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  • toluene
  • Measurement by gas chromatography of urinary hippuric acid and methylhippuric acid as indices of toluene and xylene exposure. (bmj.com)
  • By the combined use of gas chromatography and mass spectrometry the methyl esters of hippuric acid and m-methylhippuric acid were identified in the urine of a volunteer who had been exposed to toluene and m-xylene vapours. (bmj.com)
  • However, relative humidity had a negative correlation with the average concentrations of benzene, toluene, xylene and the total VOCs. (nwu.ac.za)
  • early 1990s
  • Estimated annual production capacities in the UK for the early 1990s were 150 Ktonnes mixed xylenes and 200 Ktonnes p-xylene, with major production at only two sites (ChemInform 1992). (ukmarinesac.org.uk)
  • World production of nitro musks in 1987 was about 2500 tonnes, but had fallen to about 1000 tonnes by the early 1990s: musk xylene made up roughly two-thirds of the production of nitro musks during this period. (wikipedia.org)
  • chemicals
  • Xylene is among the 30 most abundantly produced chemicals in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • Over 25 years of reporting on key chemicals markets, including Xylenes-Mixed xylenes, has brought global recognition of our methodology as being unbiased, authoritative and rigorous in preserving our editorial integrity. (icis.com)
  • o-Xylene is largely used in the production of phthalic anhydride, which is a precursor to many materials, drugs, and other chemicals. (wikipedia.org)
  • meta-Xylene is also used as a raw material in the manufacture of 2,4- and 2,6-xylidine as well as a range of smaller-volume chemicals. (wikipedia.org)
  • CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) EPA-454/R-93-048 Locating and estimating air emissions from sources of xylene Emission Inventory Branch Technical Support Division Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards U.S. Environmental Protection Agency March 1994 Ashford's Dictionary of Industrial Chemicals, third edition, page 9692. (wikipedia.org)
  • The European Chemicals Agency has listed musk xylene as a "substance of very high concern" (SVHC) under the REACH Regulation, judging it to be "very persistent and very bioaccumulative" (vPvB) but not meeting the criteria for human or environmental toxicity to be of concern. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemistry
  • See also: p-xylene (data page) o-xylene (data page) CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 44th ed. pp 2611-2620 Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 10th ed. pp 1661-1663 Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 10th ed. pp 1669-1674 CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 85th ed. p 8-111 Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 10th ed, pp 1522-1524 "Pure Component Properties" (Queriable Database). (wikipedia.org)
  • vapor
  • Persons exposed only to xylene vapor do not pose substantial risks of secondary contamination. (cdc.gov)
  • Persons whose clothing or skin is contaminated with liquid xylene can cause secondary contamination by direct contact or through off-gassing vapor. (cdc.gov)
  • Xylene vapor is heavier than air and may cause asphyxiation in enclosed, poorly ventilated, or low-lying areas. (cdc.gov)
  • Children exposed to the same levels of xylene vapor as adults may receive a larger dose because they have greater lung surface area:body weight ratios and increased minute volumes:weight ratios. (cdc.gov)
  • In addition, they may be exposed to higher levels than adults in the same location because of their short stature and the higher levels of xylene vapor found nearer to the ground. (cdc.gov)
  • p-Xylene vapor exposure over the recommended exposure limit of 100 parts per million (ppm) can cause irritation to eye, nose, and throat and possible chest tightening and an abnormal gait. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2000
  • Production of musk xylene in the European Union came to a halt and, by 2000 (the last year for which full data are available), imports to Europe were only 67 tonnes, with China as the most important source. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1999
  • Under the Draft Revised Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1999), data are inadequate for an assessment of the carcinogenic potential of xylenes. (epa.gov)
  • occupy
  • The p- stands for para-, indicating that the two methyl groups in p-xylene occupy the diametrically opposite substituent positions 1 and 4. (wikipedia.org)
  • The m- stands for meta-, indicating that the two methyl groups in m-xylene occupy positions 1 and 3 on a benzene ring. (wikipedia.org)
  • catalytic
  • Production of xylenes is primarily associated with the petrochemical and coal industries, with most being produced by the catalytic reforming of naphtha, a derivative of crude oil fractionation. (ukmarinesac.org.uk)
  • The conversion m-xylene to isophthalic acid entails catalytic oxidation. (wikipedia.org)
  • toxicity
  • The mechanism by which xylene produces toxicity is not known. (cdc.gov)
  • The discovery of musk xylene residues in the environment prompted new concerns about its possible long-term toxicity, and led to the sharp decline in its use from the mid to late 1980s. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxidation
  • Atmospheric xylenes are subject primarily to photo-enhanced oxidation by reaction with hydroxyl radicals, and this (and other reaction processes) is enhanced by nitric oxides and solids. (ukmarinesac.org.uk)
  • substances
  • Nevertheless, musk xylene is classified in the European Union as an explosive under the Dangerous Substances Directive and as a category 1.1 explosive under the CLP Regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Musk xylene also demonstrates some of the problems of classifying substances as carcinogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Concerns
  • Concerns with xylenes focus on narcotic effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Musk xylene was once the most widely used of the "nitro-musks", but its use has declined sharply since the mid-1980s due to safety and environmental concerns. (wikipedia.org)
  • largely
  • US prices for mixed xylenes (MX) were largely unchanged during the second quarter, although the market saw volatility during the quarter. (icis.com)
  • liquid
  • Repeated or prolonged skin contact with liquid xylene can defat the skin, causing it to crack and peel. (cdc.gov)
  • Monika - I don't think there is any reason why xylene liquid should be a controlled substance. (wisegeek.com)
  • compounds
  • Use of musk xylene continued to decline through the 1990s, as fragrance manufacturers voluntarily switched to alternative fragrance compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • production
  • For that matter, plastics production need not rely on xylene either, since plant-based oils are safer, more environmentally friendly, and non-toxic-- from conception, to production, to retail. (wisegeek.com)
  • Xylene is produced widely in the EC at high tonnages (total production in the range 500 to 1,000 Ktonnes, according to the EU ' s IUCLID database). (ukmarinesac.org.uk)
  • During their production and use, xylenes are released primarily to the atmosphere. (ukmarinesac.org.uk)
  • The production of p-xylene is industrially significant, with annual demand estimated at 37 million tons in 2014, and still on the increase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such separation procedures are major cost factors in the production of p-xylene, and the search for alternative methods continues. (wikipedia.org)
  • The major use of meta-xylene is in the production of isophthalic acid, which is used as a copolymerizing monomer to alter the properties of polyethylene terephthalate. (wikipedia.org)
  • data
  • Most of the data are for estuarine and coastal waters, with xylenes apparently detected in relation to industrial releases of xylenes and releases during oil extraction and transport. (ukmarinesac.org.uk)
  • ICIS collects pricing data on a wide range of chemical, energy and fertilizer products, including Xylenes-Mixed xylenes. (icis.com)
  • This page provides supplementary chemical data on m-Xylene. (wikipedia.org)
  • This page provides supplementary chemical data on o-Xylene. (wikipedia.org)
  • plastics
  • In fact, nearly 50 percent of the xylene produced is used to produce polymers used in plastics and polyester. (wisegeek.com)
  • products
  • Musk xylene has been used in a wide variety of consumer products since the early 1900s, usually in very small quantities. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, musk xylene has not been used in Japanese products (on a voluntary basis) since 1982, and the Association of the German Toiletries and Detergents Industry (IKW) recommended the replacement of musk xylene by another compound in 1993. (wikipedia.org)
  • Musk xylene is still permitted for use in cosmetics products (except oral care products) in the European Union under the Cosmetics Directive. (wikipedia.org)
  • ventilation
  • Turn on any ventilation devices, such as overhead laboratory fans or fume hoods, to reduce the risk of xylene vapour combustion (you cannot dispose of xylene vapour this way). (ehow.co.uk)