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  • Salinity
  • E-P determines surface salinity of the ocean, which helps determine the stability of the water column. (nasa.gov)
  • Salinity and temperature determine the density of ocean water, and density influences the circulation. (nasa.gov)
  • The South Australian Minister for Water Ian Hunter says a 12 month scoping study has found the best way to manage salinity in the lower lakes, is by raising and lowering lake levels. (abc.net.au)
  • In this introductory lesson to Unit VII, students explore the relationship between salinity and latitude before jumping into a brief synopsis of the water cycle. (betterlesson.com)
  • This lesson involves a brief recap of the vocabulary and phases of the water cycle, while also addressing the relationship between salinity and latitude. (betterlesson.com)
  • Once students saw this, they were able to infer that the increased rainfall dilutes the ocean water around those latitudes, dropping the water's salinity. (betterlesson.com)
  • rainfall
  • Using satellite data from three Earth-orbiting NASA missions -- Quick Scatterometer (QuikScat), Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (Grace), and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) -- a science team at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., directly observed the seasonal cycling of water into and out of South America. (redorbit.com)
  • In addition, measurements of the flow of moisture across relevant segments of the continent's Pacific and Atlantic coasts were found to correspond with measurements of the annual cycle of rainfall in the two basins and the Andes Mountains. (redorbit.com)
  • processes
  • The additional components of oceanic water transport are few, including the mixing of fresh water through the oceanic boundary layer, transport by ocean currents, and sea ice processes. (nasa.gov)
  • atmosphere
  • The team not only questions the role aerosols are playing on the regional and global water cycle, but they also suggest that aerosol pollution increases the solar heating of the atmosphere, and reduces the solar heating of the surface of the planet. (ens-newswire.com)
  • Their research confirmed that the amount of water as rain or snow flowing into the continent from the marine atmosphere is in balance with the estimated amount of water returned to the ocean by the continent's rivers. (redorbit.com)
  • Higher temperatures cause the plant cells which control the openings (stoma) where water is released to the atmosphere to open, whereas colder temperatures cause the openings to close. (usgs.gov)
  • rivers
  • Illustration of the water cycle showing the ocean, land, mountains, and rivers returning to the ocean. (nasa.gov)
  • Inputs from rivers and melting ice can also contribute to fresh water gains. (nasa.gov)
  • Ancient people thought that the water from rivers flowing into oceans spilled over the ends of the earth. (talkorigins.org)
  • This leaves less than 1% of the freshwater, or 0.007% of the total water on Earth, on the surface in lakes and rivers that are easily accessible. (brighthub.com)
  • Water going out from the continent was measured by combining data from river flow gauges with projections from models that predict the amount of water discharged at the rivers' mouths. (redorbit.com)
  • If we pollute our soils, the water we contaminate goes into our air, travels and can end up on or in our ice, our oceans, lakes, rivers and stream, and … you get my point. (nvdaily.com)
  • climate change
  • The impacts of climate change and variability on the quality of human life occur primarily through changes in the water cycle. (nasa.gov)
  • As stated in the National Research Council's report on Research Pathways for the Next Decade (NRC, 1999): "Water is at the heart of both the causes and effects of climate change. (nasa.gov)
  • Climate change, weather and human life are highly affected by changes in this continuous, interconnected cycle. (esa.int)
  • The experts also discussed the challenges and opportunities in water cycle science in order to reduce uncertainties in water-related climate change impacts and adaptation strategies in water resources. (esa.int)
  • ecosystems
  • The water cycle is also essential for the maintenance of most life and ecosystems on the planet. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protective function of forests for water quality and water-related hazards, as well as adequate water supplies for forest ecosystems in Europe, are potentially at risk due to changing climate and changing land-management practices. (springer.com)
  • Water budgets of forest ecosystems are heavily dependent on climate and forest structure. (springer.com)
  • We'll have greater understanding of floods and drought, surface and ground water quality, and the availability of freshwater resources for agriculture and ecosystems. (redorbit.com)
  • flows
  • Since water always flows downhill, "convergent " areas-think valleys, hollows, etc.-are typically wetter and more densely populated by vegetation. (plos.org)
  • floods
  • Data provided by SMOS will be important for weather and climate modelling, water resource management, agriculture planning, ocean currents and circulation studies and forecasting hazardous events such as floods. (esa.int)
  • transpire
  • How much water do plants transpire? (usgs.gov)
  • During a growing season, a leaf will transpire many times more water than its own weight. (usgs.gov)
  • An acre of corn gives off about 3,000-4,000 gallons (11,400-15,100 liters) of water each day, and a large oak tree can transpire 40,000 gallons (151,000 liters) per year. (usgs.gov)
  • The amount of water that plants transpire varies greatly geographically and over time. (usgs.gov)
  • When moisture is lacking, plants can begin to senesce (premature ageing, which can result in leaf loss) and transpire less water. (usgs.gov)
  • Plants transpire water at different rates. (usgs.gov)
  • Catchments
  • We find that for most catchments, COSMO-REA6 closes the water budget within the error estimates. (mdpi.com)
  • Scientists
  • Synthesizing recent research on the interactions of forest management and the water regime of forests in Europe and beyond, the book makes an important contribution to the ongoing dialogue between scientists dealing with different scales of forest-water interactions. (springer.com)
  • In this article we are saying that perhaps an even bigger impact of aerosols is on the water budget of the planet," said Scripps professor V. Ramanathan, who along with professor Paul Crutzen, a coauthor of the new study, led the INDOEX science team as co-chief scientists. (ens-newswire.com)
  • For the first time, NASA scientists using space-based measurements have directly monitored and measured the complete cycle of water movement for an entire continent. (redorbit.com)
  • Scientists compared that estimate with the monthly changes in South America's mass over two annual cycles, from August 2002 to July 2004, as measured by Grace. (redorbit.com)
  • Young scientists get their feet wet as they learn about the water cycle in this series of activities. (lessonplanet.com)
  • melts
  • As the snow on the tops of the mountains melts away, water slowly leaves the system, resulting in a dry-down. (plos.org)
  • drought
  • New research in PLOS ONE from Diego Riveros-Iregui, Theresa Lorenzo, Liyin Lian, and Jia Hu , shows that by using this technique in the soils the Rocky Mountains, we can learn a lot about how plants along the mountain slopes respond to drought and in turn, better understanding the carbon cycle. (plos.org)
  • teach
  • Students can teach their family about the water cycle and report their experience to the class. (uen.org)
  • Think of an innovative way to teach about the water cycle. (prezi.com)
  • I'm also not sure I'd want to spend this amount of time on the water cycle when it's such a small piece of the weather unit we teach. (nsta.org)
  • equation
  • To calculate the continent's overall water balance equation, Liu's team compared the amount of water coming into the continent with that going out. (redorbit.com)
  • Science
  • Earlier this year, ESA launched, as part of its new Support To Science Element programme, the Water Cycle Multi-Mission Observation Strategy (WACMOS) project in collaboration with GEWEX to support the development of novel techniques to study the water cycle with satellites. (esa.int)
  • Our water, at least half of it anyway, at 4.6 billion years is probably older than our planet and even our own sun, according to researchers who published their findings in a September 2014 issue of Science Magazine. (nvdaily.com)
  • surface
  • They determined that the seasonal mass change is dominated by changes in the amount of surface and underground water. (redorbit.com)
  • The effluent from WWTPs in Limburg is currently still discharged into surface water and then carried out of the area. (kwrwater.nl)
  • rain
  • You may think that every drop of rain that falls from the sky or each glass of water that you drink, is brand new, but it has always been here and is part of The Water Cycle. (surfnetkids.com)
  • [ better source needed ] The rain on land contains 107,000 km 3 (26,000 cu mi) of water per year and a snowing only 1,000 km 3 (240 cu mi). (wikipedia.org)
  • seasonal
  • In this study, researchers wanted to understand not only how the production of soil respiration responds to the seasonal loss of water during the summer, but how exactly the composition of the carbon dioxide that makes up that respiration is changing. (plos.org)
  • Landscapes
  • This research was conducted in the Stringer Creek Watershed, located in the Tenderfoot Creek Experimental Forest, an area of long-standing research in how carbon and water cycles interact in mountain landscapes. (plos.org)
  • moves
  • While this is the most productive period of the year for plants and animals, what often goes unnoticed, is that the water that moves through this system is slowly disappearing during the summer. (plos.org)
  • plants
  • Like Butterfly HD and Plants HD, the Recycle HD and Water Cycle HD apps held the attention of our younger children. (apple.com)
  • Plants put down roots into the soil to draw water and nutrients up into the stems and leaves. (usgs.gov)
  • Some plants which grow in arid regions, such as cacti and succulents, conserve precious water by transpiring less water than other plants. (usgs.gov)
  • Plants need water. (plos.org)
  • Plants that need a lot of water, grow where there's a lot water, and vice versa. (plos.org)
  • students
  • Classroom activity helps students understand the water cycle. (uen.org)
  • For middle- and high-school students, NOAA takes the water cycle beyond what is taught in elementary school. (surfnetkids.com)
  • I want to incorporate fun books and activities to help my students remember concepts such as the water cycle. (prezi.com)
  • Along with learning about the water cycle, students also learn about the importance of the reproducibility of results. (nsta.org)
  • We start the unit with one of the most fundamental concepts, and one in which students have probably had prior exposure to - the water cycle. (betterlesson.com)
  • Students have the opportunity read brief "scenario cards" to practice identifying and applying the steps of the water cycle to novel problems. (betterlesson.com)
  • changes
  • During the course of the water cycle, water changes state from liquid to gas and back to liquid. (brighthub.com)
  • books.google.com - The Terrestrial Water Cycle: Natural and Human-Induced Changes is a comprehensive volume that investigates the changes in the terrestrial water cycle and the natural and anthropogenic factors that cause these changes. (google.com)
  • It also graphically shows distillation of water as it changes to gas. (enasco.com)
  • soils
  • I tend to think of soils as a sponge-there are lots of pores and holes in soil and if those are filled by water, then air can't move through the soils. (plos.org)