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  • distal weakness
  • Symmetric distal weakness is often accompanied by sensory changes, reflecting a polyneuropathy that can be due to endocrine causes (diabetes, B12, or folate deficiency), toxic effects (e.g., from alcohol use), or inflammation (Guillian-Barre or chronic inflammatory demyelinating syndrome, cryoglobulinemia, vasculitis). (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Patients with symmetric distal weakness and sensory changes should undergo nerve conduction studies (NCS) to help determine whether the damage is axonal (found with most endocrine or toxic causes) or demyelinating (seen with most inflammatory causes) and further narrow the differential diagnosis. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • proximal weakness
  • Symmetric proximal weakness tends to be due to myopathy, including inflammatory muscle disease (dermatomyositis, polymyositis, inclusion body myositis, or myositis related to a systemic illness like scleroderma or lupus), drug-induced disease (statin-induced/corticosteroid-induced myopathy, alcohol, or illicit drug-induced myopathies), or endocrinopathies (thyroid or adrenal disease). (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Pashman
  • Here are a few examples of Prestige Artificial Cervical Disc surgical cases, Bryan Artificial Disc, Anterior Cervical Disectomy and Fusion, and massive spinal reconstruction cases performed by Dr. Pashman and his surgical team. (espine.com)
  • Dorsal
  • On the right the nucleus pulposus has herniated upward into the dorsal longitudinal ligament and spinal cord, creating swelling and inflammation. (marvistavet.com)
  • On the right the disk has been squashed between the adjacent vertebral bodies and the annulus fibrosis is bulging into the dorsal longitudinal ligament and spinal cord. (marvistavet.com)
  • Diagnosis
  • The best strategy for identifying the source of localizing weakness is to think critically about what part of the nervous system is affected and then consider a differential diagnosis for diseases or states that affect that segment. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • However, the distribution of the weakness is helpful in determining where the lesion is, and coupled with a detailed history and confirmatory imaging, it can lead to a diagnosis. (renalandurologynews.com)