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  • Vivo
  • The demonstrated spatiotemporal resolution and the selectivity provided by TEFO allow manipulation of neuronal activity, with a large number of applications in studies of neuronal microcircuit function in vitro and in vivo. (pnas.org)
  • In our studies, we focus on Kalirin-7 (Kal7), a Rho GDP/GTP exchange factor (Rho-GEF) localized to the postsynaptic density that plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of dendritic spines both in vitro and in vivo . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Most studies of synaptic plasticity are performed using in vitro or in vivo preparations where patterned electrical stimulation of afferent fibers is implemented to induce changes in synaptic strength. (frontiersin.org)
  • The second protocol, based on intracellular recordings, replicated in vivo variants of the theta-burst paradigm (TBS), proven successful in inducing long-term potentiation in vitro . (frontiersin.org)
  • However, the anticonvulsant potential of cannabinoids and, moreover, the role of the endogenous cannabinoid system in regulating seizure activity has not been tested in an in vivo model of epilepsy that is characterized by spontaneous, recurrent seizures. (aspetjournals.org)
  • However, the neocortex in vivo is likely to be in a different state than in vitro because of the presence of neuromodulators and long-range synaptic connections. (jneurosci.org)
  • Virtually all in vitro studies showed large synaptic depression, but on the other hand a few in vivo studies showed relatively small depression. (frontiersin.org)
  • We also showed that synapses explicitly fitted to in vitro experiments with paired-pulse stimuli did not operate properly in in vivo -like conditions and required further extension to capture the differences between in vitro and in vivo experimental conditions. (frontiersin.org)
  • Our results indicate that various GABA A R subtypes differ in their ability to promote synapse formation, suggesting that this reduced in vitro model system can be used to reproduce, at least in part, the in vivo conditions required for the recognition of the appropriate synaptic partners and formation of specific synapses. (jove.com)
  • The function of some of these interneurons (tuberculoventral or vertical cell, and the cartwheel cell) have been established through a combination of in vivo and in vitro studies over many years. (frontiersin.org)
  • In vivo, synaptic properties such as short-term plasticity and neuro-modulation by the basal forebrain, govern the degree of inhibition in distinct dendritic domains in a dynamic, behavior dependent manner, specifically during network oscillation such as the theta rhythm. (frontiersin.org)
  • Their molecular marker profile, morphology, and function in vivo and in vitro are well studied. (frontiersin.org)
  • We tested this hypothesis in mice by in vivo unilateral epileptogenic hippocampal kainate lesion followed by in vitro recording of extracellular potentials and patch-clamp from GFP-expressing interneurons in CA3, in an optimized recording chamber. (frontiersin.org)
  • Optogenetic methods for functional mapping have been applied in experiments ranging from in vitro investigation of microcircuits, to in vivo probing of inter-regional cortical connections, to examination of global connections within the whole brain. (frontiersin.org)
  • Long-Term Potenti
  • Indeed, long-term potentiation (LTP), widely believed to be a cellular correlate of learning and memory, has been repeatedly shown to induce both spine enlargement and the formation of new dendritic spines. (biomedcentral.com)
  • suppress
  • The ability of TTX to suppress epileptiform discharges suggests that the propagation of fast (Na + -based) action potentials through recurrent excitatory axons is required to generate synchronous population responses in the hippocampus. (jneurosci.org)
  • membrane
  • The reduction takes the membrane potential close to the THRESHOLD and, therefore, nearer to itself forming an ACTION POTENTIAL . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The action potential in the dendrite was TTX sensitive and was affected by the local membrane potential of the dendrite. (jove.com)
  • Each living cell is contacted with one or several electrodes and its membrane potential \(V\) (or \(V_1\) and \(V_2\)) is amplified and fed into the dynamic clamp machine (grey box). (scholarpedia.org)
  • For optimal dynamic clamp operation, the cycle of reading the membrane potential and computing and injecting the dynamic clamp current needs to be completed with an update rate faster than the fastest dynamic rate present in the system. (scholarpedia.org)
  • spines
  • These results implicate TANC family proteins in the regulation of dendritic spines, spatial learning, and embryonic development. (jneurosci.org)
  • hippocampus
  • Low concentrations of 4-AP (∼100 μ m ) readily induce synchronized discharges in the hippocampus that are blocked by tetrodotoxin (TTX), suggesting that they require Na + -dependent action potentials in addition to the enhanced release of neurotransmitters. (jneurosci.org)
  • patch clamp
  • In the present study, we used the dual whole cell patch-clamp technique on the soma and the dendrite of cultured rat amacrine cells and directly demonstrated that the action potentials propagate into the dendrites. (jove.com)
  • precise
  • Since it was shown to impose a precise correlation delay between the electrically activated thalamic input and the TBS-induced postsynaptic spike, this protocol can be seen as a probe of causal ("pre-before-post") STDP. (frontiersin.org)
  • Owing to the importance of Wnt signaling in a wide range of biological fields, a better understanding of the precise mechanism of Wnt signaling might provide fundamental insights regarding its role in disease development and may provide novel targets for therapeutic applications. (hindawi.com)