• Survivors often suffered not just grievous physical wounds but also concussions that, along with psychological trauma, became known as the invisible wounds of war. (click2houston.com)
  • Associated trauma from falls and blasts resulting in spinal fractures and head injuries can occur. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Introduction Among the factors related to survival among individuals with gun shot wounds (GSW) is distance to trauma care. (bmj.com)
  • 4,8,9 Wound care specialists must be educated on phytophotodermatitis, which unfortunately has been misdiagnosed as nonaccidental trauma and can provoke a potentially embarrassing situation to the unsuspecting parent or adult caregiver who cannot recall any reasons precipitating such injuries. (woundsresearch.com)
  • The Journal of Trauma, Injury, Infection and Critical Care. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even though stab wounds are inflicted at a much greater rate than gun shot wounds, they account for less than 10% of all penetrating trauma deaths. (wikipedia.org)
  • Observation can be used in place of surgery as it can substitute an unnecessary surgery, which makes it the preferred treatment of penetrating trauma secondary to a stab wound when hypovolemia or shock is not present. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stab wounds are one of the most common forms of penetrating trauma globally, but account for a lower mortality compared to blunt injuries due to their more focused impact on a person. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pub.L. 113-152) is a bill that would amend the Public Health Service Act, with respect to trauma care and research programs, to include in the definition of "trauma" an injury resulting from extrinsic agents other than mechanical force, including those that are thermal, electrical, chemical, or radioactive. (wikipedia.org)
  • Major trauma is injury that can potentially lead to serious outcomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Improving Trauma Care Act of 2014 would amend the Public Health Service Act, with respect to trauma care and research programs, to include in the definition of "trauma" an injury resulting from extrinsic agents other than mechanical force, including those that are thermal, electrical, chemical, or radioactive. (wikipedia.org)
  • Under current law, the definition of trauma means an injury resulting from exposure to a mechanical force. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bill would expand the definition of trauma to also include an injury resulting from exposure to an extrinsic agent that is thermal, electrical, chemical, or radioactive. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the organizations, the existing definition of "trauma" is too narrow and "excludes burn centers from participating in federal programs designed to support emergency medical care for those suffering from traumatic injuries or to compete for federal research support targeting trauma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Major trauma and the injury severity score--where should we set the bar? (wikipedia.org)
  • Download this free guide to learn about the five different types of wounds and basic equine wound care. (thehorse.com)
  • Veterinarians weigh in on the do's and don'ts of wound care, from discovery to recovery. (thehorse.com)
  • Tweets from the Kester News Hour and sessions on wound management, neonatal care, rehabilitation, and more. (thehorse.com)
  • Wound care is one of those many horse issues where there are as many opinions as there are horse owners. (thehorse.com)
  • Wound irrigation to remove debris and lessen bacterial contamination is an essential component of open fracture care. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Given the number of wounded vets reporting they could not get the mental health care they sought, the Wounded Warrior Project will begin a new program next year called Warrior Care Network. (military.com)
  • The group says it's a "first-of-its-kind medical care network" to connect wounded vets and their families with world-class, personalized mental health care. (military.com)
  • Despite Karsh's relative luck, having successfully received medical care, life has been difficult for him and his family since the injury. (palestinemonitor.org)
  • Very serious injuries pose significant challenges for the surgeons, and will require months or even years of care. (doctorswithoutborders.org)
  • But in the patients we treat in our postoperative care clinics, the exit wound gives an indication of the unusual destruction of soft tissues and bones inside the wound. (doctorswithoutborders.org)
  • Thought you might appreciate this item(s) I saw at Advances in Skin & Wound Care. (lww.com)
  • When COVID-19 became a global pandemic, the world was suddenly confronted with adapting and modifying health delivery systems to provide care during physical distancing, as well as issues specifically relevant in skin and wound care such as preventing facial skin injuries from personal protective equipment among healthcare workers. (lww.com)
  • Because crush injuries can affect any area of the body and can impact bones, muscles, organs and other tissues, this type of injury requires expert care from a variety of specialists. (osu.edu)
  • Experts in wound care, surgeons, pain management specialists, physical therapists and doctors from various specialties work together to create a care plan that addresses all your healthcare needs. (osu.edu)
  • 4. Keep jewelry clean or remove it during wound care. (sharecare.com)
  • For larger painful wounds, consider seeking the attention of a qualified physician experienced with wound care and management. (sharecare.com)
  • ore serious injuries, again knowing what to do first is important, even if follow-up care must be done by a medic or hospital emergency room. (sharecare.com)
  • As we move up to more serious injuries, again knowing what to do first is important, even if follow-up care must be done by a medic or hospital emergency room. (sharecare.com)
  • This includes a thorough initial assessment and diagnosis, timely resuscitation, knowledge of appropriate transfer criteria, early surgical care and wound coverage, rehabilitation, and continuous reassessment. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Surgery's earliest known document describing the care of wounds, The Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus , is dated about 1700 B.C. It describes the treatment of difficult wounds encountered on the battlefields of Egypt. (americanfarriers.com)
  • Advances in Wound Care is a bimonthly online journal that reports the latest scientific discoveries, translational research, and clinical developments in acute and chronic wound care. (healthcanal.com)
  • Each issue provides a digest of the latest research findings, innovative wound care strategies, industry product pipeline, and developments in biomaterials and skin and tissue regeneration to optimize patient outcomes. (healthcanal.com)
  • To manage and treat skin tears properly, many aspects of patient care must be considered, including coexisting factors, nutrition, pain management, local wounds, and the optimal dressing. (woundsource.com)
  • Twenty-eight full-thickness HAPIs occurred in fiscal year 2015 (FY15), and that trend continued into FY16 with 14 injuries on multiple units throughout a tertiary acute care center with 400 beds. (woundsresearch.com)
  • Pressure injuries (PIs) are costly to patients, health care institutions, and health care consumers. (woundsresearch.com)
  • This descriptive study was conducted to review the impact of a multidisciplinary pressure injury prevention (PIP) team designed to provide a diverse perspective of patient care and to operate as a vehicle for institution-wide implementation of best practice and data dissemination for HAPI reduction. (woundsresearch.com)
  • Previous work around PIP had focused on the creation of a best practice bundle, support surfaces, improving documentation, standardizing products, and building a team of certified wound care nurses. (woundsresearch.com)
  • To overcome veterans' reluctance to seek help for moral injury, Maguen incorporates mental health care into routine clinical visits. (heraldtribune.com)
  • She was admitted to the authors' burn center for wound care and pain control. (woundsresearch.com)
  • Meticulous wound care and pain control for the treatment of these burn-like lesions are essential as is the need for the wound care specialist to be well versed on this topic to quickly identify the etiology of the injury, thereby avoiding misdiagnosing the patient with nonaccidental traumatic injuries. (woundsresearch.com)
  • their unfortunate combination presents annually to health care wound specialists, dermatologists, and burn surgeons. (woundsresearch.com)
  • Efficiently care for pet injuries with animal wound care supplies. (calvetsupply.com)
  • Taking into consideration the cost of complications, the total cost of electrical stimulation therapy at one year was modelled to be less than standard wound care treatment. (scireproject.com)
  • Overall the authors concluded that electrical stimulation appears to be a cost-effective strategy over one year compared to standard wound care. (scireproject.com)
  • For a single study, over a one year timeframe, electrical stimulation in addition to standard wound care had lower costs and greater number of wounds healed. (scireproject.com)
  • Not only do staff enjoy coming to the journal club, but also it has created a culture of teamwork and identifying all pieces of the wound care puzzle. (woundsource.com)
  • It is important for care providers to thoroughly check the wound site inasmuch as a laceration of an artery often results in delayed complications sometimes leading to death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of the first principles of wound care come from Hippocrates who promoted keeping wounds dry except for irrigation. (wikipedia.org)
  • If you get a facial injury that bleeds, clean the area with soap and water to decrease the risk of infection. (medicinenet.com)
  • Every time you remove the dressing, examine the wound for signs of infection. (medicinenet.com)
  • After weathering a natural disaster, take steps to reduce your horses' chances of infection or injury. (thehorse.com)
  • High-pressure flow has been shown to remove more bacteria and debris and to lower the rate of wound infection compared with low-pressure irrigation, although recent in vitro and animal studies suggest that it may also damage bone. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Through collaboration with the hospital's Pressure Injury Prevention Committee, the Nursing Quality Committee, and infection control, the safety of using this dressing under personal protective equipment was determined by fit testing and oxygen saturation assessment. (lww.com)
  • 1. Use good hand-washing techniques before and after contact with your wound to help prevent the spread of infection. (sharecare.com)
  • You can prevent infection by washing your wound carefully with soap, water and rubbing alcohol. (sharecare.com)
  • Signs of infection include: redness spreading from the wound site, increasing pain, drainage, warmth, swelling and a bad odor from the sore. (sharecare.com)
  • If you experience any signs of infection, you should try to clean your wound and contact your doctor. (sharecare.com)
  • Infection caused by injuries. (attackpoint.org)
  • Eventually, the moisture alone, or in conjunction with friction, will cause a break in the surface of the skin that allows pathogens to enter, making moisture-associated injuries very vulnerable to infection. (woundsource.com)
  • A peripheral infection by lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) during peak vascular damage delayed wound repair and promoted a significant meningeal CD8+ T cell response. (jhu.edu)
  • In cases where there is no suspicion of bleeding or infection, there is no known benefit of surgery to correct any present injuries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Note added in Proof: Note the difference in glial cell reactivity when stab wound injury is performed through the skull (as recently published in März et al. (wiley.com)
  • A-C. Histograms depicting the number of different cell types proliferating in the neurogenic zones of the adult zebrafish telencephalon (A) and brain parenchyma (B) in non-injured control brains and after stab wound injury. (wiley.com)
  • C) Histogram depicting proliferation of different cell types in comparison to the total population of proliferating cells (black bars) following stab wound injury. (wiley.com)
  • The abdomen is the most commonly injured area from a stab wound. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most assaults resulting in a stab wound occur to men and persons of ethnic minorities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Add this abstract with record is bright: Examining literary and filmic representations of the open wound, this dissertation reveals injury to be an essential esthetic principle in the work of seven exemplary authors and two filmmakers from the French and German-language canons: Charles Baudelaire, Franz Kafka, Georges Bataille, Jean Genet, Hélène Cixous, Ingeborg Bachmann and Elfriede Jelinek, as well as Werner Schroeter and Michael Haneke. (harvard.edu)
  • There were multiple blunt force injuries of the head consisting of varying sized lacerations of the scalp and face, extensive skull fractures and intracranial injuries," according to her autopsy report. (wilsontimes.com)
  • One of the most interesting characteristics of AAM is its antibacterial and anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic, anti-fibrosis activity is an attractive approach for treating inflammatory disorders, wounds, and burns. (scirp.org)
  • The initiation of clot formation also leads to the release of certain chemicals that attract inflammatory cells to the are of the injury. (healthhype.com)
  • Depletion of pDCs or inhibition of IFN-α/β receptor signaling significantly impaired the acute inflammatory cytokine response and delayed reepithelization of skin wounds. (rupress.org)
  • Spinal cord injury (SCI) induces a robust inflammatory response and the extravasation of leukocytes into the injured tissue. (jneurosci.org)
  • Both inflammatory classical monocytes and non-classical monocytes from the blood swarmed the meninges 1 day after injury followed by an accumulation of CX3CR1+ macrophages over the ensuing 4-7 days. (jhu.edu)
  • The majority of the wounded, those whose bones, joints, nerves and arteries have been hit by bullets, will have certain side effects and conditions as a result of these injuries for the rest of their lives. (doctorswithoutborders.org)
  • Granulated white sugar and a generic ointment commonly called betadine, are mixed into a thick paste with the consistency of toothpaste or peanut butter and applied to the open wound. (americanfarriers.com)
  • Two (2) Masters' prepared nurses - a certified wound ostomy continence (WOC) nurse and a clinical nurse specialist certified nurse (CNS-BC) - led the transition to implement the terminology change. (o-wm.com)
  • Wound, ostomy, continence (WOC) nurses wear many hats. (woundsource.com)
  • As a WOC nurse, you have the ability to make such an impact in the lives of others and, too often, continue to affect their lives on a regular basis whether it be through visits in an outpatient wound clinic, teaching a patient and their loved one how to manage their new ostomy, or watching as someone is once again able to enjoy life because of better management of incontinence. (woundsource.com)
  • A group of mental health experts is giving a name to the guilt and remorse troops feel when they see or do bad things during war: moral injury. (ptsdsupport.net)
  • Moral injury is not now officially recognized as a mental health malady. (ptsdsupport.net)
  • The principal author of the moral injury paper, Dr. Brett Litz, said he and his colleagues are calling for wide-scale research into the issue to validate its existence and how it may lead to post-traumatic stress. (ptsdsupport.net)
  • Moral injury can occur from what you witness or what you do," said Litz, a clinical psychologist, professor and counselor for the Department of Veterans Affairs. (ptsdsupport.net)
  • That is moral injury. (ptsdsupport.net)
  • Litz and his collaborators specifically define a moral injury experience as "perpetrating, failing to prevent, bearing witness to or learning about acts that transgress deeply held moral beliefs and expectations. (ptsdsupport.net)
  • Treating troops with moral injury, they say, requires a deeply caring and respectful therapeutic relationship and a dialogue with a "benevolent moral authority. (ptsdsupport.net)
  • The presentation at the U.S. Naval Center's Combat Operational Stress Control conference represents the first official unveiling of moral injury as a war wound. (ptsdsupport.net)
  • The highlighting of moral injury comes after thousands of locally based Marines have deployed to Afghanistan, where civilian casualties are rising as that nearly 9-year-old war shows few signs of being resolved. (ptsdsupport.net)
  • Global Ethics Corner: Can Moral Injury Be a Wound of War? (carnegiecouncil.org)
  • As the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq wind on, there is a new idea about the damages of war: moral injury. (carnegiecouncil.org)
  • Everyone copes with moral injury. (carnegiecouncil.org)
  • Or, is moral injury to soldiers simply a more extreme extension of the moral issues faced by everyone? (carnegiecouncil.org)
  • Mark Walker, ' Military: 'Moral injury' as a wound of war ,' May 8, 2010. (carnegiecouncil.org)
  • It has a name: moral injury. (heraldtribune.com)
  • Unlike a better known casualty of war, post-traumatic stress disorder, or PTSD, moral injury is not yet a recognized psychiatric diagnosis, although the harm it inflicts is as bad if not worse. (heraldtribune.com)
  • The film depicts the emotional agony and self-destructive aftermath of moral injury and follows two sufferers along a path that alleviates their psychic distress and offers hope for eventual recovery. (heraldtribune.com)
  • Therapists both within and outside the Department of Veterans Affairs increasingly recognize moral injury as the reason so many returning vets are self-destructive and are not helped, or only partly helped, by established treatments for PTSD. (heraldtribune.com)
  • Moral injury has some of the symptoms of PTSD, especially anger, depression, anxiety, nightmares, insomnia and self-medication with drugs or alcohol. (heraldtribune.com)
  • But moral injury has an added burden of guilt, grief, shame, regret, sorrow and alienation that requires a very different approach to reach the core of a sufferer's psyche. (heraldtribune.com)
  • But the therapeutic community is only now becoming aware of the dimensions of moral injury and how it can be treated. (heraldtribune.com)
  • A lot of vets won't seek help because what's haunting them are not heroic acts, or they were betrayed, or they can't live with themselves because they made a mistake," said Brett Litz, a mental health specialist with the VA Boston Healthcare System and a leading expert on moral injury. (heraldtribune.com)
  • Therapists who study and treat moral injury have found that no amount of medication can relieve the pain of trying to live with an unbearable moral burden. (heraldtribune.com)
  • They say those suffering from moral injury contribute significantly to the horrific toll of suicide among returning vets - estimated as high as 18 to 22 a day in the United States, more than the number lost in combat. (heraldtribune.com)
  • Shira Maguen, a research psychologist and clinician at the San Francisco VA Medical Center, who studies and treats vets suffering from moral injury, said, "We have a big focus on self-forgiveness. (heraldtribune.com)
  • Moral injury is a new term for an age-old phenomenon. (quickseries.com)
  • While anyone can experience moral injury, Service members and Veterans are at a higher risk because of the nature of their job. (quickseries.com)
  • Leaders can help Service members and Veterans better understand their emotions by informing them about moral injury and guiding them on a path to self-forgiveness. (quickseries.com)
  • Are moral injury and PTSD the same? (quickseries.com)
  • Moral injury often appears at the same time as PTSD and the two share some common symptoms (e.g., anger, depression, sleep issues, suicide risk). (quickseries.com)
  • PTSD is a mental disorder that requires a diagnosis, while moral injury is not a psychiatric diagnosis and can be experienced at any time. (quickseries.com)
  • Although the best treatment for moral injury is still unclear, it is understood that the key to helping a person is treating the root cause of the internal conflict. (quickseries.com)
  • In the face of injuries caused by burns, the patient meets with numerous sequels could result in physical and psychological limitations, changing the quality of life in daily activities and even social relationships . (scirp.org)
  • The latest research - led by John O'Neill, from the Medical Research Council (MRC) Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge, England, in collaboration with NHS colleagues Ken Funn, from the Manchester Burns and Plastic Surgery Service, and John Blaikley, from the Centre for Respiratory Medicine and Allergy in Manchester - demonstrates for the first time how these clocks also influence how wounds heal. (laboratoryequipment.com)
  • Major burns can be devastating injuries. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Substances such as honey, molasses and syrup have been used since ancient time on burns and wounds with a high degree of success. (americanfarriers.com)
  • 5 Ortiz et al 7 demonstrated a decrease in bacterial counts on the wound surface and usefulness of the dressing in patients with burns. (o-wm.com)
  • And like those wounded troops, doctors say, many of those injured in the blasts Monday will require a lot of rehabilitation - both physical and mental. (wbur.org)
  • Soldiers who otherwise would've died in previous wars now suffer head injuries. (news-medical.net)
  • Complications such as repetitive head injuries or viral infections following mTBI have the potential to significantly alter the immune response and impact wound repair. (jhu.edu)
  • Ghrelin was considered as a potent endogenous growth hormone-releasing peptide, and its role in enhancing wound repair and regeneration was firstly investigated in whole-body irradiated (γ-ray) mice in this study. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • and vascular distress for arterial wounds, sometimes requiring subsequent amputations. (doctorswithoutborders.org)
  • The Ohio State Comprehensive Wound Center draws from the expertise and resources of a leading academic medical center, including advanced diagnostic techniques, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, minimally invasive vascular techniques and complex surgical reconstruction. (osu.edu)
  • Most mTBI patients resolve their meningeal vascular damage within 2-3 weeks, although the injury persists in a subset of patients for months. (jhu.edu)
  • WASHINGTON, D.C. - The spotlight on brain injuries suffered by American troops in Iraq this month is an example of America's episodic attention to this invisible war wound, which has affected hundreds of thousands over the past two decades but is not yet fully understood. (click2houston.com)
  • They cannot be dismissed as mere "headaches" - the word used by President Donald Trump as he said the injuries suffered by the troops in Iraq were not necessarily serious. (click2houston.com)
  • Milley said all are categorized as "mild" injuries, but in some cases the troops will be monitored "for the rest of their lives. (click2houston.com)
  • At area hospitals, doctors say they were confronted with the kinds of injuries U.S. troops get in Iraq and Afghanistan. (wbur.org)
  • The general had been pinning Purple Hearts on wounded troops when he got word that one of the patients wanted to see him. (washingtonpost.com)
  • We speak with Dr. Gene Bolles who for the last two years served as the chief of neurosurgery at Landstuhl Regional Medical Center-the largest hospital outside the U.S. for troops stationed in Europe and the Middle East-about what is not frequently discussed in the mainstream media: wounded soldiers. (democracynow.org)
  • Early evidence suggests that the psychological toll of these deployments - many involving prolonged exposure to combat-related stress over multiple rotations - may be disproportionately high compared with the physical injuries of combat. (rand.org)
  • psychological wounds. (qualityhealth.com)
  • He sheds light on the emotional, mental and psychological components of the injury process in an effort to minimize and cope with the unavoidable injuries that arise. (champonline.com)
  • In addition to the basic understanding of the wounding patterns and potential extent of the damage caused by the ballistic characteristics of the missile, three principles need to be emphasized in the course of the treatment: timely debridement, delivery of antibiotics, and delayed closure of the wound. (koreamed.org)
  • said in a 1987 Southern Medical Journal article: "Wounds treated with sugardine differ from wounds treated with antibiotics. (americanfarriers.com)
  • Prior to my observation, the wound was initially treated with neomycin powder wraps and antibiotics. (americanfarriers.com)
  • First, the risk of complications, especially infections, is very high for these types of injuries. (doctorswithoutborders.org)
  • The wound can progress and complications mount and so do the litigation dollars. (medleague.com)
  • Some of the possible complications caused by a TMGSW are: damage to great vessels such as the vena cava, aorta, pulmonary arteries damage to cardiac muscle massive hemorrhage cardiac tamponade hemomediastinum pneumomediastinum neurologic injury In many cases there is pneumothorax or hemothorax due to the proximity of the lungs to the mediastinum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Animal and clinical studies of the use of antiseptics in contaminated wounds have yielded conflicting outcomes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Antibiotic irrigation has been effective in experimental studies in some types of animal wounds, but human clinical data are unconvincing due to poor study design. (biomedsearch.com)
  • There are few animal or clinical studies of musculoskeletal wounds. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Often they lose consciousness for 30 seconds to six minutes -- but there's no penetrating injury,' said David K. Johnson, associate professor of clinical psychology at the University of Kansas. (news-medical.net)
  • Spinal cord injury (SCI) elicits a complex cascade of events that further promote tissue destruction and ultimately results in poor clinical prognosis. (jneurosci.org)
  • More than 75 percent of wounded veterans are dealing with post-traumatic stress disorder , according to the latest annual survey sponsored by the Wounded Warrior Project. (military.com)
  • This issue has been investigated particularly intensively in the detection of vital skin wounds and in the histopathological determination of skin wound age. (springer.com)
  • However, critical voices highlight methodological problems such as the number of samples per skin wound, the undetermined effects caused by air and circulatory status, as well as environmental conditions (airflow, temperature, etc. (springer.com)
  • The time of day you sustain a skin wound may influence how quickly it heals, according to a new study. (laboratoryequipment.com)
  • This mini-review offers a focuses on modern aspects of the biomaterials, growth factors, biocompatibility, and acellular matrix which are the basic elements for use in the tissue regeneration and replacement after an injury. (scirp.org)
  • However, tabular statements are now available not only for histopathological wound age determination but also for the determination of fracture age. (springer.com)
  • SAN FRANCISCO -- The San Francisco 49ers say linebacker Aldon Smith suffered minor injuries during an incident Friday night in San Jose, Calif., and that he is recovering comfortably. (espn.com)
  • We) are aware that Aldon Smith incurred minor injuries during an incident last night," the 49ers said in a statement. (espn.com)
  • Officers fired at a fleeing pickup truck nearly struck the dog's handler and hit the dog, causing minor injuries, the police department said. (pe.com)
  • Thoughts with regard to applying darwinian medicine (e.G., no nsaids) to minor injuries (sprains, contusions, and broken fings. (healthtap.com)
  • Steve Nardizzi, chief executive officer for the organization, said more than 23,000 veterans registered as members of Wounded Warrior Project completed the survey , making it the largest collection of data on the post-9/11 generation of wounded vets yet collected. (military.com)
  • Diana Keel also suffered from "multiple sharp injuries" consisting of "large incised wounds" on the left side of her face and neck, the report indicates. (wilsontimes.com)
  • 2 Maintenance of skin integrity can be challenging because increased secretions, perspiration, drooling, short neck, voluminous skin folds, and immobility contribute to increased moisture- and friction-related injuries. (o-wm.com)
  • Pressure injuries from the flanges, ties, and stoma may exacerbate the severity of moisture-related breakdown. (o-wm.com)
  • Interventions that may be needed depending on severity of the injury include airway, intravenous access, and control of hemorrhage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other diagnostic tests such as a computed tomography scan or various contrast studies can be used to more definitively classify the injury in both severity and location. (wikipedia.org)
  • For research purposes the definition is often based on an injury severity score (ISS) of greater than 15. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using mice deficient in HAS3, wild-type mice, and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) we induced both acute and chronic liver injury. (ku.edu)