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  • cosmic ray
  • We also see more cosmic ray elements between silicon and iron than in the solar system. (nasa.gov)
  • The accepted reason for all the observed cosmic ray lithium, beryllium, and boron is that these are pieces of heavier cosmic ray elements, especially carbon and oxygen, that have had high speed collisions with the very tenuous gas in interstellar space. (nasa.gov)
  • With this method, we determine an average cosmic ray age of about two million years. (nasa.gov)
  • This puts us closer to finding out the sources - but no cigar yet," says University of Utah physicist Gordon Thomson, spokesman and co-principal investigator for the $25 million Telescope Array cosmic ray observatory west of Delta, Utah. (ecnmag.com)
  • It is the Northern Hemisphere's largest cosmic ray detector. (ecnmag.com)
  • If an ultrahigh-energy cosmic ray could penetrate the atmosphere and hit someone in the head, that single subatomic particle would feel like a fast-pitch baseball to the skull. (ecnmag.com)
  • The most powerful or highest-energy cosmic ray ever measured was detected over Utah in 1991 by the University of Utah's Fly's Eye observatory at the U.S. Army's Dugway Proving Ground - a predecessor to the Telescope Array. (ecnmag.com)
  • That cosmic ray particle carried energy of 300 billion billion electron volts (3 times 10 to the 20th power). (ecnmag.com)
  • The fluorescence detectors helped determine the energy and chemical makeup of the cosmic ray particles. (ecnmag.com)
  • galactic cosm
  • In the figure above, we take the abundance of silicon as a "standard candle" or reference point, and compare the abundances (relative to silicon) of the elements in the solar system and in galactic cosmic rays. (nasa.gov)
  • beam
  • Thomson says many astrophysicists suspect ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays are generated by active galactic nuclei, or AGNs, in which material is sucked into a supermassive black hole at the center of galaxy, while other material is spewed away in a beam-like jet known as a blazar. (ecnmag.com)
  • physics
  • But 90 percent of them come from within 300 million light years (1,764 billion billion miles) because powerful cosmic rays from greater distances are greatly weakened by interaction with cosmic microwave background radiation - the faint afterglow of the big bang, says Charlie Jui, a University of Utah professor of physics and astronomy. (ecnmag.com)
  • In the new study, 507 of the scintillation detectors were used to study the ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays, says John Matthews, a University of Utah research professor of physics and astronomy. (ecnmag.com)
  • protons
  • Cosmic rays, discovered in 1912, really are particles, not rays: either bare protons (hydrogen nuclei) or the centers or nuclei of heavier elements such as carbon, oxygen, nitrogen or iron. (ecnmag.com)
  • energy
  • SALT LAKE CITY - An observatory run by the University of Utah found a "hotspot" beneath the Big Dipper emitting a disproportionate number of the highest-energy cosmic rays. (ecnmag.com)
  • A new study identifying a hotspot in the northern sky for ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays has been accepted for publication by Astrophysical Journal Letters . (ecnmag.com)
  • Lower-energy cosmic rays come from the sun, other stars and exploding stars, but the source or sources of the most energetic cosmic rays has been a decades-long mystery. (ecnmag.com)
  • Ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays come from beyond our galaxy, the Milky Way, which is about 100,000 light years wide (588 million billion miles). (ecnmag.com)
  • Thomson says that high cutoff was picked because the highest-energy cosmic rays are bent the least by magnetic fields in space - bending that obscures the directions from which they came and thus the directions of their sources. (ecnmag.com)
  • particles
  • Besides active galactic nuclei and gamma ray emitters, possible sources include noisy radio galaxies, shock waves from colliding galaxies and even some exotic hypothetical sources such as the decay of so-called "cosmic strings" or of massive particles left over from the big bang that formed the universe 13.8 billion years ago. (ecnmag.com)
  • solar
  • The composition of cosmic rays is important because these rays are a direct sample of matter from outside the solar system and contain elements that are much too rare to be seen in spectroscopic lines from other stars . (nasa.gov)
  • If we look at the elemental composition measured for cosmic rays and compare it to our best understanding of the composition of the solar system, we quickly see some large differences. (nasa.gov)
  • We also see that some light elements (lithium, beryllium, and boron) that are rare in the solar system (and in the rest of the universe) are quite common in cosmic rays. (nasa.gov)
  • galaxy
  • Because cosmic rays are electrically charged, they are deflected by various magnetic fields throughout the galaxy . (nasa.gov)
  • Scientists must use indirect methods to determine the source of the cosmic rays and the way they have traveled (or "propagated") through the galaxy. (nasa.gov)
  • If the cosmic rays have stayed in the galaxy, the amount of matter that they have passed through divided by the average density of interstellar space (about one atom per cubic centimeter) gives the age of cosmic rays. (nasa.gov)
  • As the cosmic rays interact with interstellar gas, they can produce gamma rays, which can be seen in the EGRET gamma ray image of the Milky Way galaxy shown above. (nasa.gov)
  • atom
  • The reason the two million year age from the previous paragraph is wrong is that cosmic rays don't just stay in the regions where the density is one atom per cubic centimeter (such as the galactic disk ). (nasa.gov)
  • atmosphere
  • At three locations spread across the desert, sets of mirrors called fluorescence detectors watch the skies for faint blue flashes created when incoming cosmic rays hit nitrogen gas molecules in the atmosphere. (ecnmag.com)
  • Objects
  • All we see is a blob in the sky, and inside this blob there is all sorts of stuff - various types of objects - that could be the source" of the powerful cosmic rays, he adds. (ecnmag.com)
  • point
  • Due to this deflection, the rays don't point directly back to their sources. (nasa.gov)