• Dephosphorylates proteins phosphorylated on Ser, Thr, and Tyr residues and low molecular weight phosphatase substrate para-nitrophenylphosphate. (uniprot.org)
  • Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) are molecular chaperones that bind to unfolded protein, inhibit the formation of toxic aggregates and facilitate their refolding and/or degradation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Gap junctions are composed of a family of structural proteins called connexins, which oligomerize into intercellular channels and function to exchange low molecular weight metabolites and ions between adjacent cells. (rupress.org)
  • With state-of-the art molecular biology and protein biochemistry labs, we work with our clients to rapidly evaluate in parallel to identify the optimal expression system for candidate proteins. (abgent.com)
  • Although the phenomenon of regulatory volume decrease (RVD), whereby a swollen cell loses salt and water to restore its original volume, has been appreciated for decades, the molecular identities of the proteins responsible for the volume control machinery and their regulation are essentially unknown. (elsevier.com)
  • In breast cancer, HSP90 is a molecular chaperone expressed in tumor cells when there exists an excess of unfolded protein, and its co-chaperone has been reported to induce expression of AGR2, so AGR2 may be used by the endoplasmic reticulum to assist with protein folding to alleviate proteotoxic stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • The transport of molecules between the nucleus and the cytoplasm in eukaryotic cells is mediated by the nuclear pore complex (NPC) which consists of 60-100 proteins and is probably 120 million daltons in molecular size. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular cloning of human macrophage capping protein cDNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • In molecular biology, the Shroom protein family is a small group of related proteins that are defined by sequence similarity and in most cases by some link to the actin cytoskeleton. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein product in humans has 724 amino acids, a molecular mass of 79 kDa and 8 conserved domains in all DEAD-box proteins that is involved in RNA helicase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • In molecular biology, a SANT domain is a protein domain that allows many chromatin remodeling proteins to interact with histones. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nucleoplasmin, the first identified molecular chaperone is a thermostable acidic protein with a pentameric structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Xenopus has long been an important tool for in vivo studies in molecular, cell, and developmental biology of vertebrate animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cingulin was originally discovered at the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology (Cambridge, UK) by Dr. Sandra Citi, as a protein present in chicken intestinal epithelial cells, that co-purified with non-muscle myosin II and was specifically localized at tight junctions (zonulae occludentes). (wikipedia.org)
  • In molecular biology, the protein domain named the Shugoshin N-terminal coiled-coil region is a domain found on the N-terminal region of the Shugoshin protein in eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is known to catalysis the following reaction (which requires the following cofactor: Mg(2+)): ATP + RNA(n) ⇄ diphosphate + RNA(n+1) The GLD-2 protein together with 136 proteins more, is involved in the molecular process of hematopoietic progenitor cell differentiation, in the human proteome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using a protein called Nucleoplasmin, the archetypal 'molecular chaperone', they identified a domain in the protein that acts as a signal for nuclear entry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Geminin is a nuclear protein made up of about 200 amino acids, with a molecular weight of approximately 25 kDa. (wikipedia.org)
  • In molecular biology, Endoribonuclease XendoU refers to a protein domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • This family of proteins are microtubule-dependent molecular motors that transport organelles within cells and move chromosomes during cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once expressed Hsp90A dimers operate as molecular chaperones that bind and fold other proteins into their functional 3-dimensional structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • TGF-beta signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem The transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) family members, which include TGF-betas, activins and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), are structurally related secreted cytokines found in species r. (nih.gov)
  • Functioning negatively for the regulation of Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs), Dullard conserves the C-terminal region of NLI-IF, in which is fairly dominant in cellular functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further, not all DAN proteins are specific to nodal signaling and will also block bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and, in the case of Cerberus and Coco, Wnt signaling as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bone morphogenetic proteins were originally identified by an ability of demineralized bone extract to induce endochondral osteogenesis in vivo in an extraskeletal site. (wikipedia.org)
  • It, like other bone morphogenetic proteins, is involved in bone and cartilage development, specifically tooth and limb development and fracture repair. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Bone morphogenetic proteins are known to stimulate bone formation in adult animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1994, it was shown that an artificially-constructed three-finger protein can block the expression of an oncogene in a mouse cell line. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1st edition (June 28, 1994) ISBN 0-12-182138-2 Heterotrimeric G-Protein Effectors, Volume 238 (Methods in Enzymology). (wikipedia.org)
  • 1st Edition (September 1994) ISBN 0-12-182139-0 G Protein Pathways, Part A: Receptors, Volume 343 (Methods in Enzymology). (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to actin and β-tubulin, we identified metabolic/functional proteins such as PP2A, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, transitional endoplasmic reticulum ATPase, aldolase, lactate dehydrogenase, and ribosomal proteins. (mcponline.org)
  • Rsk is named for ribosomal protein s6, part of the translational machinery, but several other substrates have been identified, including other ribosomal proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a series of steps, nearly 80 ribosomal proteins assemble with the pre-rRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • A signal that appears to be specific for the massively produced and transported ribosomal proteins, seems to come with a specialized set of importin β-like nuclear import receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first crystal structure of the PTP1B catalytic domain revealed that the catalytic site exists within a deep cleft of the protein formed by three loops including the WPD loop with the Asp181 residue, a pTyr loop with the Tyr46 residue and a Q loop with the Gln262 residue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several of the above proteins consist of a catalytic domain together with several CUB domains interspersed by calcium-binding EGF domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • The MITR protein lacks the histone deacetylase catalytic domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been discovered that this protein has a catalytic activity, in other words, it has the ability to increase the speed of chemical reactions which would not occur so fast. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2. Other functions and targets RhoA-GTP stimulates the phospholipid phosphatase activity of PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue), a human tumor suppressor protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • In neural cell lines, MSI2 protein, as well as its homologue MSI1, is exclusively located in the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • The presence of such a large number of regulatory proteins makes it very difficult to study the physiological mechanisms controlling actin functions. (rupress.org)
  • For example, in the complement proteases, the CUB domains mediate dimerisation and binding to collagen-like regions of target proteins (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cdc4 (cell division control protein 4) is a substrate recognition component of the SCF (SKP1-CUL1-F-box protein) ubiquitin ligase complex, which acts as a mediator of ubiquitin transfer to target proteins, leading to their subsequent degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • The target proteins are synthesized in situ on the protein microarray, directly from the DNA template, thus skipping many of the steps in traditional protein microarray production and their accompanying technical limitations. (wikipedia.org)
  • p>This section provides information on the location and the topology of the mature protein in the cell. (uniprot.org)
  • Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins are instrumental in determining cell type during development. (sciencemag.org)
  • Protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) is essential for cell division, and participates in the regulation of glycogen metabolism, muscle contractility and protein synthesis. (uniprot.org)
  • However, the mapping of the O -GlcNAcylation sites will help to underline the function of this post-translational modification on each identified protein and will provide a better understanding of O -GlcNAcylation in the control of the cell cycle. (mcponline.org)
  • 1987 ) Fate map of the 32-cell stage of Xenopus laevis . (biologists.org)
  • In almost all cases, this regulation is posttranslational and the locus of this posttranslational control is not on actin, but rather on actin binding proteins that control actin dynamics in the cell. (rupress.org)
  • Previous studies have shown that inhibiting the activity of the proteasome also leads to the accumulation of damaged or unfolded proteins within the cell. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • Marian Blanca Ramírez from the CSIC in Spain has been studying the effects of LRRK2, a protein associated with Parkinson's disease, on cell motility. (biologists.org)
  • Innexins have four transmembrane segments (TMSs) and, like the vertebrate connexin gap junction protein, six innexin subunits together form a channel (an "innexon") in the plasma membrane of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was suggested that vinnexins may function to alter gap junction proteins in infected host cells, possibly modifying cell-cell communication during encapsulation responses in parasitized insects. (wikipedia.org)
  • The acetylation of this protein inhibits the initiation of DNA replication and cell cycle progression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell cycle regulation of human CDC6 protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Smads (or SMADs) comprise a family of structurally similar proteins that are the main signal transducers for receptors of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-B) superfamily, which are critically important for regulating cell development and growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein phosphatase 2 (formerly named type 2A) is one of the four major Ser/Thr phosphatases and is implicated in the negative control of cell growth and division. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ORC, Cdc6, and Cdt1 together are required for the stable association of the minichromosome maintenance (Mcm 2-7) complex proteins with replicative origins during G1 phase of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of main function of Vasa protein is in germ cell determination and function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein behavior is also cell-cycle dependent. (wikipedia.org)
  • βTrCP has also emerged as an important player in protein translation, cell growth and survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • In response to mitogens, PDCD4, an inhibitor of the translation initiation factor eIF4A, is rapidly degraded in a βTrCP- and S6K1-dependent manner, allowing efficient protein translation and cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the same time, βTrCP mediates the degradation of the pro-apoptotic protein BimEL to promote cell survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • A cell membrane consists of a lipid bilayer of molecules in which larger protein molecules are embedded. (wikipedia.org)
  • All three proteins are stable throughout the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order for the cell cycle to proceed, several inhibitory proteins, as well as cyclins, have to be eliminated at given time points. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prickle is another protein in the planar cell polarity signaling pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Members of this protein family contain seven putative transmembrane domains and may mediate signaling processes to the interior of the cell via activation of heterotrimeric G proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apelin is the endogenous ligand for the G-protein-coupled APJ receptor that is expressed at the surface of some cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Just as its name suggests, the Shugoshin protein guides chromosome cohesion during cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like other fluorescent proteins, Eos allows for applications such as the tracking of fusion proteins, multicolour labelling and tracking of cell movement. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another MAP whose function has been investigated during cell division is known as XMAP215 (the "X" stands for Xenopus). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell-free protein array technology attempts to simplify protein microarray construction by bypassing the need to express the proteins in bacteria cells and the subsequent need to purify them. (wikipedia.org)
  • As with the rest of Musashi family RNA-binding proteins, MSI2 is linked to tissue stem cells and has an influence in asymmetric cell division, germ and somatic stem cell function and cell fate determination in a variety of tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • The PAR protein network works under similar mechanisms, where the certain PAR proteins, which are initially homogenous throughout the cell, break their symmetry and are segregated to different ends of the zygote to establish a polarity during development. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNA levels measured in cell lines collected from cancer patients as well as normal tissue can be found at The Human Protein Atlas. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] In the Xenopus egg, the germ cell determinants are found in the most vegetal blastomeres. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Wnt signaling pathways are a group of signal transduction pathways made of proteins that pass signals into a cell through cell surface receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • All three pathways are activated by binding a Wnt-protein ligand to a Frizzled family receptor, which passes the biological signal to the Dishevelled protein inside the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Small leucine-rich repeat proteoglycan (SLRP) family proteins play important roles in a number of biological events. (naist.jp)
  • Despite their diverse biological roles, Shroom family proteins share a common activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • An additional HEAT repeat, localized between the first and second HEAT repeat, is exclusive to the TOG3 domain in zyg-9 and the TOG5 domains in the first group family proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eukaryotes have at least six SMC proteins in individual organisms, and they form three distinct heterodimers with specialized functions: A pair of SMC1 and SMC3 constitutes the core subunits of the cohesin complexes involved in sister chromatid cohesion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each G protein is a heterotrimer of three subunits: α-, β-, and γ- subunits. (wikipedia.org)
  • They only directly activate these ion channels using effector proteins or the G protein subunits themselves (see picture). (wikipedia.org)
  • Four G protein gated inwardly-rectifying potassium (GIRK) channel subunits have been identified in mammals: GIRK1, GIRK2, GIRK3, and GIRK4. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of their similarity, the GIRK channel subunits can come together easily to form heteromultimers (a protein with two or more different polypeptide chains). (wikipedia.org)
  • Condensins I and II share the same pair of core subunits, SMC2 and SMC4, both belonging to a large family of chromosomal ATPases, known as SMC proteins (SMC stands for Structural Maintenance of Chromosomes). (wikipedia.org)
  • SMC dimers that act as the core subunits of condensins display a highly unique V-shape (see SMC proteins for details). (wikipedia.org)
  • The splicesome is a complex of snRNA and protein subunits and acts as the mechanical agent that removes introns and ligates the flanking exons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both phosphoinositides and small GTP-binding proteins of the Rho family have been postulated to regulate actin assembly in cells. (rupress.org)
  • RhoGDI, a guanine-nucleotide dissociation inhibitor for the Rho family, inhibits phosphoinositide-induced actin assembly, suggesting the involvement of the Rho family small G proteins. (rupress.org)
  • Using various dominant mutants of these G proteins, we demonstrate the requirement of Cdc42 for phosphoinositide-induced actin assembly. (rupress.org)
  • PI(4,5)P 2 interacts with several actin binding proteins. (rupress.org)
  • Though lipid binding has been studied extensively in individual actin binding proteins, it is not clear which phosphoinositides are able to modulate actin assembly in cells. (rupress.org)
  • The encoded protein reversibly blocks the barbed ends of F-actin filaments in a Ca2+ and phosphoinositide-regulated manner, but does not sever preformed actin filaments. (wikipedia.org)
  • By capping the barbed ends of actin filaments, the encoded protein contributes to the control of actin-based motility in non-muscle cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Actin is a family of globular multi-functional proteins that form microfilaments. (wikipedia.org)
  • The evolutionary origin of actin can be traced to prokaryotic cells, which have equivalent proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Szent-Gyorgyi had previously described the more viscous form of myosin produced by slow muscle extractions as 'activated' myosin, and, since Straub's protein produced the activating effect, it was dubbed actin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Straub continued to work on actin, and in 1950 reported that actin contains bound ATP and that, during polymerization of the protein into microfilaments, the nucleotide is hydrolyzed to ADP and inorganic phosphate (which remain bound to the microfilament). (wikipedia.org)