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  • adult
  • We documented an absolute requirement for macrophages in the orchestration of postamputation immune microenvironment and blastema formation, providing direct evidence for the immunological control of successful regeneration in an adult vertebrate. (pnas.org)
  • Earlier studies identified a cell population that is closely apposed to the myofiber in the adult newt limb as well. (rupress.org)
  • and it has remained unsettled whether adult newts possess a cellular population that is equal to mammalian satellite cells. (rupress.org)
  • McLaughlin, H.M.G., Rathbone, M.P., Liversage R.A., and D.S. McLaughlin, 1983, Levels of cyclic GMP and of cyclic AMP in regenerating forelimbs of adult newts following denervation, J.Exp.Zool. (springer.com)
  • Injection of EGFP-expressing FV but not lentivirus vector particles into regenerating limbs and tail resulted in widespread expression that persisted throughout regeneration and reamputation pointing to the utility of FV for analyzing adult phenotypes in non-mammalian models. (biomedcentral.com)
  • vitro
  • Mononuclear leukocytes in the newt limb blastema: in vitro behavior. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Since the precise interactions of the various newt limb blastema cell types (pleiomorphic, bipolar, signet and multinucleated cells) with one another are difficult to ascertain in vivo, in this study we describe the in vitro behavior and interactions of these cell types with one another. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We have found that pseudotyped Maloney Murine Leukemia Virus (MMLV) retroviruses can very efficiently infect axolotl cells in vitro and in vivo , and can be used for both lineage and functional analyses in regenerating limbs. (biologists.org)
  • tissues
  • We demonstrate that skeletal muscle dedifferentiation involves satellite cell activation and that these cells can contribute to new limb tissues. (rupress.org)
  • It is unclear to what extent differentiated cells reverse mature phenotypes and to what extent undifferentiated cells, such as stem cells, residing within differentiated tissues become activated, followed by their incorporation into the blastema. (rupress.org)
  • Furthermore, targeting specific cell types will be necessary to understand how regeneration of the diverse tissues within the limb is accomplished. (biologists.org)
  • blastemal cells
  • In amphibians this process is regulated by nerve fibres present at the site of injury, which have been proposed to release factors into the amputated limbs/fins, promoting and sustaining the proliferation of blastemal cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • posterior
  • Sonic hedgehog is important in establishing this anterior-posterior axis of limbs in all tetrapods including axolotls. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The first stage in which BMP s were assessed in limb development is the establishment of the anterior-posterior limb axis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Because of the restricted expression of Shh to the posterior margin, it remains unclear, however, whether Shh induces the limb polarity directly or through a secondary signal. (biomedcentral.com)
  • gene expression
  • Systemic macrophage depletion during this period resulted in wound closure but permanent failure of limb regeneration, associated with extensive fibrosis and disregulation of extracellular matrix component gene expression. (pnas.org)
  • expression
  • Since BMP-2 expression is on the anterior portion of developing and regenerating limbs prior to digit patterning, opposite to the expression of sonic hedgehog, we examined whether BMP-2 expression was dependent on sonic hedgehog signaling and whether it affects patterning of the autopod during regeneration. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The inhibition of sonic hedgehog signaling with cyclopamine caused hypomorphic limbs (during development and regeneration) but did not affect the expression of BMP-2 and SOX-9 . (biomedcentral.com)
  • The expression of BMP-2 and its target SOX-9 was independent of sonic hedgehog signaling in developing and regenerating limbs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • its expression is maintained throughout limb development. (biologists.org)
  • Furthermore, tissue specific transgene expression is achieved using FV vectors during limb regeneration. (biomedcentral.com)
  • stumps
  • In blastemata the cAMP increase was greater than that of cGMP while in stumps of the regenerating limbs the increase of cGMP was of a much greater magnitude than that of cAMP. (springer.com)