Anorexia nervosa is a psychological eating disorder characterized by an intense fear of gaining weight, a distorted body image, and extremely restrictive eating behaviors leading to significantly low body weight. It primarily affects adolescent girls and young women but can also occur in boys and men. The diagnostic criteria for anorexia nervosa, as per the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), include:

1. Restriction of energy intake relative to requirements leading to a significantly low body weight in the context of age, sex, developmental trajectory, and physical health. Significantly low weight is defined as a weight that is less than minimally normal or, for children and adolescents, less than that expected.
2. Intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat, even though underweight.
3. Disturbance in the way in which one's body weight or shape is experienced, undue influence of body weight or shape on self-evaluation, or denial of the seriousness of the current low body weight.
4. In postmenarcheal females, amenorrhea (the absence of at least three consecutive menstrual cycles). A woman is considered to have amenorrhea if her periods occur only following hormone replacement therapy.

Anorexia nervosa can manifest in two subtypes: the restricting type and the binge-eating/purging type. The restricting type involves limiting food intake without engaging in binge eating or purging behaviors, while the binge-eating/purging type includes recurrent episodes of binge eating or purging through self-induced vomiting or misuse of laxatives, diuretics, or enemas.

Anorexia nervosa can lead to severe medical complications, including but not limited to malnutrition, electrolyte imbalances, heart problems, bone density loss, and hormonal disturbances. Early identification, intervention, and comprehensive treatment, which often involve a combination of psychotherapy, nutrition counseling, and medication management, are crucial for improving outcomes and reducing the risk of long-term health consequences.

Anorexia is a medical condition defined as a loss of appetite or aversion to food, leading to significant weight loss. It can be a symptom of various underlying causes, such as mental health disorders (most commonly an eating disorder called anorexia nervosa), gastrointestinal issues, cancer, infections, or side effects of medication. In this definition, we are primarily referring to anorexia as a symptom rather than the specific eating disorder anorexia nervosa.

Anorexia nervosa is a psychological eating disorder characterized by:

1. Restriction of energy intake leading to significantly low body weight (in context of age, sex, developmental trajectory, and physical health)
2. Intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat, or persistent behavior that interferes with weight gain
3. Disturbed body image, such as overvaluation of self-worth regarding shape or weight, or denial of the seriousness of low body weight

Anorexia nervosa has two subtypes: restricting type and binge eating/purging type. The restricting type involves limiting food intake without engaging in binge eating or purging behaviors (such as self-induced vomiting or misuse of laxatives, diuretics, or enemas). In contrast, the binge eating/purging type includes recurrent episodes of binge eating and compensatory behaviors to prevent weight gain.

It is essential to differentiate between anorexia as a symptom and anorexia nervosa as a distinct psychological disorder when discussing medical definitions.

Bulimia nervosa is a mental health disorder that is characterized by recurrent episodes of binge eating, followed by compensatory behaviors to prevent weight gain. These compensatory behaviors may include self-induced vomiting, misuse of laxatives or diuretics, fasting, or excessive exercise.

Individuals with bulimia nervosa often experience a lack of control over their eating habits and may feel intense shame, guilt, and distress about their binge eating and compensatory behaviors. The disorder can lead to serious medical complications, such as electrolyte imbalances, dehydration, dental problems, and gastrointestinal issues.

Bulimia nervosa typically begins in late adolescence or early adulthood and affects women more often than men. The exact cause of the disorder is not known, but it is believed to be related to a combination of genetic, biological, psychological, and social factors. Treatment for bulimia nervosa may include cognitive-behavioral therapy, medication, nutrition counseling, and support groups.

Bulimia nervosa is a mental health disorder that is characterized by recurrent episodes of binge eating, followed by compensatory behaviors to prevent weight gain. These compensatory behaviors may include self-induced vomiting, misuse of laxatives or diuretics, fasting, or excessive exercise.

Individuals with bulimia nervosa often have a fear of gaining weight and a distorted body image, which can lead to a cycle of binge eating and purging that can be difficult to break. The disorder can have serious medical consequences, including electrolyte imbalances, dehydration, dental problems, and damage to the digestive system.

Bulimia nervosa typically begins in late adolescence or early adulthood and affects women more often than men. Treatment for bulimia nervosa may include cognitive-behavioral therapy, medication, and nutritional counseling. If left untreated, bulimia nervosa can lead to serious health complications and negatively impact a person's quality of life.

Eating disorders are mental health conditions characterized by significant disturbances in eating behaviors and associated distressing thoughts and emotions. They include several types of disorders, such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and other specified feeding or eating disorders (OSFED). These disorders can have serious medical and psychological consequences if left untreated.

Anorexia nervosa is characterized by restrictive eating, low body weight, and an intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat. Individuals with anorexia may also have a distorted body image and deny the severity of their low body weight.

Bulimia nervosa involves recurrent episodes of binge eating followed by compensatory behaviors such as purging (e.g., self-induced vomiting, misuse of laxatives or diuretics), fasting, or excessive exercise to prevent weight gain.

Binge eating disorder is characterized by recurrent episodes of eating large amounts of food in a short period of time, often to the point of discomfort, accompanied by feelings of loss of control and distress. Unlike bulimia nervosa, individuals with binge eating disorder do not engage in compensatory behaviors to prevent weight gain.

Other specified feeding or eating disorders (OSFED) include atypical anorexia nervosa, subthreshold bulimia nervosa, and subthreshold binge eating disorder, which may have similar symptoms to the above disorders but do not meet all the diagnostic criteria.

Eating disorders can affect people of any age, gender, race, or ethnicity, and they are often associated with other mental health conditions such as depression, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Treatment typically involves a combination of psychological therapy, nutrition counseling, and medical management to address both the physical and psychological aspects of the disorder.

Refeeding syndrome is a potentially fatal shift in fluid and electrolyte balance that may occur in malnourished individuals when they begin to receive nutrition. This occurs due to significant metabolic changes, including increased insulin secretion, which leads to shifts of fluids and electrolytes from the extracellular to intracellular space.

This shift can result in hypophosphatemia (low phosphate levels), hypokalemia (low potassium levels), hypomagnesemia (low magnesium levels), and fluid overload, which can cause serious complications such as heart failure, seizures, and even death if not properly managed. It's important to monitor and correct electrolyte imbalances and fluid status during refeeding to prevent these complications.

Amenorrhea is a medical condition characterized by the absence or cessation of menstrual periods in women of reproductive age. It can be categorized as primary amenorrhea, when a woman who has not yet had her first period at the expected age (usually around 16 years old), or secondary amenorrhea, when a woman who has previously had regular periods stops getting them for six months or more.

There are various causes of amenorrhea, including hormonal imbalances, pregnancy, breastfeeding, menopause, extreme weight loss or gain, eating disorders, intense exercise, stress, chronic illness, tumors, and certain medications or medical treatments. In some cases, amenorrhea may indicate an underlying medical condition that requires further evaluation and treatment.

Amenorrhea can have significant impacts on a woman's health and quality of life, including infertility, bone loss, and emotional distress. Therefore, it is essential to consult with a healthcare provider if you experience amenorrhea or missed periods to determine the underlying cause and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

Family therapy, also known as family systems therapy, is a type of psychological counseling that involves all members of a nuclear or extended family. Its primary goal is to promote understanding and improve communication between family members in order to resolve conflicts and foster healthy relationships. It is based on the belief that the family system is an interconnected unit and that changes in one part of the system affect the other parts as well.

Family therapy can be used to address a wide range of issues, including behavioral problems in children and adolescents, mental health disorders such as depression and anxiety, substance abuse, marital conflicts, and chronic illness or disability. The therapist will typically observe the family's interaction patterns and communication styles during sessions and provide feedback and guidance on how to make positive changes.

Family therapy can be conducted with the entire family present in the same room, or it may involve individual sessions with different family members. The number of sessions required will depend on the severity and complexity of the issues being addressed. It is important for all family members to be open and willing to participate in the therapy process in order for it to be effective.

Gastric dilatation, also known as stomach dilation or distention, refers to the abnormal enlargement or expansion of the stomach. This condition often occurs when the stomach fills with gas, food, or fluids and is unable to empty properly. Gastric dilatation can be caused by various factors such as overeating, swallowing excessive air, gastroparesis (delayed gastric emptying), intestinal obstruction, or certain medical conditions like hiatal hernia or pregnancy.

In severe cases, gastric dilatation may lead to gastric volvulus, where the stomach twists on itself, cutting off its blood supply and leading to ischemia and necrosis of the stomach tissue. This is a life-threatening condition that requires immediate medical attention. Symptoms of gastric dilatation include abdominal pain, bloating, vomiting, loss of appetite, and difficulty breathing.

Emaciation is a state of extreme leanness or thinness, often due to lack of nutrition or disease. It is characterized by significant loss of body fat and muscle mass, resulting in a noticeable decrease in overall body weight. Emaciation can be a serious medical condition that requires immediate attention and treatment. In addition to malnutrition and various diseases, emaciation can also result from substance abuse, eating disorders, or mental health conditions such as depression and anxiety. It is important to consult with a healthcare professional if you are experiencing unexplained weight loss or signs of emaciation.

Body image is a person's perception and attitude towards their own physical appearance, shape, and size. It involves how a person thinks and feels about their body, including their self-perceived strengths and flaws. Body image can be influenced by many factors, such as cultural and societal standards of beauty, personal experiences, and media messages. A positive body image is associated with higher self-esteem, confidence, and overall well-being, while a negative body image can contribute to emotional distress, anxiety, depression, and disordered eating behaviors.

Body weight is the measure of the force exerted on a scale or balance by an object's mass, most commonly expressed in units such as pounds (lb) or kilograms (kg). In the context of medical definitions, body weight typically refers to an individual's total weight, which includes their skeletal muscle, fat, organs, and bodily fluids.

Healthcare professionals often use body weight as a basic indicator of overall health status, as it can provide insights into various aspects of a person's health, such as nutritional status, metabolic function, and risk factors for certain diseases. For example, being significantly underweight or overweight can increase the risk of developing conditions like malnutrition, diabetes, heart disease, and certain types of cancer.

It is important to note that body weight alone may not provide a complete picture of an individual's health, as it does not account for factors such as muscle mass, bone density, or body composition. Therefore, healthcare professionals often use additional measures, such as body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and blood tests, to assess overall health status more comprehensively.

Body Mass Index (BMI) is a measure used to assess whether a person has a healthy weight for their height. It's calculated by dividing a person's weight in kilograms by the square of their height in meters. Here is the medical definition:

Body Mass Index (BMI) = weight(kg) / [height(m)]^2

According to the World Health Organization, BMI categories are defined as follows:

* Less than 18.5: Underweight
* 18.5-24.9: Normal or healthy weight
* 25.0-29.9: Overweight
* 30.0 and above: Obese

It is important to note that while BMI can be a useful tool for identifying weight issues in populations, it does have limitations when applied to individuals. For example, it may not accurately reflect body fat distribution or muscle mass, which can affect health risks associated with excess weight. Therefore, BMI should be used as one of several factors when evaluating an individual's health status and risk for chronic diseases.

Feeding behavior refers to the various actions and mechanisms involved in the intake of food and nutrition for the purpose of sustaining life, growth, and health. This complex process encompasses a coordinated series of activities, including:

1. Food selection: The identification, pursuit, and acquisition of appropriate food sources based on sensory cues (smell, taste, appearance) and individual preferences.
2. Preparation: The manipulation and processing of food to make it suitable for consumption, such as chewing, grinding, or chopping.
3. Ingestion: The act of transferring food from the oral cavity into the digestive system through swallowing.
4. Digestion: The mechanical and chemical breakdown of food within the gastrointestinal tract to facilitate nutrient absorption and eliminate waste products.
5. Assimilation: The uptake and utilization of absorbed nutrients by cells and tissues for energy production, growth, repair, and maintenance.
6. Elimination: The removal of undigested material and waste products from the body through defecation.

Feeding behavior is regulated by a complex interplay between neural, hormonal, and psychological factors that help maintain energy balance and ensure adequate nutrient intake. Disruptions in feeding behavior can lead to various medical conditions, such as malnutrition, obesity, eating disorders, and gastrointestinal motility disorders.

Weight gain is defined as an increase in body weight over time, which can be attributed to various factors such as an increase in muscle mass, fat mass, or total body water. It is typically measured in terms of pounds or kilograms and can be intentional or unintentional. Unintentional weight gain may be a cause for concern if it's significant or accompanied by other symptoms, as it could indicate an underlying medical condition such as hypothyroidism, diabetes, or heart disease.

It is important to note that while body mass index (BMI) can be used as a general guideline for weight status, it does not differentiate between muscle mass and fat mass. Therefore, an increase in muscle mass through activities like strength training could result in a higher BMI, but this may not necessarily be indicative of increased health risks associated with excess body fat.

Chilblains are small, itchy, painful swellings on the skin that occur as a reaction to cold and damp conditions. They most often affect the extremities, such as the fingers, ears, and toes. The medical term for chilblains is "perniosis." Chilblains can cause the skin to turn red, purple, or blue, and they may also become painful, swollen, and sensitive to touch. In severe cases, chilblains can lead to blistering, open sores, and infection.

Chilblains occur when the small blood vessels in the skin constrict in response to cold temperatures, causing a lack of oxygen and nutrients to reach the skin tissue. When the skin is then exposed to warmth, the blood vessels dilate rapidly, leading to leakage of fluid into the surrounding tissues and inflammation.

Chilblains are more common in people who have poor circulation or who are sensitive to cold temperatures. They can be prevented by keeping the skin warm and dry, avoiding sudden changes in temperature, and wearing protective clothing when exposed to cold conditions. Treatment typically involves relieving symptoms with warm compresses, elevating the affected area, and avoiding further exposure to cold. In some cases, medication may be necessary to reduce inflammation and promote healing.

Nutrition disorders refer to conditions that result from eating, drinking, or absorbing nutrients in a way that is not consistent with human physiological needs. These disorders can manifest as both undernutrition and overnutrition. Undernutrition includes disorders such as protein-energy malnutrition, vitamin deficiencies, and mineral deficiencies, while overnutrition includes conditions such as obesity and diet-related noncommunicable diseases like diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and certain types of cancer.

Malnutrition is the broad term used to describe a state in which a person's nutrient intake is insufficient or excessive, leading to negative consequences for their health. Malnutrition can be caused by a variety of factors, including poverty, food insecurity, lack of education, cultural practices, and chronic diseases.

In addition to under- and overnutrition, disordered eating patterns such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and other specified feeding or eating disorders can also be considered nutrition disorders. These conditions are characterized by abnormal eating habits that can lead to serious health consequences, including malnutrition, organ damage, and mental health problems.

Overall, nutrition disorders are complex conditions that can have significant impacts on a person's physical and mental health. They require careful assessment, diagnosis, and treatment by healthcare professionals with expertise in nutrition and dietetics.

Erysipelas is a skin infection characterized by the rapid onset of sharply demarcated, raised, and indurated (hardened) red plaques or patches with surrounding edema (swelling). It is typically caused by group A Streptococcus bacteria (\*Streptococcus pyogenes*). The infection involves the upper dermis and superficial lymphatics, resulting in painful, tender, warm, and erythematous (red) lesions. Erysipelas can also present with fever, chills, malaise, and generalized fatigue. Common sites for this infection include the face and lower extremities. Treatment usually involves antibiotics to eliminate the bacterial infection and supportive care to manage symptoms. If left untreated, erysipelas can lead to severe complications such as sepsis or necrotizing fasciitis.

The medical definition of "eating" refers to the process of consuming and ingesting food or nutrients into the body. This process typically involves several steps, including:

1. Food preparation: This may involve cleaning, chopping, cooking, or combining ingredients to make them ready for consumption.
2. Ingestion: The act of taking food or nutrients into the mouth and swallowing it.
3. Digestion: Once food is ingested, it travels down the esophagus and enters the stomach, where it is broken down by enzymes and acids to facilitate absorption of nutrients.
4. Absorption: Nutrients are absorbed through the walls of the small intestine and transported to cells throughout the body for use as energy or building blocks for growth and repair.
5. Elimination: Undigested food and waste products are eliminated from the body through the large intestine (colon) and rectum.

Eating is an essential function that provides the body with the nutrients it needs to maintain health, grow, and repair itself. Disorders of eating, such as anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa, can have serious consequences for physical and mental health.

Hypothalamic diseases refer to conditions that affect the hypothalamus, a small but crucial region of the brain responsible for regulating many vital functions in the body. The hypothalamus helps control:

1. Body temperature
2. Hunger and thirst
3. Sleep cycles
4. Emotions and behavior
5. Release of hormones from the pituitary gland

Hypothalamic diseases can be caused by genetic factors, infections, tumors, trauma, or other conditions that damage the hypothalamus. Some examples of hypothalamic diseases include:

1. Hypothalamic dysfunction syndrome: A condition characterized by various symptoms such as obesity, sleep disturbances, and hormonal imbalances due to hypothalamic damage.
2. Kallmann syndrome: A genetic disorder that affects the development of the hypothalamus and results in a lack of sexual maturation and a decreased sense of smell.
3. Prader-Willi syndrome: A genetic disorder that causes obesity, developmental delays, and hormonal imbalances due to hypothalamic dysfunction.
4. Craniopharyngiomas: Tumors that develop near the pituitary gland and hypothalamus, often causing visual impairment, hormonal imbalances, and growth problems.
5. Infiltrative diseases: Conditions such as sarcoidosis or histiocytosis can infiltrate the hypothalamus, leading to various symptoms related to hormonal imbalances and neurological dysfunction.
6. Traumatic brain injury: Damage to the hypothalamus due to head trauma can result in various hormonal and neurological issues.
7. Infections: Bacterial or viral infections that affect the hypothalamus, such as encephalitis or meningitis, can cause damage and lead to hypothalamic dysfunction.

Treatment for hypothalamic diseases depends on the underlying cause and may involve medications, surgery, hormone replacement therapy, or other interventions to manage symptoms and improve quality of life.

Dysgeusia is a medical term that refers to a distortion in the ability to taste. It can cause food and drinks to have a metallic, rancid, or bitter taste. Dysgeusia is different from ageusia, which is the complete loss of taste, and hypogeusia, which is a reduced ability to taste.

Dysgeusia can be caused by various factors, including damage to the nerves responsible for taste, exposure to certain chemicals or medications, and medical conditions such as diabetes, kidney disease, and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Treatment for dysgeusia depends on the underlying cause. If a medication is causing the symptom, changing the medication or adjusting the dosage may help. In other cases, addressing the underlying medical condition may improve taste perception.

I'm happy to help! However, it seems there might be a bit of confusion in your question. "Modern" is a term that refers to a period in time, specifically the modern period which is generally considered to be from the late 19th century to the present. "Literature," on the other hand, is a broad term that refers to written works, especially those considered to have artistic or intellectual value.

So, when you ask for a medical definition of "Literature, Modern," it's not entirely clear what you are looking for. If you are asking for examples of modern literature that deal with medical themes or issues, there are many notable works to choose from, including:

* "The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks" by Rebecca Skloot, which explores the ethical implications of medical research using human cells without consent.
* "The Hot Zone" by Richard Preston, a thriller about the Ebola virus and its potential to cause a global pandemic.
* "Complications: A Surgeon's Notes on an Imperfect Science" by Atul Gawande, a collection of essays that examine the challenges and uncertainties of medical practice.
* "Brain on Fire: My Month of Madness" by Susannah Cahalan, a memoir about the author's experience with a rare autoimmune disorder that affected her brain.

If you are looking for something else, please let me know and I will do my best to assist you!

Bone density refers to the amount of bone mineral content (usually measured in grams) in a given volume of bone (usually measured in cubic centimeters). It is often used as an indicator of bone strength and fracture risk. Bone density is typically measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans, which provide a T-score that compares the patient's bone density to that of a young adult reference population. A T-score of -1 or above is considered normal, while a T-score between -1 and -2.5 indicates osteopenia (low bone mass), and a T-score below -2.5 indicates osteoporosis (porous bones). Regular exercise, adequate calcium and vitamin D intake, and medication (if necessary) can help maintain or improve bone density and prevent fractures.

Binge-Eating Disorder (BED) is a type of eating disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of consuming large amounts of food in a short period of time, often to the point of discomfort or pain. These episodes are accompanied by a loss of control over eating and are not followed by compensatory behaviors such as purging or excessive exercise.

To be diagnosed with BED, an individual must experience these binge-eating episodes at least once a week for three months or more, along with feelings of distress, shame, or guilt about their eating habits. Additionally, the binge eating must occur on average at least once a week for three months.

BED is different from overeating and can cause significant emotional and physical problems, including depression, anxiety, obesity, and other health issues related to weight gain. It is important to seek professional help if you suspect that you or someone you know may have BED.

In medical terms, "drive" is not a term that has a specific definition on its own. However, it can be used in the context of various medical concepts related to motivation, behavior, and physiological processes. Here are a few examples:

1. Motivational Drive: This refers to the internal push or desire that drives an individual to engage in certain behaviors or activities. It is often influenced by factors such as needs, goals, values, and emotions.
2. Sexual Drive: Also known as libido, sexual drive refers to a person's overall sexual desire or interest in sexual activity. It can be influenced by various factors, including hormonal changes, stress levels, relationship satisfaction, and mental health.
3. Aggression Drive: This refers to the tendency towards aggressive behavior, which can be motivated by various factors such as frustration, competition, or territoriality.
4. Homeostatic Drive: In physiology, homeostasis refers to the body's ability to maintain a stable internal environment despite changes in external conditions. Homeostatic drives are the physiological processes that help regulate and maintain this stability, such as hunger, thirst, or temperature regulation.

It is important to note that these are just a few examples of how the term "drive" can be used in a medical context. The specific meaning may vary depending on the context in which it is used.

Body composition refers to the relative proportions of different components that make up a person's body, including fat mass, lean muscle mass, bone mass, and total body water. It is an important measure of health and fitness, as changes in body composition can indicate shifts in overall health status. For example, an increase in fat mass and decrease in lean muscle mass can be indicative of poor nutrition, sedentary behavior, or certain medical conditions.

There are several methods for measuring body composition, including:

1. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This method uses low-level electrical currents to estimate body fat percentage based on the conductivity of different tissues.
2. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This method uses low-dose X-rays to measure bone density and body composition, including lean muscle mass and fat distribution.
3. Hydrostatic weighing: This method involves submerging a person in water and measuring their weight underwater to estimate body density and fat mass.
4. Air displacement plethysmography (ADP): This method uses air displacement to measure body volume and density, which can be used to estimate body composition.

Understanding body composition can help individuals make informed decisions about their health and fitness goals, as well as provide valuable information for healthcare providers in the management of chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and heart disease.