• Astbury obtained X-ray diffraction patterns of uncrystallized DNA. (genome.gov)
  • It was here in the early 1950s that Maurice Wilkins, Rosalind Franklin, and other crystallographers obtained X-ray diffraction patterns for DNA that led to James Watson and Francis Crick's DNA double helix model. (sciencephoto.com)
  • The evolution of the X-ray structure factor and corresponding pair distribution function of SiO 2 has been measured upon cooling from the melt using high energy X-ray diffraction combined with aerodynamic levitation. (rsc.org)
  • In combination with the change in microstructures observed by electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD) and the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) technique, the high-energy X-ray diffraction provides a powerful tool for characterizing the strain-rate dependence of grain rotation at each stage of deformation. (diva-portal.org)
  • High-energy X-ray diffraction was used for time and space resolved in operando studies on the zeolite catalyst inside a working catalytic reactor for the methanol-to-olefin process. (esrf.eu)
  • We have used high-energy X-ray diffraction (HEXRD) to investigate the development and location of intermediates in the catalyst bed used for an industrially important reaction. (esrf.eu)
  • The book deals with fundamental properties of X-rays, geometry analysis of crystals, X-ray scattering and diffraction in polycrystalline samples and its application to the determination of the crystal structure. (springer.com)
  • The reciprocal lattice and integrated diffraction intensity from crystals and symmetry analysis of crystals are explained. (springer.com)
  • These results suggest that crystals producing diffraction of this quality will be suitable for the structural determination of human CLEC-2. (iucr.org)
  • New X-ray lasers allow for high-resolution imaging of protein crystals too small for conventional X-ray crystallography. (diva-portal.org)
  • The results of dynamic calculations of grazing-incidence diffraction in defect-containing crystals are compared with calculations in the kinematic approximation. (osti.gov)
  • Previously, X-ray diffraction from individual two-dimensional crystals did not represent a suitable investigational tool because of radiation damage. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • X-ray diffraction (XRD) is one of the most important non-destructive tools to analyze all kinds of matter-ranging from fluids, to powders and crystals. (rigaku.com)
  • These crystals will eventually be used in X-ray crystallography, a technique in which diffraction patterns that are produced by bombarding crystals with intense X-ray beams are decoded to determine the atomic structure of the enzyme. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Crystals of the reaction center (RC) from Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides with the space group P2_12_12_1, have been studied by x-ray diffraction. (caltech.edu)
  • This works well for the 5-25 keV range and Hildebrandt technique is recommended for the calculations of Bragg diffraction from crystals since the dipole and quadrupole parts of absorption are provided. (anl.gov)
  • Many important materials cannot be prepared as single crystals of appropriate size and quality for conventional single crystal diffraction studies, nor indeed for the synchrotron-based microcrystal diffraction techniques. (rigaku.com)
  • In applications where the growth of diffraction quality single crystals has become a rate limiting step, powder X-ray crystallography has become a viable option for 3D molecular structure determination. (rigaku.com)
  • This is essential since macromolecules are difficult to prepare for diffraction (up to 1000 crystals may have to be screened to obtain a useful dataset) and, to be efficient, all samples must be exposed to a beam that matches the crystal size. (esrf.eu)
  • Of greater chemical significance is the property of time-resolved wide angle x-ray diffraction to accurately determine the structure of the of CH(2)I-I reaction intermediate. (chalmers.se)
  • The secret lies in the ultrashort high-intensity pulses, which allow for diffraction and retrieval of structural information before the sample gets fragmented. (diva-portal.org)
  • Pulse durations are presently not brief enough to circumvent damage, causing the sample to deteriorate during imaging, and the accuracy of the averaged diffraction pattern is impaired by structural variations. (diva-portal.org)
  • Time-resolved X-ray diffraction can serve as an ultrafast calorimeter in addition to being a sensitive structural probe. (esrf.eu)
  • The success of this work should stimulate future research using such outstanding capabilities for unravelling the structural dynamics of nanomaterials and proteins in the solution phase using time-resolved X-ray diffraction. (esrf.eu)
  • X-ray diffraction established unequivocal structural proof for this synthetic 2DP, which has an all-carbon scaffold and can be synthesized on the gram scale. (nature.com)
  • In this book, the author describes the development of the experimental diffraction setup and structural analysis of non-crystalline particles from material science and biology. (springer.com)
  • Recent advances in X-ray free electron laser (XFEL)-coherent X-ray diffraction imaging (CXDI) experiments allow for the structural analysis of non-crystalline particles to a resolution of 7 nm, and to a resolution of 20 nm for biological materials. (springer.com)
  • In part I the x-ray structural analyses of two sesquiterpenoids and two derivatives of 2-naphthol are reported, while in part II the results from molecular mechanics calculations are used to investigate the conformational processes occurring in a series of cyclo-octa-1,5-dienes and to interpret some of the stereochemical peculiarities of germacrane based sesquiterpenoids. (gla.ac.uk)
  • We confirm several key ingredients of single molecule diffraction experiments: the abilities to detect and count individual scattered x-ray photons in single shot diffraction data, to deliver state-selected, e.g., structural-isomer-selected, ensembles of molecules to the x-ray interaction volume, and to strongly align the scattering molecules. (edu.au)
  • It is a hands-on active learning course involving theory and application of diffraction to phase identification, structural analysis and quantitative analysis of clays, soils, sediments, etc. (miamioh.edu)
  • Coherent X-ray diffraction imaging is one of the techniques applicable to structural analyses of cells and organelles, which have never been crystallized. (elsevier.com)
  • Here, we describe fundamental theory and experimental methods of coherent X-ray diffraction imaging and the recent application in structural studies of noncrystalline specimens by using X-rays available at Super Photon Ring of 8-Gev and SPring-8 Angstrom Compact Free Electron Laser in Japan. (elsevier.com)
  • Structural properties and water dissolution of six sodium-aluminum-phosphate (NAP) glasses have been investigated before and after irradiation by a gamma-ray source based on 60 Co. Two of these samples were of simple composition, and four samples had a complex composition with radionuclide simulants representing actinides, fission, and activated corrosion products. (mdpi.com)
  • Amorphous x-ray diffraction is used to obtain structural information on amorphous solids and liquids at high pressure as well as other materials without long range crystalline order including biologically important macromolecules and nanomaterials. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Solvent dependent structural perturbations of chemical reaction intermediates visualized by time-resolved x-ray diffraction. (chalmers.se)
  • Ultrafast time-resolved wide angle x-ray scattering from chemical reactions in solution has recently emerged as a powerful technique for determining the structural dynamics of transient photochemical species. (chalmers.se)
  • These findings establish that time-resolved x-ray diffraction has sufficient sensitivity to enable solvent dependent structural perturbations of transient chemical species to be accurately resolved. (chalmers.se)
  • Beam line 4-2 is a small-angle scattering/diffraction station dedicated to structural biology studies primarily on non-crystalline systems. (stanford.edu)
  • The ELement ANalyzer is a state-of-the-art attachment that allows us to obtain qualitative information on elements in a single crystal at the same time as X-ray diffraction data collection for a single crystal structural analysis. (rigaku.com)
  • The ability to determine crystal structures directly from powder diffraction data promises to open up many new avenues of structural science. (rigaku.com)
  • In such cases, structure determination from powder diffraction data may represent the only viable approach for obtaining an understanding of the structural properties of the material of interest. (rigaku.com)
  • Structural characterization was performed by field emission scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction techniques. (mdpi.com)
  • Even if several other techniques allow a structural determination of surfaces, X-ray diffraction offers unique possibilities. (esrf.eu)
  • By measuring the X-ray fluorescence spectrum emitted during X-ray diffraction experiments with the ELement ANalyzer, it becomes possible to perform elemental analysis on a single grain of crystal. (rigaku.com)
  • X-ray fluorescence microscopy and microspectroscopy use very fine high-quality beams, focused on extremely small areas within heterogeneous materials. (esrf.eu)
  • books.google.com - Intended to acquaint the reader with the theory of x-ray diffraction, the experimental methods involved, and the main applications. (google.com)
  • The latter is an experimental method developed in the 1970s for electron microscopy ( 14 ), which consists of measuring multiple diffraction patterns by scanning a finite illumination on an extended specimen. (sciencemag.org)
  • While new light lines at the Diamond Light Source are still under construction, the London Centre Nanotechnology operates one of the experimental out-stations of the Advanced Photon Source (APS), an X-ray synchrotron in Chicago, USA. (phys.org)
  • Two-dimensional theoretical diffraction patterns were produced from a three-dimensional computer model of striated muscle and compared with experimental X-ray diffraction data. (le.ac.uk)
  • We report experimental results on x-ray diffraction of quantum-state- selected and strongly aligned ensembles of the prototypical asymmetric rotor molecule 2,5-diiodobenzonitrile using the Linac Coherent Light Source. (edu.au)
  • The experimental X-ray diffraction data were first corrected for instrumental broadening and then used to compute concentration-penetration curves across the diffusion zone. (vt.edu)
  • Based on the experimental results, the internal structures of the frozen-hydrated specimens and the future development for efficient diffraction data collection are discussed.Detailed procedures and key points in preparing frozen-hydrated biological specimens are reported for efficient cryogenic coherent X-ray diffraction imaging using an X-ray free-electron laser. (elsevier.com)
  • Experimental setup: The test object is moved with nanometer precision through the X-ray beam. (innovations-report.com)
  • Why is the [001] diffraction peak not observed in XRD but [004] peak is observed. (physicsforums.com)
  • Free-electron lasers could provide femtosecond X-ray flashes with a peak brilliance 10-11 orders of magnitude higher than that which is currently available from synchrotrons. (diva-portal.org)
  • In place of the normal diffraction peak they observed a distinct array of diffraction speckles, as can be seen in the zoomed part of the picture. (phys.org)
  • At higher temperatures deviations from linear behavior are seen in the first sharp diffraction peak width, height and area at around 1750(50) K, which coincides with the reported density maximum around 1.2 T g . (rsc.org)
  • From the width of the first order diffraction peak, the domain size of the lead was determined to be 300 A indicating that even when deposited from a solution, the lead forms a well ordered two-dimensional solid. (dtic.mil)
  • The program also provides the associated values of the Bragg diffraction peak FWHM, extinction and absorption lengths, which can be helpful in the analysis of respective experiments. (anl.gov)
  • Particles injected into the X-ray beam are hit randomly and in unknown orientations by the extremely intense X-ray pulses, where the femtosecond-duration X-ray pulses diffract from the sample before the particle structure is significantly changed even though the sample is ultimately destroyed by the deposited X-ray energy. (diva-portal.org)
  • Coherent diffractive imaging (CDI) and scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) are two popular microscopy techniques that have evolved quite independently. (sciencemag.org)
  • In this work, we have designed a technique that we call scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy (SXDM), which bridges the gap between scanning microscopy and coherent diffractive methods. (sciencemag.org)
  • The first hard X-ray laser, the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), produces 120 shots per second. (diva-portal.org)
  • Coherent X-ray Diffraction patterns of collagen in soft tissues have been measured for the first time by Dr Felisa Berenguer at the London Centre for Nanotechnology with her colleagues. (phys.org)
  • The breakthrough realized by Dr Berenguer et al is to use a coherent beam of X-rays produced by the APS to measure the coherent diffraction pattern before radiation damage sets in. (phys.org)
  • The Coherent X-ray Imaging instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), for example, delivers full frames of data at up to 120 Hz, resulting in 432 000 diffraction patterns per hour and data sets of tens to hundreds of terabytes in size. (iucr.org)
  • Transverse Coherence Limited Coherent Diffraction Imaging using a Molybdenum Soft X-ray Laser Pumped at Moderate Pump Energies. (escholarship.org)
  • Coherent diffraction imaging (CDI) in the extreme ultraviolet has become an important tool for nanoscale investigations. (escholarship.org)
  • Coherent X-ray diffraction imaging (CXDI) allows internal structures of biological cells and cellular organelles to be analyzed. (elsevier.com)
  • Such ultrafast, optical-pump, x-ray diffraction probe measurements provide a way to study many other transient processes in physics, chemistry, and biology, including direct observation of the atomic motion by which many solid-state processes and chemical and biochemical reactions take place. (sciencemag.org)
  • Incorporating Rigaku's patented cross beam optics (CBO) technology for permanently mounted, permanently aligned and user-selectable parallel and focusing geometries, the Ultima IV X-ray diffractometer can perform many different measurements. (rigaku.com)
  • Optional in-plane diffraction arm for in-plane measurements without reconfiguration. (rigaku.com)
  • An incomplete structure was available at the commencement of this study, derived partially from x-ray diffraction measurements using Mo - Ka radiation and partially from synthetic and spectral observations. (gla.ac.uk)
  • The diffraction data were recollected using Cu - Ka radiation in order to obtain more accurate measurements of the weaker reflexions. (gla.ac.uk)
  • The conformational processes in the parent diene, cis,cis-cyclo-octa-1,5-diene, were the subject of a variable temperature NMR investigation by Professor P. A. L. Anet and molecular mechanics calculations were used to interpret these spectra and to reproduce the minimum energy geometry found by electron diffraction measurements. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Our X-ray Diffraction Field Measurement Services team uses our portable x-ray diffraction systems on-location to provide rapid and precise retained austenite and residual stress measurements while paying strict attention to safety. (tec-materialstesting.com)
  • To better understand radiation-matter interaction at the surface, we perform grazing incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXRD) measurements of a deuterium-ion (D-ion) plasma-irradiated bulk zinc oxide (ZnO) single crystal. (spp-online.org)
  • Grazing incidence x-ray diffraction measurements of a deuterium-ion plasma-irradiated bulk zinc oxide single crystal, Proceedings of the Samahang Pisika ng Pilipinas 37 , SPP-2019-1E-02 (2019). (spp-online.org)
  • X-ray crystallography diffraction powder pattern obtained as part of research to determine the structure of the protein procollagen, precursor to the connective tissue protein collagen. (sciencephoto.com)
  • X-ray crystallography diffraction pattern of rolled flux, obtained as part of research to determine the structure of various materials. (sciencephoto.com)
  • X-ray lasers generate pulses with a stochastic temporal distribution of photons, affecting the achievable resolution on a pulse-to-pulse basis. (diva-portal.org)
  • The recent availability of ultrashort pulses from X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) has now provided a means to outrun the damage. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Our approach, using ultrashort x-ray pulses, is suitable to study ultrafast dynamics of isolated molecules. (edu.au)
  • In these cryogenic CXDI experiments using X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) pulses, specimen particles dispersed on thin membranes of specimen disks are transferred into the vacuum chamber of a diffraction apparatus. (elsevier.com)
  • Because focused single XFEL pulses destroy specimen particles at the atomic level, diffraction patterns are collected through raster scanning the specimen disks to provide fresh specimen particles in the irradiation area. (elsevier.com)
  • In addition to crystallographic studies, surface diffraction is also suited to dynamical studies such as epitaxial growth, ion patterning, surface kinetics and phase transitions. (esrf.eu)
  • Beam line 10-2 is a wiggler end-station that splits time between the front hutch (BL10-2a), which is instrumented for x-ray absorption spectroscopy imaging, and the rear hutch (BL10-2b), which has a dedicated 6-circle diffractometer that is used for materials scattering. (stanford.edu)
  • carbon supported Pd nanoparticles (NPs) catalyst under various environments by in situ and operando X-ray absorption spectroscopy and diffraction, to determine structure and evolution of palladium hydride and carbide phases, and their distribution over the volume of the NPs. (rsc.org)
  • We demonstrate how the simultaneous analysis of extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) patterns allows discriminating between the inner "core" and outer "shell" regions of the nanoparticle during hydride phase formation at different temperatures and under different hydrogen pressures, indicating that the amount of hydrogen in the shell region of the nanoparticle is lower than that in the core. (rsc.org)
  • For palladium carbide, advanced analysis of X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra allows detecting Pd-C bonds with carbon-containing molecules adsorbed at the surface of the nanoparticles. (rsc.org)
  • The presented studies show how a careful combination of X-ray absorption and diffraction can highlight the structure of core, shell and surface of the palladium nanoparticles and prove their relevant roles in catalysis. (rsc.org)
  • For user's reference X0h prints the closest absorption edge in structures at given x-ray energy. (anl.gov)
  • Using ultrafast, time-resolved, 1.54 angstrom x-ray diffraction, thermal and ultrafast nonthermal melting of germanium, involving passage through nonequilibrium extreme states of matter, was observed. (sciencemag.org)
  • This book is a very concise presentation of the theory of scattering and diffraction and the determination of crystal structures. (springer.com)
  • The illustrations complement the text and there are many tables of real diffraction data and calculations of structures. (springer.com)
  • X-ray diffraction patterns of crystallized molecules can reveal their structures with atomic precision. (genome.gov)
  • The difference diffraction and corresponding radial intensities were extracted from the diffraction pattern and analysed using the so-called " global-fitting method " which considers time-dependent changes of solute and cage structures and changes of solvent structure, itself due to the time-dependent heat and density changes. (esrf.eu)
  • Crystal structures exhibiting point diffraction which are aperiodic. (ebscohost.com)
  • To examine how such highly ordered structures are formed, we recorded X-ray diffraction patterns of the developing flight muscles of Drosophila pupae at various developmental stages. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Scientists studying skull bone are just beginning to uncover the small-scale structures within our natural helmet, the skull, and detailed X-ray characterization of the human skull at the scale of this study is unprecedented. (anl.gov)
  • Determination of Crystal Structures by X-Ray Diffraction. (google.com)
  • Given certain constraints, it has become routine to refine structures from a decent quality powder X-ray diffraction data. (rigaku.com)
  • Powder diffraction makes it possible to analyse the structures of such materials under a wide range of conditions, e.g. while heating or cooling, or under different atmospheric conditions. (esrf.eu)
  • Fibre Diffraction Review 11 (1) , pp. 123-129. (cf.ac.uk)
  • http://www.fibre-diffraction.ac.uk/fdr/2002/html/p. (cf.ac.uk)
  • Models of virion assembly have been proposed based on a molecular model of the fd virion derived by X-ray fibre diffraction. (rcsb.org)
  • Here we show that reinterpreted NMR data are also consistent with the model derived from X-ray fibre diffraction studies, and discuss models of virion assembly. (rcsb.org)
  • Fibre Diffraction of Charge-Deletion Mutants. (rcsb.org)
  • In traditional small-angle X-ray scattering these give rise to sharp diffraction peaks due to the array of collagen molecules within each fibril, similar to those appearing at the edge of the picture. (phys.org)
  • The very high brilliance and collimation of the X-ray beam combined with the high sensitivity and resolution of the 2D X-ray detectors overcame the major technical challenge of these experiments: to record X-ray signals from a single muscle cell on the millisecond timescale with very high spatial resolution. (esrf.eu)
  • In this work, 100 ps time-resolved liquid diffraction experiments on the photoreactions of diiodomercury (HgI 2 ) dissolved in methanol (10 mM) were performed at beamline ID09B , using the optical pump and X-ray probe method. (esrf.eu)
  • Single particle X-ray diffraction experiments generate data at the FEL repetition rate, resulting in more than 400,000 detector readouts in an hour, the data stream during an experiment contains blank frames mixed with hits on single particles, clusters and contaminants. (diva-portal.org)
  • Originally developed for experiments at X-ray free-electron lasers, the software is based on a modular facility-independent library to promote portability between different experiments and is available under version 3 or later of the GNU General Public License. (iucr.org)
  • To conduct CXDI experiments in both synchrotron and XFEL facilities, the author has developed apparatuses, named KOTOBUKI-1 and TAKASAGO-6 for cryogenic diffraction experiments on frozen-hydrated non-crystalline particles at around 66 K. At the synchrotron facility, cryogenic diffraction experiments dramatically reduce radiation damage of specimen particles and allow tomography CXDI experiments. (springer.com)
  • The rate, which depends on the number density of scattered particles and the size of X-ray beams, is currently 20-90%, probably the world record in XFEL-CXDI experiments. (springer.com)
  • The experiments were conducted between room temperature and 1473 K. X-ray diffraction studies were carried out in order to monitor the degree of graphitisation in the coke samples from the same campaign. (diva-portal.org)
  • The efficiency of diffraction data collection in cryogenic experiments depends on the quality of the prepared specimens. (elsevier.com)
  • The XtalCheck system includes software that facilitates both visual and diffraction imaging of crystallization experiments. (rigaku.com)
  • Crystallization and X-ray diffraction study of recombinant platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor. (ox.ac.uk)
  • As an initial step towards a mechanistic understanding of Sox9 transcriptional regulation, the current work describes the details of the purification of the mouse Sox9 HMG domain (mSox9HMG), its crystallization in complex with a ChIP-Seq-identified FOXP2 promoter DNA element and the X-ray diffraction data analysis of this complex. (elsevier.com)
  • The simplest CDI method, called diffraction microscopy, involves the reconstruction of an image or a three-dimensional (3D) density from far-field diffraction intensities. (sciencemag.org)
  • When this equation is satisfied, X-rays scattered by the atoms in the plane of a periodic structure are in phase and diffraction occurs in the direction defined by the angle θ.In the simplest instance, an X-ray diffraction experiment consists of a set of diffracted intensities and the angles at which they are observed. (rigaku.com)
  • The positions, intensities and shapes of the peaks in the powder diffraction pattern reveal information about the microscopic structure and strain state of a sample, and can also be used to identify which substances are present in a (possibly complex) mixture. (esrf.eu)
  • B.L. Henke and E.S. Ebisu, in: Advances in X-Ray Analysis (C.L. Grant, C.S. Barrett, J.B. Newkirk, and C.O. Ruud, eds. (springer.com)
  • J. Kirz, D. Sayre, and J. Dilger, Comparative analysis of x-ray emission microscopies for biological specimens, Ann. (springer.com)
  • Here, we describe methods based on rapid image analysis combined with ion Time-of-Flight (ToF) spectroscopy of the fragments to achieve an efficient, automated and unsupervised sorting of diffraction data. (diva-portal.org)
  • X-ray diffraction techniques are used for the identification of crystalline phases of various materials and the quantitative phase analysis subsequent to the identification. (rigaku.com)
  • For more information, see Introduction to X-ray analysis using the diffraction method by Hideo Toraya. (rigaku.com)
  • Sorting of data according to different criteria and rapid filtering of events to retain only diffraction patterns of interest results in significant reductions in data volume, thereby simplifying subsequent data analysis and management tasks. (iucr.org)
  • To address the pressing issue of processing big data sets in serial X-ray diffraction we have developed a set of data analysis tools for serial imaging, specifically designed with the task of processing large data sets in mind. (iucr.org)
  • TEM and x-ray analysis of samples annealed above the glass transition temperature exhibit the formation of. (ebscohost.com)
  • The influence of strain rate on development of deformation texture under a dynamic shock compression of a 904L stainless steel was quantitatively investigated using synchrotron X-ray diffraction and crystallographic orientation distribution function (ODF) analysis. (diva-portal.org)
  • The present results indicate that the degree of graphitisation as followed by X-ray diffraction analysis as well as thermal diffusivities can be used to trace the thermal history of coke. (diva-portal.org)
  • X-ray diffraction and high-resolution electron microscopy analysis indicate a high crystalline quality with layers thickness deviations of ± 1 monolayer from the designed value. (csic.es)
  • The configurations at C(1), C(6), and C(10) remained uncertain and the x-ray analysis removed the ambiguities at these chiral atoms. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Molecular mechanics calculations for syn-3,7-dibromo-cis, cis-cyclo-octa-1,5-diene found the twist-boat conformation as the global minimum, the geometry of which was very similar to that found in an earlier x-ray analysis. (gla.ac.uk)
  • The force field used was able to reproduce the geometry of costunolide,which had been the subject of an x-ray analysis described earlier in this thesis. (gla.ac.uk)
  • X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the complex [Sb(n-CH3-C6H4)4{S2CN(C3H7)2}] exists as the single molecular form, while [Sb(C6H5)4{S2CN(CH2)6}] exists as two molecular conformers. (diva-portal.org)
  • X-ray diffraction line profile analysis has been used to study the microstructure of (Ill) oriented gold and platinum thin films deposited by thermal evaporation and DC magnetron sputtering. (edu.au)
  • The results of the X-ray analysis agreed with dark field TEM micrographs, which showed that many of the crystallites contained dislocations of mixed character (screw- edge). (edu.au)
  • Over a period of three days, Brown and the APS beamline scientists Peter Kenesei and Jun-Sang Park, both physicists in the X-ray Science Division, produced terabytes of data that, after analysis, could reveal anisotropy in the samples. (anl.gov)
  • DIGITAL.CSIC: High-resolution electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction characterization of alternately strained (GaAs)n(GaP)m(GaAs)n(InP)m superlattices grown by Atomic Layer Molecular Beam Epitaxy. (csic.es)
  • This course covers one of the most utilized analytical methods in geology and materials characterization, powder X-ray diffraction. (miamioh.edu)
  • The new method combines the characterization of dynamical states with high-resolution X-ray microscopy. (innovations-report.com)
  • Using a modified Franks's type of small-angle camera 5,6 and a Hilger microfocus X-ray generator, it has been possible for the first time to record equatorial and meridional X-ray reflexions from striated muscle during contraction as well as during rest. (nature.com)
  • The structure of the phases exhibited by these materials has been probed by synchrotron X-ray diffraction with a microfocus (14 í m x14 í m) beam. (kent.edu)
  • Beamline ID27 is a premier X-ray powder and single crystal diffraction station (microfocus) primarily dedicated to research at extreme pressures and temperatures. (esrf.fr)
  • The system is based around the PhotonJet-S series of microfocus X-ray sources that optionally incorporate continuously variable divergence slits. (rigaku.com)
  • The BL10-2b rear hutch is equiped with a six-circle diffractometer for x-ray diffraction/scattering. (stanford.edu)
  • When coupled with CBO and the in-plane arm, the automatic alignment capability makes the Ultima IV X-ray diffractometer the most flexible system available for multipurpose applications. (rigaku.com)
  • X-ray data were collected at room temperature to determine the anisotropy of the broadening with (hkl), using a Siemens D5000 powder diffractometer (CuKa radiation) and two high-resolution synchrotron instruments (BM 16 at the ESRF [A=0.35A] and station 2.3 at the Daresbury laboratory. (edu.au)
  • With your success utmost in our minds, we have developed the XtaLAB Synergy-S X-ray diffractometer for single crystal X-ray diffraction. (rigaku.com)
  • The XtaLAB Synergy-S single crystal X-ray diffractometer comes with kappa goniometer that incorporates fast motor speeds and a unique telescopic two-theta arm to provide total flexibility for your diffraction experiment. (rigaku.com)
  • In this equation, n is an integer, λ is the characteristic wavelength of the X-rays impinging on the crystallize sample, d is the interplanar spacing between rows of atoms, and θ is the angle of the X-ray beam with respect to these planes. (rigaku.com)
  • What's the x-ray diffraction pattern of triangular atoms? (physicsforums.com)
  • By merging data from about a dozen single crystal diffraction images, we unambiguously identified the diffraction peaks to a resolution of 7 Å, thus improving the observable resolution with respect to that achievable from a single pattern alone. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The Li2O2 diffraction peaks grow with the same rate during charge and the development of the full width at half maximum (FWHM) is hkl dependent. (diva-portal.org)
  • X-ray exposure during charge leads to changes in the development of the intensity and the FWHM of the Li2O2 diffraction peaks. (diva-portal.org)
  • William Astbury, a British scientist, obtained the first X-ray diffraction pattern of DNA. (genome.gov)
  • b) X-ray diffraction pattern from a resting muscle fibre. (esrf.eu)
  • Single crystal X-ray diffraction is performed by analyzing the pattern of X-rays diffracted by a single crystal - an ordered array of identical molecules. (bio-medicine.org)
  • This diffraction pattern can be thought of as a chemical fingerprint, and chemical identification can be performed by comparing this diffraction pattern to a database of known patterns. (rigaku.com)
  • Here is a typical powder X-ray diffraction or XRD pattern, in this case, of a cement sample. (rigaku.com)
  • Diffraction pattern of collagen obtain by Dr Berenguer and al during the scope of this research. (phys.org)
  • This provides additional information on the 'phases' of the diffraction pattern, which are not measurable, but vitally needed to convert the diffraction patterns into images of the tissue. (phys.org)
  • I found the optical diffraction pattern for a triangular aperture, but I'm not sure if optical diffraction patterns would be the same as XRD patterns. (physicsforums.com)
  • The structure of the particle projected along the direction of the beam is, in principle, retrieved from a finely recorded diffraction pattern alone by using iterative phase-retrieval algorithms. (elsevier.com)
  • When X-rays strike a crystalline sample they are reflected by atomic planes to produce a diffraction pattern. (esrf.eu)
  • The diffraction of X rays incident on a crystal surface under grazing angles under conditions of total external reflection has been investigated. (osti.gov)
  • An approach is proposed in which exact solutions to the dynamic problem of grazing-incidence diffraction in an ideal crystal are used as initial functions to calculate the diffuse component of diffraction in a crystal with defects. (osti.gov)
  • Grazing Incidence X-Ray Diffraction of Lead Monolayers at a Silver (111) and Gold (111) Electrode/Electrolyte Interface. (dtic.mil)
  • Using grazing incidence geometry and a thin layer cell, x-ray scattering has been used to study the structure of electrochemically deposited monolayers of lead on silver (111) and gold (111) electrodes in-situ. (dtic.mil)
  • Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction is used to find the thin film morphology of an extended molecule with an irregular alternating fluorene−thiophene structure, which is used to obtain linearly polarized electroluminescence and the photovoltaic effect. (cf.ac.uk)
  • Spatiotemporal reaction kinetics determined by time-resolved X-ray diffraction. (esrf.eu)
  • Even if there are some limitations, time-resolved X-ray diffraction has matured sufficiently to provide the structure of the intermediates, correlation with solvent environment, and bulk properties of the solvent molecules in solution with unprecedented spatial and time resolution. (esrf.eu)
  • The emerging technique of serial X-ray diffraction, in which diffraction data are collected from samples flowing across a pulsed X-ray source at repetition rates of 100 Hz or higher, has necessitated the development of new software in order to handle the large data volumes produced. (iucr.org)
  • Analysing such large data sets is challenging, especially for small research groups, necessitating the development of new `big data' paradigms in X-ray diffraction data processing. (iucr.org)
  • The concentration prediction errors for the packaged data were found to be very similar to those obtained in the unpackaged case, and were also on a par with reported values in the literature using higher-resolution angular-dispersive X-ray diffraction (ADXRD). (ucl.ac.uk)
  • For step-1 X0h uses the 9-factors interpolation formula and the data from the International Tables for X-ray Crystallography [1]. (anl.gov)
  • For step-2 the International Tables contain data for characteristic x-ray lines only (Cr-Ka1, Fe-Ka1, Cu-Ka1, Mo-Ka1, and Ag-Ka1). (anl.gov)
  • When one chooses to use external databases for df' and df' , X0h replaces the data for 5 characteristic X-ray lines by that from the external database for five x-ray wavelengths nearest to the specified x-ray wavelength. (anl.gov)
  • Top image: Schematic setup of the method used for time- and space-resolved X-ray data collection at beamline ID15B. (esrf.eu)
  • A somewhat different model of the fd virion using solid-state NMR data has been proposed, not consistent with these models of assembly nor with the X-ray diffraction data. (rcsb.org)
  • Determination of the crystal structure from powder X-ray diffraction data holds promise for the future in a variety of fields, including materials science, biotechnology and pharmaceuticals. (rigaku.com)
  • D. Sayre, J. Kirz, R. Feder, D.M. Kim, and E. Spiller, Transmission microscopy of unmodified biological materials: comparative radiation dosages with electrons and ultrasoft x-ray photons, Ultramicroscopy 2, 337-349 (1977). (springer.com)
  • The effect of constant exposure of X-ray radiation to the electrolyte and cathode during charge of the battery was also investigated. (diva-portal.org)
  • X-ray microscopy requires radiation of extremely high quality. (innovations-report.com)
  • In addition, only a small percentage fraction of the incoming X-ray radiation could be used. (innovations-report.com)
  • Rigaku Oxford Diffraction Presents Latest X-Ray Diffraction Technologies at 2019 BCA Spri. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Rigaku Oxford Diffraction is presenting information about its current portfolio of macromolecular and small molecule crystallography instrumentation. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Rigaku - a key sponsor of the event - is showing the new Rigaku HyPix-Arc 150° curved Hybrid Photon Counting (HPC) X-ray detector for single crystal diffraction applications. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Rigaku will also be hosting an afternoon users' meeting featuring talks on both single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction topics, the latter presented by Scientific and Medical Products, Ltd. ( SciMed ). (bio-medicine.org)
  • The meeting will start at 2pm on Thursday, April 18th in Meeting Room 5, following the conclusion of the main BCA meeting, and will cover the latest developments at Rigaku in single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction, providing an opportunity to discuss users' research, experiences, and issues. (bio-medicine.org)
  • ROD was formed as the global single crystal business unit of Rigaku Corporation after the acquisition of the former Oxford Diffraction organization from Agilent Technologies in 2015. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Read the full story at https://www.prweb.com/releases/rigaku_oxford_diffraction_presents_latest_x_ray_diffraction_technologies_at_2019_bca_spring_meeting/prweb16247893.htm . (bio-medicine.org)
  • Rigaku nano3DX is a true X-ray microscope (XRM) with ultra-wide field of view, 25X larger volume than comparable systems, and three X-ray wavelengths for different matrices. (rigaku.com)
  • Rigaku has developed a range of X-ray diffractometers, in co-operation with academic and industrial users, which provide the most technically advanced, versatile and cost-effective diffraction solutions available today. (rigaku.com)
  • Our purpose in the first part of this talk is to call attention to certain advantages of the soft (λ = 10-100A) x-ray photon in the imaging of biological material, which are not shared by other particles. (springer.com)
  • The author has also developed software suitable for efficiently processing of diffraction patterns and retrieving electron density maps of specimen particles based on the diffraction theory used in CXDI. (springer.com)
  • Corey, R. B.: X-Ray Studies of Amino Acids and Peptides. (springer.com)
  • The intense x-ray beams provided by synchrotron sources are ideal for diffraction studies of noncrystalline materials. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • R.A. McCorkle, Soft x-ray emission by an electron-beam sliding-spark device, J. Phys. (springer.com)
  • It consists in scanning a focused x-ray beam on a specimen and measuring the transmitted intensity at each raster point. (sciencemag.org)
  • To demonstrate this method experimentally, we imaged a buried nanostructure by using a focused hard x-ray beam. (sciencemag.org)
  • The diffraction signal is generally weak and it is superimposed on a low but continually fluctuating background signal, originating from photon noise in the beam line and electronic noise from the detector. (diva-portal.org)
  • In the experiment, a single noncrystalline particle is illuminated by an X-ray beam with almost complete spatial coherence. (elsevier.com)
  • Diffraction patterns were collected every second as the reactor and heaters were moved down through the beam, giving a series of scans along the vertical axis of the reactor. (esrf.eu)
  • 3D micro- and nano-tomography is possible by scanning the X-ray beam across a sample. (esrf.eu)
  • The ESRF also offers complementary techniques such as X-ray diffraction topography and phase-contrast imaging, which exploits the coherence of the beam. (esrf.eu)
  • These third generation sources have been designed to maximize X-ray photons at the sample by using a combination of new optics, new, longer life tubes and an improved alignment system. (rigaku.com)
  • In addition, the quality of the frozen-hydrated specimens are evaluated by analyzing the characteristics of the collected diffraction patterns. (elsevier.com)
  • The X-ray diffraction patterns off this strand revealed that DNA must have a regular, periodic structure. (genome.gov)
  • X-ray diffraction techniques are superior in elucidating the three-dimensional atomic structure of crystalline solids. (rigaku.com)
  • XANES or X-Ray Absoption Near Edge Structure is an X-Ray abosorption technique. (wikibooks.org)
  • In order to visualize nanostructures such as biological cells, the porous structure of cement or storage fields of magnetic disks, the experimentators had to avoid any kind of vibration of X-ray microscope and sample. (innovations-report.com)
  • X-ray diffraction patterns were recorded from single muscle cells ( Figure 87b ) while they were stimulated electrically under conditions whereby the length and load on the muscle cell could be controlled precisely. (esrf.eu)
  • In addition, conventional whole-thorax diffraction patterns were recorded from live pupae to assess the extent of development of flight musculature. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • An optical pulse (267 nm, 2 ps, 986 Hz) triggers impulsive photodissociation of HgI 2 , followed by subsequent reactions and then the X-ray pulse (100 ps, 0.067 nm, 986 Hz) interrogates the reacting sample by making the diffraction patterns on the CCD detector in a stroboscopic manner for the different time-delays spanning from 100 picosecond to 1 microsecond. (esrf.eu)
  • The system is also equipped with your choice of HPC digital X-ray photon counting detector, including the HyPix-Arc 150°, HyPix-6000HE or EIGER 1M. (rigaku.com)
  • CBO and automatic alignment combine for the ultimate in functionality for: micro-crystalline diffraction, thin-film diffraction, small angle scattering, and in-plane scattering. (rigaku.com)
  • This page is an interface to my program X0h calculating crystal susceptibilities X 0 , X h ( chi-zero , chi-h ) for x-ray scattering and Bragg diffraction. (anl.gov)
  • The architecture of amyloid-like peptide fibrils revealed by X-ray scattering, diffraction and electron microscopy. (google.com)
  • Techniques available are powder and single-crystal microdiffraction, X-ray microfluorescence, and in situ Raman scattering. (esrf.fr)
  • NEWMOD modeling of XRD profiles based on TEM constraints show a relatively good correspondence between the size of X-ray-scattering domains and crystallite thicknesses in most cases. (csic.es)
  • Small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS and WAXS) use the high brilliance of an undulator source to study condensed matter samples in liquid or solid form. (esrf.eu)
  • FOR some time X-ray diffraction techniques have been used to study living muscle in the resting state 1-4 . (nature.com)
  • The authors have developed their course lecture notes into a useful book that is suitable for graduate students of materials science and engineering who use X-ray diffraction techniques. (springer.com)
  • X-ray diffraction techniques have, therefore, been widely used as an indispensable means in materials research, development and production. (rigaku.com)
  • X-ray diffraction photographs (figure 1 is an example) show that the symmetry is orthorhombic and the lattice body-centred. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The X-ray diffraction results are supported by ex situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of discharged cathodes to illuminate non-crystalline deposited materials. (diva-portal.org)
  • In contrast, table-top soft X-ray lasers (SXRL) feature excellent temporal coherence and extraordinary high flux at limited transverse coherence. (escholarship.org)
  • In the first part of the dissertation, we describe a quantitative study of cholesterol partition and its condensing effect in phase separated ternary lipid mixtures using X-ray diffraction. (escholarship.org)
  • Surface X-ray diffraction is not limited to free surfaces under UHV conditions but it can be applied with success to study solid interfaces. (esrf.eu)
  • As the X-ray pulse interacts with injected single molecules, their spatial orientation is generally unknown. (diva-portal.org)
  • The meeting addresses current and future developments in single crystal X-ray diffraction ( SCXRD ) and features a diverse range of talks, posters, workshops and exhibitions. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Using the technique of recording end-on X-ray diffraction patterns of single myofibrils from insect flight muscles, we have added another unique feature to the list, i.e. the long-range crystallinity of myofibrillar proteins: the crystal-quality regularity of contractile protein arrangement is not confined within a single sarcomere, but extends throughout a myofibril, so that the entire myofibril can be regarded as a giant single multiprotein crystal. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • A single crystal of garnet enclosed in a diamond from the Jericho kimberlite (Slave Craton, Canada) has been investigated using X-ray diffraction and X-ray micro-tomography. (geoscienceworld.org)