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  • 1998
  • The U.S. Institute of Medicine (IOM) updated Estimated Average Requirements (EARs) and Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for vitamin B12 in 1998. (wikipedia.org)
  • retinol
  • Vitamin A is found in two primary forms: active vitamin A (also called retinol, which results in retinyl esters) and beta-carotene. (draxe.com)
  • Retinol comes from animal-derived foods and is a type of "pre-formed" vitamin A that can be used directly by the body. (draxe.com)
  • Vitamin A also functions in a very different role as retinoic acid (an irreversibly oxidized form of retinol), which is an important hormone-like growth factor for epithelial and other cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The retinol form functions as a storage form of the vitamin, and can be converted to and from its visually active aldehyde form, retinal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vitamin A can be found in two principal forms in foods: Retinol, the form of vitamin A absorbed when eating animal food sources, is a yellow, fat-soluble substance. (wikipedia.org)
  • intakes
  • A major study that involved over 4,000 women aged 40-74 found that higher vitamin C intakes can lower the likelihood of a wrinkled appearance, dryness of the skin, and can help to naturally slow aging . (draxe.com)
  • In malnourished populations, common low intakes of vitamin A and zinc increase the severity of vitamin A deficiency and lead physiological signs and symptoms of deficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • Vitamin D has other roles in the body, including modulation of cell growth, neuromuscular and immune function, and reduction of inflammation [ 1 , 3 , 4 ]. (nih.gov)
  • To improve the innate immune system of AD patients, we studied immune stimulation of macrophages by 1alpha,25(OH)2-vitamin D3(1,25D3) in combination with curcuminoids. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Vitamin A plays an integral role in immune health and may be especially beneficial for warding off illness and infections. (draxe.com)
  • According to a review out of Baltimore, a deficiency in this key vitamin can weaken immunity and even alter the function of immune cells. (draxe.com)
  • The benefits of vitamin C may include protection against immune system deficiencies, cardiovascular disease, prenatal health problems, eye disease, and even skin wrinkling. (draxe.com)
  • Vitamin D is needed for a healthy immune system - helping the body to fight off infections and prevent the development of autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis. (kidshealth.org)
  • Vitamin A has multiple functions: it is important for growth and development, for the maintenance of the immune system and good vision. (wikipedia.org)
  • converts
  • The first occurs in the liver and converts vitamin D to 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], also known as calcidiol. (nih.gov)
  • Doing so converts vitamin C to an oxidized state - either as semidehydroascorbic acid or dehydroascorbic acid . (wikipedia.org)
  • person's
  • Some health conditions, like cystic fibrosis or inflammatory bowel disease , affect how well the body absorbs nutrients, including vitamin D. And because vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that gets stored in the body's fat cells, obesity increases a person's risk for vitamin D deficiency. (kidshealth.org)
  • Dietary recommendations typically assume that all of a person's vitamin D is taken by mouth, as sun exposure in the population is variable and recommendations about the amount of sun exposure that is safe are uncertain in view of the skin cancer risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • These two vitamin D metabolites (called 25-hydroxyvitamin D or 25(OH)D) are measured in serum to determine a person's vitamin D status. (wikipedia.org)
  • calcium
  • In contrast to 25(OH)D, circulating 1,25(OH) 2 D is generally not a good indicator of vitamin D status because it has a short half-life of 15 hours and serum concentrations are closely regulated by parathyroid hormone, calcium, and phosphate [ 5 ]. (nih.gov)
  • Vitamin D plays a part in the bone-building process by helping the body to absorb calcium. (kidshealth.org)
  • evidence that using v
  • There is even some evidence that using vitamin C skin cream can decrease the amount and duration of skin redness following cosmetic skin procedures like wrinkle or scar removal. (draxe.com)
  • liver
  • The long-chain menaquinones are absorbed in the same way as vitamin K1 and MK-4, but are efficiently redistributed by the liver in predominantly LDL (VLDL). (wikipedia.org)
  • high doses
  • More than 30 years ago, Nobel Prize-winning chemist Linus Pauling launched the theory that high doses of vitamin C could prevent or lessen the severity of colds and other illnesses. (latimes.com)
  • collagen
  • More recent research has suggested that vitamin C may promote collagen growth, a protein critical to healthy skin, and thus could aid in the healing of wounds. (latimes.com)
  • occurs
  • The vitamer is produced by bacteria as hydroxocobalamin, but conversion between different forms of the vitamin occurs in the body after consumption. (wikipedia.org)
  • beta carotene
  • The orange pigment of carrots (beta-carotene) can be represented as two connected retinyl groups, which are used in the body to contribute to vitamin A levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • 4,000
  • The IOM recommends an upper limit - the highest daily intake that is likely to pose no risk - of 4,000 IU of vitamin D per day for teens. (kidshealth.org)
  • enough vitamin
  • Doubling as both an important fat-soluble vitamin and potent antioxidant, getting enough vitamin A is absolutely crucial to maintaining overall health. (draxe.com)
  • Where we live makes a difference, too: If you live in northern U.S. and Canada, it's possible you're not getting the UV exposure required for your body to make enough vitamin D. (kidshealth.org)
  • Experts recommend eating vitamin D-rich foods as the best way to get enough vitamin D. But many of the best foods - like fatty fish and oil - are not the most popular. (kidshealth.org)