• A volcanic eruption occurs when the force of the magma plumbing system exceeds the force holding the rock together between the magma chamber and the surface. (hawaii247.com)
  • Since the actual forces imparted on the magma chamber from distant earthquake waves are generally low with respect to the force imparted by the magma chamber itself, the magma chamber must already be poised for an eruption. (hawaii247.com)
  • The 1975 M7.2 Kalapana earthquake, which occurred on a fault patch under the entire Kilauea Summit and East Rift Zone area, was followed within hours by a short eruption at the summit of Kilauea. (hawaii247.com)
  • These findings may help us improve our predictions of climate response following the next strong high-latitude eruption, specifically concerning changes in temperature and precipitation," said Oman. (nasa.gov)
  • Focusing on northern Europe which is downwind of Iceland, one of the world's most active volcanic regions, they examined samples taken from peatlands and lake beds in mainland northern Europe, Great Britain, Ireland and the Faroe Islands, alongside previously existing samples taken from other sites across northern Europe. (phys.org)
  • The volcano is in a highly active volcanic region that represents a portion of the Pacific Ring of Fire. (wikipedia.org)
  • 175.38 The 2009 Tonga undersea volcanic eruption began on March 16, 2009, near the island of Hunga Tonga, approximately 11 kilometres (6.8 mi) from the Tongan capital of Tongatapu. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers found that Iceland's Laki volcanic event, a series of about ten eruptions from June 1783 through February 1784, significantly changed atmospheric circulations across much of the Northern Hemisphere. (nasa.gov)
  • Using a sophisticated computer model developed by NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York, the researchers linked the Laki eruptions to a cascade of effects that rippled across much of the Northern Hemisphere, altering surface temperatures that ultimately resulted in much below normal rainfall over the Sahel of Africa and record low water levels on the Nile River for up to a year. (nasa.gov)
  • Volcanic debris that is thrust into the troposphere and stratosphere can actually remain for months, up to a few years. (noaa.gov)
  • Based on their calculation, although there was only about 4% of the total SO2 from the Sarychev eruption (1.2±0.2 106 tons) transported to the tropical stratosphere, it would result in 6 ±1 104 tons sulfate aerosol, which is several times larger than the 1.5-2 104 tons per year required to explain the increase trend of the tropical stratospheric aerosol. (innovations-report.com)
  • In the past decade, the Sarychev eruption in 2009 was not the only case that made advantage of the ASM circulation to transport sulfate aerosol to the tropical stratosphere, and "we may expect more in the future. (innovations-report.com)
  • According to NOAA's Earth Systems Research Laboratory (ESRL), Benjamin Franklin was the first person to suggest that major volcanic eruptions could emit enough ash and other particles into the atmosphere and that it could have a significant impact on short-term climate, even great distances from where the eruption occurred. (noaa.gov)
  • Volcanic eruptions can inject great amounts of gases and solid particles (ash) into the upper atmosphere. (mpg.de)
  • Moreover, heterogenic chemical reactions take place at the surface of the volcanic aerosol particles leading to chlorine activation and thus to the depletion of the ozone layer. (mpg.de)
  • The hazards expected from steam-driven eruptions are violent ejections of hot blocks and ash, and the formation of "hurricane-like" currents of wet ash and coarse particles that radiate from the explosion vent. (upi.com)
  • the response to the three largest tropical eruptions - AD 1258/1259, 1452/1453 and the 1809+1815 double pulse of eruptions - is sharply reduced in the reconstruction. (medindia.net)
  • More incidences of volcanic ash are recorded over the past 1,000 years, because evidence is better preserved and historical records are more complete, leading the team to estimate an average recurrence of 44 years. (phys.org)
  • Lava flowed about 1 kilometer (0.6 miles) from the fissure, and several huge volcanic rocks rolled down the mountainside. (wkbn.com)
  • Hawaiian eruptions often begin as a line of vent eruptions along a fissure vent, a so-called "curtain of fire. (wikipedia.org)
  • Volcanologists at GeoNet , which operates a geological hazard monitoring system, described the eruption as impulsive and short-lived , with an ash plume that rose to more than 1.86 miles above the vent. (upi.com)
  • For many of the occurrences, the researchers were also able to match sample data to historical records or to existing geological data which charted specific eruptions. (phys.org)
  • Ken Hudnut, a geophysicist for the United States Geological Survey, stated that "The association with the volcanic activity seems to be an interesting added dimension to this. (wikipedia.org)
  • Volcanologists say there have been more than 23 smaller eruptions at Yellowstone since the last major eruption approximately 640,000 years ago. (phys.org)
  • Volcanic eruptions can offer a spectacular and very dangerous scene as they spew millions of tons of ash into the atmosphere. (noaa.gov)
  • It is not uncommon for volcanic ash to travel thousands of miles after it suspended in the atmosphere. (noaa.gov)
  • Ample amounts of volcanic ash in the atmosphere have been responsible for creating some magnificent sunsets. (noaa.gov)
  • Due to its size and mass, the volcanic ash rapidly falls out of the atmosphere again. (mpg.de)
  • By combining this data with Ridgwell's global climate model, the team deduced the amount of carbon added to the ocean and atmosphere and concluded that volcanic activity during the opening of the North Atlantic was the dominant force behind the PETM. (eurekalert.org)
  • DLR) are evaluating satellite images to investigate the effects of the eruptions on the atmosphere. (dlr.de)
  • Volcanic eruptions have not only regional, but also continental or even global effects on the atmosphere. (dlr.de)
  • The initial March 16-17 eruption sent ash and smoke up to 20 kilometres (12 mi) into the atmosphere and an initial inspection reported that the volcano has breached the ocean surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Volcanic dome atop the Novarupta vent, Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes, Katmai National Park and Preserve, Alaska. (nasa.gov)
  • The sudden hydrothermal eruption at White Island in New Zealand was short-lived but produced an ash plume that rose nearly two miles above the vent. (upi.com)
  • We know of sites in New Zealand where material has been blasted out over two miles from the vent by such eruptions. (upi.com)
  • Oregon scientists who correctly predicted the 2011 eruption of the Axial Seamount underwater volcano years before it occurred, now say another underwater volcano off the Oregon coast gave off signals just hours before it erupted. (voanews.com)
  • Underwater hydrophones showed a sudden increase in seismic energy about 2.6 hours before the eruption started about 400 kilometers off the Oregon coast, according to the scientific team. (voanews.com)
  • These scientists have come close to confirming something we had only guessed at: that the mass extinction of this ancient time was indeed related to a series of volcanic eruptions,' says Lisa Boush, program director in NSF's Division of Earth Sciences. (nsf.gov)
  • For several of these events, scientists have noted that large igneous provinces, which provide evidence of widespread volcanic activity, arose at about the same time. (nsf.gov)
  • To make their findings, the Oregon team had some other unique tools at their disposal, including a one-of-a-kind robotic submersible used to bounce sound waves off the seafloor, allowing scientists to map the topography of the Axial Seamount before and after the eruption. (voanews.com)
  • Holidaymakers concerned about fresh volcanic eruptions causing flight-disrupting ash clouds might be reassured by a study setting out the first reliable estimates of their frequency. (phys.org)
  • Lead author Dr Liz Watson, from the School of Geography at Leeds, said: "Reliable estimates of the frequency of volcanic ash events could help airlines, insurance companies and the travelling public mitigate the economic losses and disruption caused by ash clouds in the future. (phys.org)
  • So with the help of the ASM anticyclonic circulation, this high-latitude volcanic eruption will not only influence the climate in the northern hemisphere where the Sarychev located, but also have impact on the southern hemisphere, just as a tropical eruption does. (innovations-report.com)
  • However, super eruptions do not only have regional effects but can also be responsible for a decrease in the global temperature by several degrees - having far-reaching climatological consequences. (mpg.de)
  • Researchers have said that some climate cooling caused by past volcanic eruptions may not be evident in tree-ring reconstructions of temperature change. (medindia.net)
  • The researchers compared temperature reconstructions from actual tree-ring data with temperature estimates from climate models driven with past volcanic eruptions. (medindia.net)
  • Using a theoretical model of tree-growth driven by the simulated temperature changes, the team determined that the cooling response recorded by the trees after a volcanic eruption was limited by biological growth effects. (medindia.net)
  • The potential absence of rings in the first one to three years following eruption further degrades the temperature reconstruction. (medindia.net)
  • By accounting for these various effects in the tree growth model, the researchers were able to reproduce the reduced and smeared cooling seen in the actual tree-ring temperature reconstruction, including the near absence and delay of cooling following the massive 1258 eruption. (medindia.net)
  • Some climate cooling caused by past volcanic eruptions may not be evident in tree-ring reconstructions of temperature change, because large enough temperature drops lead to greatly shortened or even absent growing seasons, according to climate researchers who compared tree-ring temperature reconstructions with model simulations of past temperature changes. (environmentalresearchweb.org)
  • Having a before-and-after map allowed geologists to clearly distinguish the lava flows from the 2011 eruption from the flows of previous eruptions in the area. (voanews.com)
  • On the one extreme there are effusive Hawaiian eruptions, which are characterized by lava fountains and fluid lava flows, which are typically not very dangerous. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among the hazards in distant areas are the effects of toxic volcanic ashes and problems of the respiratory system, eyes and skin, as well as psychological effects, injuries, transport and communication problems, waste disposal and water supplies issues, collapse of buildings and power outage. (fluoridealert.org)
  • During volcanic eruptions and their immediate aftermath, increased respiratory system morbidity has been observed as well as mortality among those affected by volcanic eruptions. (fluoridealert.org)
  • RIVERSIDE, Calif. -- A natural global warming event that took place 56 million years ago was triggered almost entirely by volcanic eruptions that occurred as Greenland separated from Europe during the opening of the North Atlantic Ocean, according to an international team of researchers that includes Andy Ridgwell, a University of California, Riverside professor of earth sciences. (eurekalert.org)
  • This was done, for example, in the 1990s after the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines," explain the researchers. (dlr.de)
  • The researchers also looked at the intensity of the eruptions responsible for producing volcanic ash clouds . (phys.org)
  • Extremely large volcanic eruptions have been linked to global climate change, biotic turnover, and, for the Younger Toba Tuff eruption 74,000 years ago, near-extinction of modern humans. (mpg.de)
  • In order to answer these questions and - in particular - to understand the effects of very large volcanic eruptions on our climate and the Earth system, a large crosscutting project called "Super Volcano" was established at the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology (MPI-M) some years ago. (mpg.de)
  • The most recent small eruption occurred approximately 70,000 years ago. (phys.org)
  • We know there have been more than 60 hydrothermal eruptions in the last 100 years in New Zealand. (upi.com)
  • The last time volcanic ash clouds affected northern Europe before the recent event was in 1947, 69 years ago - but aviation was much less intense at that time and it simply didn't have the same sort of impact. (phys.org)
  • Following the 1258 eruption, the climate model simulations predict a drop of 3.5 degrees Fahrenheit, but the tree ring-based reconstruction shows only about a 1 degree Fahrenheit dip and the dip occurs several years too late. (medindia.net)
  • around 600 cubic kilometers (144 cu mi) of the Tshirege formation, Upper Bandelier eruption. (wikipedia.org)
  • Today, the geology of both regions includes igneous rocks from the CAMP eruptions as well as sedimentary rocks that accumulated in an enormous lake. (nsf.gov)
  • Volcanic eruptions produce hazardous effects for the environment, climate, and the health of the exposed persons, and are associated with the deterioration of social and economic conditions. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Eruptions can't always be indexed rapidly," explained co-author Dr Ivan Savov, also of Leeds' School of Earth and Environment. (phys.org)
  • But in cases where that calculation can be made early on, it will give a good indication of the likelihood of volcanic ash causing a major problem. (phys.org)
  • Jakarta - The airport in Indonesia's second-largest city has reopened after being closed because of a volcanic eruption on Java island, officials said Sunday. (nationmultimedia.com)
  • Kagoshima officials said in a statement that this was Sakurajima's 500th eruption this year alone. (wkbn.com)
  • Tongan officials also expressed concern that the eruption could significantly harm the country's fishing industry. (wikipedia.org)
  • ASU professor Christy Till strives to better understand the potential for future eruptions at Yellowstone volcano by studying those in the recent past. (phys.org)