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  • CELLS
  • Cultured newt (Notophthalmus viridescens) limb cells were transfected by nuclear microinjection of plasmids which provided RA-sensitive reporter activity that could be normalized for differences in cell recovery and transfection efficiency. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • The cells were implanted under the wound epidermis of newt hindlimb blastemas. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • When cells were implanted into contralateral proximal and distal hindlimb blastemas the proximal-to-distal ratio for activation of the reporter through the response element was approximately 3.5-fold, suggesting that a gene whose expression is regulated by RA could be differentially activated along the proximodistal axis during limb regeneration. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • However these factors were not upregulated during regeneration as would be expected if blastema cells acquired pluripotency. (biomedcentral.com)
  • After the loss of an appendage undifferentiated, pluri- or multipotent cells from different origins accumulate at the damaged surface to form a regeneration blastema. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Despite the heterogeneous origin of the blastema cells, histologically they appear as a homogeneous population of cells and therefore have been traditionally viewed as a single cell type. (biomedcentral.com)
  • system
  • Retinoic acid (RA) is able to respecify the positional identity of the blastema to a more proximal value, thus raising the possibility that the RA response system is activated during limb regeneration. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Besides specific complications associated with the wounds themselves, there may be impairment of the immune system and of other organs. (regenerativemedicine.net)