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  • vulva
  • Increasing age Exposure to human papillomavirus Smoking Being infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Having a history of precancerous conditions of the vulva Having a skin condition involving the vulva Many malignancies can develop in vulvar structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • women
  • Initiation of hormonal contraceptives that contain low- dose estrogen before the age of 16 could predispose women to vulvar vestibulitis syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • A significantly lower pain threshold, especially in the posterior vestibulum, has also been associated with the use of hormonal contraceptives in women without vulvar vestibulitis syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • disease
  • The visible borders of vulvar Paget disease are often misleading as Paget cells may spread along the basal layers of normal appearing skin with multicentric foci. (wikipedia.org)
  • pain
  • Vulvodynia is a chronic pain syndrome that affects the vulvar area and occurs without an identifiable cause. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Vulvar vestibulitis syndrome (VVS), vestibulodynia, or simply vulvar vestibulitis or "localized (to the vestibule) provoked vulvodynia" refers to pain localized to the vestibular region. (wikipedia.org)
  • case
  • In one case study, a patient with advanced metastatic vulvar epithelioid sarcoma showed a partial resolution of both lung and pleural metastases when pazopanib was administered, whereas all other therapies had failed MET (mesenchymal to epithelial transition) is another biological pathway that is likely involved in the development and progression of epithelioid sarcoma. (wikipedia.org)