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  • genetic
  • The article explained how the bacterial cells read the human genetic code and produced functional human insulin. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The engineered YAC is put back into a yeast cell by chemical means that encourage the cell to take up the genetic material. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Given synthetic cellular circuits represent a form of control for cellular activities, it can be reasoned that with complete understanding of cellular pathways, "plug and play" cells with well defined genetic circuitry can be engineered. (wikipedia.org)
  • reverse transcriptase
  • particularly DNA polymerase for PCR, reverse transcriptase for RNA analysis, restriction endonucleases for cloning, and to make proteins that are screened in drug discovery as biological targets or as potential drugs themselves. (wikipedia.org)
  • eukaryotes
  • This bacterial system might also be able to provide some utility for the analysis of eukaryotic Mg2+ transport proteins, but differences in biological systems of prokaryotes and eukaryotes will have to be considered in any experiment. (wikipedia.org)
  • colonies
  • These individual cells are invisible to the naked eye, but as each cell undergoes successive rounds of cell division , visible colonies form. (britannica.com)
  • The host cells are normally red, and those transformed with YAC only, will form colorless colonies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus
  • The energy required to move Pi into cells is mediated by H + -ATPase, which pumps protons outside the cell and thus creates a proton concentration gradient across the plasma membrane. (plantcell.org)