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  • molecular
  • Molecular cloning is a set of experimental methods in molecular biology that are used to assemble recombinant DNA molecules and to direct their replication within host organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular cloning generally uses DNA sequences from two different organisms: the species that is the source of the DNA to be cloned, and the species that will serve as the living host for replication of the recombinant DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular cloning methods are central to many contemporary areas of modern biology and medicine. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a conventional molecular cloning experiment, the DNA to be cloned is obtained from an organism of interest, then treated with enzymes in the test tube to generate smaller DNA fragments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Strictly speaking, recombinant DNA refers to DNA molecules, while molecular cloning refers to the experimental methods used to assemble them. (wikipedia.org)
  • This changed dramatically with the advent of molecular cloning methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular cloning takes advantage of the fact that the chemical structure of DNA is fundamentally the same in all living organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular cloning is similar to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in that it permits the replication of DNA sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fundamental difference between the two methods is that molecular cloning involves replication of the DNA in a living microorganism, while PCR replicates DNA in an in vitro solution, free of living cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In standard molecular cloning experiments, the cloning of any DNA fragment essentially involves seven steps: (1) Choice of host organism and cloning vector, (2) Preparation of vector DNA, (3) Preparation of DNA to be cloned, (4) Creation of recombinant DNA, (5) Introduction of recombinant DNA into host organism, (6) Selection of organisms containing recombinant DNA, (7) Screening for clones with desired DNA inserts and biological properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • recombinant
  • This process takes advantage of the fact that a single bacterial cell can be induced to take up and replicate a single recombinant DNA molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • This single cell can then be expanded exponentially to generate a large amount of bacteria, each of which contain copies of the original recombinant molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • The SCNT-hES-1 cells displayed typical ES cell morphology and cell surface markers and were capable of differentiating into embryoid bodies in vitro and of forming teratomas in vivo containing cell derivatives from all three embryonic germ layers in severe combined immunodeficient mice. (sciencemag.org)
  • A method for the direct in vivo transformation of cells in and surrounding a solid tumor is disclosed. (google.com)
  • They showed that opposing gradients of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and Nodal, two transforming growth factor family members that act as morphogens, are sufficient to induce molecular and cellular mechanisms required to organize, in vivo or in vitro, uncommitted cells of the zebrafish blastula animal pole into a well-developed embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Differentiated airway epithelial cells can revert into stable and functional stem cells in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • They form characteristic cell clusters in suspension culture that express a set of genes associated with pluripotency and can differentiate into endodermal, ectodermal and mesodermal cells both in vitro and in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the same time, sublethal infection of antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells and macrophages, yields potent, sustained type I interferon-dominant activation in an immunosuppressed microenvironment and promotes the development of tumor antigen-specific T cell responses in vitro and antitumor immunity in vivo. (sciencemag.org)
  • These cells retain the ability to differentiate into all lymphoid lineages in vitro and in vivo. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Using in vitro assays and an experimental orthotopic in vivo model of liver metastasis, we aimed to elucidate the role of tumor LFA-1 in the metastatic progression by means of the partial depletion of the β 2 subunit of LFA-1, required for integrin activation, firm adhesion and signaling. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To do so, we evaluated the effects of β 2 reduction on the murine colon carcinoma C26 cell line on their pro-metastatic features in vitro and their metastatic potential in vivo in a mouse model of colon carcinoma metastasis to the liver. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This was related to the abrogation of RNA expression of inflammatory and angiogenic cytokines by C26 cells after their activation with sICAM-1, the main ligand of β 2 α L . Furthermore, in vivo tumor cell retention and metastasis were profoundly reduced, along with a decrease in the recruitment and infiltration of myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and lymphocytes to the liver. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Besides, this integrin also showed to be critical in vivo for tumor cell retention, cytokine release, leukocyte recruitment and metastasis development. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Moreover, human NKp46 promoter drives NK cell selective expression both in vitro and in vivo . (pnas.org)
  • This model paves a way for the in vivo characterization and preclinical assessment of NK cell biological function. (pnas.org)
  • In vivo NK cell depletion has thus so far relied on anti-asialo-GM1 or anti-NK1.1 depleting antibodies. (pnas.org)
  • These observations suggest that cells expressing IDO inhibit T cell responses in vivo. (jimmunol.org)
  • To directly evaluate the hypothesis that cells expressing IDO inhibit T cell responses, we prepared IDO-transfected cell lines and transgenic mice overexpressing IDO and assessed allogeneic T cell responses in vitro and in vivo. (jimmunol.org)
  • These outcomes suggest that genetically enhanced IDO activity inhibited T cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. (jimmunol.org)
  • These data suggest that physiologic cells expressing IDO inhibit the generation of T cell responses in vivo. (jimmunol.org)
  • However, pharmacological approaches using an inhibitor of IDO activity to moderate T cell responses in vivo do not permit unequivocal mechanistic interpretations of the observed functional outcomes. (jimmunol.org)
  • We report that the potency of allogeneic T cell responses elicited by IDO-transfected cells in vitro and in vivo was reduced significantly and that allogeneic T cell responses elicited after T cell adoptive transfer were less potent in recipient transgenic mice that overexpressed IDO in tissue microenvironments. (jimmunol.org)
  • 2015) "A human monoclonal IgG that binds aβ assemblies and diverse amyloids exhibits anti-amyloid activities in vitro and in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells can be isolated from tissues for ex vivo culture in several ways. (wikipedia.org)
  • The years 2000 to 2008 saw a number of demonstrations of IMP321's effectiveness in vitro and in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transgenic
  • These well-characterized ESC lines not only will enrich our understanding of pluripotency programs in the ungulate species but also will provide a useful resource for the creation of transgenic ungulate models of human diseases. (pnas.org)
  • Using NKp46 promoter, we generated transgenic mice expressing EGFP and the diphtheria toxin (DT) receptor in NK cells. (pnas.org)
  • Transgenic mice lacking NK cells but with a normal T/NKT cell compartment have been reported ( 17 ). (pnas.org)
  • In addition, adoptive transfer of alloreactive donor T cells yielded reduced numbers of donor T cells when injected into IDO-transgenic recipient mice. (jimmunol.org)
  • To complement pharmacological studies and to further address relationships between IDO activity and inhibition of T cell responses, we used two molecular genetic strategies to enhance IDO activity in transfected cell lines and in new strains of transgenic mice. (jimmunol.org)
  • We introduced a novel humanized HLA-A*0201 transgenic (HLA Tg) rabbit model to assess the protective efficacy of a human CD8 + T cell epitope-based vaccine against primary ocular herpes infection and disease. (jimmunol.org)
  • HLA transgenic mice, such as HLA-A*0201 and HLA-DR transgenic mice, are powerful models that develop robust T cell responses to human epitopes after immunization or upon ocular HSV-1 infection ( 10 - 12 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Because they contain foreign DNA fragments, these are transgenic or genetically modified microorganisms (GMO). (wikipedia.org)
  • Herman the Bull was in 1991 the first genetically modified or transgenic bovine in the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2009 scientists in Japan announced that they had successfully transferred a gene into a primate species (marmosets) and produced a stable line of breeding transgenic primates for the first time. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammal
  • 1. A method of transforming cells surrounding a solid tumor in a mammal, which comprises directly injecting into said solid tumor a viral vector containing a nucleic acid sequence encoding a protein selected from the group consisting of a Class I histocompatibility protein, a Class II histocompatibility protein, a cytokine, diphtheria toxin, and pertussis toxin in an amount effective for transforming said cells, wherein said protein is expressed by said cells. (google.com)
  • An adult mammal had been cloned! (apologeticspress.org)
  • The news was that a mammal had been cloned from an adult cell-something that even scientists like James Watson and Francis Crick (who were awarded the 1962 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their elucidation of the molecular structure of DNA) had gone on record as stating was very likely impossible. (apologeticspress.org)
  • ability to differentiate
  • HESCs are characterized by their capacity for self-renewal and their ability to differentiate into all types of cells of the body. (stanford.edu)
  • However, the cell line is appreciated to be N-type (neuronal), given its morphology and the ability to differentiate the cells into along the neuronal lineage (in contrast to the S-type SH-EP subcloned cell line, also derived from SK-N-SH). (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem Cell Res
  • EDITOR'S NOTE: Two of the most hotly debated and currently controversial topics-in the fields of science, religion, ethics, and politics-are human cloning and stem-cell research. (apologeticspress.org)
  • Somatic cell nuclear transplantation has become a focus of study in stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only a handful of the labs in the world are currently using SCNT techniques in human stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • He was a professor of theriogenology and biotechnology at Seoul National University (dismissed on March 20, 2006) who became infamous for fabricating a series of experiments, which appeared in high-profile journals, in the field of stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • On May 12, 2006, Hwang was charged with embezzlement and bioethics law violations after it emerged much of his stem cell research had been faked. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Korea Times reported on June 10, 2007, that Seoul National University fired him, and the South Korean government canceled his financial support and barred him from engaging in stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • In February 2011, Hwang visited Libya as part of a $133 million project in the North African country to build a stem cell research center and transfer relevant technology. (wikipedia.org)
  • He became a Knight Bachelor in the 2004 New Year Honours in recognition of his work in stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • immunity
  • determined that PVSRIPO stimulates anticancer immunity by two mechanisms: lysing tumor cells to release a mix of tumor and viral antigens, as well as sublethally infecting antigen-presenting cells and thereby stimulating an interferon-driven immune response in the tumor microenvironment. (sciencemag.org)
  • The inability of T cells to eliminate certain chronic pathogens or to attack cancer cells displaying tumor-specific Ags suggests that natural immunoregulatory processes can suppress T cell-mediated immunity even when directed against neo Ags ( 1 , 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • mammary gland
  • Scottish embryologist Ian Wilmut and his colleagues had taken a mammary gland cell from a six-year-old Scottish Finn Dorset ewe and, via a process known as "nuclear transfer," succeeded in placing the genetic material from that cell into a hollowed-out egg cell from a Scottish Blackface sheep. (apologeticspress.org)
  • differentiate
  • Each of these hundred or so stem cells has the potential to further divide and then differentiate to form blood cells, muscle cells, bone cells, nerve cells, skin cells. (hawkhill.com)
  • It is very, very labor intensive in the sense that you have to watch the cells very carefully, you have to be very scrupulous in what you provide in terms of media and nutrients for the cells, and you have to make sure that they don t begin to differentiate and that is one of the tricks here. (hawkhill.com)
  • The cells both propagate via mitosis and differentiate by extending neurites to the surrounding area. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dividing cells can form clusters of cells which are reminders of their cancerous nature, but certain treatments such as retinoic acid, BDNF, or TPA can force the cells to dendrify and differentiate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryonic stem cells of the inner cell mass are pluripotent, that is, they are able to differentiate to generate primitive ectoderm, which ultimately differentiates during gastrulation into all derivatives of the three primary germ layers: ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, under defined conditions, embryonic stem cells are capable of propagating themselves indefinitely in an undifferentiated state and have the capacity when provided with the appropriate signals to differentiate, presumably via the formation of precursor cells, to almost all mature cell phenotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • assays
  • The aromatase expression of single-cell clone from T47D cell line (T47Darom) was confirmed by RT-PCR, Western blot, Estrone ELSIA and Cell proliferations assays. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Hence, we targeted ERCC1 by antisense RNA methodologies, and we show that we could sensitize a relatively sensitive A2780 cell line and also the highly resistant OVCAR10 cell line to cisplatin by expressing antisense ERCC1 RNA in them as measured with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays. (aacrjournals.org)
  • refers
  • Somatic cell therapy refers to efforts to correct the functioning of a defective gene in an individual's body cells or to replace it and thus cure the disease that it causes. (apologeticspress.org)
  • Strictly speaking, recombinant DNA refers to DNA molecules, while molecular cloning refers to the experimental methods used to assemble them. (wikipedia.org)
  • In practice, the term "cell culture" now refers to the culturing of cells derived from multicellular eukaryotes, especially animal cells, in contrast with other types of culture that also grow cells, such as plant tissue culture, fungal culture, and microbiological culture (of microbes). (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor cells
  • Finally, we documented in mouse xenograft models of human colorectal and breast cancer that lactate release from tumor cells through the MCT4 (and not MCT1) transporter is sufficient to stimulate IL-8-dependent angiogenesis and tumor growth. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Interestingly, as previously documented in muscle fibres and brain ( 4, 5 ), lactate may in turn be taken up by oxygenated (tumor) cells to feed oxidative metabolism ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • We recently documented that this can contribute to reduce consumption of glucose (and probably glutamine) by tumor cells at the vicinity of blood vessels and thereby to increase the availability of these substrates for hypoxic tumor cells ( 6 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • One may thus propose that tumor lactate levels and fluxes reflect the extent of the adaptation of tumor cells to survive and proliferate. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Intuitively, the failure of chemotherapy must be the result of development of drug resistance by tumor cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Additionally, tumor cells with a reduced in β 2 integrin expression were unable to activate the liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs). (biomedcentral.com)
  • neurons
  • One such virus is PVSRIPO, an engineered hybrid of poliovirus and rhinovirus that cannot attack neurons but retains cytotoxicity in neoplastic cells, including glioma. (sciencemag.org)
  • Yet, N-CAM is also expressed by T cell subsets, muscle cells, and neurons, but it is not expressed by murine NK cells ( 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • Some of the cell types that have or are currently being developed include cardiomyocytes (CM), neurons, hepatocytes, bone marrow cells, islet cells and endothelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because they can propagate indefinitely, as well as give rise to every other cell type in the body (such as neurons, heart, pancreatic, and liver cells), they represent a single source of cells that could be used to replace those lost to damage or disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • regenerative medicine
  • This allows embryonic stem cells to be employed as useful tools for both research and regenerative medicine, because they can produce limitless numbers of themselves for continued research or clinical use. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of their plasticity and potentially unlimited capacity for self-renewal, embryonic stem cell therapies have been proposed for regenerative medicine and tissue replacement after injury or disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pluripotent stem cells hold promise in the field of regenerative medicine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fluorescent pigs can be used to study human organ transplants, regenerating ocular photoreceptor cells, neuronal cells in the brain, regenerative medicine via stem cells, tissue engineering, and other diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • endothelial cells
  • We found that lactate could enter endothelial cells through the monocarboxylate transporter MCT-1, trigger the phosphorylation/degradation of IκBα, and then stimulate an autocrine NF-κB/IL-8 (CXCL8) pathway driving cell migration and tube formation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These effects were prevented by 2-oxoglutarate and reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibitors, pointing to a role for prolyl-hydroxylase and ROS in the integration of lactate signaling in endothelial cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • PHD2 silencing in endothelial cells recapitulated the proangiogenic effects of lactate, whereas a blocking IL-8 antibody or IL-8-targeting siRNA prevented them. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In conclusion, our findings establish a signaling role for lactate in endothelial cells and they identify the lactate/NF-κB/IL-8 pathway as an important link between tumor metabolism and angiogenesis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In fact, the reciprocal interaction between liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) and cancer cells through these adhesion molecules also triggers an acute inflammatory response [ 2 , 4 ] which helps in the creation of a suitable microenvironment favoring the metastatic progression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • scientists
  • This promising area of science is also leading scientists to investigate the possibility of cell-based therapies to treat disease, which is often referred to as regenerative or reparative medicine. (issuu.com)
  • It has been hypothesized by scientists that stem cells may, at some point in the future, become the basis for treating diseases such as Parkinson's disease, diabetes, and heart disease. (issuu.com)
  • As scientists learn more about stem cells, it may become possible to use the cells not just in cell-based therapies, but also for screening new drugs and toxins and understanding birth defects. (issuu.com)
  • The Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) approved an application by scientists at the Newcastle Centre for Life to create human embryonic stem cells using a standard cloning technique called cell nuclear replacement. (newscientist.com)
  • Now, with reports arriving almost daily about proposals to clone humans, and with similar reports surfacing with disturbing frequency about scientists' planned use of human-derived stem cells, I believe that an in-depth analysis of these two subjects is both timely and warranted. (apologeticspress.org)
  • While dividing, the aggregated cells can look so different from the differentiated cells following the K'annul-index tumor cellularity (TNF, for Tumor Necrosis Factor), that new scientists often mistake one or the other for contamination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Leading scientists to seek an alternative method of obtaining stem cells, SCNT is one such method. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the United States, scientists at the Harvard Stem Cell Institute, the University of California San Francisco, the Oregon Health & Science University, Stemagen (La Jolla, CA) and possibly Advanced Cell Technology are currently researching a technique to use somatic cell nuclear transfer to produce embryonic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells became available as engineering materials when scientists at Geron Corp. discovered how to extend telomeres in 1998, producing immortalized cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in March 1999 a key paper in the Journal of Immunology from scientists at the University of Montreal, on which Triebel was listed as a co-author, demonstrated soluble LAG3's role as a dendritic cell activator. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bone
  • Bone marrow cells, in particular, were found to give rise to many cells besides those in the blood: in the skin, lung epithelium, kidney epithelium liver parenchyma, pancreas, skeletal muscle, heart muscle, endothelium, nerve cells in the cortex and cerebellum. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • A Colorado couple-the Nashes-had a daughter, Molly, who desperately needed a bone marrow transplant-preferably from a genetically matched sibling. (apologeticspress.org)
  • The original cell line, called SK-N-SH, from which it was subcloned was isolated from a bone marrow biopsy taken from a four-year-old female with neuroblastoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • SH-SY5Y was cloned from a bone marrow biopsy derived line called SK-N-SH and first reported in 1973. (wikipedia.org)
  • lymphoma
  • E710.2.3 is a murine thymic lymphoma cell line with an immature phenotype (CD4 − CD8 − ) that proliferates in response to thymocytes or PMA when cultured at low density and proliferates spontaneously when grown at high density. (jimmunol.org)
  • E710.2.3 is a cloned murine CD4 − CD8 − thymic T lymphoma cell line. (jimmunol.org)
  • Scott and colleagues use a large cohort of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma samples to delineate the challenges of developing screening strategies to identify double-hit lymphomas while limiting the extent of fluorescence in situ hybridization testing required to successfully identify this high-risk population. (bloodjournal.org)
  • vector
  • Insertion of a vector into the target cell is usually called transformation for bacterial cells, transfection for eukaryotic cells, although insertion of a viral vector is often called transduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transcription of the cloned gene is a necessary component of the vector when expression of the gene is required: one gene may be amplified through transcription to generate multiple copies of mRNAs, the template on which protein may be produced through translation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The vector is used to introduce a specific gene into a target cell, and can commandeer the cell's mechanism for protein synthesis to produce the protein encoded by the gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • An expression vector has features that any vector may have, such as an origin of replication, a selectable marker, and a suitable site for the insertion of a gene such as the multiple cloning site. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cloned gene may be transferred from a specialized cloning vector to an expression vector, although it is possible to clone directly into an expression vector. (wikipedia.org)
  • The expression vector is transformed or transfected into the host cell for protein synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • murine
  • The AKR murine leukemia viruses do not contain acute transforming oncogenes ( 4 ) and are thought to transform cells as a result of activating cellular proto-oncogenes in the vicinity of viral integration into chromosomal DNA ( 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Ruxolitinib protects skin stem cells and improves cutaneous manifestations of murine GVHD. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Takahashi et al report that while topical steroids worsen skin stem cell loss in a murine model of graft-versus-host disease, ruxolitinib protects skin stem cells, restores hair growth, and promotes wound healing. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Recently, we have identified a natural immunosuppressive mechanism that prevents maternal T cell-mediated rejection of murine allogeneic fetuses ( 5 , 6 ). (jimmunol.org)