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  • Somatic
  • Benirschke K, Brownhill LE, Beath MM (1962) Somatic chromosomes of the horse, the donkey and their hybrids, the mule and the hinny. (springer.com)
  • The review provides a brief account of the structure of somatic and meiotic chromosomes, stressing the high conservation of structure in plants and animals, with emphasis on aspects that require further research. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These studies reaffirmed that chromosome structure and behavior in somatic and germ cell divisions were common to all plants and animals. (biomedcentral.com)
  • fusions
  • The trajectory of reorganization of chromosome blocks since the common ancestor of Glossophaginae and Phyllostominae subfamilies suggests that multiple tandem fusions, as well as disruption and fusions of conserved phyllostomid chromosomes were major drivers of karyotypic reshuffling in Tonatia . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Telomere shortening in these mice is accompanied by an increase in the number of chromosome ends without detectable telomeres and in the frequency of chromosome fusions ( 15 )( 16 ). (rupress.org)
  • karyotypic
  • Macrotus californicus chromosome paints will be a valuable tool for documenting the pattern of karyotypic evolution within Phyllostomidae radiation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our chromosome painting data indicated that the Palearctic common buzzard (BBU) shared several common chromosomal rearrangements with some Old World vultures, and was found to be more closely related to other Accipitridae than to Neotropical buteonine raptors from the karyotypic perspective. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Integration of empirical data with proposed models of chromosome evolution was performed to understand the probable conditions for Tonatia 's karyotypic evolution. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Because of their high levels of karyotypic variation, phyllostomid bats are an ideal group to investigate the mechanisms responsible for chromosome evolution and stasis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • meiosis
  • The DCC contains a subcomplex (condensin I DC ) similar to the evolutionarily conserved condensin complexes which play fundamental roles in chromosome dynamics during mitosis and meiosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • phenotype
  • Several studies reported the clinical manifestations of chromosome 4 duplication and found that this disorder displays distinctive phenotype, including craniofacial, renal, heart and thumb defects. (biomedcentral.com)
  • reciprocal
  • The short arms also join to form a reciprocal product, which in the acrocentric chromosomes, typically contains nonessential genes and repetitive sequences such as nucleolar organizing regions, and is usually lost within a few cell divisions. (alliedacademies.org)
  • mammalian
  • Here, we show that large-scale chromatin opening and changes in intranuclear positioning of chromosome regions can be induced by normal levels of endogenous transcription factors acting on mammalian regulatory sequences. (biologists.org)
  • Although ectopic affinity-tethering of specific loci can be used to relocate chromosomes to the nuclear periphery, endogenous nuclear envelope proteins that control such a mechanism in mammalian cells have yet to be widely identified. (biomedcentral.com)
  • genus
  • Sex chromosomes in the genus Leporinus (Teleostei, Anostomidae) present some features that make this group very interesting for the study of sex determination mechanisms and sex chromosome structure, composition and evolution. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In general, the sex chromosomes of the Leporinus genus have morphological similarities. (biomedcentral.com)
  • human
  • To identify other NE factors, 22 novel NE transmembrane proteins (NETs) [ 29 ] and emerin were screened for their ability to contribute to chromosome positioning patterns in human cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Correspondingly, chromosome 5 was more peripheral in the nuclei of human liver than in kidney. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The same degree of proximity does not occur between human β-globin genes or between murine globin genes, which are more constrained to their chromosome territories. (rupress.org)
  • Since the genetic code was deciphered much has been learnt about the chromosome structure shared by all organisms from yeast to human. (biomedcentral.com)
  • MetaSystems Human FISH probe products are CE labeled and classified as IVD products in the EU according to the In-Vitro Diagnostic Medical Device Directive 98/79/EC. (metasystems-probes.com)
  • gene-rich
  • Previous work has demonstrated a more decondensed large-scale chromatin structure and a more internal nuclear position for gene-rich versus gene-poor chromosome regions. (biologists.org)
  • Our results indicate that both large-scale chromatin decondensation and changes in nuclear positioning as observed for large, complex gene-rich chromosome regions can be reproduced by endogenous regulatory sequences acting within simple repetitive transgene arrays. (biologists.org)