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  • early
  • Inadequate or impaired developmental events linked to trophoblasts directly impact early embryo survival and successful implantation during a crucial period that corresponds with high incidence of pregnancy losses in dairy cows. (edu.au)
  • MORPHOLOGY
  • Nuclear morphology studies of embryos injected with Cas9+gRNAs and co-injected with plasmid DNA encoding nuclear localized GFP further supported these observations. (biologists.org)
  • Thus, the present study aims to determine whether metabolomic profiling of the culture medium using Raman spectroscopy adjunct to morphology correlates with the reproductive potential of embryos in IVF and, thus, to look for a new method of assessing embryo quality. (mdpi.com)
  • Combined with embryo morphology scores, we found that embryos in culture media with less than 0.012 of sodium pyruvate and more than −0.00085 phenylalanine have a high reproductive potential, with up to 85.7% accuracy compared with clinical pregnancy. (mdpi.com)
  • Morphological evaluation is the currently used embryo grading system, which is largely based on embryo cleavage rate and morphology [ 6 , 7 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • somatic
  • We identified and analyzed the genome wide transcriptomes of pig in vivo -derived and somatic cell nuclear transferred (SCNT) as well as mouse in vivo -derived pre-implantation embryos at different stages using mRNA deep sequencing. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Konyukhov, B. 2005-04-27 00:00:00 We studied the effects of three growth factors, fibroblast growth factor (FGF4), transforming growth factor α (TGFα), and transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1), on development of diploid parthenogenetic embryos of C57BL/6 mice, which are not capable of developing to somatic stages. (deepdyve.com)
  • When FGF4 or TGFβ1 2.4 were added to the nutrient medium, 2.4 or 1.6%, respectively, of parthenogenetic embryos reached the somatic stages in utero. (deepdyve.com)
  • The half egg lacking a nucleus is fused with a donor somatic cell and the fused egg half is fused again with a second enucleate half egg before it is activated (with a mild electric shock) to produce an embryo that is then implanted in a surrogate mother . (i-sis.org.uk)
  • In vitro somatic embryo genesis and regeneration of somatic embryos to whole plants through micropropagules was successfully demonstrated from pigmented uniseriate filamentous callus of Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty in axenic cultures. (academicconcepts.net)
  • Transfer of embryo genic callus along with tiny somatic embryos to liquid medium and swirling on orbital shaker facilitated rapid growth and morphogenesis of somatic embryos into micropropagules that grew into whole plants in subsequent cultivation in the sea. (academicconcepts.net)
  • The prolific somatic embryo genesis together with high germination potential of somatic embryos observed in this study offers a promising tool for rapid and mass clonal production of seed stock of Kappaphycus for commercial farming. (academicconcepts.net)
  • embryonic cells
  • In the first part, the guidelines address the major innovations in the field of research on human embryos and embryonic cells, such as genomic editing, focusing on the usefulness of basic research to expand knowledge on the embryonic development and stating that any attempt to modify the genome of embryos for reproductive purposes is forbidden. (hindawi.com)
  • Mice lacking SNF5 protein stop developing at the peri‐implantation stage, showing that the SWI/SNF complex is essential for early development and viability of early embryonic cells. (embopress.org)
  • normal embryos
  • In total, 93 morphologically normal embryos were available from seven patients (six of proven fertility) who had undergone fourteen in vitro fertilisation (IVF) cycles. (springer.com)
  • When assisting couples that have failed IVF in other programs, PGD allows us to go an important step beyond what has been done in the past, and identify and separate the chromosomally normal embryos from those "abnormals" that have no chance of leading to healthy pregnancy. (ibabyfertility.com)
  • development
  • Research with rodent species continues to provide the bulk of basic information on early development, in large part because of the ready availability of oocytes and embryos, but it is difficult to know to what extent information can be extrapolated to primate species, including humans. (springer.com)
  • However, the amount and quality of basic scientific data on early development that can be obtained from this source are restricted, in part by ethical constraints (Austin, 1990) and in part by conflicting priorities between research and clinical needs for the supply of oocytes and embryos. (springer.com)
  • Human pre-implantation embryo development. (nih.gov)
  • Understanding human pre-implantation development has important implications for assisted reproductive technology (ART) and for human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-based therapies. (nih.gov)
  • Owing to limited resources, the cellular and molecular mechanisms governing this early stage of human development are poorly understood. (nih.gov)
  • Nonetheless, recent advances in non-invasive imaging techniques and molecular and genomic technologies have helped to increase our understanding of this fascinating stage of human development. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we summarize what is currently known about human pre-implantation embryo development and highlight how further studies of human pre-implantation embryos can be used to improve ART and to fully harness the potential of hESCs for therapeutic goals. (nih.gov)
  • Phase-contrast images of human embryo development from day (d) 0 to day 7. (nih.gov)
  • Imaging human embryo development and predicting developmental potential. (nih.gov)
  • B ) Molecular events and time-lapse images of human embryo development. (nih.gov)
  • Cell fate decisions and their timing in mouse versus human early embryo development. (nih.gov)
  • Prior to implantation, both human and mouse embryos similarly undergo cell divisions culminating in the development of a blastocyst comprising a discernible ICM and TE. (nih.gov)
  • Vitamin C enhances the in vitro development of porcine pre-implantation embryos by reducing oxidative stress. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to assess the expression of urokinase type (uPA) and tissue type (tPA) plasminogen activators in in vivo and in vitro preimplantation development in rat embryos using immunofluorescence confocal microscopy and computerized image analysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Zygotes, 2-cell, 4-cell, 8-cell, morula and blastocyst stages of development were flushed from the reproductive tract (control groups) of Wistar rats. (biomedcentral.com)
  • uPA and tPA were found to be expressed in rat embryos throughout their preimplantation development, both in vivo and in vitro. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In vitro embryo development leads to lower PAs expression in a stage dependent manner as compared with in vivo developing controls. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Indeed, mouse ES cells have been found to differentiate in vitro to many clinically relevant cell types, including hematopoietic cells (Wiles, M. V. and Keller, G., Development 111:259-267, 1991), cardiomyocytes (Klug, M. G., et al. (google.es)
  • Neither of which is promoting optimal ongoing embryo development. (advancedfertility.com)
  • Because day 3 biopsy traumatizes the embryo and weakens it, investigations were made performing biopsies at other stages of embryo development. (advancedfertility.com)
  • This internal development inherently precludes facile experimental manipulation necessary to study cellular and molecular mechanisms of preimplantation development. (springer.com)
  • In turn, this has led to intense efforts over the course of decades to develop culture media that support the preimplantation development in vitro and, in particular, mouse preimplantation development. (springer.com)
  • Brinster, R. L. (1965) Studies on the development of mouse embryos in vitro. (springer.com)
  • Abramczuk, J., Solter, D., and Koprowski, H. (1977) The beneficial effect of EDTA on development of mouse one-cell embryos in chemically defined medium. (springer.com)
  • Summers, J. C., Bhatnagar, P. R., Lawitts, J. A., and Biggers, J. D. (1995) Fertilization in vitro of mouse ova from inbred and outbred stains: Complete preimplantation embryo development in glucose-supplemented KSOM. (springer.com)
  • Also, fatty acid metabolism appears to be a unique characteristic of pig pre-implantation embryonic development. (biomedcentral.com)
  • the oocytes are inseminated with sperm and the resulting embryos are grown in culture until the 6-8 cell stage (day 3 of embryo development). (ibabyfertility.com)
  • The data we obtained suggest that, when combined, the growth factors FGF4, TGFα, and TGFβ1 possessed a synergistic effect leading to a significant improvement of the development of parthenogenetic C57BL/6 embryos. (deepdyve.com)
  • However, recently an in vitro system to culture human embryos through implantation stages was established, making the previously unknown development period accessible for research. (ki.se)
  • Its role in early embryo development has not been studied. (biologists.org)
  • Injection of Cas9+gRNAs affected embryo development. (biologists.org)
  • This delay in the development of Uba52 gRNA embryos occurred at the transition from the 4- to 8-cell stages, around the time of major zygotic genomic activation. (biologists.org)
  • Morphological examination of blastomere nuclei revealed abnormal nuclear structure in the Uba52 gRNA group, such as reduced size, irregular shapes, nucleus fragmentation and uneven DNA distribution at all stages of embryo development. (biologists.org)
  • Adaptive development of early stage embryo is well established and recently it is explored that the mammalian embryos also have adaptive ability to the stressful environment. (ksdb.org)
  • In this study, to evaluate the possible role of aquaporin in early embryo developmental adaptation, the expression of aquaporin (AQP) 5 gene which is detected during early development were examined by the environmental condition. (ksdb.org)
  • During in vivo development, AQP5 was mainly localized in apical membrane of blastomeres of 4-cell and 8-cell stage embryos, and then it was localized in cytoplasm. (ksdb.org)
  • However, the main localization area of AQP5 was dramatically shifted after 8-cell stage from cytoplasm to nucleus by in vitro development. (ksdb.org)
  • Developing of media and culture methods make a way which support successful mammalian embryo development to the blastocoel stage within a given time, although the environment is different from their natural courses. (ksdb.org)
  • Some of reports, which were concerned with the adaptational development of early stage embryo, evaluated the phenomena in various animals. (ksdb.org)
  • Therefore, mechanosensitive channels, active ion pumps, and water channels are a key to understanding the overall mechanical response for cellularization during early stage embryo development. (ksdb.org)
  • Mammalian preimplantation development, which is the period extending from fertilization to implantation, results in the formation of a blastocyst with three distinct cell lineages. (jci.org)
  • Significant gains have been made in our understanding of the major events of mouse preimplantation development, and recent discoveries have shed new light on the establishment of the three blastocyst lineages. (jci.org)
  • What is less clear, however, is how closely human preimplantation development mimics that in the mouse. (jci.org)
  • A greater understanding of the similarities and differences between mouse and human preimplantation development has implications for improving assisted reproductive technologies and for deriving human embryonic stem cells. (jci.org)
  • Much of what we know about preimplantation development has come from studies in the mouse, which has been used as a model for the early human embryo for over 40 years. (jci.org)
  • Here, we review what has been learned from the mouse about the major events of mammalian preimplantation development and discuss recent work that has shed new insight on how the three blastocyst lineages come to be established. (jci.org)
  • Despite the significant progress that has been made, we still know little about how closely the events of preimplantation development in the mouse reflect the human situation. (jci.org)
  • Abnormal implantation of an embryo is an underlying cause of infertility and has implications in development of placenta-associated pathologies including preclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These models are also limited to studying a specific event during implantation and lack a complete representation of all cell types present at the maternal-fetal interface, including immune cells, thus further development of in vitro implantation models that better simulate in vivo implantation are needed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • So, sodium pyruvate and phenylalanine in culture medium play an important role in the development of the embryo. (mdpi.com)
  • Trophoblast Cell
  • Expression of chorionic gonadotropin defined by immunohistochemical staining, and secretion of chorionic gonadotropin and progesterone coincident with the appearance of trophoblast outgrowths, supported the conclusion that a trophoblast cell lineage formed from implanted embryos. (biomedcentral.com)
  • genome activation
  • Pig zygotic genome activation was confirmed to occur at the 4-cell stage via genome-wide gene expression analysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Few interspecies differences do occur, such as time spent at each stage, timing of zygotic genome activation (ZGA) and cell lineage commitment initiation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It expressed both at embryonic genome activation phase and second midpreimplantation gene activation phase, but the fold changes were modified between in vivo embryos and in vitro embryos. (ksdb.org)
  • patterns
  • In addition, the global gene expression patterns in the pig SCNT embryos were different from those in in vivo -derived pig embryos. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To compare expression patterns between in vivo and in vitro , we conducted quantitative RT-PCR and analyzed localization of the AQP5 by whole mount immunofluorescence. (ksdb.org)
  • morula
  • On or around day 4, the embryo compacts, resulting in the formation of a morula that consists of cells (or blastomeres) in a compact cluster contained within the zona pellucida (the glycoprotein layer that surrounds the embryo). (nih.gov)
  • Blastocyst uPA content was significantly low as compared with the four-cell, eight-cell, and morula stages. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It showed peak at 2-cell stage and decreased continuously until morula stage. (ksdb.org)
  • whereas
  • The occurrence of chaotically dividing embryos was strongly patient-related, i.e. some patients had 'chaotic' embryos in repeated cycles, whereas other patients were completely free of this type of anomaly. (springer.com)
  • and 4) under PlexiglasTM, which blocked UV-A and UV-B. Over a 3-week period, UV-B inhibited and UV-A enhanced the growth of F. gardneri embryos , whereas the growth of juveniles was not affected. (academicconcepts.net)
  • localization
  • It suggests that expression of Aqp5 and the roles of AQP5 in homeostasis can be modulated by in vitro culture, and that early stage embryos can develop successfully by themselves adapting to their condition through modulation of the specific gene expression and localization. (ksdb.org)
  • gene
  • During PGD procedure the embryos are checked for the following single gene disorders: spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), cystic fibrosis, haemophilia, Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), sickle cell anemia, fragile X syndrome, Huntington's disease. (klinikabocian.pl)
  • Genotyping by PCR and DNA gel electrophoresis analysis showed that 91.8% of embryos that failed to develop to blastocyst had either a monoallelic or a biallelic modification of the Uba52 gene. (biologists.org)
  • lineage
  • Recent cell lineage and knockout experiments have raised the possibility that pre-gastrulation movements of cells from the extra-embryonic visceral endoderm are important to determine where the future anterior and posterior of the embryo will develop. (europa.eu)
  • viability
  • Chee, M.R., Zavos, P.M., Toledo-Pereyra, L., Condie, R. and Lillehei, R.C.: The effect of different concentrations of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) on in vitro viability of canine kidneys during hypothermic pulsatile perfusion. (zavos.org)
  • aneuploidy
  • What are studies showing for PGS for aneuploidy screening using day 3 embryo biopsy? (advancedfertility.com)
  • Several studies from the recent medical literature have shown lower live birth rates after performing day 3 embryo biopsies and screening for aneuploidy with FISH genetics technology (see details below). (advancedfertility.com)
  • However, FISH is generally considered too unreliable for effective aneuploidy screening of IVF embryos. (advancedfertility.com)
  • This condition is called "aneuploidy" and will result in an embryo that will fail to develop and implant or will miscarry or may even produce a defective baby. (ibabyfertility.com)