complications.
Eflornithine is also used as a topical cream to slow down excessive hair growth in women due to a condition called hirsutism. It works by interfering with the growth of hair follicles.
It's important to note that Eflornithine should be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional, and it may have side effects or interactions with other medications.
Octopamine is not primarily used in medical definitions, but it is a significant neurotransmitter in invertebrates, including insects. It is the equivalent to noradrenaline (norepinephrine) in vertebrates and has similar functions related to the "fight or flight" response, arousal, and motivation. Insects use octopamine for various physiological processes such as learning, memory, regulation of heart rate, and modulation of muscle contraction. It also plays a role in the social behavior of insects like aggression and courtship.
Cadaverine is a foul-smelling organic compound that is produced by the breakdown of certain amino acids in dead bodies. It is formed through the decarboxylation of lysine, an essential amino acid, and is characterized by its strong, unpleasant odor. Cadaverine is often used as a forensic indicator of decomposition and is also being studied for its potential role in various physiological processes, such as inflammation and cancer.
Adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDC) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the biosynthesis of polyamines, which are essential molecules for cell growth and differentiation. The enzyme catalyzes the decarboxylation of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) to produce decarboxylated SAM, also known as deoxyadenosylcobalamin or coenzyme M.
Decarboxylated SAM serves as an aminopropyl group donor in the biosynthesis of polyamines such as spermidine and spermine. These polyamines are involved in various cellular processes, including DNA replication, transcription, translation, protein synthesis, and cell signaling.
AdoMetDC is a pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme that requires the cofactor vitamin B12 for its activity. It is found in various organisms, including bacteria, yeast, plants, and animals. In humans, AdoMetDC is encoded by the AMD1 gene and is localized mainly in the cytosol of cells.
Dysregulation of AdoMetDC activity has been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, targeting AdoMetDC with inhibitors or activators has emerged as a potential therapeutic strategy for treating these conditions.
'Diamines' are organic compounds containing two amino groups (-NH2) in their molecular structure. The term 'diamine' itself does not have a specific medical definition, but it is used in the context of chemistry and biochemistry.
Diamines can be classified based on the number of carbon atoms between the two amino groups. For example, ethylenediamine and propylenediamine are diamines with one and two methylene (-CH2-) groups, respectively.
In medicine, certain diamines may have biological significance. For instance, putrescine and cadaverine are polyamines that are produced during the decomposition of animal tissues and can be found in necrotic or infected tissues. These compounds have been implicated in various pathological processes, including inflammation, oxidative stress, and cancer progression.
It is important to note that while some diamines may have medical relevance, the term 'diamines' itself does not have a specific medical definition.
Biogenic monoamines are a type of neurotransmitter, which are chemical messengers that transmit signals in the brain and other parts of the nervous system. They are called "biogenic" because they are derived from biological substances, and "monoamines" because they contain one amine group (-NH2) and are derived from the aromatic amino acids: tryptophan, tyrosine, and phenylalanine.
Examples of biogenic monoamines include:
1. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT): synthesized from the amino acid tryptophan and plays a crucial role in regulating mood, appetite, sleep, memory, and learning.
2. Dopamine: formed from tyrosine and is involved in reward, motivation, motor control, and reinforcement of behavior.
3. Norepinephrine (noradrenaline): also derived from tyrosine and functions as a neurotransmitter and hormone that modulates attention, arousal, and stress responses.
4. Epinephrine (adrenaline): synthesized from norepinephrine and serves as a crucial hormone and neurotransmitter in the body's fight-or-flight response to stress or danger.
5. Histamine: produced from the amino acid histidine, it acts as a neurotransmitter and mediates allergic reactions, immune responses, and regulates wakefulness and appetite.
Imbalances in biogenic monoamines have been linked to various neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as depression, anxiety, Parkinson's disease, and schizophrenia. Therefore, medications that target these neurotransmitters, like selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for depression or levodopa for Parkinson's disease, are often used in the treatment of these conditions.
Ornithine is not a medical condition but a naturally occurring alpha-amino acid, which is involved in the urea cycle, a process that eliminates ammonia from the body. Here's a brief medical/biochemical definition of Ornithine:
Ornithine (NH₂-CH₂-CH₂-CH(NH₃)-COOH) is an α-amino acid without a carbon atom attached to the amino group, classified as a non-proteinogenic amino acid because it is not encoded by the standard genetic code and not commonly found in proteins. It plays a crucial role in the urea cycle, where it helps convert harmful ammonia into urea, which can then be excreted by the body through urine. Ornithine is produced from the breakdown of arginine, another amino acid, via the enzyme arginase. In some medical and nutritional contexts, ornithine supplementation may be recommended to support liver function, wound healing, or muscle growth, but its effectiveness for these uses remains a subject of ongoing research and debate.
Tyramine is not a medical condition but a naturally occurring compound called a biogenic amine, which is formed from the amino acid tyrosine during the fermentation or decay of certain foods. Medically, tyramine is significant because it can interact with certain medications, particularly monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), used to treat depression and other conditions.
The interaction between tyramine and MAOIs can lead to a hypertensive crisis, a rapid and severe increase in blood pressure, which can be life-threatening if not treated promptly. Therefore, individuals taking MAOIs are often advised to follow a low-tyramine diet, avoiding foods high in tyramine, such as aged cheeses, cured meats, fermented foods, and some types of beer and wine.