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  • time-resolved X-ray diffrac
  • However, more insight into the dynamics of molecular structure in solution can be obtained using time-resolved X-ray diffraction. (esrf.eu)
  • Time-resolved X-ray diffraction can serve as an ultrafast calorimeter in addition to being a sensitive structural probe. (esrf.eu)
  • Spatiotemporal reaction kinetics determined by time-resolved X-ray diffraction. (esrf.eu)
  • Even if there are some limitations, time-resolved X-ray diffraction has matured sufficiently to provide the structure of the intermediates, correlation with solvent environment, and bulk properties of the solvent molecules in solution with unprecedented spatial and time resolution. (esrf.eu)
  • The success of this work should stimulate future research using such outstanding capabilities for unravelling the structural dynamics of nanomaterials and proteins in the solution phase using time-resolved X-ray diffraction. (esrf.eu)
  • p. 464 , see the Perspective by Fei ) compressed iron in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell, tracking its structure and texture by using time-resolved x-ray diffraction as the pressure increased to 200 GPa. (sciencemag.org)
  • patterns
  • The X-Ray Diffraction JavaScript Model computes diffraction patterns from first principles for simple apertures including a sinusoidal wave corresponding to a 2D projection of a helix as described in a paper by Braun, Tierney and Schmitzer. (compadre.org)
  • X-ray diffraction patterns were recorded from single muscle cells ( Figure 87b ) while they were stimulated electrically under conditions whereby the length and load on the muscle cell could be controlled precisely. (esrf.eu)
  • This diffraction pattern can be thought of as a chemical fingerprint, and chemical identification can be performed by comparing this diffraction pattern to a database of known patterns. (rigaku.com)
  • X‐ray diffraction patterns from live frog skeletal muscles taken with an image plate detector (see Wakabayashi and Amemiya, ) at the small‐angle X‐ray scattering/diffraction beamline of the Photon Factory (Japan). (els.net)
  • High‐resolution X‐ray diffraction patterns from live frog skeletal muscles taken with a CCD detector at the BioCAT beamline of the Advanced Photon Sources (USA). (els.net)
  • An optical pulse (267 nm, 2 ps, 986 Hz) triggers impulsive photodissociation of HgI 2 , followed by subsequent reactions and then the X-ray pulse (100 ps, 0.067 nm, 986 Hz) interrogates the reacting sample by making the diffraction patterns on the CCD detector in a stroboscopic manner for the different time-delays spanning from 100 picosecond to 1 microsecond. (esrf.eu)
  • It was here in the early 1950s that Maurice Wilkins, Rosalind Franklin, and other crystallographers obtained X-ray diffraction patterns for DNA that led to James Watson and Francis Crick's DNA double helix model. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Coherent X-ray Diffraction patterns of collagen in soft tissues have been measured for the first time by Dr Felisa Berenguer at the London Centre for Nanotechnology with her colleagues. (phys.org)
  • This provides additional information on the 'phases' of the diffraction pattern, which are not measurable, but vitally needed to convert the diffraction patterns into images of the tissue. (phys.org)
  • For typical powder patterns, data is collected at 2 θ from ~5 ° to 70 ° , angles that are preset in the X-ray scan. (carleton.edu)
  • The author has also developed software suitable for efficiently processing of diffraction patterns and retrieving electron density maps of specimen particles based on the diffraction theory used in CXDI. (springer.com)
  • It was here in the early 1950s that Wilkins, Rosalind Franklin, and other crystallographers obtained X-ray diffraction patterns for DNA that led to James Watson and Francis Crick's DNA double helix model. (sciencephoto.com)
  • diffractometer
  • Incorporating Rigaku's patented cross beam optics (CBO) technology for permanently mounted, permanently aligned and user-selectable parallel and focusing geometries, the Ultima IV X-ray diffractometer can perform many different measurements. (rigaku.com)
  • When coupled with CBO and the in-plane arm, the automatic alignment capability makes the Ultima IV X-ray diffractometer the most flexible system available for multipurpose applications. (rigaku.com)
  • The SmartLab is the most novel high-resolution X-ray diffractometer available today. (rigaku.com)
  • The D/teX Ultra 250 is designed for the SmartLab diffractometer, Rigaku's most innovative diffraction product. (rigaku.com)
  • New sixth generation MiniFlex X-ray diffractometer (XRD) is a multipurpose analytical instrument that can determine: phase identification and quantification, percent (%) crystallinity, crystallite size and strain, lattice parameter refinement, Rietveld refinement, and molecular structure. (rigaku.com)
  • Experiments
  • How Rosalind Franklin Discovered the Helical Structure of DNA: Experiments in Diffraction," Gregory Braun, Dennis Tierney and Heidrun Schmitzer, The Physics Teacher, vol 49.3, 140-143 (2011). (compadre.org)
  • The very high brilliance and collimation of the X-ray beam combined with the high sensitivity and resolution of the 2D X-ray detectors overcame the major technical challenge of these experiments: to record X-ray signals from a single muscle cell on the millisecond timescale with very high spatial resolution. (esrf.eu)
  • In this work, 100 ps time-resolved liquid diffraction experiments on the photoreactions of diiodomercury (HgI 2 ) dissolved in methanol (10 mM) were performed at beamline ID09B , using the optical pump and X-ray probe method. (esrf.eu)
  • We also report on recent experiments where we have obtained diffraction images from shock-compressed single-crystal iron. (unt.edu)
  • Single particle X-ray diffraction experiments generate data at the FEL repetition rate, resulting in more than 400,000 detector readouts in an hour, the data stream during an experiment contains blank frames mixed with hits on single particles, clusters and contaminants. (diva-portal.org)
  • Recent advances in X-ray free electron laser (XFEL)-coherent X-ray diffraction imaging (CXDI) experiments allow for the structural analysis of non-crystalline particles to a resolution of 7 nm, and to a resolution of 20 nm for biological materials. (springer.com)
  • To conduct CXDI experiments in both synchrotron and XFEL facilities, the author has developed apparatuses, named KOTOBUKI-1 and TAKASAGO-6 for cryogenic diffraction experiments on frozen-hydrated non-crystalline particles at around 66 K. At the synchrotron facility, cryogenic diffraction experiments dramatically reduce radiation damage of specimen particles and allow tomography CXDI experiments. (springer.com)
  • The rate, which depends on the number density of scattered particles and the size of X-ray beams, is currently 20-90%, probably the world record in XFEL-CXDI experiments. (springer.com)
  • We present static laser-heated diamond anvil cell experiments up to 200 GPa using synchrotron-based fast x-ray diffraction as a primary melting diagnostic. (sciencemag.org)
  • Rigaku
  • Rigaku nano3DX is a true X-ray microscope (XRM) with ultra-wide field of view, 25X larger volume than comparable systems, and three X-ray wavelengths for different matrices. (rigaku.com)
  • Rigaku has developed a range of X-ray diffractometers, in co-operation with academic and industrial users, which provide the most technically advanced, versatile and cost-effective diffraction solutions available today. (rigaku.com)
  • It is the newest addition to MiniFlex series of benchtop X-ray diffraction analyzers from Rigaku, which began with the introduction of the original MiniFlex system decades ago. (rigaku.com)
  • ultrafast
  • Using ultrafast, time-resolved, 1.54 angstrom x-ray diffraction, thermal and ultrafast nonthermal melting of germanium, involving passage through nonequilibrium extreme states of matter, was observed. (sciencemag.org)
  • Such ultrafast, optical-pump, x-ray diffraction probe measurements provide a way to study many other transient processes in physics, chemistry, and biology, including direct observation of the atomic motion by which many solid-state processes and chemical and biochemical reactions take place. (sciencemag.org)
  • Laue
  • Max von Laue, in 1912, discovered that crystalline substances act as three-dimensional diffraction gratings for X-ray wavelengths similar to the spacing of planes in a crystal lattice. (carleton.edu)
  • intensities
  • When this equation is satisfied, X-rays scattered by the atoms in the plane of a periodic structure are in phase and diffraction occurs in the direction defined by the angle θ.In the simplest instance, an X-ray diffraction experiment consists of a set of diffracted intensities and the angles at which they are observed. (rigaku.com)
  • The difference diffraction and corresponding radial intensities were extracted from the diffraction pattern and analysed using the so-called " global-fitting method " which considers time-dependent changes of solute and cage structures and changes of solvent structure, itself due to the time-dependent heat and density changes. (esrf.eu)
  • Previous workers have demonstrated that higher intensities of shock metamorphism progressively decrease the size of coherent scatter domains (CSDs), and increase the density of X-ray observable defects, associated with specific crystallographic zones in silicates. (confex.com)
  • thin filament
  • The structural alterations in vertebrate skeletal muscles undergoing contraction by synchrotron X‐ray diffraction are outlined by putting a lot of weight on the thin filament as the locus of actomyosin interaction. (els.net)
  • Chemistry
  • The X-ray Diffraction Facility (XRDF) of the Chemistry Department is a shared facility housed both in the Chemistry Department and in the Nanoscience Center. (jyu.fi)
  • The conference is organized by the Commission on Crystal chemistry, X-ray diffraction and Spectroscopic Studies of Minerals of Russian Mineralogical Society, the Commission on Inorganic and Mineral Structures of International Union of Crystallography and St. Petersburg State University. (iucr.org)
  • detector
  • The D/teX Ultra 250 HE is a special silicon strip detector that is optimized for high energy X-ray work by utilizing a thicker detector material. (rigaku.com)
  • X-ray diffractometers consist of three basic elements: an X-ray tube, a sample holder, and an X-ray detector. (carleton.edu)
  • A detector records and processes this X-ray signal and converts the signal to a count rate which is then output to a device such as a printer or computer monitor. (carleton.edu)
  • spectroscopy
  • The characterization of the Nigerian Igbokoda Standard Sand was performed by X-ray diffraction, IR and Raman Spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. (csir.co.za)
  • Here, we describe methods based on rapid image analysis combined with ion Time-of-Flight (ToF) spectroscopy of the fragments to achieve an efficient, automated and unsupervised sorting of diffraction data. (diva-portal.org)
  • peak
  • Why is the diffraction peak not observed in XRD but peak is observed. (physicsforums.com)
  • A radial peak broadening, which increases with the diffraction order, was detected. (esrf.eu)
  • The samples were found to consist of from 1% to 99% talc in combination with 23 minerals which are listed along with their X-ray diffraction peak assignments and alternative minerals having similar peak assignments. (cdc.gov)
  • In place of the normal diffraction peak they observed a distinct array of diffraction speckles, as can be seen in the zoomed part of the picture. (phys.org)
  • Structure
  • X-ray scattering techniques are a family of non-destructive analytical techniques which reveal information about the crystallographic structure, chemical composition, and physical properties of materials and thin films. (wikimedia.org)
  • X-ray crystallography has been a workhorse for chemists since the 1940s and 50s, revealing the 3D structure of complex biological molecules such as haemoglobin, DNA and insulin. (slashdot.org)
  • By putting together the information on various sets of reflecting planes, obtained in this way with the X-ray spectrometer, the first crystal structure determinations were made. (iucr.org)
  • X-ray diffraction techniques are superior in elucidating the three-dimensional atomic structure of crystalline solids. (rigaku.com)
  • The structure of the fabrics was analysed by FTIR and X-ray diffraction. (csir.co.za)
  • X‐ray diffraction is the interference of the X‐rays scattered from the electron densities of the matter, and the Fourier transformation of the interference pattern yields the structure of the matter. (els.net)
  • Figure 74 displays a diffraction pattern from a crystal of silica spheres (diameter 1.4 µm) with a body-centred tetragonal (bct) structure. (esrf.eu)
  • A wide angle x-ray scattering (WAXS) experiment was performed to determine whether or not calcium, manganese, and magnesium are incorporated into this structure. (unt.edu)
  • structural
  • The best available technique for such an approach is X‐ray diffraction which can provide structural information with a submolecular resolution. (els.net)
  • X‐ray diffraction with intense synchrotron radiation has demonstrated a structural basis for the molecular mechanism underlying muscle contraction with high spatial‐ and time‐resolution. (els.net)
  • X-ray diffraction established unequivocal structural proof for this synthetic 2DP, which has an all-carbon scaffold and can be synthesized on the gram scale. (nature.com)
  • polycrystals
  • H.F. Poulsen, Three-Dimensional X-ray Diffraction Microscopy: Mapping Polycrystals and Their Dynamics, vol. 205, Springer Tracts in Modern Physics (Springer, Berlin, 2004). (springer.com)
  • Scattering
  • S.R. Stock, Combining absorption microCT and position-resolved X-ray scattering, in Developments in X-ray Tomography V , ed by Ulrich Bonse (Bellingham, WA: SPIE-Intl Soc Optical Eng, 2006). (springer.com)
  • Coherent x-ray diffraction microscopy is a method of imaging nonperiodic isolated objects at resolutions limited, in principle, by only the wavelength and largest scattering angles recorded. (osapublishing.org)
  • rays
  • X-ray diffraction is based on constructive interference of monochromatic X-rays and a crystalline sample. (carleton.edu)
  • These X-rays are generated by a cathode ray tube, filtered to produce monochromatic radiation, collimated to concentrate, and directed toward the sample. (carleton.edu)
  • All diffraction methods are based on generation of X-rays in an X-ray tube. (carleton.edu)
  • X-rays are generated in a cathode ray tube by heating a filament to produce electrons, accelerating the electrons toward a target by applying a voltage, and bombarding the target material with electrons. (carleton.edu)
  • Filtering, by foils or crystal monochrometers, is required to produce monochromatic X-rays needed for diffraction. (carleton.edu)
  • The diffraction of X rays incident on a crystal surface under grazing angles under conditions of total external reflection has been investigated. (osti.gov)
  • Study
  • X-ray study of the relationship between strength and residual stress in cemented carbides coated with TiN (K. Kamachi and T. Yamamoto). (elsevier.com)
  • Applications and problems in an X-Ray fractographic study of fatigue fracture surfaces (Y. Miyoshi and K. Ogura). (elsevier.com)
  • His research activities are the study of materials using X-ray diffraction at the SPCTS International Laboratory in France. (wiley.com)
  • X-ray diffraction study of acid-degradable glasses. (ugent.be)
  • DE MAEYER E, Verbeeck R. X-ray diffraction study of acid-degradable glasses. (ugent.be)
  • X-ray diffraction is now a common technique for the study of crystal structures and atomic spacing. (carleton.edu)
  • Studies
  • Anton Paar's long tradition as a manufacturer of scientific instruments for X-ray studies has been characterized by innovation and the continuous integration of new technologies in our design concepts. (anton-paar.com)
  • X-ray studies on the mechanical properties of boronized steel (T. Endoh and M. Kawakami). (elsevier.com)
  • Crystallization and X-ray diffraction studies of a two-domain laccase from Streptomyces griseoflavus. (nih.gov)
  • theory
  • books.google.com - Intended to acquaint the reader with the theory of x-ray diffraction, the experimental methods involved, and the main applications. (google.com)
  • crystal
  • An approach is proposed in which exact solutions to the dynamic problem of grazing-incidence diffraction in an ideal crystal are used as initial functions to calculate the diffuse component of diffraction in a crystal with defects. (osti.gov)
  • The diffuse component of diffraction is calculated for a crystal with surface defects of a dilatation-center type. (osti.gov)
  • angles
  • By scanning the sample through a range of 2 θ angles, all possible diffraction directions of the lattice should be attained due to the random orientation of the powdered material. (carleton.edu)