• Research has suggested that the sites of MAM are the primary sites of activity for γ-secretase activity and amyloid precursor protein (APP) localization along with the presenilin 1 (PS1), presenilin 2 (PS2) proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bestrophin-1 consists of 585 amino acids and both N- and the C-termini are located within the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, if a protein binds to a hydrophobic region of the channel (and therefore, has a transmembrane region), the molecule in question might be composed of the amino acids alanine, leucine, or phenylalanine, as they are all hydrophobic themselves. (wikipedia.org)
  • We observed that the expression of mHtt, but not Htt, resulted in changes of the open state conductance and voltage-dependence when compared to control cells cultured in the absence of the expression. (frontiersin.org)
  • While synthetic ion channel research attempts to prepare compounds that show conductance via a defined path, the elucidation of mechanism is difficult and seldom unambiguous. (wikipedia.org)
  • integrin, beta 1 (fibronectin receptor. (broadinstitute.org)
  • Therefore, there are four main transmembrane receptor types: G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), tyrosine kinase receptors (RTKs), serine/threonine kinase receptors (RSTKs), and ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs). (wikipedia.org)
  • ROS generated via pharmacologic activation of the mitochondrial potassium-sensitive ATP channel (mitoK(ATP)) and the endogenous G-protein coupled receptor ligand, apelin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Compared to biological channels, they usually allow fluxes of similar magnitude but are minuscule in size (less than 5k Dalton vs. (wikipedia.org)
  • A channel blocker is the biological mechanism in which a particular molecule is used to prevent the opening of ion channels in order to produce a physiological response in a cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • In December of the same year, a further article was released in The Journal of Biological Chemistry stating that Apaf-1 is the regulator of apoptosis, through activation of procaspase-9. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ions interact intimately with the inner walls of the channel and are selected by their 3-dimensional structure, not merely by their size and charge ( Colombini 2016 ). (tcdb.org)
  • In mammalian cells, once cytochrome c is released, it binds to the cytosolic protein Apaf-1 to facilitate the formation of apoptosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The oligomerization of Apaf-1 appears to be accompanied by synchronized recruitment of procaspase-9 to the CARD motif at the Apaf-1 N-terminus. (wikipedia.org)
  • A loss of function of the Best1 chloride channel could likely explain some of the most common issues associated with BVMD: an inability to regulate intracellular ion concentrations and regulate overall cell volume. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is also now a crystal structure of the monomeric, inactive Apaf-1 subunit (PDB 3SFZ). (wikipedia.org)